State Papers, 1656: March (5 of 8)

Pages 616-627

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

March (5 of 8)

A paper of the states of Zealand.

Read, March 25, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 510.

The states of the country of Zealand having heard and fully considered that which in their noble great lordships assembly was verbally proposed and represented upon the 15th current by the lords Jacob Vander Steen, Joris Backer, Gerrit Glass and Johan Van Isselmuyden, all commissioners in the assembly of the high and mighty lords states general, from and in the behalf of the respective provinces of Guelderland, Holland and Overyssel, by virtue of the credentials given unto the said lords by their high and mighty lordships, whereupon the said states of Zealand do declare, that the amicable and friendly presentation made unto them by the said lords states general was very acceptable unto them, and that they do highly esteem of it, giving them thanks for the great care, which their high and mighty lordships do continually demonstrate for the welfare and preservation of the common state, and assuring reciprocally, that they are to expect no other from the lords states of Zeaiand than they can wish and desire from good and faithful confederates, as they have always behaved themselves from the beginning, and wherein they are resolved to continue to the end with all sincerity.

Declaring upon the same ground, and considering the great difficulties and dangers, which are threatned by sea on all sides against this state, do yet agree and consent, as their noble great lordships do consent and agree by these presents, in the equipage of 48 ships of war, as was projected by the advice of the respective colleges of the admiralties on the 9th of October last, provided and upon condition, that for the supporting of the great charges and expences, which will necessarily follow, there may be drawn up, and the sooner the better, a particular and sufficient petition by the council of state, and sent to the respective provinces by their high and mighty lordships, in regard not only that the same is requisite and conformable to the old and commendable form of government, and hath been usually observed, but likewise, that the same is so reasonable in all respects, that the charges of the war both by land and water ought to be maintained by the common members of the union indistinctly; and the lords states of Zealand could have wish'd, that the same had been done at that time, when the said advice of the respective colleges of the admiralty upon the said subject was first presented to the assembly of their high and mighty lordships, which was upon the 9th of October in the year 1655, now full five months since, and that they consequently upon the said project by express summons (as of old was always used to be observed) had timely desired the opinion and resolution of the respective provinces, without expecting till that the one or the other province had been first ready concerning the same, and pronounced their opinion in the assembly of their high and mighty lordships, as whereby (under correction) not only is subverted the usual order of proceeding, but also is oftentimes laid a considerable prejudice before the opinion of the other provinces, and before the freedom of deliberation required amongst the members of one body conformable to the union. And their said noble great lordships do conceive, that besides the forming and dispatching of the said petition there ought to be some consideration had, at the same time, upon some further regulation and order, whereby the provinces should be necessitated, upon the petitions which may be made hereafter, to be in a readiness to give speedily and effectually their resolutions and consents, in regard of the considerable defaults, which were observed concerning the same, during the war which was carried on lately against the commonwealth of England.

And in case it should be thought necessary by the common confederates, that for the supporting of the said equipage some further extraordinary means should be laid at the charge of the commerce and navigation (which yet are charged to the very highest, and can hardly bear any thing more) however their noble great lordships are contented, that to that end the last and safe conduct money should be charged and continued for the raising of the said extraordinary means towards the maintenance of the said equipage; and their said noble lordships do conceive, that it will be more easy to be done this way than by introducing new impositions, which commonly meet with much opposition, and especially at this conjuncture of time; wherefore their noble great lordships cannot imagine, why that any scruple or difficulty ought to be made in the said continuation of the last money.

