A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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October (2 of 5)
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xxxi. p. 145.
I have received yours of the 19th, and am glad myne with the inclosed came safe to your hands. There is no letters come to me for you this last post; if any doe, I shal be carefull to send them with all speed, or if there be any other busines, wherein I may serve you, ye may commaund me. And nowe I must make bold to intreat you carefully to deliver those enclosed, and lett me heare by the next post of the receipt of them. As for newes, there is more heare this weeke then haith beane of a long time; viz. all letters from Spaine, Fraunce, and other places agree, that warr is proclaimed in Spaine against England, and that there is seased in the severall ports of Spaine fourscore sayle of English shipps, and money, goods, and debts of the marchants to a great valew: they talke of a million. The archduke sent order this weeke to the margrave to examine all the English marchants in this towne, what goods they had in theire hands belonging to marchants resideing in England, which was donne accordinglie. They all denied to have any, for those that are inhabitants heare, they say they are fre by a privilidge belonginge to this towne. Yesterday there was severall letters uppon the change from France, dated the 15th, and they all say that the 14th came out a placarte from the king of France to seafe upon all English marchants goods in all the ports of Fraunce. This seems strange, but I believe the inclosed to mr. Massinot will give you some goode reason to believe it. A marchant heare haith a letter from his correspondent in Cades, which saith, we hope there wil be peace betwixt our maister and the king of Fraunce, for there is a good understanding betwixt them; for late a shipp of Fraunce being takin by our men of war, and brought into this harbour, is sence released by order from the king of Spaine. I give you the words of the letter; for the truth of all this, I will say no more, but that for certaine, there is such letters, and it is beleved heare to be trew. They say for certain, the Spanish embassador is cominge away. There came a letter last post to an English marchant heare, and from a very good hand, that Cromwell is falne very sicke againe. The truth of all, and what it will produce, short time will shew. I pray you make mr. * * partaker heareof. If mr. Cadner pay me, it is well; but I am asham'd to demaund such trifles. I have no more to add, but that I am,
Your asured friend to serve you,
John * *.
Antwerpe, October 22. 1655. [N. S.]
Mr. Loum is not heare, nor, for ought I knowe, intends not to come; for if Fraunce and England do not agree, he is warme where he is.
By the commissioners for the admiralty and navy.
October 12, 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 133.
The said commissioners having seriously weighed and considered the present state of the naval affairs of this commonwealth, as also the condition of general Blake's fleet, which are all now arrived, and wait for payment of their wages, do esteem it their duty humbly to represent to his highness the lord protector and council, as followeth.
That the wages due to the said fleet now coming in (money for short allowance of victuals included) amounts unto by estimation about one hundred and twenty thousand pounds, they having been unpaid for about twenty months past.
That with all the cash the treasurer of the navy is supplied, he cannot make above twenty thousand pounds towards their payment, with the which he is now paying off the three greater ships at Chatham.
That the dead charge of the said fleet's lying unpaid will amount to above two thousand pounds weekly in victuals and wages, although the aforesaid three greater ships should be paid off with the moneys aforementioned, which will not reach thereunto by five thousand pounds and upwards.
That since the coming in of general Penn's fleet, and now of general Blake's, all moneys appointed for the naval affairs have been employed towards the payment off of the said fleets, by reason whereof all other payments upon contracts, bills, wages for the yards &c. fail, and have been stopt; which is a great direspute and prejudice to the service of the navy.
That the supply of moneys (this year) for the usual affairs hath fallen so much short of a proportion commensurate to the charges thereof, that the debts, which the said governors had wrought off (in the end of the precedent year) to three months, or there abouts, are now receded to nine months, and the naval debt risen to about 657, 835 l. 14 s. 7 d. (the payment of general Blake's fleet included.)
That for want of money, the stores of the navy are not so well furnished, as they should be, to carry on any considerable action at sea in foreign parts (the late undertakings having greatly exhausted them) nor is there means for recruiting the same, unless some supply of moneys be had for that purpose.
That several other of the state's ships upon the coasts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, (that have been long out and unpaid) are now waiting to be called in, and paid off; and although some of them be not fit to be kept out wanting repairs (and so unmeet for present service) yet we cannot draw them in for want of moneys to pay them off, which necessitates a needless and unprositable expence to the state.
These things the said commissioners conceiving to be of great moment, take leave humbly to lay them before his highness and council, praying such nature consideration of and relief in the premisses, as the state and emergency of their naval affairs call for, and as in their wisdoms shall seem meet.
The said commissioners likewise humbly pray, that his highness and council will please to resolve upon what provision of victuals they will have provided and made for the next summer's service, it being advantageous to have the same in a seasonable preparation, as was humbly represented by report from the said commissioners the 28th of August last.
De Lionne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Rome, October 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 179.
Here hath happened nothing since my last, which can furnish me with matter to have the honour to write to you. I had audience a few days since of the pope, which did pass in most lively instances on my part not to expect any longer the commodiousness of the cardinal de Retz to begin his trial, since it doth sufficiently appear, that he only stays at Caprarole, but to delay this business as much as he can, although he doth make the pretence of his stay the danger he shall undergo in coming to Rome before the rains. His holiness, whether it be that he hath promised him not to do any thing till he be returned, or whether for other considerations, into which I cannot yet see clear enough, would not depart from his first resolution, which he hath taken to stay for him; and he only promised me to requite this delay by the diligence which shall be afterwards used; wherewith I have no cause to be well satisfied, in regard the church of Paris doth remain without a government and direction, the king not being able nor cannot suffer the exercise of those vicars, whom the said cardinal had appointed.
A letter of intelligence to mr. William Whittle, merchant.
Sebastian, October 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 178.
The 16th current I wrote you of all that then offered, which is as much as now can write; only to advise you of the receipt of the 24th ultimo, which gives a relation of the conquering Shoemaker, and the preparation to maintain it, and to get what more they can; the great preparations to annoy the Spaniard in all their territories. God send us peace; yet I see little likelihood of it, neither any like to release the imbargo, but to the contrary they have unladen all the ships that are here, and halled up the ships. They are this day to get testimony of every ship for the goods that are taken out, and licence to be gone, which I think will be given them, neither hindered in their going away. Here is nothing to be done in the imbargo, till order come from Madrid. I have order there, if a release may be, though it cost much money, but they write me, it cannot yet be spoken of. I see little like of goodness. God only can provide for us.
Your assured friend,
Servien, the French embassador in Savoy, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Turin, October 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 177.
I have received yours of the 4th of this month, and am of opinion with you, that all that hath been said, since the treaty of the Vallies, to shew that the inhabitants of the reformed religion have not advantages enough given them, and that they will endeavour to procure them greater advantages, is only a vain demonstration of zeal, which will not effect any thing. It is enough, that they are contented; and hereof no doubt is to be made, since they have given testimony thereof in their letters. There are several protestant commissioners met at Geneva about the affairs of their religions, where it is said, they endeavour to establish an uniformity. By this means they will lay themselves open to the world, for those that shall forsake their belief to approach near to one another, will declare, that they had no religion at all, and that they do not make this union through zeal of religion, but only through the consideration of their temporal affairs.
An intercepted letter of lord Gerard to mr. Francis Wigmore.
Paris, October 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 169.
To morrow I move my business to the cardinal: He is come to the Bois de Vincennes, and the king of France is well recovered of his ague, and on monday will be at Paris. The lord Digby hath struck the intendant of the army, and he is come to complain.
P. Rupert is sent for to the court of Vienna; not yet begun his journey. The queen of Sweden met the king of Scots. With great satisfaction was the interview: she offered the duke of Gloucester a place in her coach to go to Rome. Your friend and servant C. G. is offered the command, that Rupert should have had in Italy. He desires me to intreat a favour of you, to see if 1500 or 2000 men were to be had of lord Kenmore, or any other: he will give more than any, and will meet any at Boulogne to conclude the agreement; but desires you further not to make known his name. I shall only tell you for news, that the P. of Condé is facing, and seeks some recounter, now his men are refresh'd, and the French having harass'd their troops and many officers retired to Paris.
To Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Paris, October 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 174.
I took the liberty to write you in my last the journey, which I was going to make to Fountainebleau; and now I take the same to tell you, that I came from thence last night, and that I found there my lord your father in good health, but still without any disposition to afford you that assistance, for which I have thus long importuned him. As soon as he saw me, he ask'd me, if I had any letters out of England. I told him yes, and presented to him your packet of the 14th; wherein was a copy of your letter to his eminence, which he read with great joy, and finding that there was never a one for him, he spoke to me in a strange tone, what then be hath left off writing to me, because without doubt I have not agreed to impossibilities? And setting himself to read your letter with much eagerness, after he had done, he told me, that he would carry it himself to his eminence, whom he had discoursed with yesterday a long while upon the affairs of England, but that this letter gave him new matter to return to see his eminence, and at his parting he said once more, Well, I perceive he remembers me no more, because I cannot do for him that which is not in my power; and offering to take me for a witness, that he had neither credit or money, it gave an occasion to reply, that I was well assured, that you have been without the one and the other this good while; and that if some speedy course were not taken to relieve you, you would be forced to sell your woods at Neusville; and shewing him the letter, which made mention of it, he had no sooner taken it, but he gave it again, and said he would not read it, telling me that he did not care what you were able to do; but pausing a little, he told me, that he could prevent the degrading and spoiling of so fine a seat, and that it was without doubt the advice of some roguish officer, to get money by you; but he did not doubt but he should shew a sufficient right to it to oppose it. He having said this, away he went to his eminence, and at his return he told me, he had had a long discourse with his eminence, the count of Brienne, and mons. Servien, about your own particular affairs; and that they had all promised to help you to some money; and the two last are of opinion, that when your treaty is signed, to have you to come over to look after them yourself. And your father promised me to sollicit them for you in the mean time. And this is all I am able to get from him.
An intercepted letter.
Antverp, October 23. 55. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 172.
Deare frinde, I could not till now give you thanks for your franck kindness to mee. I shall never, whilst I breath, blott it out off my memorie, and I dare tell you my mrs. and yours hess soe great a sence of your civilitie to me for her sake, that nothing but poynt of honour, which maids stand upon, had hindred her for thanking you her selfe from own hand; and yett I dare say you may be confident to hear from her, when a few scrupells off that kynde are removed; for now I hope shee may quickely bee in a marrying condition, and then wives, you know, need not be soe nice. Shee depends much upon your kindnes to make her friends harken to this last match, that offered; and trewlly they have reasson, for in my oppinion none off her lovers hes offered her so francke as this does now; and upon my word I thinke they will bee very happy together. This bearer will tell you how good the tearmes are, and advise you how to deale with them. Iff you have the oppinion that mr. Gaynton will appear for her, it will make the joynture much better for her. You are to looke warily how you deale with him; and for him, or anie other, you neede not dout any lords that are here, for what securitie you ingage for. I shall take all the care in my power to repay the summ you lent mee with speed, and never to forgett the kindness. Pray lett mee heare from you, for I shall be impatient till I doe it. The bearer will send to him, that is unfainedly,
For my dear frinde mr. Christopher
Danley at London.
My deare frinde
Your faithfull servant,
The Spanish embassador to the protector.
Vol. xxxi. p. 181.
Haviendo el rey mi signor ordenadome, que pase luego a Flandes se sentido mucho v. alteza no saya servidose de darme lugar para haverle reverencia antes de exequutarlo, y no pudiendo dilatar mas mi jornada me hallo obligado a pasar este officio, y licenciar me por escrito de V. A. aquien suplico crea que mi afecto a su servicio y al bien de esta nacion es muy conforme al que en todas ocasiones se haura conocido en mi. Dios garde la serinissima persona de V. A. como yo deseo. Londres 23/13 de Ott. 1655.
B. L. m. de V. alteza.
Don alonso de Cardenas.
Don Garcia de Avellaneda y Haro,
Conde de Castrillo, comendador de la Obreria, de la orden de Calatrava, gentilhombre de la camara de su magestad, de sus consejos de estado, y guerra, y del supremo de Castilla y d e la camara, presidente en el de las Indias, Virrey, Lugartheniente, y capitan general de este reyno de Napoles.
Vol. xxxi. p. 184.
Havemo ricevuto lettera di sua maestà del tenor sequente, videlicet, El rey. Ilustre conde de Castrillo Pariente, gentilhombre de mi camara, del mi consejo de estado, presidente en el de las Indias, y mi Virrey, Lugartheniente, y capitan general en el reyno de Napoles. Haviendo entendido, que la armada Inglesa del general Pen, que pasò a las Indias Occidentales à imbadir la ciudad de Santo Domingo, adonde tengo fortalezas, y presidios, metropoli de la isla Española, y de las demas de Barlobento, hechando gente en tierra, y intentando bostilmente surprenderla con sus armas (aunque fueren rechazadas de las mias) faltando a los sagrados vinculos de la paz, y a la buena fee, amistad, y correspondencia, con que las armadas del reyno de Inglaterra han sido admitidas, y asistidas en los puertos de mis estados, y dominios, adonde ban querido, y les bà combenido hazer escala, sin zeñirse mis ministros al rigor de los capitulos de las pazes de esta con aquella corona, que prohiben reciprocamente las entradas en los puertos con mas de seis, ò ocho navios de guerra, antes de bajo de la sinceridad, cō que de mi parte se bà procedido, receptando las dichas armadas sin limitacion de Vaxeles, ni dificultad alguna, acudiendoles amigablemente con todo lo necessario, y conseruando religiosamente la paz, y libre comercio, que por su parte se hà violado, con tan inopinada, y declarada hostilidad. Heresuelto, que se hagan represallas generales en todos mis reynos de las haziendas que se hallaren en ellos de qual esquier subditos de aquella corona, aunque esten ausentes de dichos mis reynos, y las tengan encomendadas, ò encargadas, ò puestas en cabeza de otros naturales, ò estranjeros, y de la misma manera de los navios, ò embarcaciones, que se hallaren en mis puertos, artillerias, pertrechos, y demas generos, que se hallaren en ellos pertenecientes à Ingleses en qualquiera forma. Vos dareis prompta, y precisa execucion à esta resolucion, procediendo sin punto de dilacion al embargo general de dichas haziendas, y baxeles, y averiguando las que huviere puestas en confianza, con toda la destreza posible, y las depositareis, y tendreis de manifiesto (basta otra orden mia) en personas abonadas, y de toda satisfacion, obrando con la entereza, y justificacion, que aseguran vuestras grandes obligaciones, y zelo de mi servicio, de suerte, que no se oculte, ni defraude cosa alguna, que pertenezca a los subditos del reyno de Inglaterra, y me dareis quenta por menor de las haziendas, que se huvieren embargado, de que genero, y calidad son, y à que personas pertenezen. De Madrid à 4 de Septiembre de 1655. Yoel Rey. Pedro Coloma.
E perche in esequtione delli detti reali ordini si è proceduto al sequestro delle robbe, che alcuni Inglesi tengono in questa fedelissima città, conviene ancora che se tenghi notitia di tutti l'altri loro effetti, crediti, nomi di debitori, robbe mobili, stabili, animali, grani, orgi, ogli, & altro qualsivoglia genero di robbe, e mercantie, che in qualsivoglia modo se li dovessero, tenessero, ò possedessero, etiam per interposita persona, delli quali sin hora non se ne può havere certa notitia; perciò ci è parso fare il presente Banno, con il quale ordinamo, e comandamo a tutti, e qualsivogliano persone di qualsivoglia stato, grado, e conditione, tanto di questa sedelissima città, come di tutto il presente regno, che sussero debitori alli detti Inglesi, ancorche non siano habitanti in esso, etiam per interposita persona di qualsivoglia quantità, ò partita di denari, e robbe di qualsivoglia genero, tanto per causa di annue entrade, affitti di case, massarie, in virtù di qualsivoglia scrittura publica, ò privata, debbiano frà termine di giorni tre dopò la publicatione della presente revelarlo, e non pagarlo à detti loro creditori Inglesi, ma tenerli sequestrati in potere loro, sotto pena di pagare il duplicato valore, & altre pene à nostro arbitrio reservate etiam corporali.
