State Papers, 1657: April (5 of 7)

Pages 209-224

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

April (5 of 7)

Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.

Vol. xlix. p. 174.

My lord,
I Received yesterday by the post two letters from their H. and M.L. the one of the 18th instant, there being inclosed in it a copy of a letter writ at Paris, on the 13th instant, concerning the taking of some salt-ships by the English ships of war; and the other of the 19th of the same month: besides which their H. and M. L. were pleased to send me extracts of their H. and M. L. resolutions of the 10th and 19th instant, as also copies of all the letters of the lord embassador Boreel received during that time, concerning the turbulent affairs in France against the subjects of the states of the United Netherlands, disorderly and suddenly begun; and in regard I had heard nothing of the taking of any Netherland ships by the English men of war, I have caused diligent inquiry to be made after it, but I cannot hear that there is any such things. Yet, for the further performing of their H. and M. L. resolution upon the said letter writ from Paris, taken upon the 13th instant, I have sent one of my domesticks to the Downs and Dover, with pertinent instructions, to enquire after the best manner, whether any such ships be brought in; and if I receive any advice thereof, I shall not sail to advertise their H. and M. L. thereof. I will also make the best use I can here of the resolutions of their H. and M. L. and other papers concerning the said turbulent affairs in France. Having writ thus far, I found an opportunity to speak to the lord secretary of state, concerning the said salt-ships, and asked him, whether any order was given to the ships of this state to take any Holland ships? and whether his honor had heard, that there were already some salt-ships brought in? His honour declared, that they had not in the least any such thoughts; and that he had heard nothing of any saltships; that there were many lies invented by unquiet people; and that he could very well assure me, that the protector would be glad to hear, that the business was accommodated between France and the United Netherlands: but yet, if so be it should happen to grow wider between them, which God prevent, he said, that the lord protector would never do any thing to the prejudice of the state of the United Netherlands; intending nothing more than to observe the amity (as he had often declared) inviolably with the same. And telling of his honour, that there were well ten arrests against the ship Regina, and twenty against the chevalier de la Lande, and that they had committed several piracies lately, he said, that he would speak further with the lord protector about it.

Westminster 27 April 1657. [N. S.]

W. Nieuport.

The council of Ireland to secretary Thurloe.

In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.

We have in some former addresses represented the ruinous condition of the town of Galway then was in, and should not have given you this further interruption amidst many and great affaires, did not our duty to his highness, and the due sense we have how much the publick will undoubtedly suffer (if some speedy and effectual course be not taken for the well planting thereof) give us some enforcement to it. His highness hath so perfect an understanding of that place, as we need not add much; howbeit, may be bold to say, that for situation thereof, voisinage and commerce it hath with Spain, the Straits, West-Indies, and other places, no town nor port in the three nations, London excepted, was more considerable, nor in all probability would more encourage trade abroad, or manufacture at home, than this, if well improved. It is a town made very desensive, both by art and nature, and consists of many noble buildings, uniform, and most of them marble, which that country hath plenty of; yet by reason of the late horrid rebellion, and general wast then and since made by the impoverished English inhabiting there, many of the houses are become very ruinous. And in as much as there appears more encouragement for this new plantation than formerly, for that no Irish are permitted to live in the city or within three miles thereof, the better to accommodate the inhabitants with conveniences, the place becomes better secured, and merchants have a more hopeful gain by trade, than when the interest of the town was in the Irish and other papists, that lived there. And whereas the eminent deservings and sufferings of the inhabitants of the city of Gloucester induced the late parliament (in compensation of their said losses) to order them such a proportion of forfeited lands, as should be valued at 10000 livres, according to the rates (but, as is conceived, postponed to the satisfaction) of the adventurer; we know no better expedient, either towards discharge of that debt, or for the well-planting of Galway, than humbly to propose, That the said plantation be disposed of to the corporation of Gloucester, upon such terms and conditions as his highness and the parliament may judge sit for their encouragement. In our apprehension, there never was a fitter time than now for such an undertaking. And forasmuch as the plantation and settling manufactures in that town is not a work for any private interests, but a society to undertake; considering likewise of what publick advantage Londonderry was, not only to the civilizing and securing Ulster, but the whole nation, when in the late rebellion only that place and Dublin stood free from the power of the Irish rebells; we submit it to his highness's wisdom, of what consequence this place may be, if well planted, or as may otherwise be held fit. This may happily not only secure the publick peace of Conaught, but subdue the spirits of the discontented Irish and other papist inhabitants within that province, which is now more than ever to be taken care of, seeing so many proprietors, sword-men, and other dangerous and disaffected persons are transplanted thither from all other parts of this nation. And if any invasion should be designed from abroad, the reputation of that town may doubtless be a very great check to it; and much other publick good may (by the blessing of God) hereby redound to his highness and the commonwealth. Which being humbly tendred to his highness's consideration, we remain
Council-chamber in Dublin,
the day of April 1657.

For the right honourable mr. secretary Thurloe, these, at Whitehall.

Your loving friends, H. Cromwell.

W. Steele, Canc.
Miles Corbet.
Math. Thomlinson.
William Bury.

The speech of monsieur de Thou, the French embassador, to the states-general.