Moreover their noble great lordships, besides this consent, should desire, that the portion and share, upon which the college of the admiralty of Zealand, in respect of the common interest, is put, might be somewhat moderated, as being too heavy, yea almost insupportable for them, being very much damnified and prejudiced during the English war, through the defects of the other provinces, amounting to above 700000 guilders, as in the behalf of the said college hath been often remonstrated to their high and mighty lordships, and of this inequality there will appear so much the more; so when by the prosecution of this projected equipage the colleges, as well at Amsterdam, as in the North quarters, shall be clearly discharged either for the whole or the most part of the ordinary convoys towards the East country; and on the contrary the college residing here in Zealand, besides the equipage of 8 good ships of war, which they are obliged to maintain and furnish in the said share, shall not only remain overcharged with the setting forth of the extraordinary convoy towards the West, but without doubt shall be charged more concerning the same in respect of the general rupture lately occasioned between the crown of Spain and the commonwealth of England, whereby in all likelihood the piracies and plundering at sea will daily encrease: especially not only both the said nations but likewise the Turkish pirates will perceive the chiefest strength of the state is designed for the East land, and consequently that they have the way open for them, to play their parts as well in the Mediterranean as in the Narrow of France and in the Channel, as much as they please without any remarkable resistance. For which pregnant considerations their noble great lordships cannot omit yet further to insist and request, that the share of this province in the said 48 ships or the greatest part thereof may be particularly employed by this province for the further defence and protection of the navigation and commerce for the West, there being as much to be feared from that part as in the East, as hath been formerly found to be true by sad experience, and doth yet daily happen. And the lords states of Zealand can hardly believe, that this request should be thought so new and strange by the said commissioners, when the same was conceived to be reasonable and seasible by their high and mighty lordships, and was agreed to by the province of Zealand without any scruple, upon the like deliberations in August in the year 1655. And although it were true, that never the like instances were made in the behalf of any other trading provinces, when formerly the extraordinary fleets of this state were employed in the West and North sea; so was it not strange, in regard it was manifest then, that no hostility could be feared from those parts, and in case any thing happened, they might have been sufficiently resisted and defended by the said fleets, whereby also by consequence no special inconveniences could be expected upon the East sea, then at that time possessed round about with neutral and allied friends, and fully secured in the West against all offence by the forces of this state acting in those parts, which as now respect of the Western frontiers, especially so when most of the forces of the country are sent towards the East, cannot be said with the like ground, as all those who are of a sound judgment can easily apprehend out of the reports, which come daily from thence, much less can it be unknown to their high and mighty lordships. Wherefore for the prevention and defence against all such dangers, their noble great lordships would be glad to see, that besides the ordinary convoyers, standing at the charge of the college in Zealand, also the said extraordinary share might be employed under the conduct of a Zealand commander, provided with commission and particular instruction of their high and mighty lordships; and that also for the protection of the said Western parts, there may be sent thither all the ships, which by the colleges of the admiralty in the other provinces for convoys towards the West are by them to be equipt, and that the said colleges may be earnestly desired to contribute herein to their utmost endeavours.

Declaring moreover to be contented, that in case the troublesom condition in the East will not bear the lessening of the projected fleet, that then the same shall be augmented with the number of six or eight capital ships more.

The commissioners of the elector of Cologne to the states general.

Exhibited and read the 25th of March, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 496.

High and mighty lords,
His electoral highness of Cologne, Maximilian Henry duke of upper and lower Beyeren, our gracious lord, hath sent us by special order to your high and mighty lordships, to offer unto your high and mighty lordships in his name, after foregoing imprecation of all success and prosperity, all amicable and affectionate neighbourhood: and besides this earnestly and sincerely to declare, that the said duke from the beginning of his reign did always aim and endeavour to preserve with all his neighbours, and especially with these United Provinces (as was performed by his predecessors) an amicable, just, and sincere amity and neighbourhood, that likewise consequently the said duke seeing the present condition of affairs of Europe would not omit to mind your high and mighty lordships by us in most serious terms, whether that for the preservation of the said sincere amity and neighbourhood, and the preventing and removing of all distasts, whereby the same might in any wise be prejudiced, as also for both sides better and further security, there could not be found out some further means for the establishment thereof; which like affection and inclination on the behalf of their high and mighty lordships would be very accept able to his said highness according to his expectation, and that likewise especially so much the more in regard of late by some ungrounded reports concerning certain malicious and false reported enterprize upon the effort of Rynberck, whereby it is endeavoured to countermine the good intention and affection of his said highness to their high and mighty lordships, which report we can declare to your high and mighty lordships in the name of his highness, and if need be we are ready to take our oaths, to give you such assurance of the falseness thereof, that you will have no reason to believe, but well cause to punish the first authors thereof for the satisfaction of his said highness. Wherefore we desire, that your high and mighty lordships will be pleased to appoint us commissioners to enter into further conference whereby there may be endeavoured and effected the removing and preventing of all misunderstandings, and such further good means agreed upon, as may establish a firm amity and good neighbourhood between your high and mighty lordships and his said highness.

Ad. van Walenburgh,
J. A. V. Bockhorst.

The prince of Condé to Barriere.

Brussels, March 25, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 505.

I believe that monsieur de Viole will give you an account of my endeavours to help you to money for your discharge. I am heartily sorry, it should suffer so much delay, and that it is not in my power to remedy it; for if I could, I would do it with all my heart, knowing the obligation, which I have not to leave a person in trouble, who hath done me such good service. I would you knew the bottom of my heart, and the grief I have to see myself in this helpless condition, which is more sensible to me for your consideration than for all the rest of my other affairs; protesting to you, that I would give some of my blood to deliver you out of the trouble you are in, where I know you are for my sake; but I hope it will not be long before I shall be able to relieve you. The earl of Fuensaldagna promiseth fair. In the mean time, if your creditors will take half their money down, and let your person be free, and the other half to be paid them a while hence, send me word; I will see what I can do for you. And this is all I am able to do at present; for as to the letter you desire of me to the lord protector, I do not think fit to write, since he hath used you after this manner as he hath done. Methinks that I have not been backward to him in civilities hitherto, to have deserved better usage from him towards a person, that belongeth to me. I do not pretend, that he ought to let you be in England, since it is contrary to the interest of the state, and the treaty made with France; but he might have advertised you underhand to have withdrawn without sending to you, as he did, absolute order, and without giving you any reason, or shewing you the least civility for my sake. I should be glad, that you do declare something of this nature; and if you have audience, to let my lord protector know, that I was somewhat surprized at it, and that I did expect somewhat else from his amity; for if I am not now in a condition to serve him, it may be I shall not always be in the misfortune I am in: however, do so manage it, as that it make not any breach between him and me; but withal he ought to know, that I have a feeling; yet this shall not hinder, if there be any thing, wherein I can serve him for an accommodation with Spain, I will use my utmost endeavours. Sec if you can obtain of him some longer delay for your abode at London.