E perche tenemo notitia, che malitiosamente detti Inglesi han passato diverse partite, e polise in confidenza con diverse persone loro debitori, e fattoli fare le polise publiche, ò private in persona di altri loro confidenti, e poi se li vauno esiggendo settimana per settimana; perciò volemo, & ordinamo, che tutti quelli, che hanno contrattato con detti Inglesi in comprare, ò vendere robbe, ò che li fussero remasti debitori per il tempo passato, debbiano frà l'istesso termine di giorni trè revelarlo, & non pagare detto denaro sotto l'istessa pena.
Cosi ancora volemo, & ordinamo, che tutti li mastrodatti, attuarij, & scrivani di qualsivoglia tribunale, et corte, notari, ò altre persone, che tenessero processi, & atti toccanti à robbe, denari, ò mercanzie di detti Inglesi, ò altri effetti, nelli quali fussero attori ò rei, ò che havessero stipulati instrumenti, cautele, polise, lettere di cambij, pleggiarie, Albarani, contropolise, ò altre scritture publiche, ò private in qualsivoglia modo: debbiano frà l'istesso termine di giorni trè revelarlo, con farne fede vera, & reale, certificando non haver' altri atti, instrumenti, cautele, & scritture in loro potere, spettantino à detti Inglesi, & loro dependenti, sotto quelle pene, che incorrono detti mastrodatti, attuarij, scrivani, & notari, in dar fedi non verdatiere, quali fedi, & scritture debbiano presentarli frà I'istesso termine, in potere dell' infrascritto regio cancelliero della real cancellaria, per quelle, che sono in questa fedelissima città di Napoli, & à rispetto delle provincie del regno, debbiano presentarle nelle regie audienze, alle quali ordinamo, che debbiano subbito inviarle à noi.
Volemo ancora, e dichiaramo, che tutte quelle persone, che daranno agiuto & favore alli detti Inglesi, in farli occultare beni, & robbe di qualsivoglia genero, denari, nomi di debitori, ò effetti, che tenessero, ò che sussero complici, ò consapevoli di detta occultatione, incorrano nella pena della perdita di tutte le loro robbe, & che siano gravemente castigati, con altre pene, nelle quali di raggione sono incorsi, come transgressori delli ordini di sua maesta, etiam a nostro arbitrio reservate.
Ordinamo di più à tutte quelle persone, che passati detti trè giorni segnalati per la revelatione delle dette robbe, denari, nomi di debitori, & altri effetti spettanti à detti Inglesi, daranno notitia à noi, ò al regio auvocato fiscale del patrimonio di sua maestà, & de nuntiaranno robbe non revelate, nè manifestate da detti Inglesi, ò altre persone, che li tenessero occupate, se le darà la decima parte di tutto quello, che si recuperarà, intendendosi però di quelle robbe, denari, ò effetti, che non se ne sia havuto, notitia per l'inventarij fatti, & revelationi presentate à noi, & si tenerà per servitio particolare di sua maestà, la quale notitia, ò manifestatione potranno farla ancora in secreto al detto regio avocato fiscale, che farà subbito ricevuta. Et, acciò sia noto à tutti volemo, che il presente banno si publichi per tutti li luochi soliti di questa sedelissima città, e regno. Datum Neapoli die 25. Octobris 1655.
El Conde De Castrillo.
Vidit Garcia Reg. D. Coppola Secr. Vidit Soto Regens.
Vidit Burgos Reg. D. Coppola Secr. Vidit Martinez Reg.
In Bannor 1. fol. 55. Petrus de Falces regius cancellarius.
A di 27. di Ottobre 1655. Io Carlo Stefano Giardino lettore delli regij banni dico, e dechiaro di havere publicato il sopradetto banno con li regij Trombetti miei compagni per li luochi soliti, & consueti di questa fedelissima città di Napoli.
Carlo Stefano Giardino.
Prince Maurice of Nassau to the states general.
Vol. xxxi. p. 187.
Noble and mighty lords!
Having understood, that your noble mightinesses are now again assembled, it would have been my duty to go thither, in order to urge, what I have petitioned for heretofore, as well by a memorial to your noble mightinesses in general, as also personally by private applications, concerning the vacant place of field-marshal. But whereas I am now engaged here in the assembly of Guelderland with the like supplications, and have got good hopes of a good and successfull event, which I am obliged to wait for here, I would not be deficient however, to put your noble mightinesses, by this gentleman, and with these few lines, in mind of my former request; hoping and confiding, that your noble mightinesses will be pleased again to consider, not only my good and faithfull services, which I now for above 31 years have done to the state of the united Netherlands, and the high charges, wherein I have formerly been employ'd by the commission of their high mightinesses; but also, that I am of the eldest branch of the house of Nassaw, the eldest in years, and the eldest in the service; and therefore not to permit, that, what God and nature has given me, shall be taken from me, and that I an old faithfull servant be publickly affronted and expelled the country as those, that follow still the maxims of Amsterdam, to make disturbances in the country, do intend; but that your noble mightinesses on the contrary will condescend, to gratify me with the vacant place of field-marshall, which, under the help of God, I will thus manage, that the state of the united Netherlands shall reap good advantages from it, and actually find, that I am and will remain till death noble and mighty lords, &c.
J. Mauritius, prince of Nassaw.
Arnheim, Octob. 25, 1655. [N. S.]
An intercepted letter of Thomas Hongerford to mr. Isaac Kemp merchant.
Calais, Octob. 25, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 189.
I hope mine from St. John de Lewes and Paris are come to hand. This serves to tell you (through mercy) I am come safe and well to Calais from thence, am upon this present going to Flushing, to which place, I pray, as you love me, and your own concernments and estate, with the most convenient speed you can, either write or send one to me for to receive the accompts I have taken for you. Truly I judge they are worth the sending for; but if you do not judge them so, I shall be contented, if you will leave your estate in my hand to trade with; but if not, I pray, fail not to send to me, that I may quit myself of the charge, for it's too great to keep upon my accompt.
An intercepted letter of Thomas Hongerford to mr. John Matthews merchant.
Calais, October 25, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 190.
My dear M.
I am through mercy come safe to Calais. I trust that good hand of providence hath not only safely guarded you, but preserved what I committed to your care. I do assure you the love and kindness shewn shall not be forgotten, as long as my abode shall be in this lower region. I depend much upon your account concerning all my affairs, in that your content and satisfaction is bound up in mine; so I hope you will, with all convenient haste you can, give me an account of what I desired in my last letters, which I doubt not but are come to hand. I pray let neither cost nor pains be spared to preserve safe what I committed to your care. Upon all what I writ, send me your thoughts, as of all the goods you have bought since the eight of July last. I desire that our B. Gra. may come to me; but if not, let me have the approbation of whom is sent, if any come; for my credit and commissions are worth more than to part with them to one I know not.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
I have yours by last post, beinge glad the peace with France is concluded. I yet heare not from mr. Rolt; onely a merchant here saith, he hath a letter from Warshaw, which saith he was there come on; which I hope is true, though he write not, the posts comeinge very uncertainely from those parts since the warre. I perceive you doubted of the truth of the overthrow of the Polish armie, which was here ever asserted. The Spanish letters say they have retaken Jamaica, and put all your men to the sword; which I hope is onely what they desire to doe, and that your fleets will be shortly out againe to carry on that soe hopefull designe. Haveinge nothinge to ad to the inclosed paper of intelligence, which is the best, and all theise parts affourd, I cease your further truble, ever remaineinge,
Hamb. 8ber 16, 1655.
