State Papers, 1655: September (4 of 4)

Pages 47-63

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.


In this section

September (4 of 4)

Mr. Geo. Downing to secretary Thurloe.

V.xlii. p. 595.

Honorable sir,
I am come thus farr safe back (thanks be to God) and am ready to beginne my journey for Calais; but for ought I see, I must make five days between this and that, for that I cannot for love or money gett post–horses at this time: all horses and carts along the road are taking up for carrying provisions and ammunition to the army for the supplying Conde, St. Gellin, and those other places taken in Flanders; to which purpose there is making ready a very vast provision. The cardinal is in Flanders, so that I could not see him. From Lyons I wrote you word, that the siedge of Pavy is raysed, which is no small dissappointment. I shall make all the hast I can, and I trust we shall be preserved. There are divers partyes of souldiers now quartred in the way, being there placed to force the country to bring in their carts and horses. I am,
Paris, 7ber 22 1655./ 8ber 2 1655.

Your most faithfull humble servant,
G. Downing.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe. 515.

Honourable sir,
I am sory to heare, that both the genneralls for the West–Indie expedition have failed in theire devoire. The condition of the one by reason of his great weakenesse rendering him of little use for command, would speake him the more excuseable, if errors in the undertakeings of that nature admitted of excuses. I am glad the fleete and army are lefte under soe good a conduct, and hope the supply last sent them is with them ere this. If the Spanish fleete steere theire course that way, I suppose general Blake will be ready for them. The last French letters report him now to have beaten that fleete, which I hope will prove truer then the former story. Our merchants have had soe faire warneing, as that meethinks the king of Spain should find but litle of theires to embargo; by which act he speakes out his intentions towards you, not meaneing to keepe peace with you in Europe, whilst you attack him in the Indies. Whatever he would have expected from you, I truste God will direct and assiste you to reckon with him for all. I wish the treaty with France were signed, least they take advantage by your breach with Spaine. I have not yet heard from mr. Rolt, which I should wonder at, and doubt his welfare, but that (as you apprehend right) the posts are obstructed in Poland: few letters come hither but by private hands. The Swede resident here told me yesterday, that he had letters from Warsaw lately, which say mr. Rolt was daily expected there.

I doubt not of his wel beinge, and hope my next will inclose you letters from him. What hath occurred in those parts, according to our intelligence thence, I present you with here inclosed, affectionatly remayneing,

Hambourg, 2d October 1655.

Your moste humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

I pray sir let me know, how you have ordered at the poste–house, whether any pacquetts shall goe free as formerly, or that I muste pay for them there, that I may write to my friend of it.

President Viole to Barriere.

Brussels, the 2d of Octocter 1655. [N. S.] p. 517.

We have heard nothing of the queen Christina since she went from hence. Yesterday monsieur de Berrure made a proclamation for the players to depart this city within 15 days out of the country of his majesty. None know the cause of this rigorous proceeding against those poor people, who are very much troubled at it.

The armies are almost still in their old posts: that of the enemy is at Ducuvain; and that of ours near to Haste.

The French are endeavouring to pass a great convoy to Condé and St. Gillain, where some part of it is already arrived in safety. We have drawn our army up in a body, and his highness is resolved to prevent the rest from getting to their quarters, if it be possible, and also prevent their marching up further into the country.

Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.


Honored sir,
Though as yet you may not heere much from us, yet I can assure you, we are not idle: our first business this weeke was the settlinge of the excise, because every day's delay therin would be soe much loss to his highness. We have put in three commissioners for manedgment of the excise, customs, and sequestrations: the three are mr. Saltiston, colonel Siler, and (som of the councill beinge of opinion, that it would be requisite to have one of the cuntry) sir James Mc. Dowell is the third. Their sallaryes, which heeretofore were 500 l. a yeere apeece, we have reduced to 365 l. a yeere apeece. And therin I doe much pitty mr. Saltiston, who, I feare, will not be able to live therupon, dependinge upon nothinge of mayntenance but his sallary; and therfore if som way were found out at the yeer's end to make him up, it might be a peece both of justice and charity. Upon a thorough examination of thinges, we have found it best, for all goods excisable, which are imported or exported, to make the officers of the customs collectors also of the excise; but to keepe them still distinct, because they are by our instructions applycable to two several uses: this I beleive wil be as good a way, and I am certayne a much cheaper. But for the inland excisable commodities, we resolve to farme them, not only our cleerest information leadinge us to that choyce, but also the example of the authority of this nation in the yeere 1650, who experimented the sallaryes of the collectors eat up the collections, and therfore they set it to farme to thos who would give most, takinge good security; and that we might not prejudice the state by our owne orders of farminge it to the greatest bidder, we have taken care, that one in every borrough and shyre shall bid a good price, beyond which we shall be . . . . that any bidder doe farme it, and under which none shall; resolvinge rather in som cases to let one for the state farme it of the commissioners, then to let it be under–farmed; which possibly when the people see, it will incite them to be the freer in bidding. I caused a diligent search to be made in the excise bookes of thos times, the better to informe us, how we should proceed; and I finde at their rates (which are very neere ours) ther ale, beere, aquavite, and tobacco, (which three first compose the greatest revenue of the inland excise) amounted not unto above 1100 l. by the month. I wish we may double it. We require all farmers, besides givinge secucurity, to pay in their receipts at the end of every two months. We finde it would be a thinge of much clamor and little profit, if it were practikable to leavy any excise upon goods spent and consumed since the 24th of June last; none will farme that, which is . . . . . ; and to collect it by officers of our owne, it is esteemed not worth the charge, if ther were a possibility of truly knowinge what has bin spent; besides it may perhaps appear hard to leavy excise for what has been sold, since the seller not knowinge the excise would be demanded, sold his commodity accordingly; whereas if then the excise had bin publish'd, he would in the price have at least demanded the excise himselfe of the buyer. Thes and many such other considerations as pregnant have dissuaded us from levyinge excise on any consumed goods since the 24th of June last, till his highness and councill's pleasure be knowne, which we humbly desyre to receive; but for all goods extant we leavy it from that time accordinge to that order.

We have also bin consideringe of reducinge the civill list, in which we have made som progress, but not so full a one as to be worthy your knowledg. The next week we hope to finish it, and then you shall have a full accounte.