Marigny to monsieur Barriere.

Brussels, March 25, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvii. p. 507.

As you are my friend, I know you will be sorry at the passage, which happened to me lately on thursday morning last, it being one of the most treacherous designs, that was ever heard of; and in regard you will be desirous to know all the story, I will relate to you all the particulars. The next day after I had received the letters, which you sent me from my ladies, Isabella and Diana, I went to the dutchess of Lorraine, who was abed. She ask'd me, if I had received any news out of England. I told her, I had, and that I had two of the rarest and most spirituel letters of the world. Three or four words of English, which she hath, gave her the curiosity to desire to see them; in regard she did not understand them, she desired me to explain them, which I did. In the letter of madam Diana, she hath some passage about mademoiselle Isabella; madam de Lorraine ask'd me presently her name, which at that time I could not well remember, Paget, though it was at my tongue's end. I ask'd an English gentlewoman, that stood by, the name of my lord, who married the sister of those ladies; she could not call to mind neither. Whilst I was thinking, the daughter of madam de Lorraine said, I know, who is your lord, and named a person, whom I had never seen. What, said I, madam, you do but guess at random; and what would you say, if I should tell you, those that do sigh for you, madam? Whereupon she was so earnest with me, that I was forced to name one, and told her Beaunais; whereupon the conversation broke up. Presently after this discourse was told to the prince of Condé, and Beaunais he pretended to take this for a very great injury, which was done him. In the mean time he writ to monsieur de Gastandias to come with 7 or 8 of his choicest men of his regiment, who being come he sent back monsieur de Gastandias, whom he would not have one of the assassins for the design that was intended: and on wednesday night last being at supper with the prince, where falling into discourse about women, Beaunais begun, and related how he had been injured by me. Whereupon the next day I was set upon but so basely and poorly, the like was never heard of. He had put his company into 2 coaches with pistols and swords, and as I was going with the count de Holac to hear a sermon, whilst we were going, one came to mr. de Holac, and told him the prince would speak with him and with me. Mr. de Holac went another way, and I went in the coach the prince had sent, thinking to go directly to him; when we were half way, he that was in the coach called him to stay, and presently the assassins fell upon me, and with much ado I got clear of them; for it was not far from the house of monsieur Lenet. I desended myself, as well as I could, but not without several dangerous wounds; and this is the whole story at large. The prince presently after sent to see how I did, and to compliment me, and to offer me a gentleman for my guard; and that he would cause me to have justice done me. I gave his highness thanks with much respect, and returned answer I should take my course against the assassins at law.

An intercepted letter to mr. White.

Brussels, March 25, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 478.

I do extremely admire I received none from you by the two last posts. The count of Fuensaldagna parts hence soon, and the arch-duke. The king of Scotland and his court are here in private, they are treating together, and all things managed with very great privacy. By the coming of don Jean the government is altogether to be changed, so that things are expected to go better. Monsieur de Beaunais hath cudglled monsieur de Marigny to some purpose for some discourse he reported of him. I hear monsieur de Barriere is commanded out of England, and sir Robert Walsh.

To monsieur Petkum.

Paris, March 25, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 501.

It is resolved on here, that the duke of Mercoeur shall command the army in Italy this next summer with the duke of Modena, and the duke of Vendosme is to command by sea with a fleet of 40 ships of war in the Mediterranean.

The king of England is come to Brussels, being invited thither by order of the king of Spain, who doth intend to put himself in a warlike posture to fight against the English: the duke of Gloucester, who is still here, is said to intend to join with his brother, for which end there is a frigat making ready for him.

The declaration against duels being published, there was one hanged on the 20th current for having fought contrary to the said order.

The duke of Orleans is said to love so much the solitary walks at Blois, that he will not come to Paris.

The king hath given leave to the mareschall of Hocquincourt to go and serve the emperor, to whom he hath sent an express to know after what manner he will employ him.

Bordeaux to de la Bastide.

Paris, March 25, 1656. [N.S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 502.

I have received your two last letters: they oblige me to tell you, that it is absolutely necessary, that you do what you can to retard the departure of col. Lockkart, till my return: you have already alledged the reasons to mr. Fiennes, and that you may the better succeed, assure him of my departure to morrow without fail, having the day before yesterday taken leave of the court, and promised them to leave Paris to day. You must take care to send a ship to Calais, where I will make to be four days hence at the furthest. The journey of the said col. hath precipitated mine, from whence you may judge of the intentions of this country. I do not believe, that the state will send to meet me at Gravesend, neither will I expect it, nor do not you make any mention of it. You may meet me at Rochester or Canterbury.