Honorable sir, Your most humble servant, Richard Bradshaw.
Letters of intelligence sent by resident Bradshaw.
Vienna, 8bris 16, [1655.] S. V.
Vol. xxxi. p. 192.
The Swedish ambassador, whom some time ago I mentioned to be expected here, is now come on with a numerous train, and was introduced into this city with great solemnity; but by reason of his imperial majesty's indisposition, he hath not as yet had any audience. The business he comes about is (as is said) first to assure the emperor of the king of Sweden's sincere thoughts and resolution to keep inviolable the peace and union made, and concluded between both crowns at Munster. 2dly, To desire his majesty not to give any aid or encouragment to the king of Poland, or any other of his majesty of Sweden's actual or probable enemies. But, 3dly, to engage himself by his especial parole to afford the said king his utmost assistance against them upon all occasions, if he shall stand in need thereof. What his majesty will say to these, or any other of the said ambassador's propositions, a short time will disclose to us. It's believed his majesty will suit his answer according to the advancement or declining of the Swedish progresses in Poland, which we understand are not altogether so great as hath been reported, it being said here, that they have forely bruised their heads against the walls of Cracow; which place if they get not shortly, especially before the promised succours of the king of Poland (who is said to be joined both with the Transylvanian duke and grand hospodar of Wallachia) come, they will be forced to retreat for want of provision, bread being so scarce, that some of them perish with hunger; and the chief reason of the king's going away with the cavalry was to seek provender for the horses, not being able to subsist there any longer. Our preparations of war have but very small success, by reason of the little earnestness, which is used in the prosecution thereof.
Dantz. 27 8bris S. N.
We have little of importance at present, only to contradict the false report we had from Breslaw of the taking of Cracow. Our intelligence is so uncertain, as that it causeth us to write many things, which prove not true, the Poles killing the posts, and intercepting letters, so as intelligence is much obstructed, and the Breslaw's post not yet come. And therefore I will give you some information concerning trade, which is not unfit for consideration in reference to our nation. There are yearly in the upper parts of Poland towards the border of Silesia at Frawstad and Lissa, and thereabouts, 220000 clothes made, as can be demonstrated, besides the cloth as is made in these parts; and at this town 15000 pieces of rash, besides the great quantities of wool exported hence for Holland constantly and continually; which manufactures will encrease, and ours be totally overthrown, if the Swede be permitted to burthen our commodities; whereof we understand complaint is made to the state by the eastland merchants. I doubt not but you have been pleased to signify the same formerly, and would willingly know what reception it finds. The duke of Brandenburgh hath bespoke a livery for his soldiers 100000 ells of all of Silesia cloth at Koningsberg, and not one ell of English, which used to be altogether in request; but indeed our cloth-making is not well look'd unto in England; the spinning and making is very bad, which also ought to be redressed. The land-day at Marienburg is not yet ended; the town will not join with the duke; the Ermland's bishop hath submitted to his protection, but it's supposed the weywods will go along with the towns. The conclusion, they think, will be at the end of this week.
Stettin, 8ber 21. S. V.
Letters of the 12th instant from our army say, that the same was then in a very good posture before Cracow, but as yet nothing was attempted upon the city farther, than that with their great guns and fireworks they play'd into it with no small success, but no storm as yet past. Our king in the mean time with his cavalry had reduced about 40000 Quartians to obedience, and took some places of account. Lesinsky and another popish embassador are with his majesty, and had had audience, but to what effect not known. The Brandenburg embassadors had their dispatch, but made no haste as yet to be gone, hoping to obtain a more satisfactory answer before their departure. Much talk there was of a great succour, which the cities expected from the king of Poland, which are counted mere delusions by our people, and no credit is given to it.
A letter of intelligence.
Cologne, October 26, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 200.
Since my last, the marquis de Leda hath sent hither a gentleman. In effect, all he hath yet said hath been to compliment the king, and to assure him all the services, that may be at his port at Dunkirk.
A letter of intelligence.
Cologne, October 26, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 194.
I had yours of the 5th current, and the bill for the 50 l. being the remainder for the last bayl of silk sent you. I must acknowledge your punctual dealing, neither can I doubt of your continuance of it, and hope you are sufficiently satisfied with mine. I pray answer my expectation in what I desired in my last, for it's likely to be very troublesom in these parts: therefore let me beg you not to sail me in it. I have written this post to mr. Miller, and sent a letter of sir John Marlay's, which is the news there and here, and much hopes there is of this breach, and already there are dispatched commissions for sea-captains to be ready at Dunkirk. No other discourse but of a speedy removal into Flanders.
Major William Whorwood, brother to Broome, is sent into England.
Mr. Moor is returned; Lovel and Rose speedily looked for here; Armorer yet stopt at Breda.
In the mean time the presbyterians carry on some close design, and run their cabal altogether in France with the lord Jermayn, &c. By his and the lord Gerrard's letters to Wilmot and Belcarres, they seem to be in great hopes of some grand design; but what it is, I know not. Hyde is not trusted by them. All things are remitted from France and Massey, and nothing of them public here. This I know well.
Middleton is said not to proceed for Dantzic, being the merchants have sent hither, that they will trust none but one of their own men. A messenger is sent thither; until he returns, I cannot say more.
William Wyvell was Darcy's lieutenant-colonel, and engaged with him, as he himself tells me. Wagstaff tells me also, that Mr. Francis Lutterel of Dunstar, and mr. Thomas Trevillian of the county of Devonshire, furnished with horses, &c. to have been with him, as also mr. Thomas Wyndham.
H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.
Dublin, October 16. [1655.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 198.
I understand by your last letter, that the transportation of a thousand Irish girles, and the like number of boyes, is resolved on by the councell; but as touchinge what you write for the charges you wil be at to putt them in an equipage fitt to be sent, (havinge advised with some persons heer) I know not well what answer to return you to it; but it's thought most adviseable to provide their clothes for them in London, which we thinke you may doe better and at cheaper rates, then wee can heer. We shall have (uppon the receipt of his highness his pleasure) the number you propownd, and more if you think fitt. I could wish you would come to some resolution concerninge the sowldiers, which wee have hitherto kept togather, not with a little trouble, in order to that designe. If the condition of your affaires be soe, as that you cannot at present make use of them to that end, it wil be necessary, that wee should speedily know it, soe that wee might otherwise dispose of them, for they are not only chargeable to us, but will prove troublesom, in the condition we now keep them in. The affairs heer for the present are (through the blessing of God) in a peaceable and quiett posture, though our wants are many for want of our supplies of money, of which I have given a more particular account to my brother Fleetwood, who, as I believe, doth understand, and is fully sensible of our condition heer; soe I hope he will be no less successfull in his endeavours for our supplies therein, as allsoe for some additionall help of sit and able persons to carry on the worke of this nation, of which I have often writt to you about. You will excuse me for making use of another penn.
I ame your truly affectionate freind,
Mr. R. Ford to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxi. p. 198.
The just provocation, which the Spainard hath given us to prepare for a warr against him, hath putt into my thoughtes, that many Zelanders and Hollanders, whose trade hath bene to live by the spoile of any, against whom they cann gett commission from any pretended authority whatsoever, may ether in person or by theire estates and shippes very much infest our English trade at sea under the Spanish colours; and therefor I presume to offer to your consideration, whether it may not bee convenient, to require of the states of the united provinces, that they publish an edict (as they did imediately after the conclusion of theire peace with Spayne) prohibitinge all theire subjects to serve any foraigne neuterall state in warr by sea or land, in person, shippes, or estates, upon penalty of forfeiture of theire whole estates, reall and personall, and perpetuall banishment, and capitall punishment, if they bee ever taken within the said provinces.