Our next worke has bin to settle the exchequer, as knowinge the drawinge all his highnesses revenue into one channell wil be for his service, and the sooner the better. I did busy my selfe at London in forminge a moddell, which might be cheape and cleer; which findinge upon information heere also was good, I presented it to the councill, who havinge examined it thoroly, were pleased to approve therof. We shall, God willinge, on thursday next have soe fully perfected it, that I may send you the moddell thereof, with the sallaryes of the officers, and all the perquisites, which I wish you may approve. It is not only for receipts and payments, but also for the judiciall part, which last shall be of little (if any) charge, and yet fully answer the end of its erection. I begin now to have some little light in affaires, and finde accordinge to the best thereof, that ther is much difference, at lest as to us, betweene the publicke resolutioners and the remonstrators; tho' I must confess I esteeme the latter the better sort of people: the former love Charles Stuart, and hate us; the latter love neither him nor us. Their anymossityes are soe great, that I am persuaded, they are hardly reconsilable to each other, and possibly both of them are the like unto us. Our honest generall had a beleif, that the remonstrators would have owned and closed with the present government, if the lord Warriston and som others had not hindered it, as beleevinge it might have ruin'd theire interrests. As I now stand informed, I thinke indeed, it might be noe very difficult thinge, to get either party to acknowledg our government, if you would put the power therefrom into their hands to suppress the others; upon which they are beleeved to be soe invettratly bent, that to accomplish that end, they would think noe thinge too deare. 'Tis not impossible, but from this division som outward good may be wrought; but for a reall closure, I doubt it never will be effected. They are all a verry moovable people. Last week they (I meane the publicke resolution men) would leave of prayinge for the king, if the penalty for doeinge soe were taken of; and this weeke they proposed to the councill by colonell Lokhart, they would desist, if it were increased, and that * * prayinge should silence them as to preachinge. Wee have set monday next apart to determine on som rule. In thes men, with whom I - - - - - - - -, we shall dally noe longer, for orders havinge bin made, and not executed, have made them the more bold, and us the more contemned. I beleeve we shal be free to declare, that as we shall protect and countenance all such ministers, as preach Christ and live quietly and obediently under the government; soe if after a fixt day (till which both as private christians, and then as magistrats, we shall endeavor by all fair meanes to reclayme them) shall presume to pray for and owne Charles Stuard publickly, we will not only take away ther stipends, but also hinder them from preachinge, till they give good satisfaction not to run againe into that fault, nor under a pretence of publishinge the gospell, incite the people to blood and tumults, then which nothinge is more opposite to it. And when we have declared this, not recede from it.

[Paragraph contains cyphered content – see page image]

The generall not havinge a cipher with you, and impartinge to me a peece of intelligence, I thought it a duty to send it you. We have discovered that the Scotch are hatchinge new rebellions particularly that the lor de Lorne is more then suspected to have an agent with the kinge but we have tooke a letter of the lor de Glancarne wherin we finde, he has bin trinketinge in England, as well as home; but beinge satisfied, that the thinge is not neere ripe, we thought best to be silent, in hope more might be discoverd his agente, beinge intelligencer to the generall.

I pray oblidge me in lettinge my lord Lambert know the particular, not havinge a cipher with him as yet. I beg my duty may be presented to his highness, to whom I would not presume to wright, knowinge what herein may be worth his knowledg you will impart it to him. If ought further does happen, you shall have an account therof, God willinge, from,

Edenb. 22d of Sept. 55.

Sir, your truly affectionate,
and oblig'd humble servant,

Mr. Henry Dawbne to mr. Isaac Bowsey.

Cadize, this 3d of October 1655. [N. S.]

V. xxx. p. 521.

The extreme necessity that I was and still am in, (which I have very sufficiently foretould you in all my former letters) and my confidence, that your noble goodness would be pleased to apply a speedy remedy to it, if you knew how, imboldned me to send a letter to mr. Wright, and another inclosed to your self, by the last post, and to charge him with a bill of exchange, which was the best expedient, that I could, as things now stande, and are like to continue, possibly finde out for my moste immediate supply. So I hope have accordingly, before this comes to your hands, impower'd him to accepte it. If the summ, sir, lookes bigg uppon you, I must take the boldeness to assure you, that I have spente more then double that, and yet have been no ill husband neyther, as when you please to command, you shall have a particular account. There is not a Spanish merchant there, but can informe you, that no servant or factour of theyrs can live under the rate of three hundred pounds a yeer in this place; and sure my condition and other kinde of acquaintance heer, with some journys that I have been forced to take, and some other extraordinary occasions of busyness, may very well excuse my great expenses, which I protest I have moderated too as much as possibly I can, but the cuntry is so excessively deer, and affords at present so litle profitt, that I ame quite weary of it; and this il'e assure you, that if I had wherewithall, I knowe where I could drive a farr greater and more gaynfull trade, both for myselfe and company, as I have partly intimated to you in many of my former. For newes heer wee have verry little more of certainty, then what I sent to you in my last, but that our hopes still encrease of great things to be speedyly done by this king and cuntrey heer on the behalfe of our poore opprest partey there; with which we may hold up our droopeing and allmost dispayreing harts. All the Irish and Scotts, as by force subjected to the English power, are cleered of the imbargo, and all wee English, that can prove ourselves good royalists, shall be still wellcome to all trade and commoditys of the cuntrey. For our farther encouragement, we are assured, that the court at Cologn shall remove to Dunkyrk, which town this brave king will give, and if need be, all the ports he has in Flanders, for a rendevouis to the king's party, and to collect all his scattered friends. Wee are no less encouraged with a confidence, that Holland will imediatly breake theyr late peace made with England, as not being able to endure the rigour of those articles; which if be not already done, is reported to be in a very fayre forwardness, and so much I have hinted you formerly in many letters; but that methinkes you should knowe theere better then wee heer, it being such a concerning importance. Heer is a very prittey letter lately printed, as from Don Alenzo de Cardenas embassador there with you in England, to a friend of his in the court of Spayn, rendring him a large account of the ticklish state of the lord protector, which truly I would verry fayn send to you to shew and all our forlorne freinds, the high resentment that this people have of our poore partie, but that I ame so strictly limited to such a quantity of paper, as that, which can neyther be capable to enclose the whole, nor yet to compendiat any part of the contents. I knowe very well most particulars of it fall short of truth, but yet for all that they are very convenient to pass heer currant, to rayse up the harts and spleen of this people and all the world, against the present power of England; and truely I have not seen a more compleat piece of fiction. If any shipping goe from hence, as I beleeve shortly will for Holland, I'll venture to send you a copy of it by that way, which will serve you as well as a winter's tale, or a Spanish novela, to make merry with our freinds, by an English fier. Generall Blake is now for certayn presumed to have quitt this coste, and to be fled home for feare; so the Spanish armada is commaunded to come in some time this month. O deer sir, you cannot imagine how my heart earnes to knowe how my poore wife and children doe, whome I have not heard one word from, nor knowe so much whither they be living or not since I saw them. I feare theyr condition is miserable by the barbarity of theyr unnaturall kindred. I have no other comforte left (next to the allmighty's providence, uppon which wee muste repose all things) but your noble care of them, into which if I heard they were once so farr taken, as that you would please by some servant of yours to inquire how they doe, and where, my hart would be very much at rest; nor can any thing possible give me a greater comfort or refreshment, after twenty months bannishment from them. He who does me the favour to send this letter forward will permitt me the passage of no more paper. So I can pay you at this time no more of my respects, but only to assure you further, if ther cane be yet any roome for doubt, that there is not in the world a creature more yours, or that thyrsts more to meet with an oppurtunitey to approve himselfe, sir,

Your moste affectionate and faythfull humble servant,
Hen. Daubne.

For my honored freind mr. Isaack Bowsey, thees in London.

Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.

October 4th, 1655. [N. S.]

My lord,
Since my last letter, which signified unto you the seizure of the goods and effects belonging to the English, here hath past nothing upon that subject: only some ships are sent to fortify Blake; and many are of opinion here, that the protector is too generous to suffer this advance without shewing some resentment; and if in effect he doth not do it, he will lose much of his reputation. It is probable, that in a short time we shall know his mind, and consequently my destiny; for it is high time, that our affairs should have an end; and especially if some did rightly understand my own condition, they would either supply me with money, or give me a precise order to finish my negotiation.

Col. Bampfylde to secretary Thurloe.