To col. Bamfylde.

Paris, March 25, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 503.

The pope's nuncios please themselves and others with the discourse of the general peace, which since the French dislike to have treated in Italy, the proposition on foot is, that it shall be now on the territories of the two crowns, the king of Spain in purfuit to advance to Navarre, and he of France to Bayonne; but these are but chimeras; and I believe the earth and heaven will as soon join as his overture succeed. The prince of Conti is arrived to be established in the court, having by the good services of these two campaigns purged himself from all the former delinquences. His Cleopatra is following him, to proceed before her sister Mercoeur, and they say still the younger will take place of both the elder. The parliaments have been too hard for the court concerning the species; the silver is to pass as formerly, the gold raised, but time and patience will rather produce it too then let it continue. The last arrest hath calmed the Frondeurs.

Consul Oorschot to the states general.

St. Sebastans, March 25, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 504.

High and mighty lords,
Upon the 15th current was my last to your high and mighty lordships, by which you will have understood the news we had here of the galleons, which was brought by an express from Cadiz. The advices from Andalusia of the 5th current, just now arrived, do contradict the advice of the said express and relate, that the patacha, which arrived at Cadiz on the 1st current, had lost the silver fleet in a storm after that they had been 4 days at sea together, that by soul weather the admiral and vice-admiral had boarded each other, and had damnified themselves, that the vice-admiral was seen at an anchor between two rocks, but the admiral was missing, so that he was forced to leave the fleet, being dispersed in bad order. It seemeth, that the merchants, who had dispatch'd the first express, were too precipitant with their advices.

General Blake to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 526.

I have received yours of the 13th instant, together with the inclosed note of the galeons; as also your intelligence touching the end of the war between the protestant and popish cantons, and the peace settled there, and likewise the probabilities of a truce for six years betwixt France and Spaine; and the being of Charles Stuart with his company in Flanders. These sodaine transactions seeme to have some great matters in the wombe of them; but wee know, that God is the supreme disposer of all the counsailes, dessins, and confederacions in the world; and we know he is able to order them all for the greater good of his people. And our trust is, that he will do so even for our good also, if we can believe in him. The Lord helpe our unbeleese, and subdue our hearts to the obedience of his holy will in all things. Wee are now getting an anchor abord, making ready to saile, although there be little wind, or none at all. But we shall use our utmost endevors to get to sea, not loosing any opportunity, that God shall afford us; as wee have hetherto beene carefull, and hope, that his highness is confident we are and shall continue so, as far as God shall inable us; which is all at present from
Abord the Naseby in Ellens roade, March 15, 55.

Your very affectionate frend and servant, Rob. Blake.

The examination of Nathaniel Bunch, an apprentice to Francis Warren cobler of Aldersgate-street, in the parish of Butolph Aldersgate, London, taken the 15th day of March 1655, before the right honourable John Dethick lord mayor of the city of London, and one of the justices.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 474.

This examinate being charged, that he spoke words against the lord protector and the present government, denieth the same, and saith, that yesterday in the morning one James Seabrooke living at the upper end of Whitecross-street in Middlesex, as he takes it, came to the shop of this examinate's master to have his shoes mended, and staid while this examinate was mending his shoes, being about two hours; and seeing a gentleman pass through the street with a sword by his side, the said Seabrooke said he was like coll. Pride, and none answering again, the said Seabrooke, bringing out some ill wishes against coll. Pride, said, he was real before, but now he was knighted he was grown as bad as the rest, (but knoweth not who or what the said Seabrooke meant by that rest.) And this examinate asked the said Seabrooke, whether he knew coll. Okey, and Seabrooke replied he knew him very well, and said, that they did basely by him, that turned him out of commission. And the said Seabrooke then asked this examinate, whether he knew the said Okey; to which this examinate said he did. And the said Seabrooke asking how he came acquainted with the said col. Okey, this examinate told him at our private meetings where we met. And the said Seabrooke replied with an oath, that he did believe the examinate had some design in hand, because of their private meetings. And this examinate answered, that the said meetings were not so private but that the said Seabrooke might come to them if he pleased. And the said Seabrooke asking where, this examinate replied, every Lord's day in the morning from six to nine of the clock in the morning in Swan-alley in Coleman-street, and on tuesday at four of the clock, continuing till six or seven in the afternoon in White's alley in the said street, and that at those meetings he might hear preaching. And the said Seabrooke asked, whether this examinate preached, and the said examinate said, if the said Seabrooke would come he should be glad to see him there. And the said Seabrooke said to this examinate, that he the said Seabrooke believed, that those that met there would, if they could, kill the protector. And this examinate replied, if the protector was there privately, and in their power to hurt him, none of them that meet as aforesaid would hurt one hair of the protector's head; and rather than those of this examinate's friends that meet at the places aforesaid would do the protector any hurt, they would lay their necks under his feet. And this examinate denieth that he did say, that there were six thousand men, or any other number of men, or any arms to suppress the present government, nor knoweth of any such, or of any arms at all, but one muskett, a sword, and bandeleers, which were put into his master's hands by order of the parliament, being one of coll. Harrison's regiment, when Charles Stewart was coming up to Worcester. And this examinate denieth, that he said that the lord protector should be put to the same death the king was at Whitehall-gate, or any words to that effect. And denieth that he said any words touching putting to death the lord mayor that was, or is, or any alderman of London, or any suffering by them.