If this motion shall seeme impertinent in your better judgment, I begg your pardon
for my weaknesse, and that you will please to impute it to that honest affection, which I
bare to the good of my country, upon which score I shall remayne,
London, 8ber 16, 1655.
your honour's obliged servant,
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the forces in Ireland.
In the possession of Joseph Jekyll Esq;
I received your lordship's by Bradley the messenger, who arrived here this day. You know wee are flow in all our buissinesses, which is all the reason, that I can give your lordship, that the directions concerneing the transporting of some Irish girles are not sent herewith; as alsoe the resolutions concerneing such of the disbanded men as shal be sent for Jamaica. All that I can say is, that I hope they may be readie by the next; and desire your lordship, that things may continue in as good a condition to answer them, when they come, as may be.
Wee have had noe newes from the West-Indies, nor from any other parts this week, worth troubling of your lordship with. The forreine intelligence is contained in the enclosed print as particularly as I can set it downe.
Wee have at last settled the major generals all over England, there being in all of them ten; the greatest creation of honours, his highnes hath made since his accesse to the governement. The persons are the lord deputie, lord Lambert, general Desbrow, col. Goffe, col. Kelsey, col. Worseley, col. Berry, commissary general Whalley, major Butler, the 10th is not yet named. These are to commaund the forces within their severall precincts, and to see to the good governement thereof.
The councell of Scotland have wrought a great wonder there, in perswading the ministers to leave of praying for C. Stuart, which is accounted a great conquest; especially it being done by faire meanes. Wee are like to have an open warre with Spayne, he continueinge to seise our merchants ships and goodes. I have some inklin, that he will endeavour to trouble us in Ireland, and perticularly in Connaught. It will therefore be very good, that an eye be had to those people there.
Ludlow, p. 543.
The messenger brought us newes, that lieut. general Ludlow and his familye came over
with him, which was very much unexpected here. The messenger alsoe tells us, that he
met (at Beaumoris, where he landed before the lieut. general) capt. Shawe, who stayed
there to apprehend hym, which was well liked of, and an expresse is sent away from
hence to confirme these orders, and to secure him, in case those given in Ireland should
not be executed. I have not further to trouble your lordship, but remeyne
Your lordship's most humble
and faithfull servant,
Oct. 16, 1655.
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xxxi. p. 201.
The prince elector having invited king Charles both by letters and by a person of honour, to visit Heidelberg, and having made provision accordingly for his reception and entertainment, there was an answer returned of excuse and thanks, which occasioned the said elector (together with the news of the queen of Swedens's arriving thereabouts, whom he likewise intended to salute and invite to Heidelberg) to come hither in person to perform his civilities, according to the respective relations. Being come, and ready to visit the said king, and his sister the princess of Orange, he was given to understand, that they stood still upon the former punctilio's, and scrupled to yield him that reception and respect, which the emperor himself and the king of the Romans use to exhibite to a prince elector, which made him forbear to go, hoping, they would better consider of it, and take that rub out of the way, but in vain. Whereupon his highness sought opportunity to meet them either in some of their usual promenades, or in the comedy (which they never failed to frequent) and therein it happened they met so as they could see one another; but such was the hast the king and his sister made, when the play was done, that (contrary to their custom) they took coach immediately, and with such precipitation, that it was impossible for the prince elector to overtake them; whereby it was evident, that they had no mind nor desire either to see or salute him. His highness then sent for their agent, and complained of this unkindness, sending nevertheless his further commendations to them, and that he would be glad to receive their commands before his return the next morning; but neither the said agent nor any answer returned thereupon, though his highness attended next day till noon. And strange it was to observe, that not one person of all the train of the said king and princess of Orange came, or desired to see and speak with any of the Prince elector's, that every body took notice of, and marvelled at his unnatural strangeness. The said king, while he was at Francfort, went once with his company to the Walloon-Lutheran church (never to the Reformed) and seemed much pleased with their ceremonies, coming somewhat near to the episcopal. In their return from Francfort, passing down the Mayne and Rhine, through the bishop of Mentz's country, they were entertained by him, and made no scruple; but of the Palatinate they would taste nothing, save that they accepted of some flaggons of wine presented them as they past down the Rhine by Bacharach and Caub, where the train-bands present themselves, and some cannon shots from the Pals in the Rhine, and the castles thereabouts saluted them.
As for the queen of Sweden, that day the prince elector came to Francfort, she was come to Konigstein in the bishopric of Mentz, 3 German miles from this city; and there she tarried all next day, and received several visits, as that of the Scottish king, which indeed proved the longest for time, but shortest and meanest for discourse; to supply which the queen soon co-admitted the King's younger brother. Some time after the prince elector performed his visit, and was with her half an hour, with whom she had much discourse of general matters, avoiding all occasions of touching her design. The prince invited her to Heidelberg, for which she kindly thanked him, alledging she had lost much time, and would sain make all the haste she could not to be overtaken by the winter in her intended journey. All that day being spent in visits of that nature by her, the next she came to Francfort, only passing through the same with seven coaches and some of her lifeguards; the rest of her train, about 200 persons most horsed, were dispatched, and advanced another way the day before, consisting most of Spaniards, Italians, Frenchmen, Brabanders, she having scarce two persons left about her of those, whom she brought along with her out of Sweden. The chiefest of her company are Piemontelli, Don de la Cueva, and his lady, Don Antonio, a Portuguese, some jesuits and capuchins. And truly a body can hardly look otherwise upon it, but that these fellows purposely lead her triumph thus through all Germany. The magistrates of Francfort would gladly have bestowed some entertainment upon her, but she refusing it, they only saluted her from their works with the canon, and she barely passed through over the bridge. In her passing through the multitude, she made several strange grimaces and faces, and was not able to keep her countenance long. When she approached the forts, she sat in the right boot of the coach in a black velvet coat, and a hat with feathers, whereof the people getting notice, they all got on that side to have the better view of her; but she coming nearer to the city itself, she suddenly changed her black coat, and put on a grey with a black hood about her head, and got to the left boot. That night she dispatched a courier to the prince elector, returning him thanks for his visit and invitation. And now she being on her journey again, in regard she was to touch yet upon one of the bordering towns of the Palatinat, (Boxberg,) his highness, together with the lady electress, and both his sisters, who were very desirous to see this wandering queen, did there once more attend her, but she hasted on, and the visit proved very short. A person of note and quality, that waited upon her when she was about Francfort, doth relate he heard her say, The people talk, that I am going to Loretto, to offer up a scepter and crown to the lady Mary there. I laid down these regalities in Sweden, and if I had another crown to dispose of, I would rather bestow it on the good poor king of England. And when it was told by some, that there was a rumour abroad as if she intended to put herself into a cloister, she is said to have answered, smilingly pointing at Piemontelli, He there likely may know, what cloister-flesh I have about me.
One writes (besides divers particulars already mentioned in the foregoing extract) that it is credibly reported of her, she is to make profession of the Roman Catholic saith at Inspruch or Saltzburg, and that the pope hath got a litter and caroche ready for her, valued at XC thousand crowns, besides the provision of other accommodations every where.
From the Rhine, Oct. 27.
We are pretty quiet hereabouts, but that the ecclesiastical Roman party seem to be troubled at the Swedish successes in Poland. They make underhand all the preparations they can to be in some posture against a time of need; and now of late they begin to pick new differences with the elector Palatine, about sundry old regalia and prerogatives of protection and otherwise, which his highness ever had and maintained in the bishopric of Worms and Spire and some other territories thereabouts. Prince Rupert took th' other day his journey to the emperor's court, to sollicit the remainder of the monies due to him by the Munster treaty. The queen of Sweden passing by Augsburg in her way to Italy, she made no stay there, but only viewed the town-house, the structure and accommodation whereof seemed to have much pleased her. A friend writes from thence, that when the table was shewed her there, where her father had been entertained at, her eyes were on a sudden full of water. Passing by the new Lutheran church there of the holy cross, she held likewise still there, and took some view of the building from without, she having herself not many years ago contributed a pretty round sum to the setting up thereof. The elector of Bavaria invited her solemnly to Munchen, but she thanked him with promise to visit him in her return out of Italy. No body is able to tell as yet how she stands disposed for matters of religion, she sheweth every where such an indifference, and no devotion at all. What his holiness may work upon her, time will shew. The prince elector Palatine takes extraordinary care to settle his university and senate ecclesiastical.