Vol. xlix. p. 197.

Exhibitum & lectum den 28 April 1657.

Cest avec beacoup de douleur & de deplaisir, que je me trouve oblige par des commandments très-precis & reiterés du roy mon maistre, de changer l'ordre de cette premiere audience; & au lieu de l'employer, comme à l'accoustumée, en des asseurances de bienveillance reciproque, & en des termes de tendresse & amitié, il faille que je m'en serve de tout contraires & opposés, pour vous expliquer la pleinte, dont vous venez d'entendre parler par la lettre de sa majesté.

Et quoyque, messieurs, cette pleinte y soit affés expliquée, je croy neantmoins, qu'il importe, que je fasse cognoistre à vos seigneuries le detail de l'action du vostre vice-admiral, par lequel je ne doute point, qu'elles n'entrent dans le ressentiment de sa majesté, puisqu'il n'y a pas une circonstance, qui ne soit digne d'une punition exemplaire. Car en premier lieu, messieurs, contre les loix de la mer, & la reputation & l'honneur de vostre estat, luy estant ches d'une esquadre considerable de vos navires de guerre, il a arboré de faux pavillons d'Angleterre, qui est une chose, qui ne se sait avec approbation, que par les Corsaires de Barbarie, lorsqu'ils voulent surprendre les Chrêtiens.

Et ensuite, après avoir substitué vos pavillons, il a obligé les vaisseaux de sa majesté, auctorisés de sa commission & de son pavillon royal, d'envoyer leur chaloupe à son bord, comme si c'eussent esté des vaisseaux marchands, sur lesquels ils eust cette auctorité.

Mais après, messieurs, la chaloupe ayant esté envoyée avec le lieutenant à bord, il retint par force ce lieutenant prisonnier, & le voulut obliger, le pistolet à la teste, d'escrire & de persuader à son commandant, de venir le trouver; ce que ledit lieutenant ayant resusé, avec protestation de vouloir plustost souffrir la mort, que de saire une telle trahison, il s'est servy du pretexte de l'amitié & des obligations, qu'il avoit au chevalier de la Lande, pour le saire venir à son vaisseau, en lui escrivant une lettre, dont sa majesté m'a envoyé la copie, sous la bonne soy de laquelle lettre y estant venu, & l'ayant traité d'abord avec civilité, il se saisit de sa personne, & en suite de ses deux vaisseaux, dans lesquels il mit des officiers & des matelots pour les conduire comme en triomphe. Et pour finir cette tragedie, après en avoir retenu quatre-vingt par force avec les deux chess, il exposa le surplus au nombre de trois-cens cinquante sur les costes de Catalogne; mais après avoir esté pillés & depouvillés, & qu'il ne leur estoit rien resté, que ce qu'on n'avoit pu leur oster.

Mais, messieurs, que pouvoient esperer de plus favourable ces malheureux en cet estat, que d'estre l'equipage des galeres d'un prince enneny, dont les officiers neantmoins se sont trouvé avoir toute l'humanité & civilité possible pour eux, & avoir blasmé l'action de vostre vice-admiral, quoyqu'une guerre de vingt-deux campaignes les peust exceder d'avoir d'autres sentiments.

Voilà, messieurs, ce qui s'est passé en cette action, suivant la relation que le roy mon maistre m'a envoyée, de laquelle sa majesté m'a commandé de vous demander une promte justice, & que celuy, qui a commis cet attentat, soit puny par V. V. S. S. en la derniere severité.

Je remets à la prudence de V. V. S. S. & à la sagesse d'une si illustre assemblée, de faire les reflexions convenables sur cette affaire; & de considerer, quels sentiments de colere & d'indignation cette action a pu exciter dans l'ame d'un grand roy, lequel dans le temps, que cecy se passoit, avoit destiné un ambassadeur pour resider auprès de V. V. S. S. & y entretenir & restablir cette belle amitié, qui a esté si utile, si glorieuse, & si advantageuse à la France, & à cet estat; dans le temps, dis-je, messieurs, que j'estois chargé venir icy pour examiner & regler toutes les pleintes reciproques, qui se saisoient entre les subjects de l'un & de l'autre estat.

Et ce qui est encore de plus fascheux en ce rencontre est, que monsieur vostre ambassadeur, sur la nouvelle de cet incident, ayant demandé avec empressement audience, au lieu d'addoucir les choses, & donner quelque satisfaction au roy, il s'est servy de tels termes dans le discours qu'il a tenu à sa majesté, qu'elle s'en est trouvé blessée, & m'a commandé de vous en faire pleinte, & vous faire instance, de luy ordonner d'user à l'avenir de termes plus respectueux à son endroit; car quoyque les personnes des ambassadeurs des estats souverains sont sacrées & inviolables, cela ne les empesche pas de garder la bienseance & le respect aux personnes, à qui il est deu; & vous en avez peut-estre eu, messieurs, un exemple domestique dans cette assemblée, sur lequel je ne veux point m'expliquer d'avantage.

De sorte, messieurs, qu'il ne me reste qu'à vous conjurer de nouveau, de bien peser les suites & les consequences de cette affaire, & de donner à sa majesté une prompte satisfaction, ayant ordre de ne me mesler d'aucune a autre affaire, ny de recevoir aucune proposition, que je n'aye receu de V. V. S. S. une response precise à la lettre de sa majesté.

