State Papers, 1654: February (2 of 3)

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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'State Papers, 1654: February (2 of 3)', A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654, (London, 1742), pp. 72-88. British History Online [accessed 15 June 2024].

. "State Papers, 1654: February (2 of 3)", in A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654, (London, 1742) 72-88. British History Online, accessed June 15, 2024,

. "State Papers, 1654: February (2 of 3)", A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654, (London, 1742). 72-88. British History Online. Web. 15 June 2024,

In this section

February (2 of 3)

A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augiers's secretary.

Paris, 8/18 Febr. 1654/3.

Vol. xi. p. 126.

I have but little news to add unto my last of the 14/4 of this present. The next day all the letters from Champagne and Sedan informed us of the defeat of a plot formed against Stenay, where count Grand Pré, governor of Mouson, had gamed by his intrigues fifty soldiers of the garrison, which were to render him one of the bastions of the castle; the business being come to such a point, that the said count was already approached, and had put himself in ambuscade with 500 men, in the place appointed for execution. But a while before the signal, which the traitors were to give him, one of them was touched with a remorse of conscience, so that he declared the whole unto the commander, who was to be stabbed by them; who saved his life, and soon after caused most part of the others to be hanged.

Monday the prince of Conti arrived here in cardinal Mazarin's coach, which had been sent to meet him towards Ville Juisve, the mareschal de Turenne, and divers great ones, having been to embrace and congratulate him, some two leagues from this city. He was at his arrival received and lodged in the Louvre with great honours, which are yet exceeding sumptuous.

Yesterday his betrothing was solemnly made; and I am informed his wedding will be celebrated on sunday next, and not before.

The old lady of Guise hath refused to subscribe the articles thereof: the dukes of Guise, Joyeuse, and of Chevreuse, have done the same; but this court makes no account of it no more than of the prince of Conde's spite against the same; the said prince calling his said brother a snail, to whom nothing was wanting but two horns, which by this means he will find.

I am informed the duke of Longueville hath obtained from the king, a while before his departure, that the prince of Conde's process shall for a while be delay'd

The marquis of Baden's marriage with the princess Louise (fn. 1), sister to the queen of Poland, hath a few days since been accomplished.

Letter of intelligence to Mr. Augiers, from his secretary.

Paris, the 13/8 of Febr. 1653/4.

Vol. xi. p. 124.

Monsr de Bordeaux hath advised me, that M. de Neufville required new qualities; and gave me to understand, that there is some difficulty to obtain them; that they do especially proceed from the uncertainty they have to not find my lord protector's intention, according to their wishes: that if I could pass some good words to M. le cardinal of a reciprocal embassy, France would willingly begin: that they apprehend the affront, and that M. de Servien blames of misunderstanding of the affairs and customs of France those, who demand a person of greater quality than the said M. de Neufville, who is a member of this parliament, where all the treaties are to be verified; which thereby will be more easy done. I perceive they have good spies; and that they have been so far informed, that Monsr le prince offered to turn protestant, &c. and nevertheless the said cardinal hath said in good company, that M. de Bas had operated, and nothing was to be feared on his highness my lord protector's side.

The said cardinal sent me word the other day by M. de Berthemet, that he would have M. de Cezi's debt to be paid, and to that purpose a decree was already signed by the chancellor; and that I had to go to the count of Brienne, to confer with him of the same, the said cardinal having (faith he) affected for the acquitting of the same the 3 per centum of the farm established to that purpose in the year 1632: so that henceforth they may under no pretence whatsoever be diverted. I answered him, that it was not a fit time for them to give us bones to pick, but to make use of freedom and reality rather than to proceed as they do by the said decree, without any communication to the interested, nor to you, before the signing of the same. And indeed, unless they give the said farm to some, (upon a condition to pay presently the said debt at the same rate duly verified they have paid M. de Cezi's other creditors, Greeks, Jews, Turks, and French) I see no reason the said interested should depart from the liquidation the parliament of England hath made of it in 1645; nor from the treaty pretended between the two states, wherein France remains guarantee towards my lord protector, of the execution of what shall be regulated by the said treaty.


Amsterdam, 8/18 Febr. 1653/4.

Vol. xi. p. 86.

When I wrote my last, Zealand had not yet underwrit, but since hath, and all the other provinces, except some members of Friesland, which, without doubt, will condescend. These will never leave juggling; for the last week they have suffered Middleton to go for Scotland, with men and arms. Their fleet here is not ready, but may be in a month, and will, I believe, consist of 120 sail, good ships.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.


L'Ambassadeur d'Espagne estant premierement assis, il demanda celuy qui estoit à son costé, qui estoit le president; & ayant sçeu, que c'estoit le sieur de Gent, assis tout devant lui de l'autre coste, il s'addressa à luy, parlant peu, à peine vingt parolles, que le roy par cette sienne nouvelle ambassade temoignoit la sincere intention & desire en faire punctuellement observer la paix de son costé, & d'augmenter toute sorte d'amltie & bonne correspondence. A quoy le sieur president respondit, l'assurant de meme intention de cest estat; & qu'on estoit marry des incommodites, qu'en ce mauvais temps il avoit eu à venir icy. Puis forty il fit bailler un memoire pour de passeports pour son baggage & pour des chevaux. Desja avant qu'il eust audience, il a envoyé dire des compliments à des dames, & d'autant qu'on est ici encore fort dans les railleries pour l'accident de comte du Horn, on ne a pas laisse aussy de railler sur cela, disant, que ce n'est le fait d'un agé de 62 ans de faire icy fortune, avec hazard de sortir par la senestre du toict, & se sauver à long des goutieres, laisant le manteau & ses souliers (à fin de se servir des pieds le long des goutieres, avec tant plus d'addresse) pour gages. Car tel estoit la fortune du comte de Horn; & la dame d'Achtienhoven ne desadvoue pas, ny la lettre qu'elle a escrit à comte de Horn, le nommant cher frere; ny le pourtrait de luy, trouvé sur elle, ny sa visite aupres d'elle au temps que le mary la vint troubler, attrappant le manteau & le souliers. Et sur ces trois points la court de Hollande, comme de propre mouvemenr, (indirectement toutefois requis de la part de mary) par la senateurs Dorp & Nierop l'ayant examinée, elle a respondu avec grande resolution, que son mary estoit sol de jalousie; que la familiarité avec le comte de Horn estoit venue premierement par le mary meme; que le mary avoit eu jalousie des autres aussy; qu'elle croyoist en escrivant au comte de Horn s'a addresser à un des plus grands amis de son mary; que ledit comte de Horn faisant l'amour à mademoiselle de Mayerne, avoit donné son pourtrait à elle pour le donner à ladite damoiselle; & qu'elle avoit promise à comte d'estre son ambassadrice envers ladite damoiselle: que ledit comte d'estoit venu voir & visiter (elle se portant mal, & couchée au lict) l'entretenant sur ces amours, sans jamais ny alors ny auparavant avoir attenté ny parlé au desavantage de son honneur; mais qu'elle ne pouvoit pas dissimuler, comment le sieur d'Achtienhoven son mary autresois avoit commencé son proces amoureux ab executione, l'attrappant au lict, dormant, & l'occupant comme un incubus, devant qu'elle suit eveillée, & l'ayant engrossée, traina l'accomplissement du mariage si long temps (pour escroquer tant plus grand douaire) qu'elle sust presque aussitot mere qu'espouse. Bref, elle proteste d'injure, dit mille pouilles de son mary, & de la cour meme, de sa mesler des enquestes si honteuses & fri voles; & la cour a pendu ses enquestes au croque. Elle est allée avec son pere à Amsterdam, & a dit à son mary que c'estoit un sot, & c'est l'opinion de tout le monde, qu'il est fol de jalousie. Et s'il tient du cocu, c'est de la familiarité, qu'il a contracté avec ce comte de cornes: or si & comment les cornes peuvent venir sans attachement, c'est une question physicale, digne du feu docteur Mayerne.