The states of Guelderland to the states general.
Vol. xxxi. p. 206.
High and mighty lords,
Whereas we have got information, that the lord Chanut, embassador of his majesty the king of France to this state, has taken his leave of your high mightinesses to go back again to France for his majesty's service, which seems very unexpected to us, since we should be glad of the continuance of the said lord embassador in this country, at least so long till the renewing of the treaty of alliance between his majesty and this state should be finished: for this reason, in this our present assembly, we have thought it our duty, to communicate this out good intention to your high mightinesses forthwith, and to desire, that you would be pleased to endeavour by all possible reasons to persuade the said lord embassador to remain here, untill the said time; and in case he should be gone already, to write to the lord embassador Boreel with orders to promote, with all possible diligence, the proceeding and conclusion of the said treaty, which we are of opinion will be very much for the service of this state.
Arnheim Octob. 27, 1655. [N. S.]
Wherewith, &c. high and mighty lords, &c. Underneath stood your high mightinesses good friends The states of the principality of Guelderland and county of Zutphen assembled in a diet.
By order of the same P. Verstegen.
Mr. Tho. Harrison to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxi. p. 207.
I know by experience, that he who adventures to be faithfull in discovering the miscarriages even of good men, when dangerous to the publique, runs the hazard of being suspected and judged by men, and also of being judged by the Lord, unlesse his actings spring from a roote of faithfullnesse, and aime sincerely at the service and safety both of the publique and of the very persons themselves, who are laid so open. With the awe and dread upon my heart of that day of Jesus Christ, wherein the secrets of all hearts shall be revealed, I shall proceed (according to your encouragment) to manifest the spirit of that way, the principles and practises of those persons, who have soe sarre prevailed in this poore country. Being at Kilkenny with my lord the 18th of last month, mr. Brewster, mr. Wood, mr. Wells and my selfe, went solemnly to mr. Blackwood (the oracle of the anabaptists in Ireland) complaining of their totall withdrawings from us in publique worship. He alleadged the cause thereof to be our not observing the order of the apostles by baptisme. Nevertheles they could most of them sometimes joyne with us, provided 1st, that in a day of prayer they may speake last, that if any thing be spoken against God or Christ or the truth, they might have an opportunity to bear witnesse against it; and the like liberty they desired at lectures, &c. 2dly, That singing of psalmes be wholly forborne; and 3dly, All bitternes and termes of reflexion. 4thly, That we forbear to give magnifying titles unto men, or to be large in commendation of their graces, when (said he) we know no such thing by them, but rather hear the contrary. 5thly, That we should not hinder godly men from places of authority and power, because of their judgements, &c.
This man is now fixed with the congregation at Dublin, and mr. Patient appointed as
an evangelist to preach up and downe the country. The last named being at the Naes
with col. Axtell, when newes of his highness's danger by the fall came unto them, they
laughed heartily at it, as a minister maintained by the state in those parts hath assured
me. At Dublin they solemnly by excommunication delivered up to Satan a godly man,
for falling off, as they said, from the truthes of Christ to antichristian errors, in joyning
with mr. Winter, &c. and for no other cause in the world. The man sat next me the
last Lord's day in breaking of bread with that society, who forthwith received him upon
due enquiry after their ejection of him; and yet alas how is this land shared out amongst
persons of his perswasion, governours of towns and citties, 12 at least, colonells 10, leiut.
colonels 3 or 4, majors 10, captains 19 or 20, preachers in salary 2, officers in the civill
list 23, and many of whome I never heard. The enclosed is a true map of Ireland
drawn by the pen of as judicious, as industrious, as precious a plainhearted minister of the
gospell, as any I know in Ireland. Sir, I assure you, that my lord never saw a line that
I writ to you or to his highnesse. I am not unacquainted with the snares and temptations, whereby my lord hath bene formerly indangered, and whereof I suppose his highnes may be still fearfull and jealous; but sir, I can assure you, to the praise of rich and
glorious grace, the good hand of the Lord hath wonderfully broken them, to the admiration of all both friends and enemies, who formerly knew my Lord. Sir, I dare adde
no further to your trouble at present, but begge you would pardon,
your faithfull servant in the Lord,
Dublin, 8ber 17, 1655.
The Spanish embassador to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxi. p. 344.
Haviendo entregado Egidio Mottet el pasaporte que V. S. me embiò, y no siendo en la formalidad que fe acostumbra dar a los embaxodores que parten de aqui me ha parecido advertirlo a V. S. paraque fe sirva de representarlo a fu alteza a fin que fe me conceda en la forma ordinaria. Sobre lo qual y los demas despachos Egidio Mottet mi secretario propondra a V. S. me haga el fabor de procurar que S. A. mande seme concedan y no teniendo forma de befar a V. S. las manos en persona para recivir fus mandatos para Flandes; dexo de hazerlo y le suplico le asegure deque en quanto tocare al servicio de V. S. me mostrarè siempre muy prompto para servirle y gde Dios a V. S. muchos anos Londres 28/18 de Oct. 1655.
Muy gran serv. de V. S.
Don Alonso de Cardenas.
Letters of intelligence to mr. Petit.
Rome, October 18/8, 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 371.
Cardinal Ceva died here tuesday last, being 80 years of age. He hath by his will left between six and seven hundred thousand crowns of means to the abbot Adrian Ceva, who is not his nephew, but the nearest kinsman of his house, who waited on cardinal Barbarini as his gentleman.
Two extraordinary embassadors from Venice are coming here with great state. Those from Avignon are arrived, and that from Portugal is shortly expected; but he will take no title.
The queen of Sweden will be here the 25th of November, accompanied with 300 persons. She is to be met upon the frontier of Boulonois by four nuncios, namely, two archbishops and two clerks of the apostolic chamber. The two first are mr. Bentivogli and mr. Sorrisani, and the other mr. Carracioli and Cefarini. Mr. Bentivogli is to make the complimenting speech. She will also be met again, at two days journey from Rome, by two legats, viz. cardinal John Charles of Medicis, and cardinal Landgrave de Hesse; and all the facred college will go and receive her at the gate del populo with a stately cavalcade, from whence she will be brought between the two legates to the palace of Farnese, where she will be defrayed by the apostolic chamber, which has laid aside one hundred thousand crowns for that purpose. She will be met out of Rome by four of the chiefest ladies of this court, namely, by the princesses of Botero, of Rossano, of Palestrina, and by the dutchess of Chiri. It's said, she is to profess the catholic saith in passing by Inspruck; and that she bringeth a crown and a scepter worth seventy thousand florins to present unto the church of Loretto.
Turin, October 29/19, 1655.
The princess of Carignan arrived here monday night, having been met by madam royal and by our duke, who went to meet her with the princesses and the embassadors of France. Thomas her spouse is something recovered. The duke of Modena is still at Ast, and is not yet cured of his wound. It's doubted, whether he will come into this city. He stayeth for the return of a gentleman, whom he has sent to France. In the interim the army beginneth to advance towards the Navarrois, and marquis of Caracena doth observe and follow it with much diligence; and as there daily arrive here troops from France, it is thought the said gentleman will bring the resolution of some design. Prince Alphonso of Modena his son is still feasted at Montpellier by their royal highnesses, having been here two or three times this week to visit prince Thomas. And the embassador of France, mr. du Plessis Besan¸on, hath passed at Placentia, where he hath spoken to the duke of Parma, who has well received and welcomed him; after which he is gone to continue his voyage towards Venice.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxi. p. 208.