Pour mon particulier, je ne puis finir cette audience, sans vous remercier de tout mon coeur des soins, que vos officiers, & sur la mer, & à mon arrivé à Rotterdam, ont pris de ma personne, dans laquelle si vous ne rencontrez pas toutes les belles & excellentes qualités, qu'ont eu ceux, qui m'ont precedé en l'honneur de cet employ; du moins vous y trouverez toute la bonne soy, & toute la sincerité, que vous devez attendre du ministre d'un grand roy, qui a jusques à present pour vos seigneuries, en general, & en particulier, tout l'affection & la tendresse possible. Fait à la Haye ce samedy 28c Avril 1657.

Signé, De Thou.

Lieutenant-general Brayne to the protector.

Vol. xlix. p. 86.

May it please your highnes,
Since my last of the 12th of March, wherein I gave your highnes a full accompt of our condition here, there hath nothing happened considerable, except the Selby's takeing a Spanish periagoe with seaven men, on the north-side of this island. The confession of two of the most rationall of them is here inclosed, and the material parts of a letter found about them. I have also sent the men in the Marston-More; for should I have sett them at libertie in these parts, they might doe us hurt, they haveing bin unadvisedly brought unhudwinckt through the fortifications of our harbour. Our present condition is sadd, neither fleete nor land-forces haveing any provisions. The land-forces I have dispersed, some of them into the most convenient places for hunting; and as many as can live upon the plantations, I have ordered to stay there, and to continue their labour. Also part I have sent to assist the planters at Port Morant, soe that most are in a probable way of subsisting, onely the sicke and lame are in danger of starveing; and some little provisions being reserved for them, the knowledge of it hath trebled the former number of them: so base a spirit are they, that they care not how they live, soe they may not work. The fleete are much worse; for when I delivered them theire last month's provision, I sent them out to the plentifullest places of the island to hunt, and by that means to spare theire provisions, whilst their men were in strength; which succeeded farre short of my expectation, by reason they goe into the woods with such noyse and clamour, that they affright all the cattle from the sea-side into the midst of the island; soe that after the first day they are ready to starve, and forced to return to their shipping. Yet some shipps, that have active officers, make very good shift. I have sent home the Marston-More, and the Successe, who, if they should have stay'd any longer, would have been spoiled with the worme, and not have had sayles sufficient to have carryed them out of the harbour. They have a very inconsiderable quantitie of victuals, but doe wholly trust to their takeing turtle at Caymanes. I intend also shortly to send home the Beare, being abso lutely unserviceable heere; and if she shold stay much longer, could not be able to swim home. All the rest of the shipping (excepting such as I brought along with me, and the small vessel I bought here) when they returne into the harbour, will hardly be able to goe out againe, for wante of sailes and other necessary stoares; soe that your highnes is at a very greate chardge, and the shipping noe waye usefull heere; and I feare many of the seamen will be in greate hazard of starveing, beinge extream shistes in this tyme of straites. This year hath been so full of raines, that we could make but small quantities of salt as yet, otherwise could have helped ourselves much with turtle. Besides the souldiers are forced to neglect the strictness of their martiall duty, by rambling to seeke a livelibood; soe that if the enemy from Spaine shold attempt us in this condition, I greatly fear the soldiers wold make but weake resistance, theire spirits have bin soe dejected by the wante of necessary foode and rayment; but many of the officers (through the assistance of God) seeme resolved to sell their lives as deere as they can; but had we had a competence of provisions or moneys to have bought, we needed not, through God's mercy, feare any force of the enemys. The New-England marchants have wholly leste us, belike distrusting their payment by bills. The dets oweing to your highnes in the Caribe Islands wold have bin a very great assistance to us; but I had noe order to demand them; and I feare a great parte of them will be loste, the debtors dyeing, and theire estates imbezled. I am allsoe credibly informed, that the gouvernours of these islands are a greate hindrance to the peoples removeing hither, by deteining them for debts (though they have treble the summe oweing to them upon the island) and by nourishing disadvantage or false reports of this place; and enquireing into the reasons, I finde, that they have good estates there, therefore have an eye to their owne security; besides their pay is by their poll of the inhabitants, soe that the goeing off of any is a manifest disadvantage to them. I thought myselfe bounde in duty to acquaint your highnes with it, because I humbly conceave, there is noe other probable waye of cheape and speedy planting of this place, but from these islands; therefore may well deserve a speedy remedie. Since coll. Stokes death I have bin forced to establish a gouvernment among the planters at Port Morant, whoe now, God be praysed, are well revived, and chearfully attend their labour; and in many other thinges, wherein the comissioners were joined in power with me, I have bin forced to act alone; otherwise the whole busines here wold have bin in consusion. Therefore I hope your highnes will either confirme or pardon what is done with singleness of heart and good intention, by
Cagway in Jamaica, 18 Aprill 1657.

Your highnes most obedient servant,
W. Brayne.

Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xlix. p. 191.