Le frere de madame d'Achtienhoven semble avoir voulu prendre revenge de ce, que les Paons ont fait à sa sœur; car il a de meme jouvée l'incubus sur un damoiselle de Pauw, fille de fils aisné de feu Mons, de Heemstede, l'ayant engrossee sans promise de mariage; & quand bien elle y fust, il est mineur, & s'en va en France. Le pere ne consent point au mariage. Les parents de la damoiselle alleguent une vieille loy d'Amsterdam, qu'un jeune homme, engrossant une fille, la doibt espouser; mais cette loy n'est pas en usage.

Les deputes de la ville d'Emden sont enfin venu; ont eu audience; pretendent comme auparavant, que les estats de Oost-Frise auroient promis, & seroient obligé d'entretenir ces 600 hommes dans la ville pour jamais; ce qui ne se peut.

L'ambassadeur d'Espaigne n'ayant pas encore eu son baggage, & aussy n'ayant pas grand envie de demeurer au logis, ou a demeuré l'ambassadeur Bruntasche de soy tenir encore quelque temps dans le logis des ambassadeurs extraordinaires.

Le conseil de guerre en est nullement bien satisfait de la resolution touchant la confrontation de Schop, pretendants aussy le rang devant la court d'Hollande.

Ceux de l'admiraulté de Rotterdam ont representé un grand arrierage, qui leur est dû; sur quoy & autres arrierages des provinces on parle d'envoyer aux autres provinces.

L'ambassadeur d'Espaigne a eu une seconde audience le 17e de ce mois, ou il a parlé des fraudes que les merchands & maitres de navires d'Hollande exercent en Espaigne avec des marchandises provenantes de France & de Portugal. 2. De ce que cest estat a escrit à l'archiduc, que les Havres de Flandres seroient moins chargées que le Escault, assurant le contraire. 3. Du peu de fruit & effect de la chambre mipartie, qui coustoit tant, & n'expedioit rien. 4. De certaines navires François ayants droit de burgeoisie en Zealande, prins par les capers de Duynkercke, ont prins. 5. Des depredations faits pendant la guerre Angloise sur les sujets du roy par les capers Hollandois & Zealandois, fans aucune justice. 6. Il a demandé justice de deux pirates ou capers Hollandois, ayants piratés es Indes occidentales sur les sujets du roy. 7. Demandoit passeport pour le libre transport de 5 casses de peintures pour don Louis Haro.

Quant au paix d'Outre-Meuse desja auparavant estoit proposé aux estats generaux, & escrit à ceux de la chambre de contes, d'expedier avant toutes choses l'affaire des trois pais d'Outre-Meuse, d'autant qu'on entendoit que le roy y avoit fait une nouvelle imposition de contribution.

Les susdites pleintes seront examinées & depeschés a l'ordinaire, h. e. lentement; car ceux la mesmes, qui ayment la justice, neantmoins n'oseroient pas se monstrer en regard des Espaignols, amis tant nouveaux, & les autres; qui ne sont guere affectionés a la paix, ne tachent qu'à nous embrouiller avec les Espaignols, au lieu de transiger & accommoder les differents.

Les estats d'Overyssel à Zwoll ont publie une declaration contre celle de Deventer; mais on ne l'a pas encore veu icy.

Les estats de l'empire ont escrit une lettre admonitoire touchant le comté de Linghen, dont le prince d'Orange est possesseur; & le comte de Tecklenbourg le reclaime. Ceux d'Overyssel (dont le comte de Linghen autrefois par l'empereur Charl le quint fust fait fies) l'ont transumé à eux, & cependant aussy est mis es mains de ceux du conseil du prince d'Orange, pour en enformer l'estat.

L'on a fort declamé d'un entreprinse de l'evesque de Munster sur la ville de Munster; mais il se trouve que c'est une raillerie; qu'il y a eu quelques gentilhommes dans la ville faisants bonne chere, que quelques bourgeois furent retirer hors la ville de pure & mal fondée soupçon, fans qu'il se soit veu entreprinse ny chose semblable.

19 Febr. [1654. N. S.]

Votre tres-humble, &c.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Hague, 19/9 Febr. 1654/3. [N. S.]

Vol.xi. p.209.

Since my last to you I have to confirm to you, that the states general, as some of them now at least give out, are very willing to give no small sum of money to the commonwealth of England, for the damages received and sustained by the English; and the said states are very much satisfied, that Beverning and the rest of the deputies at London behaved themselves so subtilely and gallantly, that by their paper presented to the council of state the 5th Dec. they had so frighted them, that they did recede altogether from their pretensions in the same; upon which if they had persisted, it is very certain, the English had obtained from the states general a greater sum of money. This I have from one near the states, &c.

The 18th of this month the ratification of the province of Overyssel was presented and read in the assembly; and this day the resolutions from the states of Friesland were exhibited, containing in effect, that they are not in any ways comprobators of the articles in the points, which concern the prince of Orange or his house; nor of that, which relates to the king of Denmark, whose majesty is by no means satisfied with the form of his inclusion in the treaty.

The resolution at large of the province of Overyssel concerning the ratification of the treaty of peace is very long, and I cannot now send it; only the principal heads are, that they assent to the 29 articles agreed upon, reserving some clauses, which must be blotted out of the articles 5, 10, 11, 12, and 7, which concern the king of Denmark; and in the 16th concerning France; and in the 28th relating to Amboyna, the congratulating the lord protector, &c.

Mr. Beverning, now with you in England, writ a letter from London by an express to the states, of the 8th of February; and for want of time I cannot now give you the whole transcript of it. The said letter imports among other things his conference with secretary Thurloe, and the sinister interpretation of the lord protector and his council of his return into England, without being sufficiently qualified with power for the negotiation on foot; as also to congratulate his highness the lord protector. The said M. Beverning in the same letter inserteth his own answers at large to all these interpretations and discourses; and withal in conclusion he useth all means, and presseth earnestly, to the end the states would be pleased to qualify him with new credentials and powers, &c.

The said Beverning did also write by an express a letter, dated the 8th of the same month, directed unto the gressier of the states general, which arrived at the Hague upon sunday last; and the letter caused such changes and differences among the states general, that they resolved to meet the same day, not having regard that it was the Lord's day; and in the assembly those of Holland's province endeavoured by all means, and insisted upon inasmuch as they could, that out of hand all necessary powers and credentials should be sent to the said Beverning: but that day, by the plurality of voices, after much debate, that could not be obtained; and the monday following they assembled again, and renewed the matter; but in a long time could not obtain what was desired by the said Beverning, because that the president of the assembly (who was of the province of Friesland) would not conclude any thing in what was demanded: whose obstinacy being observed by the rest of the lords of the other provinces, they forced him to leave his presidential chair; and having placed in the same the lord of Amerongen as president for the province of Utrecht, after some debates and disputes, in the end concluded, and the business done according to the desires of the said Beverning.

In the said letter M. Beverning represented the earnest desires of the lord protector and others, for the concluding of the said 29 articles of peace, adjusted and concluded upon betwixt both parties, &c.

There is a letter from the deputy Beuningen of the states general residing in Sweden, and written to their gressier from Upsal, of the 23d of January 1654. which contains several points he treated of with her majesty and chancellor concerning the United Provinces, Denmark, and England.

Another letter of the said deputy Beuningen from Upsal, of the 23d of the same month, 1654. does import her majesty's resolution, as declaring to keep and continue her ancient amity and alliance with the United Provinces, and to provide for the excesses and transgressions of the English in the province of Gottenburg; and some other points touching the lord Whitelocke, now too tedious to be extracted; for at this time I am not able to send more by this post. Sir,
Yours, &c.

The powers of the Dutch embassadors.