You were pleased, (as I remember) to tell mee, that when you had considered of instructions, and such a credentiall authority, as was requisite for my employment into France, that you woulde send for mee to waite on you; but not having received any commands from you since, and that you were urgent for my imediate dispatch; I rather beleive that I misunderstoode you, then that you have forgotten the business. Wherfor being very unwilling to loose this oportunitie of serveing you at this conjuncture, I shall desire you, that if you expect any further information from mee, then what I have allready given you, relating to this bussiness, that you will please to signifye the particulars in a line or towe, or appoynte a tyme, when I may conveniently attend you; or if you conclude, that there is not any thing more needfull, but to give mee that credentiall authority, which may satisfye such as I am to treat with, and those instructions, that may direct mee in my proceedings; I knowe not any thing more that I have to say, but that in the firste, there may be power given mee to assure the persons I am to deale with, of a convenient rewarde, agreeable to theyr condition and to the weight of the intelligence; and that in the latter (I mean my private instructions) I may be limited to what degree I may goe, and upon what tearmes. For all other particulars, that you desire satisfaction in, and by which you woulde have mee governe my selfe in this affayre, your owne breaste will be your best adviser. All I have to say more is, to wish that since you have been pleased to resolve upon this journey, that my dispatch may be as speedy as is possible, which may render my endeavours the more effectuall to your service, whoe am with moste unseined truth, sir,

Your moste humble and
moste faithfull servant,
J. B.

Juste now I had this letter from mr. Longe, whoe I believe woulde have wrote more particularly, if he had knowne mee certaynly here: Thowgh it be not of much importance, I thought fitt to send it, and I beleive, when I see him, I shall make him usefull to your service.

Sept. the 24th 1655.

Vice–admiral Goodsonn to the governor of Bermudas.

Honored sir,
Your letter of the 12th of June I received. Sir, your civilitye therin to mee and affection to our nation and service call for thankes at one hand, and will undoubtfully encounter a friendly resentment from the other. Your advice of what ships prepareing for this plase is what since succeeded. For generall Penn and generall Venables, their imprisonment, I shall not question those hands, whome I conceive doe in justice and equity proceed.

Sir, your proposalls for the transplanting some people from your island to Jamayca may now bee seasonable; for here inclosed you shall receive his highnesse's resolution touching the peopleing of Jamayca, although I doe not question your receiving it from other hands long before now. This bearer can informe you how farr a proceeding is made therin in governour Stokes his transplanting; by both which you will bee able to make a judgment, which possibly may be satisfactory to those with you, who are willing to these parts; to compleat which, if your honour bee pleased to give me the soonest advise, what quantity they may bee that may be so found, I shall accordingly order so many ships as may be considerable for their transportation. To acquainte you a little with our proceeding, be pleased to take notice, that wee for neare this three months have been uppon the coast of Havanna untill the unseasonableness of the yeare forced us thence. Ther went this yeare for Spayne onely foure ships with plate, which came from Carthagene. It was not our success to encounter them. Wee at present designe in our way to Jamayca, to touch at Mevis, and St. Christophers, that what passengers those thre ships wee formerly allotted for that service cannot transporte, we may.

Sir, I shall humbly request you in behalfe of capt. John Wentworth, belonging to your island; whose merrit thereto inducinge, providence hath so ordered it, that at present hee hath the command of one of our friggatts, his employment obleigeing him from his home. In case any of his shall necessitate your just assistance, your civility therein shall equally obliege mee, and I shall esteem it to my selfe. Not else but a readiness to embrace all opportunitys of a retaliation, wherein I may in some meashure answer your civilityes, resting

Marston Moore, the 24th of
September 1655.

Your affectionat
friend and servant,
William Goodsonn.

A declaration of his highnes council in Scotland, for the election of magistrates.


Whereas by an ordinance of his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, bearing date the twelfth of April one thousand six hundred fifty four, Scotland is united into one commonwealth with England, and therein it appears, that the shires and burghs of Scotland, by their deputies convened at Dalkeith, and again at Edinburgh did before the then commissioners of parliament, accept of the said union and assent thereunto, and did promise to live peaceably under, and in obedience to the authority of the commonwealth of England, exercised in Scotland. And whereas by an ordinance of his highness, entituled, an ordinance of pardon and grace to the people of Scotland, it is desired, that they be made equall sharers with those of England in the present settlement of peace, liberty and property, with all other priviledges of a free people; the councill in pursuance thereof, taking all the premises into their consideration, as also the many prejudices that may arise to the good people, burgesses and inhabitants of the severall cities, burghs, and incorporations within this nation, from the want of the due nomination and election of their respective magistrates according to their laws and customs; and to the end the inhabitants of the said cities, burghs and towns may receive all due encouragement, and have government and justice righteously administred unto them; do declare, that all prohibitions as to elections of magistrates are taken off; and that all cities, burghs, and towns corporate in Scotland, to whom the priviledge of choosing their magistrates belongs, may from henceforth meet and conveen for that end, within their respective cities, burghs and towns, and there proceed to the due and lawfull nomination and election of their respective magistrates, wherein the said councill expects due and particular care be taken, that no person be chosen who is dangerous to the commonwealth, dis–affected to the present government, or scandalous in life or conversation; which persons qualified, elected and chosen as aforesaid, are, and shall be the magistrates for the ensuing year: And the councill do likewise further declare, that in case this declaration shall not come so soon to all the burghs, as that they may elect their magistrates by the times limitted in their charters respectively; that in such case such burghs not having such timely notice thereof, may proceed to the election of magistrates for their burghs respectively, as aforesaid that day fourtnight. Provided always, that in the oath of their faithfull administration of justice, and in all other cases where formerly the name or stile of king, or keepers of the liberty of England, hath been used in the exercise of the aforesaid government of the said cities, burghs and town, the name of his highness, the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, be inserted and used.

Emmanuel Downing.
Cl. of the councill.

Monday, 24 September 1655.

At his highness council in Edinburgh.
Ordered, that the above declaration be forthwith printed and published.

Emmanuel Downing.
Cl. of the council.

Edinburgh, printed by Christopher Higgins, in Harts–close over against the Tronechurch, 1655.

A letter of intelligence from mr. Haak.

October 5, 1655. [N. S.]

I was in good hopes to have seen you again ere this, according as I intimated in my former four months ago, and now was intended and resolved on by his highness my master, and truly the instructions and all things else were ready, when on a sudden such was the resolutions in these parts as did necessitate some farther delay of that dispatch. The D. my master standeth as yet upon his neutrality, although it seem, that the same will now be drawn into question, notwithstanding that it was granted and ratisied unto him formerly, not only by the king of Poland, but also by the great duke of Muscovy, and by king Gustavus Adolphus, and the late queen Christina, their respective solemn and authentick instruments, for perpetuity; the present king of Sweden himself also having certified very much proneness. How the debate in hand now will be determined, a short time will make manifest. The king of Poland hath been put to it to abandon his kingdom; and the king of Sweden goeth on very successfully in the same, though he is like to meet with several rubs yet; and how long the Muscovite will keep fair with him upon emergent difficulties or accidents, cannot be relied on. The elector of Brandenburgh hath a pretty army now in Prussia; and no body knoweth yet, what he will or must resolve upon. We are given to understand in these parts, as if the English had been put to some inconveniency in America; but we look upon it only as a whetstone of the known magnanimity and undaunted courage of his highness and nation, whereby, through God's blessing, that loss may soon be recovered with advantage and double honour before all the world. In the mean time I thought good upon this occasion, and to testify my most humble and devoted affection to his said highness, and the common good cause he hath in hand, to hint this ensuing offer, referring the imparting thereof to your diseretion and service, viz. That the duke my master having of late times caused several most goodly ships or frigats to be built after the best and newest way for matter and fabric as exquisite as may be, with intent to have made use of them in Africa or the East–Indies (but not at all in the East or Baltick sea) some whereof are altogether new yet, and were never forth the haven: their proportion is 40 foot in breadth, and 150 in length, provided with 40, 60, 80, yea 100 pieces of ordnance, though of iron only. Now by reason of the late encreasing troubles in the Baltick sea, and that these ships lying exposed to the view of the differing parties, whereby they might easily draw some inconveniency upon the duke by gratifying either's importunity with them, and the French also at present labouring much to procure them; but the duke being very loth to part with them to the prejudice of any friend, I am persuaded, if his highness the lord protector should be desirous of them, my master would most willingly let him have the same before any other, and upon very reasonable terms. A dozen of the best I durst undertake to procure upon liking; for which end and purpose an able shipwright or other judicious persons might be dispatched hither, to take a view of them, and to transact accordingly. The biggest indeed want cordage and sailes yet; but that may be soon supplied; only because of their bulk, they can be hardly got forth the haven before the spring.