Right honorable,
I write your honour aboute 8 dayes since, by a marchant-ship bound for Holland, that the Spaniard had beseidged Olivensa, a garrison of this kingdom. They have now compleated the lyne aboute the place, and hinder all succours from goeinge in. Thire army consists of fourteen thousand foote, and six thousand horse. The Portugueses will not fight them, notwithstanding they have above twenty thousand horse and foote on the frontiers, supposeing the garrison is sufficiently provided of all necessaries for six monthes siedge. Six dayes since the queen of Portugall had intelligence, that Tangera in Barbary is besiedged by the Moores. The messenger, that brought the newes, was aboard generall Blake, in his way from Barbary. He reports, that generall Blake was sending a squadron of ships to the reliefe of the besiedged, which is taken as a very great demonstration of the affection of the Inglish to this nation and this court. If this strong hold should fall into the hands of the Barbarians, it will be a general losse to Christendome.

De Rutier, the Holland admirall, hath been latly at Cadiz with the fleete under his command, but is gone to sea againe; and 'tis reported there, that he is gonn to the Canaries to take aboard the riches, that the 12 gallions brought there latly from the West-India. While he was in Cadiz, he solde the two ships he tooke from the French in the Straites, but reserved all the brass gunnes, which he distributed amongst his owne ships. Since his going from thence thire are 8 Holland men of warre gonn into Cadiz. The commanders were aboard the George, and were examined by the generall.

Gen. Blake would not permit mr. Brucer to goe into Cadiz, which puts me nowe on seekinge another for that imploiment. I shall not rightly meete with one soe fitt in all respects. Mr. Meadowe knowes him, beinge hee lived with him in the same house, while he was here. I suppose he will give a character of him, that he was a very fitt person for that imployment.

The laste pacquet-boate went hence nyneteen dayes since. I was in hopes wee should have bin able to have dispatched one of them from hence every fortnight, which constant goeinge would have much increased the number of letters; but this long staye, I feare, will much prejudice the designe.

The marchants resydent in this kingdome are dayly with me to be a petitioner to your honour, for a letter to the queen of Portugall, to moove her to pay the dets oweinge the Inglish. Your honour will doe them much good, and we shall all ever desyre the Lord to blesse and prosper your honour, which are the dayly prayers of
Lisbon the 18/28 Aprill 1657.

Your honor's faithfull servant,
Tho. Maynard.

Commissioner Pels to the states-general.

Dantzick 28th April 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. xlix. p. 193.

H. and M. lords,
Here is yet no certain advice come neither from the Polish nor Swedish army; so that here is nothing to advise from hence. A good party of this garrison both horse and foot, as also the Pollish foot quartered in the suburbs of this city, yesterday made up the Weissel dam, where it was bored through by the Hoost, although the Swedes on the other side of the river did play upon them very much with field-pieces. There was not much hurt done on either side: whether the Swedes will suffer the same to be stopt up, time will declare.

It is said here, that the Polish armies of Saphia and Charnitzky march towards Littauw to join with the Muscovites; which to hinder, the Sweedish and the army of Ragotsky march against them, and the duke of Brandenburgh's army might chance to follow.

To the Venetian agent.

Antwerp 28th April 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. xlix. p. 195.

The French embassador, who is arrived at the Hague, to treat about the differences and hostilities occasioned on both sides, hath given 7 days time to the states to resolve in; but it is believed, France will not break with Holland, now the emperor is dead, but rather endeavour to do something in Germany concerning the new election.

Here is yet no talk of taking the field. King Charles is still in Brussels, where he hath taken a house; and it is believed, that he will march into the field this campaign with his men against France, till such time as he can employ them elsewhere.

The succours, which are sent continually from England to gen. Blake, may be a means to hinder the plate fleet from arriving at Cadiz; yet the same may arrive in some other port; and the English in the mean time taking nothing, will in the end be tired out, and draw upon themselves a greater debt than their gettings will be able to satisfy.

Brienne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.

Paris 28th of April 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. xlix. p. 199.

My lords,
The discourse, which was held unto me by my lord Lockhart, hath confirmed what you writ to me in your letter of the 19th instant, and that my lord protector is yet unresolved what he should do in this. Only you seem not to agree, that he doth believe, and is assured, that he will take it upon him, and you make a doubt of it. He told me withal, that there being a conspiracy discovered, carried on by some, who published, that the time was come, in which place there was to be framed a fifth monarchy, and that it was to begin in their country, his highness had caused the ring-leaders thereof to be apprehended; and likewise that their standard was taken, which they had made. I imagined at first, that there had been some fight against them; but I was presently informed of the contrary. We do wait with impatience to know the issue of the business offered to the lord protector by the parliament; and we do hope affairs will go on prosperously amongst them, in regard they will contribute much to them of the king, who was very glad to hear the news, that the levies in England are hastned, and that the regiments, which shall be employed in his service, are to be formed of the ancient troops; and that some companies shall be commanded by the ancient officers, and the others by ancient soldiers, whose faithfulness and capacities are well known. By the second orders, which the king hath given, the embassador of Holland, who is in England, will cease to say, that the first orders of his majesty are to be attributed to the rodomontades of the nation; and that the states demanding reparation for losses they say to have sustained, they will not give any to the king: but his majesty is resolved to go to extremities, rather than not to have satisfaction for the injury done him. And if the states did argue upon what hath been practised towards the English, they will find, that they have forgot the rules of logick; and that at present the affairs of the king are in so good a condition, that we shall not fear the joining of their forces with the Spaniard: besides, we are continually sollicited by several for commissions, to make war against them. The danger seemeth light, and the profit great and certain; but in regard it is convenient not to destroy that, which one hath formed, if they will consess their fault, it shall be forgiven them. If there happen to be a war between us, England and the Hans Towns will get by it, for with the one and the other we shall be able to drive our trade; and if the states engage against us, we believe the English will not cease visiting the ships of the Hollanders. I believe you need not press to make any offers in favour of the Catholicks, since that Lockhart hath assured the queen, that the lord protector will not suffer, that the rigour of the law shall be executed against them, out of respect, which the lord protector hath for her majesty. Yet if they desire it of you, that which I write to you now of it will not hinder you to do it, having no order to forbid you from doing of it; on the contrary, being that thing, which his majesty doth most desire, that they may live and serve God in peace.