Les estats generaux des provinces unies de Pais Bas, à tous ceux, qui ces presentes verront, falut. Scavoir saisons comme ainsi soit, que nous soyons touchez d'un juste desir & volonté de contracter & convenir avec son altesse le seigneur protecteur de la republique d'Angleterre, Escosse, & Irlande, une estroite, bonne, sincere, & mutuelle union & alliance, pour la defense & conservation de la liberté & franchise des deux nations, & la navigation & commerce mutuel, ensemble les interests communs, contre touts ceux, qui voudroient entreprendre, tant par mer que par ter, de troubler l'un ou l'autre estat. C'est pourquoy nous, desirants l'advancement de ce bon oeuvre, avons trouvé necessaire d'envoyer vers ladite altesse le seigneur protecteur de ladite republique, les sieurs Hieronimus de Bever ning, Guilliaume de Nieuport consellier & receveur general de la Nort-Hollande, pensionaire de la ville de Sciedam; Allardt Pierre Jongestall, consellier ordinaire dans la cour de Frise, & curateur de l'academie à Franaker, deputez en nostre assemblée, de la part d'Hollande, Zealande & Frise, nos ambassadeurs extraordinaires; & scachant que pour faciliter leurs negotiations, afin de les conduire au dessein & conclusion convenable aux bonnes intentions de l'une & de l'autre republique; & ayant besoing d'estre à ceste sin pourveus de plein pouvoir, authorité, commission, & mandement special, nous à ces causes desirans prevenir & lever toute dispute & contention, qui se pourroit mouvoir sur la suffisance & validité de leur creance & authorisation, donnons au dits sieurs ambassadeurs extraordinaires, en vertue de ces presentes, & à chascun d'eux en particulier, si par maladie ou autrement ils estoyent empeschez d'intervenir toutes quatre au traitté d'union & alliance, qui se fera, plein pouvoir de traitter, stipuler, convenir, accorder, & conclurre avec ladite altesse le seigneur protecteur de ladite republique d'Angleterre, Escosse, & Irlande, ou avec les sieurs commissaires, qui seront deputez de fa part, ladite estroitte alliance & amitie mutuelle entre les deux nations, & de tout ce qui sera ainsi negotié, convenu, & conclu, faire ou passer tel ou tels instruments, contracts & promises en bonne & due forme, & generalement faire en ce que dessus, & en ces circumstances & dependances, tout ainsi que nous ferions si presentes y estions: jacoit que la chose resquist mandement plus special, qu'il n'est contenu par ces presentes, par lesquelles nous promettons sincerement, & de bonne soy, avoir agreable, tenir ferme & stable à toujours, tout ce que par eux en ceste qualité sera faict, procuré, promis, convenu, & accordé en cest endroit, l'observer, accomplir, & entretenir inviolablement sans jamais aller ni venir au contraire directement ou indirectement, en quelque sorte & maniere qui se soit, mais le tout devoir ratifier, si besoing est, & en passer lettres & instruments en la meilleure forme que faire se pourra au contentement de sa dite altesse le seigneur protecteur. Faict à la Haye en nostre assemblée, soubs nostre grand seel, paraphure & signature de nostre gressier, le dixneusiesme de Fevrier, mille sex eent cinquant quatre.

Par ordonnance des dits seigneurs estats generaux,
En absence du gressier,
J. Spronssen.

J.C. Mauricnault.

The states general to the protector.


Celsissime domine Protector,
Mandavimus domino Beverning deputato nostro officia humanitatis nostro nomine celsitudini vestræ exponere; quapropter necessarium duximus celsitudinem vestram hisce rogare, ut dicto domino Beverning benignum aditum & audientiam impertire, eique plenam sidem tanquam nobis ipsis adhibere velit; quod nobis omnino gratissimum erit; nec unquam intermittemus illud data occasione erga celsitudinem vestram referre: quibus fidentes,
Celsissime domine protector, Deum opt. max. rogamus, ut celsitudinem vestram diu conservare & feliciter regnare dignetur. Dabantur Hagæ Comit. die 19 Feb. 1654. [N. S.]

H. Maurignault.

Celsitudini vestræ
Addictissimi boni amici Ordines generales sœderatarum provinciarum Belgio-Germaniæ. Ad mandatum eorum,
N. Ruysch.

The states general to the protector.


Celsissime domine Protector,
Ere utriusque gentis & reipublicæ esse duximus, ad celsitudinem vestram legare nobilissimos, amplissimos, & prudentissimos viros, D. Guilielmum Nieuport, consiliarium & quæstorem Nort-Hollandiæ, & Alardum Petrum Jongestall, in supremo Frisiæ tribunali senatorem ordinarium, & curatorem academiæ Franocoranæ, deputatos in nostro consessu nomine Hollandiæ, Zealandiæ, & Frisiæ legatos nostros extraordinarios, ut una cum D. Beverning, etiam legato nostro extraordinario, res & negotia maximi momenti & ponderis celsitudini vestræ exponerent; quapropter necessarium esse duximus celsitudinem vestram hisce rogare, ut dictis legatis nostris extraordinariis benignum aditum & audientiam impertire, iisque plenam sidem tanquam nobis ipsis adhibere velit; quod nobis omnino gratissimum erit, nec unquam intermittemus illud datâ occasione erga celsitudinem vestram referre. Quibus finientes,
Celsissime domine protector, Deum opt. max. rogamus, ut celsitudinem vestram diu conservare & feliciter regnare dignetur. Dabantur Hagæ Comit. 19 Febr. 1654. [N.S.]
J. de Mauregnault.

Celsitudini vestræ
Addictissimi boni amici,
Ordines generales Fœderati Belgii.

Ad mandatum eorum signum N. Ruysch.

Extracts out of the secret register of the resolutions of the high and mighty lords the states general of the United Netherlands.

Jovis the 19th Febr. 1654. [N. S.]


The letter of the lord Beverning being taken into further deliberation, mentioned more at large in the notes of the 15th of this month, after serious deliberation had of the contents thereof, and of the business chiefly mentioned therein, it is thought fit and understood, that the said lord Beverning shall be authorized and ordered, as the same is hereby authorized and ordered, to adjust, sign, and conclude the articles of peace, union, and confederacy, as the same were formerly agreed on between the commissioners of his highness the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the lords commissioners of this state; provided that before the concluding of the treaty, he do use all possible endeavours and instances, to the end that the crown of France may therein be comprehended; and in case he cannot prevail, to use all possible means, that a good understanding may be made between the said crown of France and the commonwealth of England; and that all hostility between the same may be prevented and cease for the future.

Furthermore, that he do endeavour once more the inserting of the deficient articles of the 36 articles formerly proposed to the lords extraordinary ambassadors of the commonwealth of England, and especially the third and last of the same in the said treaty.

Thirdly, that in the third article, after the word, Britannic sea, there be inserted, the East and North sea.

Fourthly, that in the fifth of the said agreed articles, instead of, or declared enemies, be put, and declared enemies.

Fifthly, that there may be omitted out of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth articles, the words declared enemies, or that the same articles be put in the same tenor of the articles of the treaty of the intercourse in the year 1495, between both the nations, relating thereunto; and in case the same cannot be obtained, nor accepted of, that then, for the further clearing thereof, there be added thereunto, that by the word enemies is only to be understood, subjects and inhabitants of the commonwealth of England coming to reside under the command of this state, and subjects and inhabitants of this state coming to reside under the command of the commonwealth of England; or that there may be put, notorious and already declared enemies, together with rebels or fugitives out of each other's nation; or otherwise, that instead of the word enemy, there may be put these words, those that shall attempt any thing against the articles of this treaty: however, that no subjects of the one or the other commonwealth, where the same do not live, shall be declared for enemies or rebels of the one or the other commonwealth, unless after sufficient information it do appear, that they did transgress, or attempt any thing against the text, meaning, and intent of the articles of the said treaty: That also the said penalty of confiscation mentioned in the said 12th article, may be omitted.

Sixthly, That in the 13th article, in the place of the words, and goods and commodities, which they please, may be put, all such goods and commodities as they please.

Seventhly, That in the sixteenth article the word kings be set before the word commonwealths.

Eighthly, That the 19th of the said articles may be elucidated and limited.

Ninthly, That whereas there is spoken in the 28th article concerning the affairs of Amboyna, that odious word of murther may be omitted; and that those of England may be wrought upon to be contented with these words to be inserted, the disorders or execution done and committed in Amboyna, or such-like words, in the least offensive expressions.