I know, thos great and weity affaires you manage must needs tak up one whol man's tym, althoh he wer composed of many men's abilityes, which is a suffitient reson to me, that you wryt this way so seldom. Yet if you would command som about you to wryt me now and then, you would but do your self ryht in it; for indeed this prince sends often to me to be resolved in certain general passages, and I can say no more to him, then what passes upon the exchange. 'Tis non of my desyre to pry into any thing, that may not be made publik, but the knolledge of such things at the first hand would giv me som credit here.
When general Blak was here, he was ples'd at my intrety to wryt to the great duke in a wel-pend letter, that his hyhnes would be pleas'd to be as gratious to our nation, as he is to the Greeks, Armenians, and Jewes, in allowing us lykwys a church or publik meeting-place to serv God in, by hearing the word preacht, and other duetyes incumbent upon Cristians: but the great duke denyd it, saying he found no such fredom given our nation by any catholik prince or state, mentioning the king of Spayn and state of Genoa. General Blake may probably be with you assoon as this letter, who promist to mov his hyhnes the protector about it, that som meanes myht be us'd by his hyhnes pyety and wisdom to obtain this privilege for our nation, it being now, as I humbly conceiv, a very fit season to obtain such a favour; for here is advys from Lisbon, that that king has granted our nation a publik church in that citty; wherupon I acquainted the great duk's secretary with it, and hopt we should enjoy the lyk privilege here. I am of opinion his hyhnes letter to the great duk might obtain it, for the king of Sweden's prosperity in Polland maks al Italy very meek and humble. And to speak the truth, his hyhnes the protector is generally lookt upon as an intimat collegue, if not the contryver, of the king of Sweden's expedition for Polland: so my opinion is his hyhnes letter to the great duk at this present wil procure the bisnes, which I humbly leav to your juditious consideration.
I hav had a couple of letters from one Metham, that was mr. Baylye's companion from
Ingland for Itally; by which you wil se of how much folly Bayly has bin guilty of, but
now that comedy is over, and Bayly is come to himself again. The 50 l. I paid him here,
as by the acquittance sent, I now draw upon you in my bil payable to mr. George Smith
merchant at a month, which be pleased to pay as you wer plesed to promis. I am,
Your most faithfull servant,
Leg. 29 October 1655. [N. S.]
Rom, October 23, 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 210.
Letters from Flanders and other parts do al contradict the newes in our last, (the protector's death) but they say he was very much indisposed; but all the affected to the Spanish party do stil affirm he is dead. Nay, the Spanyards here do boast, that they themselves hav caused him to be killed by poison; and that two Inglish gentlemen wer gon from London, to cal in the king of Scots, that he may tak possession of his kingdoms.
The forgoing lynes ar faithfully collected and translated out of the weekly newes or diurnal from Rom; wherin is to be considered, whether is greater, the Spanyards mallis or impudence, to glory and boast of such deeds of darknes in the face of the world, and how circumspect auht his highnes to be to avoid dark-lanthorn-men both abov ground and under: but God wil never sail his servants.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Hague, October 29, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 211.
I am so used to see at the head of your letters the delaying of the conclusion of your treaty, that I commonly pass by that first point. My lord protector hath a great considence of our constancy. That which you were pleased to write to me, in your last of the 22d of this month, concerning the pressing of the embassador to declare, that he will be gone, and the requests of the secretary to stir up the merchants to desire him to stay, do make me to believe, that the one and the other have enough to do to resolve upon the war. Every one doth believe here, that my lord protector, who hath always carried so high the reputation of his government, will not dissemble. I will not undertake to make any judgment, in regard I do think it so difficult a business, that the head of the ablest man living may have enough to do to make a resolution. It is remarkable, my lord, that the three states, who have taken so great interest in the punishment of a handful of countrymen in the valleys of Savoy, have now work enough at home to make them forget that small quarrel, which they did so cheerfully undertake.
My lord protector with two fleets, which have drained his island of mariners, and soldiers, and money, hath for all those gotten shame, and a war withal.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
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The reception, which hath been made at Amsterdam to princess dowager was altogether royal and stately. I perceive that every where the well affected of Holland are not contented or pleased at it, but that they think, that the same was neither necessary nor useful. I can say the same of the alliance with Brandenburg. But Amsterdam. hath been blindly servent in this. And although they do imagine mountains of gold of this Brandenburg, yet usually non ex quolibet ligno fit mercurius. But however God is not tied to means, and can do what he pleaseth.
I know also very well, that men do endeavour to foment jealousy between princess royal and princess dowager as between prince Maurice of Nassau and grave William. And it is certain, that the ministers of the one do offend those of the other; so that they will exclude the Amsterdam, saying, that all demonstration is only pro forma, and that Amsterdam are and will be notwithstanding the well affected of Holland. I refer my self to the truth hereof; but thus much is true, that all those, as well Cromwell as good Hollanders cannot have but just cause of jealousy, and already they have ofsended the king of Sweden in the highest degree. Denmark is cold, and if Sweden offer to the protector and to Denmark such conditions, which tend to the welfare of their commerce, certainly Amsterdam might chance to lose all that commerce and Brandenburg would be a poor assistant. Let Amsterdam make grimaces as long as they please, the end will be to treat, and by treaties they will finish their grimaces.
And I can assure you, that Dantzic (quæ implet utramque paginam) will in no wise make alliance with Brandenburg; veretur enim, ne hoc specioso titulo alliance implicetur longe majeribus difficultatibus, & dum Brandenburg vix sufficit tantis quas accepit perficiendis rebus, omne tandem onus devolvatur in Dantzic, tam alendi exercitus quam placandi irritatum bostem. These are the formal words, which they write me from thence.
In the mean time princess dowager sollicites here with great impetuosity for Brandenburg, and would well cavalry foot men of war money altogether, although there be nothing due to him; for there is not yet any amity, but the disposition of Brandenburg is a little glorious, nourish'd therein by his flatterers, and by this occasion he believes to become imperator over the states general; and that the states of Holland will nourish his army.
And princess dowager (as much as Brandenburg) enemy of good Hollanders and commerce, doth believe to have got the day by the great reception, which Amsterdam hath made her, but princess dowager will be abused in many things.
The Orange party hate as much the protector, as the king of Spain, shewing very much joy, that protector is imbroiled with king of Spain.
But the states of and Holland and Zealand will find themselves very much incumbered and troubled in their commerce. And having formerly given a very bad example by their private letters of marque too licentious, at present what can they say, if those of protector and of Spain should do the same ? nam oportet pali legem, vel consuetudinem, quam fecerunt. And therefore the embassadors of states general (who hath formerly so much laboured for peace between protector and France) ought well to do the same at present for this peace between protector and Spain. But certainly sometimes those of states general know not what they would have, nor what they do.
The Pr of Tarante at his going from hence did declare to a friend, that indeed he goes into France, but in no wise with an intention to engage himself with France. The friend is, and doth remain a good protectorian, and a good Hollander. In effect, I know well, that he is in no wise with the prince of Orange nor with the friends of Orange.
Yea, I was likewise told, that he would hearken to such as should propose a alliance beween his sister and the son of protector by reason of the uniformity of religion. I am,
29 Octob. 1655.
Your most humble servant.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
October 29, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 220.
For news in these parts, the princess dowager laboureth to make a league offensive and defensive between the states, king of Denmark, and elector of Brandenburgh; but it's thought that is rather in order to the making good conditions with the king of Sweden, than any way to oppose him, at least if he prevail. Letters from Vienna speak much of the emperor's great preparations, who, it is like, will labour to get some of Poland to himself. The general peace between France and Spain is much talked of, and the Spaniards are high in their language, no less than that they will make war upon England. And the king's party seemeth to promise themselves great assistance from Spain; but I am afraid those hopes will deceive them.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
This 22d of October 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 148.