We are disposing here for the campaign. Mons. de Turenne is already advanced towards Amiens, and mons. de la Ferté is hastning his troops to their rendezvous. Monsieur the prince of Conti is departed for Italy, where the death of the emperor may chance to change the face of affairs; and there is one, who hath declared against us, that doth already repent himself of it.

We shall have my lord Lockhart to follow the court, as he tells me; and he having his audiences easily granted him, the abode will not displease him. There is hardly any thing he can desire, which they are not willing to grant unto him.

Mr. W. Smith to Mr. Jos. Partridge.

Vol. xlix. p. 189.

Since my last to you from Brussells, there is nothing worth your trouble of reading, that hath come to my knowledge. I shall therefore entertaine you a little with some passages, that I formerly omitted. 020 had given notice of my coming over to 02, who assured 6, I was fitter then any to bee imployed in the businesse you know of; and hee hath engaged mee, by all the arts hee and 8 could use, to undertake the bringing others to the acting it. Upon this occasion I am come thus far on my way to England, and two others are to meete mee there as soone as I come. I shall wait on you, and acquaint you with all particulars. In the meane time I desire you ernestly not to take any notice of any thing concerns 020, for it would ruine mee in the intentions I have to serve you, which I assure you I shall doe with much affection and zeale. In my way hether from Brussells I saw at the Hague, on munday night last, a little ballett, where the young princesse of Orange and severall other ladies of her familie danced, and some fugitive French men of Condye's party; one of them was so familiarly receaved by the princesse, that the whole companie was not a little ashamed of hir: his name is la Rocke, a profest enemie of the king and cardinall's, and a meane person; but as greate with hir as Jarmin is with hir mother. The whole towne talkes lowdly of it. Her mother in law the princesse dowager refused to lett her daughters bee in soe scandalous a meeting, for which the wiser sort much commend hir. My lord Craven, and some other English lords were here, but this light princesse spoke not a word to any but hir favourite, or some French. I assure you, some of her owne familie are much ashamed of itt, and itt is written, to my knowledge, both to France and Flanders, and sufficiently spoaken of heere by all. Just as I left the Hague, the French ambassador made his entry into the towne, and on saturday he will have audience. No body knows what will bee his proposalls; but as soone as any, I shall, and you shall not faile of them from,
Rotterdame, fryday 28 Aprill, 1657. [N. S.]

Sir, your humble servant,
William Smith.

The superscription.

For mr. Joseph Partridge, att the signe of the Red-Bull, in Thames-street, London.

Col. Daniel to general Monck.

In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high-chancellor of Gr. Britain.

May it please your lordship,
I have receaved your lordship's orders for dismission of any soldyers, that are ingaged in that destructive novelty of Quakerisme; and upon examination I finde, I have nether officer or soldyer, that ownes that prosession, save captain-lieutenant Davenporte, of whome I formerly acquainted your lordship assoone as hee appeared in that paynted dresse. Hee is gone for Englande this weeke, and resolves to returne againe to chardge, if hee bee not prevented. I have had much conferance with him, and have procured the like from severall others, whoe have shewed much love and wisdome towards him, to have drawne him from these thinges; but a man may (allmost with as much hopes) speake to a stocke or a stone. Hee affirmes, if hee had been bred upp in a cave or wildernesse, and had never seene or heard of the scriptures, hee had knowne as much of God, as now hee pretends to doe. Many other blasphemous tenents hee is insnared withall, and, as I heare, is about writinge his judgement, and resolved to printe itt to the view of the worlde. The truth is, I never saw man soe metamorphosed in my dayes as he is; and his principles tende to confusion both in spiritualls and temporalls. And I beseech your lordship, let some way be devised, that hee may bee beginne and continue a countrey life; for his deportment is soe insnaringe, that hee will bee the instrument of much danger to discompose the spiritts of the soldyery. And if your lordship resolve against his returne, I beseech your honor, let mee have your order to muster lieutenant Henry Moore as my captaine-leiutenant: hee is an honest valiant man, and well fortified against these or any other whimsies. And I knowe, that his heighnesse will not thereupon deny a commission; and it beinge to commande my owne company, and the place noe heigher then a lieutenant, I hope your honor will grante mee this favour, which I shall take as a very great obligation imposed upon
St. Johnston, Aprill 18th 1657.