Tenthly, That the lord of Beverning, during the expectation and coming over of the other lords ambassadors, shall endeavour to effect a cessation of arms, with the inclusion of the king of Denmark, in conformity to the treaty made with his majesty the 28th of February of the last year. And to the end aforesaid, all necessary letters of address, and sufficient authorization, shall be sent to the said lord Beverning, together with this their high and mighty lordships resolution, with the advertisement, that other lords extraordinary ambassadors are to follow with all speed; which notwithstanding, the lord of Beverning shall endeavour to adjust the said articles, and proceed without any delay, in case the crown of France can at the same time likewise get to finish their treaties begun; but in case that do not succeed, then to expect the coming over of the rest of the ambassadors, till the 2d of March next, new style; and they not being come, then he shall proceed to the execution of their high and mighty lordships resolution afore-mentioned; and their high and mighty lordships resolution shall be put into the hands of the lords ambassadors, to serve them for their instructions: and in case any of the other provinces shall make any further annotations upon the articles, their high and mighty lordships will take them into the same consideration, as they did those that are already made, and shall be sent unto the lord Beverning, with desire and request to govern himself accordingly, after the same manner as if the same had been inserted in this resolution. The lord commissioner of the province of Zealand did agree in the above-mentioned conclusion at the good-liking of the lords his principals. The lords commissioners of the province of Friesland did cause hereupon to be set down and enter'd, that the lords their principals are no less inclined to a peace with the government of England, and the speedy advancement thereof, than any of the other provinces; but that such acceleration may be done according to the quality and dignity of both commonwealths, namely, on this side by ambassadors at least three in number, who with common advice, care, diligence, and circumspection, may adjust the said 29 articles agreed on, after such manner, that their lordships here may first dispute at leisure the annotations and considerations of each province upon them, and bring them to such a harmony, to the honour and reputation of the state in general, and the special content of the provinces in particular. But by reason they could not obtain the same, though they have used all imaginable arguments to persuade them to it both by word of mouth, and in writing, they find themselves necessitated to protest, that they will not be guilty of any unsafe and dangerous consequences, which this precipitation may occasion; and that the lords states of Friesland will remain unprejudiced in their rights.

The lord Mullart did, on the behalf of the province of Overyssel, cause to be signed in their conclusion no otherwise than to consent at the good-liking of the lords his principals.

A letter of intelligence from Holland.

[20 Febr. 1654. N. S.]


The last week I wrote unto you, and sent you the list of the ships, whereof here inclosed goes a copy, lest the other miscarry. I have been as diligent in the business as possible I could; which I hope will be acceptable and useful. All their ships can be ready the next month; but I believe, before they are all manned, it will be eight weeks. Indeed here are many men, yet I do not think enough for their use, lest the men should go hence upon the rumor of peace. They give it abroad, that the wars will continue; and send to the sailors lodgings to tell them, they shall have present employment for them. Some are entertained for the West Indies, whither six ships go from Amsterdam, and six from other towns; and if they send twelve or more for the Streights, as is intended, it will much weaken their strength in the narrow seas. You may reckon four men for a gunn; that is the nearest calculation I can make of the men; their greatest ships will have some more. They still work hard on their ships; yet the general opinion is peace. You need not doubt but these intend to ratify the treaty; yet notwithstanding their prohibition of shipping to go to sea, Middleton is admitted to go away, and carry with him what Scotch or English he could get, which were not above forty or fifty, and some arms, not considerable. I hope some of your ships will meet them: they are in a small ship. I presume he is gone to sea, yet not so privately but all the towns know it. The articles of the treay are here in print, but not with consent of the magistrates. We doubt they are not right; therefore if you may communicate them in English, I pray you do me that favour. Sir, I have presumed to charge my quarteridge with my extraordinary charges on Mr. John Upton, to whom I beseech you to give order to pay it to Mr. John Tutchin, who will forthwith make it over to me. The small inclosed note is a particular of the charges. The 3 l. the magistrates force me to pay. They proceed in the building the thirty new ships last contracted to be ready in July or August. If there be any other services can do his highness my lord protector in these parts, or elsewhere, I beseech you to keep me in his favour; none shall more readily and faithfully perform your commands. I am yours to my power.

A note of extraordinary charges.

l. s. d.
For a messenger to the Texel 1 10 0
For myself 2 10 0
For my taxation of the 1000th part of my estate by the lord of the town 3 00 0
Spent going into North Holland and Zealand, to visit the ships 5 00 0
12 00 0
1 ship of 24 guns.
2 28
3 30
3 32
1 34
5 36
4 38
1 42
2 44
2 46
3 48
1 50
1 52
29; of which four are new, never at sea; two of them lie at Amsterdam, each of 48 guns.
1 ship of 26 guns.
15 30
2 32
3 34
6 36
4 40
13 44
1 46
3 50
48; whereof 14 of the greatest are new, and never at sea.
3 ships of 30 guns.
1 32
1 34
1 36
1 38
2 40
4 46
1 50
1 52
1 54
1 60 for the admiral.
17; whereof four of 46 guns, one of 50, one of 52, lying at Pardam; one of 54, and that of 60, are new, never at sea.
Hoorn, Enckhuysen, and Medinblick.
1 ship of 30 guns.
1 38
1 40
1 46
5 48
1 32
2 30
4 34
8 36
3 38
27; whereof the nine first are new, never at sea.
120 ships.
Those of Zealand go out at Flushing and Trever.
Those of Rotterdam go out at Helvoetfluys and the Brill, which is called the Maez.
Those of Amsterdam, Hoorn, Enckhuysen, and Medenblick, go out at Texel or Vlye.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.


After what manner those of Utrecht have also ratified, is to be seen by the inclosed copy. I must confess, that the said province doth therein follow the interest of Holland; for they themselves have no navigation or commerce, to which the English may do good or harm; besides that they are weary with paying so much contribution, and of the little trade and commerce occasioned by this war. In Friesland also, where the humour of him that governeth, is very well known, the people would not look to this or that thing, but would have in consideration the discharge of all the inconveniencies, which this war hath occasioned. As for the queen of Sweden, who doth desire, that the states general would be pleased to hinder the arrest that may be made upon her and her goods, in case she remove, they have referred it to those of Holland. The resident of Sweden hath made complaint about a Swedish ship taken by a caper, which they are willing here to release; but in the mean time they never make satisfaction for any losses. Holland doth now desire, that the transportation of counterband goods be also permitted; for towards other countries and neuter territories, this transportation (provided they be not sent into England) was permitted a long time since.

The spoil and depopulation of the country of Liege by the Lorrainers is still looked upon here with a good eye, and the more, because they see that France doth little or nothing for those of Liege.

Here they have taken advice of the council of state, concerning the assistance to be given to those of Liege; also to finish the alliance with them, which is carried in the affirmative; and yet Holland doth not incline to it.

The day before yesterday came an express hither from the lord Beverning at London, with letters, wherein he complaineth, that the lord protector doth not acknowledge him for a publick minister, as having no letters of credence. Item, that they do take it very ill, that the lord Beverning hath no order to congratulate his highness. In short, he doth very much desire, that he may have credentials sent him, and power, as well to make the congratulation, as finish the rest. Upon which the provinces, or at least six of them, have voted in the affirmative.

Here is arrived Mr Stockhard, envoy of the protestant cantons of Switzerland, for mediator between the two commonwealths; and having been above a year in England, is at last come hither, where I believe he will address himself likewise by way of audience; but however I do not think he will stay a twelve-month here.

The ratifications of Overyssel and Friesland successively are also come, both of them falling short in their approbations, of that of Holland and Utrecht, especially concerning the 5th, 10th, 11th and 12th articles, wherein they will have the word enemies to be omitted; and those of Friesland will have them to hold firm to the precise inclusion of France, and especially of Denmark, although that properly they are not bound to France, nor to Denmark, no further than concerning the 23 English ships detained there.