I should be right glad, if by this, or any other means, I might be enabled to do his highness service.

H. Cromwell, major general of the forces in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.

I received yours by the messenger you sent, together with the seales, for the three courts, which came verry seasonably. Yours allsoe, which gave ane account of general Venables arrivall at Portsmouth, came at the same time. I was glade to heare of his life, though his returne uppon the occasione you hinted is much wondred at. Without doubte ther is somethinge of the providence of God in the thinge. He hathe much deceived the expectatione and hopes of all, that knewe hime in his manageinge of that affaire; though I doe beleive there was noe wante of integritie and faithfullness in hime. I ame glade to heare soe good an account of the place, and am noe less pleased, that his highness resolves (through the blessinge of the lorde) to goe one with the designe. The discouragement we have mett with in it makes it noe less honest, honorable, nor hopefull. I gave you my thoughts concerninge the sendeinge some other fitt person, which I perceive doeth not much disagree with yours. What doe you think of the person I formerly mentioned, viz. the new knight, as you are pleased to tearme hime in a late letter to hime, uppon which I tooke occasion to have some discourse with hime aboute it? Hee is verry sober in the thinge, and I believe if cleerly called, will seriously consider it; and embrace any opportunitie to lay out himeselfe uppon the publique service, let the place or employment be wheer or whatsoever. And nowe haveinge spoke my minde concerninge hime, I must say, if you take hime from hence, you deprive me of my right hande. Wherever he is, I must adde to what I have allreadie writte, that he is as deserveinge a person, as any I knowe, and ame consident will be as usefull in whatever you employe hime: and therefore great regarde muste behad of hime. As to what you write concerninge the girles, I have in too late letters soe fully given you my thoughts, that I need add noethinge nowe; only thus much, that bothe, as to a supply of souldiers and girles, their will noething remaine to answer your desire save your directions and sitteing encouragement; and therefore I desire to knowe your further resolutions, which I hope to doe suddenly.

It much rejoyces me to heare of his highnes recovery. His illness made us all sadde. The lord make us thankefull, and me especially, who ame

Your affect. freind and servant,
H. Cromwell.

Wee are full of business, which makes me shorte, and hinders me from writing to his highness. You will present my humble duty.

Kilkenny, 25 Sept. 55.

Sir John Reynolds to secretary Thurloe.

I Received a letter from you on the 24th instant, which (as I preceived by the date) was written aboute 3 weekes before. I verry much rejoiced, in the possibility by you mentioned in carrying on the designe in the Indyes; wherein the interest so long contended for is more neerely concerned than is to be suddainely conceived, and the honour of our nation so farre engaged, that it is a mercy that his highness, who begun it, is through the goodnes of God restored to health for its prosecution; and I do beleive the person reported to be emploied therein, is without question fittest for the undertaking. The lord hath given his highness many incomparable endowments of wisedom, and none greater, than that of discerning spirits, of suiting instruements for worke, which is a ray of divine light or wisedome. I wish with the next supply a stocke of prayer may go, which as it's feared was desicient in the last, and equally with want of conduct, difference amongst commanders, or any other dificulty arising. Certainely the busines being likely to be a contention of foote and navall forces, generall Monke's experience and ability is a hopefull remedy; and I trust that one thing necessary will not be omitted, viz. vis precum fulminaris. For my particular, I shall not mention what answer I should have returned, if the newes had not arrived (at the same time with your letter) who was designed to command our forces in the Indyes; but I have thorough mercy hitherto followed providence, wherein I have found comfort, and the little strengh afforded my insuffincey might cause a juste bashfulnes in such undertakings; his highnes is, next God, the best witnes of my affection to his interest and person; and I hope to equalize in faithfullnes, where I am defective in fitnes for my present charge, which is deserving a person of greate sincerity and integrity. I desire assistance from the Lord, to whom I onely looke, as the meanes of my discharging a duty to his highnes, concerning which, and the other particular occurrences in this countrey, I shall take the boldnes to trouble you, but with modesty, in respect of your greate affaires, wherein his highnes entrusts you; to whome I dare not, without the mediation of your moste worthy hands, present my humble duty. I remaine,

Kilkenny–Castle, Sept.
the 25th [1655.]

Your most obliged and affectionate
humble servant
J. Reynolds.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the forces in Ireland.

In the possessession of the right honorable the earl of Shelburn.

My lord,
I returne your lordship most humble thanks for the letter I received from you touching transporting of Irish girles to Jamaica; and had thought, that I might by this post have sent the particular encouragements, which my lord protector and the councell will give, for the better enabling your lordship and the councell of Ireland to have proceeded in that business; but I have been prevented therein by my bodily in disposition, and therefore by this can only desire your lordship to proceed as farre as you can, till more particular advices can be sent.

Generall Venables arrived here the last week. Upon his first appering before the councell, hee was committed to the tower, being able to give noe reason for his leaving his comand without licence, to the hazard of the army. Generall Penn was alsoe comitted at the same tyme, and for the same cause.

The king upon the newes sent to him of our assaulting Sancto Domingo, seized upon the persons and estates of our merchants in his dominions, which in substance is a declaration of a warre. The last letter wee had from Blake was the 30th of August, whereof (as I remember) I gave your lordship an account; since which wee have not heard of him. My lord deputie of Ireland, his ladie, and family, arrived safely here on satturday night. I have had scarce health to salute him since his comeing; which is the cause alsoe, why I can be noe larger at this tyme. I remeyne

Sept. 1655.

Your lordship's most humble,
and obliged servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

A. G. Allen endeavours very much to goe for Ireland, but I beleeve I shall have libertie to write to your lordship further concerning it before he will obteyne leave.

The protector to the commissioners of Maryland.

Vol. xliii. p. 103.

It seems to us by yours of the 29th of June, and by the relation we received by colonel Bennet, that some mistake or scruple hath arisen concerning the sense of our letters of the 12th of January last; as if by our letters we had intimated that we would have a stop put to the proceedings of those commissioners, who were authorized to settle the civil government of Maryland, which was not at all intended by us, nor so much as proposed to us by those who made addresses to us to obtain our said letter; but our intention, (as our said letter doth plainly import) was only to prevent and forbid any force or violence to be offered by either of the plantations of Virginia or Maryland from one to the other upon the differences concerning their bounds, the said differences being then under the consideration of ourself and council here; which for your more full satisfaction we have thought fit to signify to you, and rest

Whitehall, 26th of Sept. 1655.