Your honor's most humble and obedient servant,
William Daniel.

For the lord general Moncke,

The Dutch embassador of Denmarke to Ruysch.

Vol. xlix. p. 202.

My lord,
Our last to your lordship was on the 25th instant. Since the envoy of Poland hath had audience of his majesty, and afterwards delivered to him a memorandum, comprehending a draught and project of a perpetual confederacy between this kingdom and the king and common-wealth of Poland. In the said memorandum is related, that the emperor, during his life, and the duke of Muscovy, and the king of Poland, made a confederacy not to treat with Sweden, but jointly offering now, that the same conditions shall be granted to this king, is so be he will declare against Sweden. The emperor was to send a considerable body of Men to assist the Pole, as the said memorandum imports.

The resident of the king of Sweden hath not yet received any answer to his last memorandum: as far as we can learn, he is to receive it within a day or two, which will be a categorical answer and declaration, how that on the side of his majesty of Denmark they do not intend to go back from any of those points concerning the satisfaction demanded in them.

Upon our draught of ampliation of foregoing treaties made between this crown and their H. and M. L. by reason of the sickness of the lord-chancellor, there hath been nothing done; but the lord ryxshoffmaster hath assured us, that the same shall be taken in hand, as soon as the lord-chancellor is any thing well again. Upon the desired free exportation of corn we were answered in the behalf of his majesty, that there was no prohibition made against it, only in Holstein; and that all that is contracted for without that province may be freely exported; but that in Holstein, in regard of the quartering of soldiers, the exportation of corn was prohibited upon such necessary reasons, that his majesty cannot dispense therewith.

Copenhagen 29 April 1657. [N.S.]


An intercepted letter to the lord Conway.

Paris 29 April 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. xlix. p. 201.

My lord,
Since my last I find little news from any part. The Flanders letters are come, but say little, but of great hope and chearfulness they have amongst them there of the next ensuing campaign; as also of the Scots king's increase of troops. That in general; nothing in particular, but to the imprisonment of a new spy, a merchant, whose name I have forgot. No letter takes notice from thence of the emperor's death, yet it is still continued here.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xlix. p. 205.

Right honorable,
I Have by this poste receaved my credenticall letter and instructions for Muscovy, but not the copie of the company's priviledges therein mentioned to be inclosed, which I suppose was forgott, and that it will come by the next, together with some accompt from that company, how they have beene treated there of late, and what they may more particularly desire of me in case opportunity offer; otherwise I shall be less able to serve them in that business.