But I do understand, that Denmark doth pretend to a more ample inclusion, namely, a reciprocal restitution of the prizes and confiscations that the English have made upon divers Danish ships. Item, the king of Denmark did formerly give some assistance to the deceased king of England, against the parliament; for which the Danes are threatened, who do also desire, that they may be indemnified for that likewise, or that by an inclusion more express and more large, Denmark may be kept harmless, as well against that as against all other pretences of the English. And this seemeth to have the more ground, since it is said, that the ambassador Whitelocke in Sweden should have said, In case we make a peace with Holland, we will visit the king of Denmark; it being ridiculous, that that king, when he went to detain the twenty-three English ships, took for his pretence the approaching of the eighteen English men of war; that that had ahanged his goodness into anger: and in the mean time it doth appear now, that the king did it by induction and persuasion of this state, who have given him an act of indemnity upon that point, as is to be seen at present, that this state will compound for that with the English.

They have resolved by provision to send order to the lord Beverning to congratulate the lord protector, and to make use of such words and terms, as his wisdom and discretion shall lead him unto: and the same congratulation shall be made presently after that the extraordinary embassadors (amongst whom will be the lord Veth of Zealand, who in all likelihood will reside there as ordinary, in the place of the lord Joachim) shall be arrived in England. And although Guelderland and Groningen have not yet brought in their provincial advice, and that Friesland be a little discrepant, nevertheless that these four embassadors shall return with all speed into England, to finish, agree, adjust, and sign he 29 articles; upon which some would have a new instruction to be given them. But Holland and Utrecht have agreed to effect ut jacent. Zealand likewise the same, except the proviso. Overyssel in effect hath also done the same: for the rest are only recommendations, which will not make any obstacle in the business; so that these embassadors, whereof two are Hollanders, and the third counted for a very good Hollander, will not greatly care whether the fourth doth agree or no with the rest.

The lord Stockard is to have audience; but by provision, hath already given notice by the president, that he had spoken with the lord protector before his departure, and that he had assured him of his constant affection to the peace. As to the negotiation of the English in Sweden, I do verily believe, that the lord Beverning doth reckon without his host; he doth persuade himself that he is very subtle, and that he is able to penetrate far, as if the queen would resign up her crown: a pretty business! He doth yet understand but a very little of the cunning of the Swede. The lord Beverning writes, that in England they have advice, that this state here is preparing a fleet of 100 ships, to be sent to sea by the first of March. Certainly they have but poor intelligence. The commissioners that were at Portugal are returned home a great while since, without any expedition.

This 20th Feb. 1654. [N. S.]

Van Beuningen to the states general.


High and Mighty Lords,
My Lords,
The next day after I had sent my last of the 14th of this month, was sent unto me the inclosed resolution; upon which I should not have omitted to have demanded, that some declaration might have been made for the better explaining thereof, in case I had not found, that the two last posts that came brought certain news, that the peace between the two commonwealths will be undoubtedly concluded: whereupon I thought, (under correction) that it would have been a hard matter to have obtained any thing here of the queen, that should have given any offence to the English; and that therefore I did judge it convenient for the service of your high and mighty lordships, to expect the confirmation of the said news; and in case the war continue, then to endeavour to obtain the elucidation of the said resolution after the best manner.

The queen, as I am informed from a good hand, doth stick to her former intention to resign up her crown; for which end and purpose, there is a communication held thereof by letters, and one (fn. 2) of her majesty's courtiers, between her majesty and the prince of Sweden, who is at present at Oeland. H. and M. lords,
Upsal, the 20th Feb. 1653/4. [N. S.] Beuningen.

Intelligence from Sweden.

Upsal, the 10th of Feb. 1654. S. V.

Vol. xi. p. 1.

This afternoon the lord embassador Whitelocke aud rixchancellor have had a meeting, to debate the articles of alliance; but they have as yet brought nothing to a head; neither do they differ upon any particular point, only the chancellor seems somewhat a wary person, and is resolved to see whether there is likely to be a peace, or continuation of war, with the Hollander; and accordingly he will frame his answer unto his excellency's proposals. There is an embassador come hither from Russia, who had audience yesterday; and another is gone for Denmark. The report here is, that the duke of Muscovy intends a war with the Pole (fn. 3), and therefore courts these neighbouring princes. In the mean time, we have the continuance of all respect from the queen, to whom, at last, our affair is to be devolved; and I am persuaded she will give a dispatch, according to our desire, to this negotiation.

Intelligence from Regensborgh.

Regensborgh, the 20th of Feb. 1654. [S. N.]

Vol. xi. p. 2.

His imperial majesty, having divers times, per decretum, admonished the states and whole assembly to hasten the debate of such different points, as were needful to be decided here, and thereby to maturate his majesty's departure hence, hath now for the last manifested unto them, that they must join together to resolve the remaining differences, and to put an end to this rixday; for that it did not only concern his majesty's health, but also several affairs of high concernment to his kingdoms and lands, to break up hence before the end of April next. Whereupon the said assembly have doubled their conventions, and promised his said majesty to dispatch as soon as possibly they could; so that it is hoped a happy event of this great rixday will be seen briefly.

Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xi. p. 193.

Monday the 6th of Feb. I wated upon the queene, whoe a little tyme told me she was troubled, that her chauncellor had used me with soe much incivilitie, as she heard he did by a person, to whome by way of discourse I formerly had acquainted to this effect; that havinge sent to the rixchauncellor to know at what hower he would please I should come unto him, he returned me aunswere, that he was not at leasure, beinge buessied about the affaires of her majestie, and desired I would excuse him; but assoone as he was ready, I should have notice of it; since which tyme he hath not sent to me. The queene offered me to sende to the chauncellor to lett him knowe of his incivilitie; but I desired her she would not. Then she assured me, that I should be dispatched in a short tyme.

Mr. Claveringe, an English merchant, cominge to visitt me, brings information, that the merchants of Stockholme, and other places within the queene's dominions, have made a list of the losses they have sufferred by the English, which amounts to two hundred thousand rixdollers, and that they have bin advised to have the same certified by the colledge of traffique, of which count Erick Oxensterne, the chauncellor's second son, is president.

Tuesday in the afternoone, havinge not heard from the chauncellor, I went to visit the archbishop of Upsale. Wee discoursed of observeinge the Lord's day, wherein I made mention of such things, as I had observed here, as the keepinge of faires on that day, and exercisinge of all other merchandizinge, and that they did not absteyne at all from servile works. To which the bishop aunswered, that those things were not untill the holy exercises were ended, and that Christ permitted on that day to draw out an oxe fallen into the pitt, and to dresse victuals; to which I aunswered, that works of charity and necessity are permitted: that I had learned from holy scripture, that that day was sanctified, and sett apart, that thereon men should not only absteyne from syn, but also from all such things that might be an impediment to divine worshipp; and that not a part, but the whole day to be kept holy. The bishopp answered, that many holy dayes were observed in this land after the same manner as the sabboth day. I then made a difference betweene the institution of the one and of the other; that the Lord's day was of divine institution, and their holy dayes of humaine institution, the one for the singuler honor and service of God, and the other meerely for the memory of saints. The bishopp replied, that in their ecclesiastical convention they had a debate upon this buessines; and that many, of which he was one, were of opinion, that the chiefe honor was due to the sabboth; but as yet they durst not change their old customes, for feare of occasioninge tumults amongst the people.