Your loving friend.

Information of Ruth Whisken.

I ruth Whisken doe testisye, and will be deposed, that Mary the wife of Christopher Emerson did tel me the said Ruth, that the said Emerson said, that the lord protector was a rogue, and a rascall, and blood–sucker, and that he should have his throte cut, and his head clest ere longe; and that he was a cowardly rogue, and wore two pistoles in his pocket, and was affraid of every dogg that barked, and that he should have his throte cutt by Michaelmas day, and named weapons to that purpose; and that Thomas Turner and Susanna Turner his wife heard him the said Emerson speake these words: In wittness wherof I the said Ruth Whisken to these presents have set to my hand.

Sept. 26, 1655.

The marke of [ ] Ruth Whisken.

Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.


Honored Sir,
Finedinge the ministers of this nation, which are of the general assembly, still continu'd violent, and that either as they are violent or as they are ministers, ther power over the people is greate, I thought it not amiss to endeavor what I could with them in a private way; and understandinge mr. David Dickson and mr. Robert Dowglas were not only of greatest authority amongst the rest, but also men that pretended to moderation, whatever they practicesed, they comminge to visit me, I had a longe conference with them, wherin at length they used playness with me, tellinge me, that they had found the remonstrators were the only people we countenanced, and (as I collected) if others were equally countenanced, they might strive to appeare as little unworthy as thos. That as to their prayinge for the (pretended) kinge, it proceeded from the way the prohibition was penned in, which was such, that did they now declyne it, they must appeere guilty of designinge by their prayers the ingageinge the nation in tumults and blood, which they vehemently affirmed they did not, nor ever would intend. That also the threatninge of takinge away their sallary loked, as if feare of loosinge that, had only incited them therunto, and did not leave them roome to evidence a cleere conviction had produced that change. Nay, tho' they should leave prayinge for the kinge, yet even by the prohibition they had lost their sallaryes, the words runninge, such as had or should pray for Charles Steward, whereby the penalty should continue, tho' the fault did not (which words I must confesse run as they alleadge.) I told them, wee were com, without prejudicate opinions of any, resolved to owne and countenance thos most, which should most deserve it, and give cleerest evidences of continuinge peaceable under and submissive unto the government; which if they doubted, it lay in their power to experiment by giveinge us an equall rise to favor them with the remonstrators, which if we fayled in, we should acknowledge the fault lay on our side, not on theirs; but if they did it not, we must lay the fault on them, and free ourselves, which possibly might invite us to put soe much of the kirke power in the remonstrators hands, as might sufficiently enable them with their owne weapons to punnish their disobedience and contempt of us; but if they would forthwith declyne prayinge for the kinge, and give me good assurances therof, as we would not much differ in the way to that end, soe if they should persevere in that practice, they should quickly feele we had power to make our just orders to be obayd; and when they had left of that offensive scandalous custom, I would not only be reddy to heere what they would say, but also to all their just and fit requests give them honnest answers. In conclusion after a longe debate, they gave me this assurance, if thos penaltyes were nuld (for the reasons they mentioned) and that we would give them foure or five weeks time to consult their brethern, they would not only freely leave of that manner of prayinge, but also soe far close with and owne our authority, as I should be convinced had they bin well handled, they had not bin now at this distance, and would not longe continue at it. They further did earnestly desyer me, that I would draw up our declaration, and assured me after the time limitted, if they prayed for the kinge they would neither aske for, nor expect more favor; and as for themselves, as soone as the declaration was published, they would desist. This I acquainted the councill with, who havinge largly debated the matter, and beleevinge that not only the neerer thes men drew unto us, the more neer also the remonstrators would, which would possibly, by the lord's assistance, ingender such an emulation amongst them, that wheras they strove heertofore who should keepe farthest of, now they would contend who should com closest, and that their pretended kinge and the malignants might see, not feare, but conviction makes them not any longer owne him; as also that all wayse before punnishments (this beinge practiced) has bin first used to reclayme them, whereby they will appeare the more faulty if they persevere; and likewise if this works not upon all, yet it will upon many, and therby breake that knot; which has hithertoo appeerd soe hard against us; They at last resolved to try this way, and ordered me to draw up a declaration to that effect, a coppy of which I heere inclosed present you, which thes ministers havinge seene, assured me it is sufficient, and shall doe what they promised. One of the greatest scruples I had was the nullinge the generall's and the judges declaration; but he and they beinge verry free to it, the councill were cleerly satisfyed to doe it. I have found, that in many affaires, 'tis harder to remoove a thinge that was fixt, then to keepe it goeinge, when once it is in motion; possibly it may be soe in this, and if we can order it soe that both thes partyes court us, lest we should give the power to either, 'tis (as I now stand informed) the best ballance we can at present put your affaires in, and therfore 'tis that I shall endeavor, for if you give the power absolutely to either, you will loose both.

The general assemblymen begin to express to me som inclynations of sendinge one or two of their number to waite upon his highnes, not only therby to owne him and the authority, but also to open their harts unto him, and to give him assurances of livinge peaceably and submissively, and to crave his favor and protection; but not knowinge what his highnes may think heerof, I have given them noe answer till I heer his pleasure.

We have now set on foot and proclaymed the excise; but whilst it was doinge, our sarjant at armes had a stone flunge at him by an unknowne hand, and tho' the gards did all they could to discover him, yet they could not.

Ther havinge bin noe magistrats elected thes three yeers in Scotland; we have now given them leave to choose again annually, accordinge to our instructions: one of our declarations to that effect I heer inclosed present you.

Tho' we have moddelled our exchequer, yet we could not as yet put it in force, till we have a coppy of the powers and authoritye given unto the exchequer in England, by which (as to the judiciall part therof) we desyre to regulate ourselves.

For receipts and payments we have noe other officers but an auditor generall and a receiver generall. This is our rule for receipts. The auditor shall have a particular entry of all the revenue, every head of it distinct, which also shal be enrolled in the chequer office; noe money shal be payd to the receiver, till a debet be made by the auditor to the receiver, and noe acquittance of the receiver shal be vallid, till it be entred with the auditor. In payments we observe this rule; all warrants must be directed to the receiver and the auditor, before payment be made, is to make entry and allowance therof accordingly upon the accounte.

The auditor gives the debet, the receiver payse the mony upon the debet, takinge acquittance, which he sends to the auditor to enter, and keepe till the accounts be declared unto and examined by thos we shall (half yeerly at most) authorise to that effect. As to the judiciall part of the exchequer we order it thus; it shall consist of two of the judges (who are appoynted for civill and crymenall affaires, which also they may verry well tend, when their number is fil'd) and two of the councill, with the auditor generall, who is to see noe wronge be done unto or incroachment made upon his highneses revenue for want of due information. Thes, the court sittinge seldom, and alwayse in the afternoone, will, I hope, be able to carry on that worke, and without charge to the state; only ther must be five clerkes alowd, all whos sallaryes will amount annualy to 2851. also a serjant at 50 l. yeerly, a dore–keeper and a messenger both at 40 l. As soone as this court is set up, we shall have many tryalls, for I finde much of the crowne land has bin alienated against the lawse of Scotland, by the two last kings, James and Charles, which by our instructions we are to take cognoysanse of, and by his highneses acte of pardon and grace are exempted from the title and clayme of the pretended propriators. We have bin this afternoone consideringe of establishinge justices of peace throughout this nation, and constables, with the power such ministers and officers have in England. I finde that even by an act of parliment heere they have bin instituted heere; but the greate lords, who were sheriffs by inheritance, findeinge thos diminished ther power, let them soon fall again; but even by that acte the king's councill were impowred to give the said justices such further instructions as they should thinke fit, which additionall instructions were to be of as much force as if enacted by parliment.