Taken the day and year aforesaid before me
John Dethick, mayor.

Nathaniel Bunch.

p. 476.

Francis Warren citizen and merchant taylor of London, dwelling in Boarhead yard in Barbican in the parish of Buttolph without Aldersgate, London, and Chamberlain Smith living in blew Boar court in Aldersgate-street, porter, undertake to his lordship 50 l. apeece, that Nathaniel Bunch the examinate within-named shall appear before his lordship at his house within a day's warning, from time to time, till six months be expired.

Francis Warren,
The mark of Chamberlain C S Smith.

Consul Van Hove to the states general.

Cadiz, March 26, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 532.

High and mighty lords,
Since my last, here are arrived in the Bahia three gallcons from Terra Firma, namely, the admiral, rear-admiral, and the Marguerita coming from the Havanna, having sailed the same in 82 days, not being able to give any information of the vice-admiral and the other galleon capt. John de Boyos. Pray God send them also to arrive in safety.

The vice-admiral de Ruyter, upon the request of the skippers who lye here busy in taking in their ladings bound for Amsterdam and Middleburgh, hath resolved to stay till the first of April for them to convoy them home for the Netherlands, against which time they will be all ready.

Intercepted letters between Halsall and his sister.

March 16, 1655.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 530.

Dear heart,
Let me know, what news of our friend in Lancashire, what of H. P. what of Will; and what of your petition, and what else concerneth me. You need not provide any of her shirts, I have too many already. I am very weary of my condition. If you write to me, you may seal it, if you please. My service to all my friends. Adieu.

The answer returned the 17th of March 1655.

Dear heart,
All our friends in Lancashire are well, and mr. Will is out of prison, but upon condition to come in again 22 April. H. P. is in no hopes to be freed as yet, for they tell him there is since information come against him. Will doth avoid the seeing of me all he can. H. P. saw him at White-hall twice the next room to the council, but could not speak to him. I hear he is gone to Dover. He is gone very gallant and full of gold. Dendy is the only civil person I have met with, and question not but to get my petition granted. I am to go to him to morrow. Dear heart, I only desire thee to be chearful, and make much of yourself; for I question not but to see you in a better condition ere long. I pray be free, and let me know but what you would have, for as long as I have it, you shall never want; for I'll want it my self first. When I have gotten my petition, I am resolved you shall have some better clothes; for I hope then your friends will have the freedom to see you. The bearer's haste will not permit any more.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 538.

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I have it from a very good hand, that the Dane doth shew himself, or doth begin to shew himself more resolved than formerly, and those, who of the states general are near to him, chiefly to him of Amsterdam, are very forward of themselves and need no spur, for they do stir up one another.

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It is certain, that those of the Dane do counsel, advise, and persuade the states general to advance the men of war, and to let them go towards the east sea; so that the projected treaty between the Dane and the Swede is only to set on the states general. And I do see a great deal of likelihood, that a new alliance will be made with the Dane, and that they will promise to the Dane much more of money than formerly. In effect, I do also see, that the Dane doth make to the states general the danger very great, and that the design of the Swede is not so much against the Pole as against the Dane, and to make himself master of the Sound, without which the Swede cannot be absolute master of the traffick.

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I perceive that the states of Holland having very much inclination for the Dane, do make a great account and foundation upon the Dane, and therefore do set very little value upon Dantzick, conceiving that having the Dane they have all. And in effect Dantzick is not at all beloved here for some old complaints ill grounded, which are now revived at a very unfit time; and therefore I do believe that the states of Holland would not be sorry, if Dantzick were a little humbled, or well according to the proportion, that Dantzick doth receive benefit from the states of Holland. They would also have, that Dantzick should after the same proportion abandon its rights and privileges to the profit and benefit of the states of Holland.