Wensday I sent to desire audience of the queene; after which she sent count Tott to invite me to come, and see the Muscovite envoye receave audience. After dynner I went to visitt the Spanish resident, whether count Tott came, and informed me, that the envoye had sent word to the queene, that he could not come, and prayed to be excused until the morrow; and the reason, as count Tott said, was, that the envoye had druncke so much brandy wine, that had made him druncke. Presently after I wated upon her majesty, and discoursed with her about my buessines; after which she invited me to heare her musique that evening. After my returne home, I sent a letter to the rixchauncellor, the coppie whereof is here inclosed; to which he returned for aunswere, that he beinge busied in the great affaires of her majestie, desired that I would excuse him, and that he would be with me on friday next; and towards night my lord Lagerfeldt, coming to me in the name of the chauncellor, made the same excuse, that was brought me from him by my messenger. In the eveninge I againe went to the court, and in the queene's bed-chamber heard excellent musique and voyces, both from the French and Italian eunuchs. Thursday morninge the queene sent one of her servants to informe me, that the Muscovia envoyes were to have audience about eleaven of the clocke, when I went to the court, and sawe the reception of two of the envoyes, which was after this manner: The first that did present himselfe was a tall man, with a large beard: he had a long purple cloath coate to the grounde, laced with a very smale gold lace. At his right hand came a man with the emperor's letter and seale, whoe was clothed like the envoye, and an interpreter at his lest hand; he spake in his own language, and was out in the middle of his discourse, which constrayned him to resort to his paper. His speech beinge ended, the queene's interpreter spake in Sweades what the Muscovite had delivered; which beinge done, one of the queene's secretaries gave an aunswer in the Swedish tongue, which was interpreted to the Muscovite. After which the envoye threwe himselfe upon his hands on the ground, and made as if he had kist it; and then rising up, he went forwards, and kist the queene's hand. He that carried the letter did imitate the envoye in the ceremony. The queene was pleased to shew me the letter, the seal beinge a Roman eagle, havinge characters about it almost like the Greeke. This day in the afternoone the rixchauncellor came to me, and stayed about four howers with me; in which tyme wee discoursed upon all the articles, and had longe debates upon them, especially upon the second and fifth articles, which doe most relate to a confederation, and, as he called it, to a league offensive and deffensive; and made a very large excuse for not haveinge ben with me soe longe tyme; and he said one reason of his absence was the many other very greate affaires of the queene's, wherein she had commanded his service, and which tooke up much of his tyme. Another reason, as he did ingeniously confesse, was, because he desired to know what would become of the treaty between England and the Low Countries, the issue whereof would necessarily occasion some alteration in matters of the treaty with me. That it was doubtfull, whether the treaty was concluded betweene the two commonwealths or not. That in case Sweden should joyne with us in the articles, as they were now propounded, they should thereby make the Dutch wholey their enemies and then in case the Dutch had peace with England, it would prove inconvenient, that they had so expressed themselves, and the Dutch would seek to do them a mischief; but in case the peace were not concluded, the same were lesse to be regarded. That divers letters concerninge that businesse did signifie, that the kinge of Denmark was included in the peace with the Low Countries, and satisfaction by them undertaken to be given for the damages, which the English have susteyned by the king of Denmark. That in case this be true, then probably the English will have free navigation through the Sounde by the articles; and then the second and fifth articles of my propositions would not be soe necessarie to be consented to. And if there should be a consent to those articles before-hand, it would declare an enmity to the king of Denmarke from this crowne; which might be prejudicial to Sweden, in case the king of Denmarke should be included in the articles of peace betweene England and Holland. He said further, that there were many perticulers in the articles concerninge traffique, and transportation of goods from one place to another, whereof there would be noe use, in case the peace were concluded betweene the two commonwealths; but if the warr should contynue, there must be care taken about the perticulers of them. Upon all which he concluded, that it was reasonable to desire to knowe the event of that treaty, before a full conclusion could be given to my busines; and that the desire of knowinge the certainety thereof had occasioned his stayinge from me longer then otherwise he would have done; and that upon the best consideration of the articles, which he had throughly weighed, this in his owne judgement he held the fittest course, and freely to acquaint me with it. I thankt him for his cleere dealinge with me, and acknowledged, that it was not yet certainly knowen what would be the issue of the treaty between us and Holland; neither could I tell how longe it might bee before the same would be knowen, nor how soone it would please my lord to commande my returne into England; which occasioned me to desire an answere assoone as affaires would permitt. That as to the Low Countries, there was noe mention at all of them in the propositions, which I gave in; and for what related to the kinge of Denmarke, in case he should be included in the treatie with Hollande, I then presumed the navigation through the Sounde would be free, and so that parte of the busines at an ende, without farther trouble. And as to the enmitie betweene Sweden and Denmarke, I thought there was sufficient alreadie. Concerninge the other articles of traffique and prohibited goods, in case the warr contynued, they would be fitt to be agreed; and in case there were peace, there could not be much labour lost about it. That whether Englande hath peace or warre with Holland, yet I conceaved their freindship considerable, and worthy acceptance; which the chauncellor acknowledged, with many expressions of respect to us; but said, that in the manner of concludinge and framinge thereof, many thinges were to be ordered accordinge to the issue of the treatie betweene us and Holland; to which I aunswered, that the propositions by me presented were only in generall, and that further action and perticulers were left to future agreement, which might be accordinge to the issue of that treatie one way or other. The chauncellor insisted much uppon the present warr betweene England and Holland, which, if it should contynue, would involve Sweden, if they consented to my propositions; whereas this crowne is now free from any warr at all, and in full peace: to which I answered as formerly, that by our warr we had lost noe reputation at all, but had made our strength at sea (through the goodnes of God) more knowne and considerable then heretofore, and therefore our friendship not to be the lesse regarded. That Sweden was incompassed with many potent neighbours, whoe did not wish them well, and probably they would not long contynue in the condition they were nowe in; and therefore allyance with others was the more desireable on their parts. The chauncellor thereupon sell into a large discourse of the affaires betweene this crowne and Russia, Poland, Denmarke, and Germanie, wherein I learnt much of him, but should be to longe to relate the perticulars to you. I likewise understoode much from him concerninge the ports of Wismar, Stetin, Revell, Riga, Narva, and others in the Baltique sea, and the severall commodities and merchandizes in them, which he said were necessarye to be had by the commonwealth of England. To which I aunswered, that those commodities were offerred in the negotiation of my lord Lagerfeldt to be had at Gottenburgh, in case navigation were not free through the Sounde. That as those commodities were necessary for England, soe they were likewise to be had within their own territories, if occasion should be given. That I conceaved it more for the advantage of Sweden to have several merchants frequent their ports, then to have them only frequented by some perticuler men, and others excluded; which the chauncellor acknowledged, and the desire of Sweden to have traffique with the English rather than any other nation; and concluded, that for his parte, he would be alwayes ready to doe his duty, and to shew his respect to our commonwealth. I desired to know of him, whether they did with peace or warr between the two commonwealths, and which of them would be most agreeable to them here. He said, that as a friend to men, and as a christian, he wished peace betweene us, and to all Christendome. I desired to know his opinion, as hee was a minister of state to this crowne. He said it was, that peace might be betweene the two commonwealths; whereby he did beleive, that navigation would be free through the Sounde, which would be to the advantage of Sweden, and likewise their trade the more free and safe, which had been interupted and endamaged by the warr between the two commonwealths. That a small accident many tymes turnes the course of warr, and he esteemed it the most prudent to accept a good peace, when it can be had. This was the substance of the most material things in our longe discourse; upon which there is cause to collect, that before I shall have a full answere, they will know the issue of the treaty betweene us and Holland; and accordinge thereunto I shall be glad to receave his highness farther commands, how to order that busines, wherewith I am here intrusted.

That which the chauncellor sayd, methinkes, hath reason in it. The queene herselfe was uppon the same point with me before, and beganne this way of ingenuity. You see that I acquaint you with all passages, as well the small and historical partes of my busines, as the materiall. You will make use of such parte thereof as you conceive fitt to be communicated, and pardon the rest from

Upsal, Feb. 10th 1653.

Your affectionate friend to serve you,
B. Whitelocke.

A letter of intelligence to Mr. Sam. Hartlib, from Paris.

Satterday, Feb. 21st 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 213.