Concerning the right, or law of drowning the Turks, it is resolv'd, that men are to conform themselves according to the resolution of the 21st of October 1651, which is affirmative; however, distinguishing between the Turks on this side the cape Finisterre, and others. The admiralty hath also writ concerning the French captain, that is a prisoner. They have writ back an answer, that they should do justice, and that they will tell the reasons to the embassador.
The lord Verbolt and others have declared to be ready to pronounce sentence upon the differences of East Friezland, desiring to know, 1. Whether they should pronounce the sentence in the name of the states general. 2. Whether the pronunciation shall be made in the assembly of the states general, or in the withdrawing-room. They will see first how was pronounced the sentence between the city of Groningen and the Omlandes.
The lord Ommeren writes, that the Switzers in the treaty for the Vaudois have regarded more their own interest than that of the Vaudois. An answer is to be returned him, that he be sure to keep a good correspondence with the ministers of the protector, and with the Switzers, and that he inform himself exactly concerning the last collections, how they be distributed. Holland hath sent them 6000 pistoles.
There is a new complaint of depredations up and down. It is remonstrated, that the remedy, to cause the merchant men to carry guns according to the placarts, will be good.
Yesterday was pronounced the sentence or decision between the states of East Friezland and the city of Embden, as is to be seen by the enclosed copies. And although they have adjudged to the city 475 thousand guilders, (after so many millions, which they have forced the states of Friezland to pay since the year 1603, and after so many millions, which Mansfelt and the Hessians have taken from them) yet after the reading of the sentence one of their commissioners durst say, that they did expect a far greater sum; and that they would make report thereof to their principals. How little contentment likewise monsieur de Bye, resident of Poland, received here, is to be seen in the enclosed copy of his memorandum. They have resolved to give him an excusative and dilatory answer in civil terms. The states of Overyssel and Deventer have writ the enclosed letter to keep in Deventer the companies that are there, which will be very much opposed by those that are for the party of the prince. The letter is referred to the council of state to advise about it.
25 October 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 152.
The great or royal reception, which was made for the princess dowager, is really very full of speculation; for at the same time they caress her so much, (which is in effect a kindness and honour done to the young prince of Orange) they demonstrate very great aversion against prince William. For, or I am very much deceived, Amsterdam hath not a good thought to give the charge of marshal to prince William. And to sweeten that as well towards the great families as towards the people, (who are very much affected to the prince or the house of Nassau) they do shew at present this affection, with assurance, that in time, and place, they will raise the young prince of Orange, as much as they suppress prince William.
And in mean time by this means they do plant jealousy between those of that great house, as they have done already between the princes Maurice and William.
This morning the lord Wyman caused to be remembred the treaty and the ratifications; upon which is resolved, that the extradition shall be made of the ratifications. Those of Embden have endeavoured by a memorandum to make great complaint of the sentence, desiring to be admitted to a revision. But it would not be accepted of, but it hath been sent back to those of Embden without keeping any notes of it. Prince Maurice is at present at Arnheim, where there is an assembly of states, solliciting for the charge of marshal, the said assembly having lasted already one or two months, there being a great contest amongst the members, so that they are mightily unresolved concerning the said charge. For the taking of Cracow, we are still here in the same doubt and uncertainty.
26 October 1655.
This day the commissioners were nominated to go for Overyssell, namely, the lords Wybergen of Zealand, Renswoude of Utrecht, Knyff of Friezland, and Isbrants of Groningen. All Guelderland is absent, but without doubt, they will add one; but Holland doth still persist not to send one thither, saying to have no order for it from their principals. And the lord Becke on the behalf of Deventer being here, doth declare, that the sending will be to no purpose, and that Deventer and Twente will not hearken unto them. Deventer doth also persist to keep the companies, according to the contents, and upon the ground of the letter, which you have formerly seen. The states of Guelderland have writ upon the same subject, that they do think it fit to keep some of the companies, which are demanded of them at present. The extradition of the ratifications upon the treaty of Brandenburg is to be made to-morrow.
They are now beginning to consider of the instructions for the embassadors, that are to be sent to Denmark, Sweden, &c.
It hath been again proposed to send first monsieur Heinsius to the elector of Brandenburg; but his indisposition doth keep him from going.
October 28, 1655.
This day and yesterday there was nothing but disputes and bandyings concerning the companies, which those of Deventer will keep in their city, and which those of the contrary party will not permit: Item for the deputation to Overyssel, which, notwithstanding the contradiction of those of Holland and their followers, will go forwards; there being writ to those of Guelderland (all absent from hence) having their assembly at Arnheim, to name one likewise of their province, to be the first of the deputation to Overyssel, which being done they will begin their journey.
To oppose this in the said assembly at Arnheim those of Twente and. Deventer have commissioners at Arnheim, whereof the lord Scheel is the first. But in effect it is to oppose those, who will choose in Guelderland a stadtholder, as have done the four members of Overyssel.
The embassador of Spain hath said in one of his memorandums, that the hides or merchandises taken by the private man of war at Amsterdam (Williams) are bought by one of the magistrates or kinsman of the magistrate. Upon which a sharp and offensive answer hath been returned by the admiralty to the said embassador, which is by him ill taken, and therefore it is kept secret.
The lord of Waveren and others commissioners of the states general have congratulated the princess Dowager, who by this occasion hath very much recommended the assistance, which is to be made to the elector of Brandenburgh, and hath very much exclaim'd against Sweden.
The earl of Witgenstein having conducted the princess Dowager from Berlin hither, hath caused to be presented a letter of credence from the elector of Brandenburgh, and hath demanded audience, which is appointed him for to-morrow; but it is known, that it will be only complimental, for he is to return presently for Berlin.
Yesterday was finally made the extradition of the ratifications, and at the making thereof the minister of Brandenburgh made great instance to have some subsidies, according to the treaties; and besides to have proportionable to the danger, which was like to besal the elector, which seemed to be great. The lord raet pensionary being the first in the commission made report thereof this morning, declaring, that the states of Holland were to meet the 9th of November, giving to hope, that then not only for the said subsidy, but also for the nominating of the embassadors, Holland would be ready. In the mean time men speak with very great respect of Sweden; and if that king doth not take Cracow, or that he be forced to return to Stetin, they will judge it here for a just punishment.
They have proposed to authorize monsieur Pels to go the elector of Brandenburgh, and to animate him, since that monsieur Heinsius doth continue sick.
A letter of intelligence.
Hague, October 29, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 221.
Her highness the old princess of Orange is come back to the Hague, having been entertained in all the provinces, especially in Holland and Amsterdam, with a most magnificent, yea royal reception. Two days ago the ratifications of the alliance betwixt the states general and the elector of Brandenburgh were interchangably delivered. The said elector is not yet agreed with the Swedes. No body can tell what's become of the baron de Swerin, who was sent as electoral embassador to the king of Sweden. There is yet no certainty of the taking or surrender of Cracow. It's written from Hamburgh, that the Muscovite is to meet the forenamed king in that city. The Muscovite army lyes still enquartered about Vilna, not advancing further since Lithuania and Courland have submitted themselves to the Swedish protection. The Massovians in Poland are beaten and disarmed; the Polish king fled towards Lemberg, or (as some will have it) into Walachia, hoping to be able to raise a formidable army against the Swedes. The emperor is sending Piccolomini to the king of Sweden, having gathered together all this while an army of thirty thousand men. Between the royal and the electoral states of Prussia, nothing as yet hath been concluded; if they agree, it's like that the cities of Dantzick and Elbing will likewise accept of the Brandenburgh protection. If the Swedes do not get Cracow, they will not be able to subsist in Poland, but be forced to seek and take up their winter quarters in the lands of Prussia, which will prove a very bloody work.