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For the complaint, that at Dantzick those of the protector were better used than those of the states of Holland, is a meer fable. They are all used alike, that are of the same nature and condition; but if there be the one or other of the protector, who is only a passenger, they do not charge him as a housekeeper; and after the same manner they use the passengers of the states of Holl. But those of the states of Holl. are a little too covetous, they desire all, as is said of the Spaniards, insomuch that Dantzick is not much minded; and thus they did with Bremen in the year 1652, they thought then likewife (as at present) that having the Dane, they had all. But the sequel of this did demonstrate, that the states of Holland were very much deceived, and that the treaty with the Dane did only draw upon them a great and unnecessary expence of money, and whilst that the states of Holland thought to shut the Sound to those of the protector, those of Cromwell shut to the states of Holland their own ports. Of the inclination of the Dane, (to make an union to the Swede) there is no doubt to be made but the strength and power is wanting to him and money. We shall see then what he will resolve and do by the states of Holland.

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Those of Spain do cause the states general to believe here, that from England and France are to come hither embassadors to induce the states general to an union against Spain; yea that the protector will offer the states of Holl. the restitution of seclusion, upon condition to make an union against Spain, or that the protector hath held some such discourse to the embassadors of the states general.

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But I do very much doubt, whether the states of Holland would be very glad of the restitution; yea likewise whether the grave William would be glad; for the grave William doth endeavour all what he can to have the army, and to cause seclusion to be approved of. I remain
March 27, 1656. [N. S.]

Your most humble servant.

A paper relating to the treaty between the protector and the king of Sweden, deliver'd to secretary Thurloe, March 17, 1655.

Vol. lv. p. 200.


Pro memoria.

Sit ex hoc die fœdus inter sereniss. regem Carolum Gustavum regnumque Sueciæ, &c. & Olivarium dominum protectorem remque pub. Angliæ, &c. pro mutua defensione sui invicem & corum amicorum, qui sese huic fœderi consensu communi adjunxerint, contra quoscunque, qui aliquid adversus alterutrum confœderatorum vel socios hostiliter tentare velint, præsertim pro defensione pacis Osnabrugensis, item securitatis maris Balthici, & oceani septentrionalis.


Quod si eveniet, quod pax Osnabrugensis ab imperatore Romano & domo Austriacâ violetur, ita ut arma contra eum vel alios eandem turbantes sumere necessarium sit, tum supradictus sereniss. rex Sueciæ armis eandem tueri & communium amicorum salutem armata manu vindicare tenebitur; in quem finem exercitum, qui sufficere eorum defensioni judicabitur, quique ad minimum m/30 peditum & m/6 cataphractorum constabit, suis sumptibus alet sustinebitque.


Sumptibus vero hisce bellicis sustinendis sereniss. dominus protector resque pub. Angliæ, &c. quotannis regi regnoque Sueciæ favore hujus confœderationis contribuat ducenta millia librarum sterlingarum, ejusque summæ mediam partem alteram mediam Londini vel Hamburgi, prout regi regnoque Sueciæ commodiùs acciderit (quod ejus opinioni relinquitur) deputatis ad id eorum ministris infallibiliter & sine dilatione numerandam tradendamque curet. Quemadmodum ctiam prædictus dominus protector resque pub. Angliæ classibus Hispani regis ditiones infestabit, & in quantum possibile factu erit, adventum classis Indicæ in Hispaniam impedire conabitur.


Conscriptio militum & nautarum, conductio navium tam bellicarum quam onerariarum, exportatio rerum bellicarum utrique parti in territoriis confœderati libera sit, hostibus vero denegetur.


Ad hoc fœdus quicunque alii status & principes five in Germaniâ five extra eam voluerint, non admittantur solum, sed & invitentur, idque apud admissos caveatur, ne clàm aut palàm suo vel alio nomine adversæ parti faveant, aut regi protectorique præfatis eorumque communibus amicis & confœderatis, vel causæ communi noceant quin potius singuli ad hoc bellum sumptus pro viribus & ex peculiari conventione contribuant.


Quod si per Dei gratiam occasio tractandi de pace se offerat, ex communi confœderatorum consilio tractetur, nec ullus confœderatorum sine altero quicquam in eo aggrediatur, statuat, pacemve cum hostibus aut domo Austriacâ ineat.

Mr. Denis Bond to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 567.

I have a desire to promoate the businesse, concerning which I had a conference with you on friday last, and in order thereunto I shall only propose it as my opinion, that it will be very necessary for the carrying on of the work, that none related or allied to the trustees be chosen a commissioner to examine their miscarriages, nor likewise any other, that hath been either a trustee or contractor for the sale of any other lands, and according to your desire of returning you some names, I shall expose my sonne John Bond doctor of law for the servise of the publicke herein, if you find noe better; mr. Bragge of the exchequer, Devereux Peto of London esquire, Henry Flauntleroy an attorney of the upper bench. If I knew when your leasure might permitt, I should then speedily attend you. In the meane time I am
Munday, March 17, 1655.

Your most humble servant,
Denis Bond.

The information of James Seabrooke of the parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate in the county of Middlesex, cordwainer, taken upon oath before the right honourable John Dethick lord mayor of the city of London, and one of the justices, &c. the 17th day of March 1655.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 568.