Sonday last one Mr. Crowder preached, and took for text the 14th verse of the xith chapter of the 2d of kings, and the 13th verse of the xxiiid chapter of the 2d of the chronicles, and insisted much on the last wordes of the foresaid verses, beinge of one subject. He made many applications. The king was not there, being indisposed, nor hath not been abroad almost in three weekes, having beene lett bloode, and not so wel as formerly, since his great sicknes. I was told by a freinde in the palais royal, that they conceave by a discours of the English ambassadeur to the queene of Sweden, that in England they have no aversion from monarchie, but a hatred against the house of Stewarts. And then the said ambassadeur said further, that they would be glad of one lyke queene Elizabeth, makinge many complaintes of king James and his son their government, so that they inserr on that discourse, that it is intended to have a king there. The king will goe from hence within a moneth, or lesse: he is to have but three thousand pistolles to make his jorney. It is thought that verrie fewe goe with him. My lord Percie stayes here, being settled in France, and hath Chasteau Renard belonginge to the house of Orange. It is feared, that (to please England) these who governe here wil be willinge, that both the oldest and second brother leave this countrie, it good intelligence continew; but one thinge troubles them heere, that Spaine being low, wil hearken to peace, or rather seek it, if they have not assistance, which cannot be had but from thence, and it is beleived, by maxims of state, will be granted, though indirectly, so that every one courts and feares that commonwealth; but sewe are of opinion, that peace with Holland wil long subsist. Major Buchannan, that came from the clannes in the Highlands, cannot yet be dispatched about business, that requyres money, beinge difficulte and hard to be performed. Their charitie is not the caus, but unwillingnesse, which apperes in giveinge the king but three thousand pistolles for so great a company and voyage. They have refused heere to give the duke of Yorke the commande of all the Irish regiments, whereof Inchequin hath one, and Ormond's brother another. One circumstance I will assure you, that either really or in shew the king is much slighted heere. I beleive it is the first, although he and his mother doe not agree amongst them. They say, that it was said there to him, (that the cardinal sent) that France would be the better, that the two brothers were out of it. Those in the palais royal alledge, that it hath been propounded there to mak them goe, to please you. Befort, they say, is to be rendered the 23d of this month, if not relived. The marriage of the cardinal's neice with the prince of Conti is to be to-morrow; yet people will not beleive it, till they see it. All that I find written of Ireland consists of four or five half sheetes of paper; and if you thinke fitt, I will send you every post one, and kisse your hands, being,
Sir, Your humble servant.

A letter of intelligence.

Brussels, 21 Feb. 1654. [N. S.]


Yours are received by the last, and sent to Ratisbon, from whence I receive nothing this week, being here also very barren for news, besides what you had in my former letters. Your peace with Holland, and the wars in the country of Liege, are the chiefest subject of discourse here. It is confirmed the archduke sends to congratulate your lord protector, as you have heard by mine of last week. Many speak of endeavours for a peace betwixt these two crowns; but I see no grounds for it as yet.

It is said Condé will be here to-morrow, or soon after.

Count Fuanseldagna is gone to Antwerp, to see if he can agree upon some terms to get moneys from the merchants there. Here is nothing more this week, if I should not repeat what I had written before; only a merry jest I saw from Paris by one friend to another: thus,
A certain marquis being desirous to marry one of cardinal Mazarin's nieces, a French nobleman procured some of his friends to make the motion to his eminence; to which he answered, that he had not nieces enough for princes; wherefore it was but folly for inferior persons to aim at such buts. This has been presented to the archduke here, and the nobles, who made good sport with it; which for want of serious news you have from,

The agent from Swisserland to the states general.

Exhibit. 23 Feb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 218.

Celsissimi ac præpotentes Domini,
Quanquam Helvetica gens rerum alienarum nunquam fuerit fatagens, sed de fortunis suis, quas Dei Opt. Max. admirabili patrocinio majores sua industria ac fortitudine acquisiverunt, conservandis potius sollicita, tamen ne unquam deesset suo vel consilio vel auxilio, nationibus aliis variis tempestatibus jactatis, effecit debitus humano generi, præsertim vero fratribus christianis benevolentissimus affectus. Hinc cum electoralis Palatinatus in prædam cessisset pontificiorum, maximo cordolio calamitatem istam præsensit, & ad ecclesiarum dissipatarum refocillationem symbola sua contulit. Quando vero inter utramque serenissimam rempublicam vestram Batavicam & Anglicam præsens hocce infelix & funestum bellum summo cum reformatorum omnium dolore, & adver sariorum lætissimo tripudiantium gaudio erupit, etiam ab Helvetia reformata curam atque condolentiam expressit publicam: unde statim sub initium istius ad tollenda illa dissidia, & pacem redintegrandam, nonnihil per literas tentavit, quas etiam sereno vultu & amicè fuisse acceptas humanissimæ vestræ responsiones clarè testantur.

Utinam autem tunc temporis locum obtinuissent ingenuæ illæ ac fraternæ præmonitiones, quantum hoc superioribus meis totique reformato orbi peperisset gaudium, adversariis vero communibus terrorem atque confusionem, quantum christiani innocentisque sanguinis servatum suisset, quod alias crudelissimorum hostium more tam abunde effusum est? quam alta ac secura (proh dolor !) visum fuisse summo rerum omnium moderatori hactenus tristis eventus, & mare quod mutuis fratrum collisionibus adhuc quasi rubet satis, dolenterque testantur.

Facile quidem conjici potest, varias & gravissimas esse causas tanti dissidii inter utramque nationem, neque fratribus inter sese semper licere vivere pacatos, quin ad mutua arma interdum prosilire necesse habeant. Vidimus enim ita in mundo comparatum esse propter incerta hominum ingenia, & mutabiles rerum externarum vices. Enitendum tamen est, hominibus vere Christo dicatis, ut innocentiam suæ causæ cum modo tanquam coram ipso absque omni affectus intemperie & excessu prodant & rueantur; aliis vero, qui nullo partium studio, sed æquali in omnes affectu ducuntur, ut quantum in se est, pacem inter alios promovere studeant, & si quæ ortæ fuerint dissensiones ac discordiæ, præsertim inter fratres, quos una spes, una fides, unus Spiritus, unus Christus, copula, opera, consilio & precibus conjungere ac reconciliare elaborent.

Quibus rationibus & considerationibus inducti illustrissimi superiores mei, postquam viderunt superioribus suis literis in persuadenda pace parum aut nihil profecisse, me ante aliquot menses cum aliis ad utramque serenissimam rempublicam ablegarunt, quibus singularem suam pristinam pacem atque concordiam inter vos & rempublicam Angliæ redintegrandi & stabiliendi promptitudinem amico & officioso affectu testantur.

Quorum mandatis æquissimis obsecundans ego primum in Angliam me contuli, literasque reipublicæ illi consignatas deposui; sed (ecce promissum illorum responsum, absque quo recedere inde, nec poteram, nec debueram) inter tot & tantas rerum ac regiminis mutationes inopinatas operior, integer pene annus elapsus est. Et hæc unica suit causa, quæ me hucusque detinuit, quo minus ad illustrissimum hunc statum citius me applicare, & superiorum meorum mandata exequi potuerim. Nunc vero postquam expeditionem meam tamdiu expectatam obtinui, nihil moratus, quantum potui celerrime, me huc conferre volui, ut illas quas hactenus meum habui spectantes ad celsissimos harum provinciarum ordines redderem, uti & nunc illustrissimis dominationibus vestris eas cum debita & officiosissima salutis & honoris præsatione, exhibeo, atque in manus trado.

Quamvis autem ipse opere didicerim utramque serenissimam rempublicam mutuam pacem atque reconciliationem fine aliqua mediatorum opera inter se quæere, &, divina favente gratia, tantum non invenisse; nihilominus, ut appareat superiorum meorum benevolentissimi affectus & sincerissimi studii constantia, illam, quam vobis ex mero religionis orthodoxæ & Batavicæ gentis amore destinaverant, amicam ac æquabilem interpositionem, si qua usui esse possint, magnificis vestris dignitatibus adhuc offero; nec dubito quin illam ab animo sincerissimo ad vos profectam æquissime quoque ac benevole sitis suscepturi, tantumque adhibeatur ponderis, quantum rei ipsius gravitas conjuncta cum manifesto ac præsentissimo causæ communis periculo exigere videtur; sed nec spem illorum superiorum meorum de amicissimi hujus studii atque conatuum susceptione frustrari patietur eorum de vestra pietate, prudentia, integritate, generositate, concepta existimatio.

Johannes Jacobus Stockarius.

A letter of intelligence from Rome.

Rome, 23d Feb. 1654. [N. S.]


Both yours I received by this post, with the printed papers and declarations, which manifestly shew your quietness there after so great a change, your protector's candor and great care for the peace and security of the three nations: and I assure you, that the best in this court, indifferently speaking of the protector, praise him beyond what I can write; neither do they grudge your peace with Holland, being no league against catholick princes and states, as many here would have it, and produce letters to that effect, but not so much credited as yours here, by reason of your antient acquaintance.