I beg you seriously to consider of sendinge us speedely at lest four able English judges, or els we shall still continue Scotch. Som Scotch have bin propounded, but I have hitherto staved it of, alleadginge I was confident som from England would be suddenly sent us. We doe much want a seale for the councill, which be pleased to hasten downe; alsoe a mace, if you thinke good. Som of the chief of this citty have intimated to me, they will give a list of thos they designe for magistrats, that if we except against any, thos may not be elected. Be pleased, I pray, to get his highneses orders to colonel Howard to attend the councill heere at lest this winter, for we shall want all the helpe we can get; and he is now still at such uncertaintyes, that we have him but by snatches. I beg you, sir, present my most humble duty to his highnes, whom I doe not trouble with my letters, beleevinge it sufficient that I send an account unto yourself, to whom I write a reall truth, when I assure you, that I am

Edenburgh, the 27th of 7ber, 55.

Your most affectionate,
and most faithfull obliged humble servant,

I designe mr. Disbrow to be one of the councill, who shal be a judge of the exchequer, for I finde him a very good husband for the state, and laborious and industrious. We are preparinge for the Jamaica business against we heere from you.

By his highness's council in Scotland for the government thereof.


Although the said council have with some trouble observed, that divers ministers of this nation continue to pray in public for the pretended king, notwithstanding the dangerous tendencies and repeated prohibitions thereof, yet in regard the principle, which through mercy they desire to walk by, obliges them to great patience and tenderness towards those, which profess christianity; and that all men may see this rule is not only their profession, but by the Lord's assistance shal be their practice; as also that it is his highness's pleasure and their intention, that no fair way be lest unessay'd, if God shall see it good, to unite hearts as well as countries, and to gain those, who are to be wrought upon, who shall evidence a desire of living peaceably and submissively: they do therefore seriously and earnestly intreat all such ministers, thoroughly to weigh and consider what these late signal dispensations of providence do require at their hands; whereby if possibly such as by having pray'd as aforesaid have occasioned suspicion in, and offence unto those in authority, may be won from repeating the like in the future. And that what yielding shal be given herein may appear to spring from conviction, and not from any other, or inferior motive; the said council do hereby take off, and make null all former penalties and restraints denounced against such as prayed for the pretended king, and will patiently expect till the fifth of November next what good effects his tenderness will produce; wherein, as they shall heartily rejoice if the Lord make the event answer the desired expectation, so if it does not, they shall be accounted blameless, if afterwards they pursue those ways God shall put into their hearts for preserving the quiet of this nation, or which shall appear to them conducive to that end.

Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.

Right Honourable,
This weeke is arryved here a smale Inglish fish ship from Allicant, wher on the 16 and 17 of the last month our nation and theyr estates wer seized on or sequestred by the king's order, and proclamation made, that whosoever should coullour or conseal any Inglishman's estate, he should pay threfold, besyds suffer perpetuall imprisonment. Here is a rumor (but without any ground) that the Spanish fleet latly gon from thes parts towards Barsalona, hav fouht and spoil'd the duk of Vandom's fleet: but wee believ it not, becaus 'tis not 18 dayes since the Spanyards departed; but of this heere is certaine advys, that the said Spanish fleet is to proceed for Cales, and to join with the fleet latly gon out to syht generall Blake. The fleet gon hence is 22 ships, wherof a dozen saile ar good ships (som of the gallions and the Dunkirk squadron, the rest are Flemings) prest into theyr servis. Ther went hence with them 14 gallyes, and the 6 galleys of Ma-- ar gon to join with them, so they will hav about 20 gallyes and 40 ships to wast in theyr plate–fleet, or, as others say, to beat gennerall Blak from the south cape. I assure you, sir, Spayn has more mallis than he shewes, and maks al the strength he can to ruin general Blak's fleet, whom God, I hope, wil protect, and the protector's hyhnes furnish him with strength sufficent to quel them. The inclosed letter I received this week from Rom wil show you how ernestly the pope labours to bring Fraunce and Spayn together, and 'tis most certainly believed theyr plenipotentiaryes wil this winter be at Rom. The French wer ever fals. 'Tis advysed from Holland and Flaunders, that his hyhnes is sending sir Geo. Askue for the West Indyes. By the smale extract out of the Roman newes you may se, what good correspondency cardinal Capponi has weekly from London.

The Tripoly men of war ar strong, and hav latly taken three French. God be thanked, no Inglish hav faln latly into theyr hands. I suppos both that place and Tunis would now willingly mak peace, if but a frigat wer sent with som fit person impowerd for that purpos.

In som of my former letters I advysed your honour, how that the Mary had taken a French ship worth 4000 l. without letters of marque or any autority to do it. If you would be plesed to send me an antedated comission for the said ship to tak French (or a blank with autority to me lykwys, if the captain does not compound, to cal him to a strickt account) I suppos I may then bring the captain to som agrement, and repaire my losses by the French this way, which you wer ples'd in one of your late letters to tel me you would help me in som such way as this; wherin if you pleas now to favor me, you wil perpetually obliege,

Leg. 8 October 1655. [N. S.]

Right honorable
Your most humble and faithful servant,
Charles Longland.

Rom, 2 October [1655. N. S.]

The Sweds and Muscovits mak great progres in Polland, and by letters from Ingland (particulerly one that coms weekly to cardinal Capponi) we understand, that the protector is in legue with the king of Swed, to mak themselves each patron or cape of the protestant religion; and now ther is with the protector 32 ambassadors from divers princes, but the ambassador of Sweden was the favoryt, with whom ther past many clos negotiations, which gives jelosy to the other ambassadors, espetially he from Holland.

Mr. W. Mettame from Rome to mr. Charles Longland, agent at Leghorn.

V. vi. p. 430.

Worthy Sir,
Though it were my misfortune to accompanie mr. Bayly, in whom as I hoped to serve my countrie, so I desired to honour its governours; yet I should be loth to be guiltie of the indiscretions, which I must needs ascribe to him, since your last, I have spent labour and money, and am much dissappointed in all my resolutions; yet as I ever did, I counsaile him silence, both for his honour and safety, suspending my just anger for being so horribly deceived and deluded; yea and though his spetious discourses moved me sometimes, yet I never had so full a creditt, as to permitt, advise, or helpe forward any thing at all, by which any ingagement with his holines might be contracted; and now I am resolved to leave him, and Rom, and pursue my intentions of a peculiar interest I have in Portugall. I beseech your favour now so farr, as that I might receave from you a line concerning what ships are bound for Lisbona or Porto, and how soone; as also that you would convey me this to England to a gentleman of his highnes his familie; and at my coming thither, if I shall be so happy as to see you, peradventure I might give more satisfaction then I can penn at once. Least you should thinke my lines dangerous, I leave them to your seale, though they consist more of news then of any thing else. Thus you shall oblige

8. 8bre 1655. [N. S.]