Truly, sir, as I have great reason thanckfully to acknowledge the grace and favour of his highnes in honouring me with such an employment, soe I cannot but be much troubled to finde, that notwithstandinge the many promises I have had for sutable vindication, I must not at last leave this place without it, to the great insultinge of my enemies, and the admiration of all publique ministers and strangers heere residinge, whoe have soe long expected it, and whoe will not thinke (whatever is judged at home) that that removing me on further service doth sutably vindicate his highnes honour soe wounded in his servant; and truely I must needs say, that if somethinge further be not done, and signifyed hither, before I depart, I shall then wish the command for Muscovie had beene changed into a discharge of me from further services of that nature. Though I am chearefully willinge to serve his highnes and the common-wealth to the utmost of my power, yet if my interest be so little in your honor, as that you will not vouchsafe answer to allmost any thinge I have desyred your consideration of, for my better enabling to this service mentioned in my letters of the 24th and 31st of laste month, how can it be thought I should proceed on so dangerous a jorney with any comforte ? I am commanded to hast away; but how flenderly I am furnished for it, your honor cannot but apprehend from what I have allready writ unto you, this place neither affording servants to accompany me, nor any thinge elst (in effect) for my sutable setting forth. I writ to my servant Hudson in London, to send me thence some servants and necessaries for my jorney, in case he understoode from your honor, that I was to proceede, and that by reason of greater matters in hand, consideration could not be had thereof by the councell, whom I desyred you to move in the needfull; but he answered me, in regard he could not be admitted by your servants to speake with you, though he often attended and desyred it, nor yet learne of any one, that I was to proceede for Muscovie, he forboare to provide and send the thinges I writ for, soe as I can find myselfe greatly disappointed; for though I may finde persons here to goe along with me, yet being all strangers, and generally disaffected men, its neither so sutable nor safe to entertayne them. Notice hath been duely taken in what equipage your envoys have been sent forth this way; and I presume it's expected, that I goe not to so greate a prince on such a message lesse provided of attendants, if not better. I hinted alsoe to your honor the custome of presentinge the great great duke, least the omission thereof should disgust him; and surely if he accept of the mediation, he will expect a present from me as well as others, especially when I shall move him to restore the company to their former priviledges; his highnes, nor yet the company (if they be at the charge thereof) can probably loose thereby, the duke usually returning with the better. Being that I am, by my instructions, to attend the duke's answer at Riga, if his highnes shall thinke fitt to send a present, it may come hither, and soe hence by Lubeck to Riga, ere I can probably depart thence; or otherwise, if I have order by the returne of this poste, I can provide here either plate or fine cloths to what value shall be thought fitt, and soe take it along with me to present or returne as there shall be occasion. The great duke (as your honor knowes) treates onely in his own language with all publique ministers; but there's not any, that understand it at least, that will goe with me, and I doubt much whether I shall meet with one at Riga: therefore I conceive it best, that the Muscovie company procure one there; for it will be noe trusting to the duke's interpreter, in case he admit a treaty, and send for me to Mus covie. Your honor writ me at first, that I was to goe hence for Mecklin, and thence to Riga, whence I gathered, that care would have been taken either by the state, or by the king of Sweaden's publique minister with you for my transportation over the Balticque. But now findinge noe mention thereof, either in your honor's letter or my instructions, I must fraight a ship purposely at Lubeck, or some other port, which will cost deare, besides the danger in soe passinge, if the Danzick men of warre, who come on the Balticque, meete with us. For money to sett me forth, and supply me in my journey, you have ordered me to drawe my bills on the councell; but (as I have formerly writ your honor) the marchants are not willinge to deale with any but marchants in soe punctual a matter, especially in such tickle tymes. Ever since I came hither, I have been sought to give bills on private freinds for my supply, till I could receave it againe from the state, or otherwise stay for the money here till it was paid in England, which is the way I must now take, wantinge a letter of credit from some sponsall marchant of this company, the usual way of supplyinge publique ministers; especially beinge to remove hence before notice can be had of the payment of my bills: soe as for the future I desire your honor will send me a letter of credit from some such marchant, to leave heere when I depart; for it will not suffice to nominate a man, excepte they see a letter of credit from him; you may lymit the same as you thinke fit. I cannot compute what the chardge of this negociation may amounte to: the journey may prove longe; and its noe trustinge to finde a supply of money at Riga or in Muscovie, if I want, all marchants haveinge quit those parts since the warres; therefore I must carry a sutable supply with me. I cannot goe with less than 16 or 20 in company, least I appeare less considerable to that prince than the charge given me imports: but I shall be as provident as I can for the state, with due regarde to the honor of his highnes. I this day drawe my bill of exchange on the councell for 1000 l. to sett me fourth and for a present supply in my journey: I have alsoe made bold to charge 200 l. more for this quarter's allowance to midsomer next, requestinge your honor to procure the punctuall payment of the money, that I may have advice thereof per returne of the poste, to receive the money heere. In the meane tyme I shall (God willinge) provide my selfe to begin my journey the next day after the poste comes in with those letters; and if I can possibly, I will have a ship ready at Lubeck to receive me there soe soone as I come, that noe more tyme be lost. If the last 400 l. I charged for my allowance from Michaelmas last to the 25th March last, be not paid, I pray your effectuall order for it, beinge straightned for the money. I am sorie to have detayned your honor thus longe, but I could not omit any thinge said, desiring heere you will consider and candidly interpret what I have exprest, professinge myselfe
Hamb. 21 Aprill 1657.

Your honor's very humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

I intend to goe for Lubeck before the returne of this post, and to have all in readyness there for my departure as soone as your letters come to hand, which your honor may please to order to come directed as formerly, and which I thinke meete to doe, that it may be knowne I ame upon the way to the great duke. I shall not now staye for servants, or any thinge elst from England, save the letters of the payment of the money; but provide myselfe heere as well as I can, hopeing to goe sutable . . . . I hope ere this the grand post business of kingship is over, and that I shall then receive new credentialls, and therewith such further order and answer to what I have desired as shall be judged meete. The inclosed presents your honor with the occurrents. Since my last the emperor's death begins allready to influence notably in the empire, and will certaynely prove a great advantage to the affaires of the kinge of Sweden. The king of Denmarke, for all his bustlinge, begins to feare the Swedish forces enteringe Holstein, and some say they are allready entered. The exchange at present is soe low, as that 1000 l. makes not out by 100 l. what it did, when I drew bills for mr. Rolt, which cannot be helped, trade beinge dead.


Hamb. 21 Aprill, S. V. [1657.]

Vol. xlix. p. 113.