Of the general peace, or R. Carolus, here is nothing since my former. The extraordinary courier sent to France and Spain is expected, at whose return you may expect something.

Cardinal Adoptive quondam Pamphilio, and restored to his proper surname Stalli, is still banished, for the reasons in my last before this to you.

We daily expect a new creation of cardinals: whether they be most Spaniards or French, we shall see.

Our masquerades and passe-temps are now all turned to devotion and abstinence. His holiness, the first day in Lent, went to Sancta Sabina, accompanied with many cardinals and Roman princes.

The Spanish embassador, duke of Terra Nova, after being entertained and feasted by the constable Colonna at Marina, is arrived and was with the pope at private audience for two hours. This very day his publick entrance was to be; but so much snow falling extraordinary, it will be deserred.

It is decreed and published by the pope's orders, that upon pain of death, none of his train, or any else, shall bring or have about them any kind of fire arms, either charged or uncharged; and this command was given by reason of some hidden provision of arms made by the French and Spanish factions. In fine, Terra Nova will enter in great pomp and magnificence, as you shall shortly hear; and will prudently behave himself, being a person of a reposed and mature judgment.

Cardinal Trivulcio, acting hitherto the embassy of Spain, is said to depart from hence, with licence of his majesty, to Milan, his native country.

The English college here, the last day of carnival, had an excellent comedy, with rare musick; many cardinals, princes and nobles, being invited and present.

From Naples, the last letters bring, that two vessels loaden with soldiers and provisions for the Tuscan port were stopped by the French by Gaeta; of which the viceroy having notice, sent some of his king's vessels, and convoyed them to their intended ports.

From Venice, the last letters bring nothing of importance, but that the French embassador's son in Constantinople doth continue his good offices for the commonwealth, with the Divan and Porte.

This week produceth no more from, Sir,

The sum of what was spoken by the embassador of France in the assembly of the lords the states general of the United Provinces of the Low Countries, the 24th of Feb. 1654. [N. S.]

Exhibited the 24th of Feb. 1654.


My Lords,
I have received from your lordships, by my lords Huygens and De Witt, the communication, which you were pleased to give me; of their last resolution upon the treaty of peace with England; which is conformable to that, which hath regard to the inclusion of France, according to the advice of the lords states of the province of Holland, which I sent to the king as soon as it was imparted unto me. Upon which, before I tell your lordships what his lordship hath commanded me to make known unto you, I desire you to remember, that in making to you in this same place the overture of the proposition for joining your treaty of peace with the accommodation of France with England, I did then protest unto you, that the affection of his majesty for the good of this state was so sincere and so disinterested, that he did ask this communication of you in your treaty for your sole advantage; and in all that I did represent upon this subject to your high and mighty lordships, I did not alledge any thing, but what made for the interest of your provinces in the security of the peace, the liberty of commerce, and the reputation that is to be had from being united to great and powerful friends, and to use them with justice and gratitude: The king still persisting in that desire, which hath no other end than your good, hath commanded me to tell your high and mighty lordships, that having sent me hither to watch all occasions of good offices, which his majesty would do to your high and mighty lordships at any time; and understanding, that by the grace of God the differences of England took the right way of peace, he did consider after what manner he could make, that his favour, his authority, and his amity, might be useful and serviceable to your high and mighty lordships in this peace; and finding no safer and surer course, than by entering into the same with you, infomuch that ic did seem, that you did desire him, and called him as a faithful warranter of the execution of the things agreed on, he did propose and desire of you, that you should make a necessary article for his inclusion in the treaty. But finding this day in your resolutions, that you do esteem, that the peace will be the more easy to you, and the conditions more favourable, if you make it alone without the inclusion of France, as if you did not judge it fitting, that the English should take notice, that you have so near a tie with France, his majesty, that hath not had, not hath not yet, any other thought, than to procure your advantages after what manner soever, and who will not penetrate into the motives of the counsels of his good friends, I do declare to your high and mighty lordships, that he doth with, that your resolutions may have a happy success for the quiet and peace of this state. And for the civilities towards France, wherewith your high and mighty lordships have besprinkled their deliberations, his majesty doth return your lordships thanks for the respect, that you have shewn him therein; but because these words, to do all that they can to advance the agreement of France with England, although that in truth they be only terms of complaisance, might notwithstanding be a hinderance to the speedy expedition of the negotiation, and make a scruple to the ministers, that are to be charged with it; his majesty doth find, that it will be better, that your high and mighty lordships wholly omit your instruction, that so your treaty may be the sooner ended and concluded. That is the only reason, whereof the king hath complained himself in the orders, which he hath given; but may be it was also considered in the councils of his majesty, that in affairs of this quality, all offices must be effective, precise, and real; and that it is very much below the reputation of a kingdom of France, which hath often seen the greatest powers of Europe set always in vain against its peace and quiet, being rich and powerful of itself, and increased by the conquests, which it hath lately made in the empire, and against Spain; and that it doth now take new strength under a king, to which heaven hath given all the advantages, and all the graces, wherewith a prince can be adorned.

You might have insisted, my lords, for his inclusion in the treaty, as for the security of your peace; but to ask it and to sollicit it for him, after you are contented to have it without him, that doth not suit with the dignity of so great a monarch, nor with the present condition of his affairs.

But I do now come, my lords, to tell you what I have precise command to let you know, that his majesty, who did not consider of his interests in the proposition that he had made unto you, doth not take it ill, that your lordships did not accept of it. The king will not doubt, that when he shall ask any thing of you for his own commodities, as far as the condition of your state will permit, it will be granted unto him without any difficulty. And he doth promise on his part to your high and mighty lordships, that he will not only follow the example of his predecessors in the things, which they have done for these provinces; but that he will force you by his favours, good offices and assistance, to love and honour his person, and to prefer always his amity before any other alliance. Signed,

Mr. Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.


Its said heere, the last post miscarryed, which is the reason I truble you with a copie of my letter thereby. This day comes on yours of the 4th present, with the inclosed for my lord embassador. This I sent thence per last. I suppose, ere theise can reach you, the signinge of the rest of the provinces will be knowne to you, and the issue of the treatie thereupon to all. No doubt but the Lord, who hath looked upon your faithfull proceedings and fair dealinge with them, will witnesse to it, whether in peace or warre, so as the world shall be convinced of your reality, as its sufficiently of their deceitfulnesse. It seemes France and Spaine vie in their forwardnesse to court his highnesse. The Dane, though but a novice to them at cajolinge, will come in for a part, as I gave you notice in my last of Williamson's cominge to congratulate his highnesse. I am sorrie Mr. Feake and Mr. Sympson (fn. 4) should so enforce their owne restraint. Good men may in a precipitated zeale forfit more than their libertie to a state. When we exceede our bounds, selfe commonly entangles us shrewdly. I wish they and those of their party may take up in tyme: they ought as well to see and submit to providence in this last change, as to it in many former, in which they have rejoyced. They cannot deny, but that the power and authoritie is still in the hands of God's choyce instruments; it would become them to question their owne dissentinge judgments, rather then the faithfulnesse of the eminent ones, or that God will not as well blesse this change, as he hath done former, for the greater good of his people. But I may mistake the ground of their dissentinge. I ad no more, but my desire of your order aboute shipping, mentioned in my last; and that you will please, as soon as may be, to let me have your thoughts of my lookinge homewards; which shall oblige me, Sir,

Your most humble servant.

Hamburg, 14th Feb. 1653/4. Whitl. f. 580.


  • 1. Princess of Carignan, daughter to prince Thomas of Savoy. De Witt's letters, vol. i. p. 155.
  • 2. Herman Fleming, or John Stiernhoeck. Pussend. De rebus Suecic. lib. xxvi. § 20.
  • 3. The motives thereof are related by Puffendorff, ibid. lib. xxvi. §. 7.
  • 4. These preached against the protector and his government, and were thereupon sent prisoners to Windsor castle.