Your servant,
William Mettame.

Al–molto illustre sig. Carlo Longland Inglese in Livorno.

Indorsed by mr. Longland.
W. Mettam, Rom. Oct. 8. 1655, received ditto 13, answered 18.

The prince of Condé, to secretary Thurloe.


J'ay sceu par le sieur marquis de Barriere les bons sentimens, que vous luy tesmoignes pour moy dans toutes les occasions de mes interests. C'est une chose, qui me touche si fort, venant d'une personne de vostre merite, que j'en ay toute sorte de satisfaction & de recognoissance, & rien ne s'y peut adjouster, si ce n'est en continuant de vostre part a me donner les marques de cette bonne volonté, & en employant vostre credit aupres de monsieur le protecteur pour la paix d'Espagne. Ce seront des subjects essentiels pour m'engager d'estre toute ma vie.

Du camp de Leuze pres de Tourney,
le 8 Octobr 1655. [N.S.]

Vostre tres affectionné à vous servir,
Louis De Bourbon.

De Lionne, the French embassador at Rome, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.

Rome, the 9th October, 1655. [N. S.] p.539.

My Lord,
I Suffered myself to be tempted with most of this court to go into the country for some days, to spend the remainder of this fine season, which hindered me from writing to you last week. The pope did also design to go; but in regard every one ought to be interested in so precious a health, he was advised not to do, till such time that it shall have rained a little, to cool the heat, which the earth hath contracted during six months, that the sun hath had its full operation upon it.

The king hath granted leave to his holiness to export out of France ten thousand quarters of corn; which his holiness doth take for a very great obligation. Here is nothing more worthy your knowledge.

Mr. B. Wright to his brother.

Madrid, 9th October 1655. [N. S.]

Mr. Nathaniel Wright,
and loving brother,
I have written you several letters since I received any from you, giving you notice of the embargo made here on mr. Breton, mr. Santalban, and myself, and the like upon all the English in Spain. And we now expect to hear, how the lord protector will relish it; for these parts persuade themselves, it will oblige him to a peace. I wish it may; and then I may promise to myself satisfaction from this king by his highness's intercession. Not having else to enlarge, I remain

Your loving brother,
Benjamin Wright.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

26th September 1655. [N. S.]

The guard of the soldiers about the prison in the nights is only to hinder, that none come to communicate or correspond with the prisoners by letters or by speech. The embassador of France doth in no wise acknowledge this prisoner for his secretary.

Yesterday was propounded the deputation towards the province of Overyssel; but Holland persisted in their advice formerly taken, that they are willing to consent to the said deputation, provided that prince William will desist from his election of stadholder of Overyssell. The commissioner of Deventer saith the same thing. They have been desired to be conformable to the other provinces; otherwise that they will conclude by plurality; but in this case those of Twente and Deventer will not submit unto it.

The business of the Baltick sea hath been also urged; but Holland hath fully declared, that they are not ready, expecting the ract pensionary of Zeland to confer with about the one and the other. It is also thought, that Dantzick will send hither.

27th September.

Here inclosed is a letter, which the ministers of Brandenburgh have had from London: at least they do give it out here. The resident of Sweden hath represented by a memorandum the wrong, which is done the Swedish nation to find fault with the impositions and new licences before Dantzick, in regard that this state hath done worse upon the coasts of Flanders, where they stopt the commerce altogether: and in the mean time through the Escaute, the Suas, and the Sound, this state traded to Brabant and Flanders, excluding all other nations.

Here is advice come from the admiralty of Zealand, that there have been 36 pirates, seen (most of them Turks) in the Channell; and that they had taken an Englishman, but let him go again. This letter is referred to the commissioners of the sea–affairs. The earl of Gleen hath required expedition; upon which the provinces are admonished to declare themselves.

29th September.

At last arrived here the lords Lampson and the raet pensionary de Brune, commissioners of Zealand to confer with the states of Holland, who have writ expressly to those of Zealand, to hear and make overture concerning the high military charges vacant by the death of the deceased lord Brederode; and to understand the inclinations of the one and the other provinces.

The wise of a certain citizen trading in money, and carrying a good sum from Bruges to Escluse, was dispossess'd of her money by the officers of the king of Spain. The said citizen doth require a recommendation, as well to the said archduke, as to the embassador of Spain, to have the money again.

The commissioners of Zealand amongst the rest have brought for their provincial advice, that the states of Zealand do think it very fit, that a deputation be made towards Overyssell, to endeavour to annul those differences, which are amongst the members thereof. The present commissioners of Overyssell (except monsieur Becke) have urged that very much; and all the other provinces have also thought it convenient, yea requisite, in regard that the four members of Overyssell say the confusion is great there; and that they are near to be ruined, if not suddenly prevented. The lord Becke saith, that his principals will not admit of the commissioners of the generality, if first and foremost prince William doth not quit the charge of the stadtholder. Those of Holland have said the same thing, and have declared not to consent in the conclusion; but that they would make report thereof to their principals. The president however hath not failed to conclude for all that; and there are named the lords Verbolt, Vrybergen, Renswoude, and Isbrants to draw up the instructions.

As for the other points of importance, no mention hath been made.

September 30.

The commissioners of Zealand, as well extraordinary as ordinary, have been in conference with some commissioners of Holland. Those of Zealand have no other order than ad referendum; and do give to understand, that they do think it most convenient, that the militia should have an head to command them, and that he should have power; and that prince William is the likeliest. To which those of Holland have said, that for the siege of Amsterdam, and for the vehement oppositions, which the said prince made against the seclusion, his person would not be acceptable. That for the present, God doth bless and hath bless'd the state with a happy peace. That they ought to preserve themselves in peace; and that each regiment have an head; and that the ancientest colonel is enough, in case of need, to command a small body, unless they would employ the lord Beverweert as sergeant major of the battle. Prince William will go and meet the princess dowager at Cleve.

There is a letter come from the commander of Embden, and a complaint against him, that he hath imprisoned some farmers.

The provinces are admonished to advise upon the business of the earl of Gleen, as also those which have not yet ratified the treaty of Brandenburgrh.

September 31.

This morning there was an election of the aldermen at Boisleduc; about whom there hath been a great contest. One part is of those, who had the management since the reduction of the year 1629; the other is of new ones, or such that accuse the rest of ill government, that in the year 1629 the revenue of the city was of 140 thousand livres, and that at present it is of 48 thousand guilders per annum; that all the rest is consumed in bribes, and in unnecessary bribes. So that one party hath laboured against the other; but the old party hath hitherto prevailed, so that the earl is yet to be suppress'd.

Those of Holland have named the lord Northwyck for governor of Boisleduc, who although one of the prince's party, yet doth not please those of Zealand. In Holland is already resolved for a provincial advice not to send any fleet to the Sound, but to resolve to prepare a great fleet against the spring; and in the mean time to endeavour to draw England and Denmark into a league.

In what manner is resolved and protested concerning the deputation towards Overyssel, is to be seen in the enclosed extracts.

A note of what things are wanting in Jamaica by Simon de Casseres. p. 299.