This informant saith, that on friday last, being the fourteenth day of this instant March, this informant goeth into Aldersgate street to have his shoes mended, a cobler's servant, whose name is Nathaniel Bunch, as this informant is informed, entring into discourse with this informant about religion, and afterwards about other business in reference to colonel Okey and some others; the said Bunch did then tell this informant, that he, and divers others had a meeting every Lord's day, and one other day in the week weekly at a place in Coleman street. And the said Bunch did then say, that there were about 6000 in number of them, which used to meet together, and did say, that he the said Bunch, and all the rest of them had arms; and this informant asking him what they intended to do with their arms, answered, that they were in readiness to rise to join with any upon any rising that should be for the suppressing of the present government and power; and further said, that they intended to have the protector suffer at Whitehall gate as the late king did; and this informant asking him the reason why they would do it, answered, because that the protector had a hand of putting the king to death, and now acteth the same things that the king did. And the said Bunch further said, that they likewise intended, that the lord mayor, who was lord mayor when the protector was made protector, should be put to death, and like wise that all the aldermen should suffer very deeply, and that the nation should not hereafter be governed as now it is, and that they intended to set at liberty all their friends, naming major general Harrison for one several times. And the said Bunch told this informant, that they had their meetings constantly every week, the first day of the week, in one place in Coleman street, and the third day of the week at another place in Coleman street; and this informant asking him, if they had any ministers with them, answered, none but such as came of themselves, or were of themselves; and said, that ministers were popish, and that the universities were set up by the pope; and many more words and expressions to the effects before mentioned.

Taken upon oath the day and year aforesaid, before me
John Dethick, mayor.

James Seabrooke.

Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 467.

Right honorable,
This day is com hether advys from Marcelles, that the Duch estates ar al sequestred throhout France, which makes men here believ the French hav discovered them tampering with Spain. Since the peace was concluded betwixt Ingland and France, a strict legue betwixt Holland and Spayn has bin much endevoured by the Spanish party. The great duke's court and he himself did much speak of, and wish it, when he was lately here, and 'tis believed the peace betwixt Spain and Portugal is as good as concluded. The pope is hard at work to bring off the duke of Modena from being French. 'Tis lykwys said, that cardinal Barberini now at Paris labours day and night to draw Fraunce from the protestant party. The pope and al his engins are now at work to bolster up the Spanish party, who begin to grow very bitter against our nation, insomuch that on a ship arryved here yesterday from Alicant is sent thence salt fish (althoh the countrey wants it,) becaus 'tis of the groth of Ingland. Ther is lykwys proclamation made throh al Spayn against the importation of Inglish commodities, and al Inglish ar to depart the country in 30 dayes on payn of the gallyes. They now begin to vent their mallis to the height; but God will protect his piple from al their machinations. Things standing thus, 'tis very probable, when generall Blake coms to Lisbon, he may not have the sam countenance from that king, as when he was last there, and so the fleet be destitute of a port to frend for refreshment. In such case upon the lest title from you or the general, I shall send them such provisions of oyl, rys, wyn, as is fit for a hot countrey or clymat. If they should want bred, fish, or powder, I can provyd what quantety you pleas. Here is som talk, that the Duch Ruiter has taken 2 of the king of France men of war, but no certeinty therof. If I may be any ways servitiable unto you, I humbly offer myself,

Leg. March 24, 1655. [N. S.]

Right honorable,
Your most faithful servant,
Charles Longland.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

[March 28, 1656. N. S.]

Vol. xxxvi. p. 573.

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In answer to your agreeable letter of the 17/7 March I will say, that however interatively there hath been writ from the embassadors of the states general, who are in Denmark, that Denmark at the same time had sent to the protector and the Swede, to signify that he would in no wise treat with the Swede then without prejudice, and with the comprehension of Cromwell and of the states general. Item, to invite Cromwel and the states general to enter into the treaty, which is plainly to be seen in the enclosed paper, no. 4.

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In the mean time Cromwell knows, and ought to know the Dane and the states general or states of Holl. I will in no wise justify the Swede. I leave that in its being; but the Dane hath shewn too much, that in regard of the protector, formerly he was too much inclined to do harm. As to the states of Holl. I dare assure, that the body is enclined enough to Cromwell, although there be some members a little friends of the pr. of Orange. But the ardent appetite of commerce doth often cause them to turn out of the right path, and forget the duty of true amity; ex isto autem fonte it doth happen, that in effect the states of Holland have great jealousy of the protector for the trade. And as to the instruction of the embassadors gone towards Sweden, it is almost certain, that the order is to make some congratulations to the Swede. Secondly, to offer their mediation, if they do find the same agreeable to the Swede, that is, if Poland be in a good condition; but otherwise not. After that they are to endeavour to prepossess the Swede, not to do any thing, or not much to the prejudice, and at the charge of commerce. Now it is very well known, that this last is the chiefest point, wherein they will proceed so moderately and mildly. That likewise for Dantzick they will not speak, but interveniendo, if they pass through Dantzick: ergo, if they do not pass, they will not speak for Dantzick. I hope you will have received the instruction formerly sent: if you do think it necessary, I will endeavour to get it again as it is altered, though all the alteration will proceed from the alteration of time, temperabit se tempori. And these embassadors will not know any thing of the fleet. But in the mean time in what manner they treat, and would treat with the Dane, is to be seen in the enclosed; upon which however nothing is yet agreed, and that is to be done according to the desire of the stat. of Holl. And the st. of Holl. make a shew to be willing to it, as the Dane likewise. In the mean time if the Swede doth maintain himself as he is, I do believe that neither the Dane, nor the states of Holland dare. And yet however, if the states of Holland do continue to finish the ships of war, that will be a sign that they will likewise secure their trade occidental.

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The opinion or advice of some of the states general is, that they do as formerly, by sending a dozen of men of war towards the Sound, without saying any thing, imagining themselves, that that will dispose the Swede so much the more to a reasonable treaty, and not to exact too much for the charge of commerce. But I fear if the Swede remain victorious, that the fleet will raise it the more; and if Poland become victorious, these men of war will not be necessary, and by that means these men of war do seem a thing altogether superfluous and unnecessary; yea, such as give jealousy to Cromwell, as is seen, and all things being well suppos'd, the exorbitancy of the Swede in the traffick, which they fear will not counterpoise the half, no not the 4th part of what these men of war cost, and it is to be done every year anew; and it is a very certain thing, that the landed men (or those that have lands here) desire that corn be dear. And in effect all that which the states of Holland fear is the inequality; that the Swede will charge those of England less than those of the states of Holland, a thing which is not imaginable, if the states of Holland do also carry an equal and such an amity to the Swede, which they carry to the Dane and the Pole. But to send some ships against the Swede and to threaten him, and at the same time that they flatter the Dane, that is unequal. But alas! the states of Holland carry so much care for without or abroad, and they ought to fear more at home, for ambition and covetousness doth divide them more and more. You will have formerly seen the harmony, an invention of the raet pensionary, Beverning, and some other of the well-affected in Holland. The chiefest operation of that is, that the raet pensionary, Beverning, &c. have drawn the grave William on their side. And in the mean time all the friends of the prince of Orange speak very ill of that: and it was believed, that grave William would have directed the states of Frizeland and Groningen to have accepted the harmony, but as yet the states of Groningen will not hearken to it. And it is said that Zealand hath drawn all his affection from grave William, and will give its vote to prince Maurice of Nassau: elsewhere likewise the grave William doth grow very much out of favour. I am
Your most humble servant.

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P. S. As to Dantzick, I see that the states of Holland do that which is in the fable of Esop, they make of Dantzick the ass, and of the Dane the horse; to the Dane they give all the oats, and upon Dantzick they lay the burden. At least yet the the states of Holland do shew themselves wholly inclined to give to the Dane great sums, and ships, and men; but for Dantzick there is but a cold countenance. And if Cromwell have already some jealousy of the fleet of the states of Holland when the Dane hath also armed his navy, and if the the Swede have any ill success, the English will then have more cause to be jealous of the states of Holland. And I am assured, that at Amsterdam there was an extraordinary joy for the defeat of the protector by the fleet of Hamburg.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 576.

Honorable sir,
Wee heare not yet of the fregat, which makes us conclude that shee's gone to convoy some Eastland ships to the Scaw, and thence hither, as the merchants concerned in those ships have notice. I am glad the fleete is fourth: from Amsterdam, the fourge of such stories they report, the Spanish fleete hath met with a squadron of yours, and taken and destroyed them totally; and from Dunkirke wee have had it as currant, that the peace or a league was concluded twixt the kings of Sweden and Denmark; but that cannot be, for I knowe the Danish resident (of whose beinge heere I formerly acquainted your honour) is onely gone to the king of Sweden to effect that, if it can be obtayned without excludinge the states generall, whose ambassadors followed him, if they went not in company. I hoped in this your last letter to have had notice, how it hath pleased his highnes and the councel to resolve in the busines of the company, in regard I understand from some of the committee that attended the councel, you had signifyed to them, that the busines was ended, and that the company should knowe in what manner very shortly, which is allsoe the currant and confident report of the factious party heare, whoe were aboute to have chosen another deputie yesterday, the penman of their remonstrance beinge resolved to have one of their owne feather, if they cannot have mr. Baron, the doctor hurrying them on thereunto. To the inclosed I have nothinge to ad, but my humble request to knowe the reason why the council would not signe the report, if communicable, professing myself
Hamb. March 18, 1655.

Your honor's humble servant, Richard Bradshaw.

Sir, the 11th of this moneth I gave my bills of exchange upon mr. Upton for l. 234 : 2 : 11 sterling, at 2 months from that date, beinge to satisfie 1000 dollars mr. Rolt tooke up from a merchant at Dantzick, and charged it upon me, the exchange being then heere at 34 s. 2 d. sterling.