May it pleas your honour,
The fortification of the harber cannott bee strong, without it bee made of stone; or bricke; theerfore such kind of artifficers should bee sent, with order to obey the captaine Hewes, whoe is a mathematicion, and sufficient in fortification; whome I left in the same poynt of the harbor fortifieing, when I came away. There is greate store of stone and lyme; which may easely bee made within two miles. The workemen to bee sent as massens or bricklayers, in my oppinion, ought to bee under the commaund of the said captaine Hewes, least by other bisnes that worke bee retarded. As for the island, it cannott bee fortified in all places; but if your honour please, you may commaund a faire foorte to be built on the Sevana by the towne, in which may be a faire maggasen to hould all your stores; the said fortte to be builded of earth, the ground being good for that purpose, and even for many miles.

The things necessary at present for fortifying are as following.
1500 of shovells and spades.
1000 pickackeses.
100 whealebarrowes.
100 weddegs of iron to breake stone.
The things necessary for planting,
5000 falling ackeses, the former being verey bad.
5000 broad and narrow hookes.
1000 hand billes.
2000 hatchetts.
200 whorte sawes.
For cloths for the officers, &c

Store of tosted holland and fine demetye, with thred, and some plenty of lynnen for sherteing and handcerchers, with stockings and handsome shewes.

For the solgers,
Store of shewes and corse stockens, with the ordinary sorte of cloth to make them drawers and waistscotts with sherteing. Plenty of brandey wyne, with some portion of it to bee allotted to capt. Hewes, as an incouredgment to his men in fortification.

For the phesetions and chirurgions, according to this invoice, that they have sent.

It is humbley requested, that your honour would laye your commaunds on the commaunders in that island, that captain Hewes at left may alwayes have two hundred men imployed in the worke of fortification, and likewise that hee may never bee without sufficient stores of victules for his men, which shall bee so imployed:

As also, that the admirall may contrebute his helpe in such boates, as shall bee required by the said Hewes for the carriage of stone, tymber, and lyme, which is most necessary in the worke of fortification.

That the forte, which shall bee built upon the Sevana, the contrivance in laying out of the lynne to bee by the direction of capt. Hewes.

The humble proposition of Simon de Casseres.

1. That his highnes would prepare fowre frigatts or shippes of warre, together with fowre victualling shippes ladden with provisions of food and ammunition, and aboute 1000 souldiers to bee imbarqued in them.

2. That these bee commissoned to saile into the south seas thorough the straites of LeMaire, or rather to the south of it, where it is vast sea, and roome enough.

3. That they saile after theire entrance into the south sea, directly to the coast of Chili, particularly to the towne of Baldivia, from whence the Spaniards have bene chased long agoe.

4. That they goe to the isle of la Mocha, that lyes not many leagues from it, where they may have provisions of maiz, and other food from the Indians at easy rates, and where they may attempt to make a small fort, if need bee, to secure their landing, and riding in safety under the island, where there is good anchorage, and which, if it seem good, may serve for a place of good retreat and randevouz for your ships, while in that sea and coast; for there are noe Spaniards, but only Indians, mortall enemyes to the Spaniards.

The benefites of such an expedition.

1. The countrey of Chili is unquestionably stored with gold beyond Peru, or any countrey in the world, there being few parts of it but yeeld it; among which principally are Baldivia aforementioned.

2. That countrey hath in it a wholsome and well–temper'd ayre, abounding in fruites, corn, cattle, fish and fowle for the life of man.

3. There is in this people an irreconcilable hatred against the Spanyards for theire former cruelties, and will side with any people for the rooting of them out; and are the most warlick of all the Indians.

4. Besides these things, the fregatts will serve to scowre the whole south sea, upon the West–Indie coast, and to take the Spanish treasure (as hath bene formerly advised) from Chili to Arica, and thence to Panama, by Lima, and Guavaquil.

5. They will serve to seize the two ships, which use yeerly to come from the Philippinas unto Acapulco, laden with the riches of the East–Indies of incredible value.

6. Hereby the Spaniard being assulted on both sides and seas at once, wil be utterly dismaied and broken, and that by farre sooner, then by falling on him only by the north sea–side.

In order to this, it is further humbly offered,

1. That I. S. C. goe forthwith into Holland, and deale with some of those, who went with Brouwer in his expedition to Chili; and under pretense of goeing to Rio de la Plata, (not telling them how far beyond) to ingage them by good promises of pay and purchase, to goe such a voiage.

2. That I shall engage some young men of my owne nation, and promise to conduct them in my owne person, by the Lord's permission; and if it seeme good unto his highnes, negotiating all this with the greatest secresy.

3. It is offered alsoe with submission, that I goe in person eyther as chief in the action, or next unto him, that is chiefe therin, and upon equitable and honourable termes, as his highnes shall judge meet.

4. That the bulk and body of the officers and company bee English; and that those of my nation, or others that shal be admitted, shall goe all upon an English account, and as Englishmen, and for his highnes service only.

Note, that (which should have bene premised) it was resolved by the West–Indie company in Holland, upon perfect information, that noe countrey could more easily bee gained from the Spaniard then Chili; and that noe countrey would be more gainefull then that in the whole Indies, which was the ground of Brouwer's expedition thither, where he was possessed of Baldivia; but dying there, his men being of severall nations, and wanting a head, came home, and quitted the place, and left it for a noble English resolution.

An intercepted paper.

Vol. xxxiii. p. 634.

You are to informe your father and brother, that the king is very well pleased with those kind expressions the son made in his letter to mee (which I show'd the king) of their forwardnes in his service, and that he doubts not of the continuance of it. He desires, that they will be industrious among his frends in London, that are honest and sober persons, for some reasonable supplyes of money from them, which at this conjuncture of time will inable him to attempt great things; the conjunction of the Spaniard with us (which we doubt not of) being a fair foundation of our future hopes, and nothing wanting but money, which shall be put to no other use. His acquittance shall be sufficient to oblige the king to a repayment, when God shall inable him, or if it be desir'd, acquittances under the king's owne hand, by what names they please, shall be sent for such summes of money as can be procured thereupon; or any other way followed, which shall be thought by them more convenient.

You are not to acquaint your frend with any of the names of any of our frends in England, but to treat warily with him, both about mrs. Chapman's wedding, and all other intelligences of the fleet and army, (of both which I expect weekely advice from you;) yet you may certainly assure him, that whatever necessity he may unfortunately be driven to for making the match, he shall not want at present a handsome subsistance; and though it is not fit to acquaint the king with the match, yet for his other services, if you find he desires it, I will procure a letter of kindnesse from the king to him, wherein he shall be assured of his majesty's future favour.

You are to acquaint those persons, who were privy to the journey hither, that there was never a sitter time of shewing their kindnesse to the king then now, and if they have no better expedient, you can very safely convey any thing to a person at Antwerp, who lyes there purposely to transmit all intelligences and other things to the king from England.

You are, as soone as you can, to bring your brother and mine together, and beget in them a mutuall confidence; and if there be any thing wanting in the cypher, which you have occasion to write, carry it to my brother, and he shall write it in his, and you are to advise with him upon any businesse of concernment.

You are to bring my brother and mr. Waren together, if not yet acquainted, and desire the latter to hasten an answer to his letter.

In case the way of sending letters be obstructed by a warre with England and Spayne, you must, if the packuet–boat comes over to Holland, (as probably it may) direct your letters for us to Rotterdam to mr. Beech or mr. Mallit; and if any extraordinary accident fall out, advise with my brother concerning sending an expresse.

You are to informe your frend, that what persons soever shall be drawne from the rebels to the service of his majesty, shall have rewards equall to their service and condition; and for that shall have such security as they can propound and desire.