The last letters from Vienna affirm, that the elector of Bavaria hath caused edicts to be publickly assixed throughout Austria; thereby giving notice, that upon the death of the Roman emperor he had taken upon him the title and dignity of vicar of the Over-Saxish circle (conferred on him by his said deceased majesty and the empire at the treaty of Munster and Ossenbrug) during the present interregnum. But that the elector of Heidelberg having notice thereof, had also sent forth the like edicts, and did claim the right of the vicariate for himself, as justly deriving upon him from his predecessors, though by abovesaid treaty he was wrongfully deprived of his right and title unto it; which the said elector of Bavaria being informed of, and that he was resolved to dispute the business with him by the sword, endeavouring for that purpose to bring a considerable strength together, he is said to have given order for the speedy raising of a sufficient army, to suppress his said competitor, who indeed without some other powerful assistance is not like to stand out against him of Bavaria, as one incomparably more puissant than the other. The same letter affirms, that archduke Leopold and the princes of Austria have commanded back all the forces of the imperial army, that was dispersed and sent for Silesia, Italy, and other parts, being (as its said) resolved to keep their army entire for the protection of the dominions belonging to the imperial family, and not finding it expedient, rebus sic stantibus, to intermeddle in any other affairs of less consequence. The Danes in Holstein have taken the alarm, and are putting themselves in posture, upon intelligence they received, that 4 or 5000 Swedes are coming down out of Pomerania under the conduct of the Paltzgrave of Sultzbach, who intends to join with the forces that are in readiness in the Stift of Breme (being reputed at least 2500 horse and foot) and so fall directly into Holstein. The report goes very strong, that this news is true, and that the said forces were already seen about Wismar, and are most certainly advancing hitherwards; and although it be doubted of by many, who think not the Swedes so abundant in strength, as to be able to spare such considerable forces at present, yet it appears to be sufficient to strike a terror into the Danes, for that the flight in Holstein begins again more violent than before even among the best of the king's officers there, who, it seems, dare not assure themselves of the safety of their goods and estates, although they have their king's army to protect them out of Poland. It's now certainly reported, that his majesty of Sweden is joined with prince Ragotsky, and that both armies were some 8 miles from Cracow. Sapiha is said, with 15000 men, to be past the river of Buck, expecting the field-marshal Lubomirsky with some thousand foot from Lublin; who, they say, is resolved, as soon as they have joined their forces, to go directly against the prince of Transilvania, notwithstanding his conjunction with his majesty of Sweden. From Marienburgh it's written, that they had as yet no certainty there of the rencounter, which is said to be past near Cracow between gen. Douglas and Czarnetsky, in which, according to report, the last was killed, and Douglas, though sore wounded, yet obtained the victory. It is also said thence, that some days ago 4 Swedish men of war arrived safely in the Pillauw with one Niels Brahe, a Swedish count, and some fresh forces. Letters from Konnigsberg affirm, that that court, by command of the prince elector, was at present taken up with the dispatching of the Muscovian embassador, who is to be sent away with an answer to this effect; That being his highness had now attained unto an absolute sovereignty in these parts, he was resolved, by God's assistance, to maintain himself in it; hoping that the said duke would not envy him his fortune, much less any ways disturb his peaceable enjoyment of the same. Out of Liesland we have news, that count Magnus de la Guardie doth proceed very successfully in his employment against the Muscovians, whereof you may expect some particulars per next.

A letter of intelligence to resident Bradshaw.

Vol. xxxviii.p.

Right honorable sir,
Since the last, of the 24th Aprill, I have neither the continuation of the last newes, neither any other of any note; for as yet there is no newes come out of Poland. Divers reports goe in this citty of a greate fight betwixt the Swedes and the Poles; but as yet there is no certainty at all come from his majesty of Sweden. It seemes we shall not heare what is past in Poland, till the king returnes hether. There is much enquirie after newes, but none can tell any that is credibel; and with others I am loth to fill my letter, and trouble your honor with such incertainty: therefore I must again crave your honor's pardon. The Dantzigers have stopt the whole upon the damm in the Werder, with such inventions and instruments, that the water can doe their contry people no more harme. It seemes, the Sweds had not tyme enough intelligence of it, for to hinder it. If the Danzigers will maintaine it, when the Swedish forces shall come to breake it downe againe, tyme will teach. The king's brother is to follow his majesty into Poland with some squadrons of dragons; and to this purpose, out of everie garrison some souldiers are brought together for to make up a little corpus of an army for to goe with him. Some conjecture by this, that the Swedes have had in Poland no greate successe. The Muscoviter desires to treate of peace with the king of Sweden; but the Swedes desire first, that the Swedish embassador, basely entertained from them before, shall be sett free, to come back to Riga. This is all at present; and so I subscribe,
From Elbing the 1st of May 1657. [N. S.]

Yours at command.

The superscription,
A monsieur monsieur le resident a present a Hamburg.

Col. Tho. Cooper to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

My lord,
By a letter receaved from doctor Gorge, I understande, that its your lordship's pleasure I should make all haste I can into Ireland; and that you have writ to his highnes to dispatch mee. I ame veary ready to obey your lordship's comands, and had bin at the water-side before this tyme, if I could have got leave of his highnes; but he was unwillinge I should goe for the present. I have not had the opertunety of speakeinge with him since I have receaved your lordship's mynde, but shall waite to knowe it; and accordingly make what haste I can. If it bee your lordship's pleasure I shall make my residence in the northe, then Carrickfergus is the moste convenient place, and there is no howse in the towne, but that of sir John Clotworthy's, that will conteyne my famely: and what bargan hee and mr. Davis hath made about it, I knowe not. I should bee willinge to give a full rent' for it for the tyme I live in it; and is it bee soe, as mr. secretary faith, concerning mr. Davis, I thinck it's not fit hee should live in a garrison, especially in such a howse, that over-lookes our guards, as that doth; but that I leave to your lordship's consideration. As for newse, I knowe you have it from better hands, and therfore I shall not put you to trouble, but remaine,
London Aprill 21, 1657.

My lord,
Your lordship's veary faithfull servant,
Tho. Cooper.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

My lord,
His highnes keepes every body in suspence as to his acceptance of the Advice, which the parlament hath given hym in reference to the governement of these nations. He hath had 3 or 4 conferences with a committee of parlament about the title, he giveinge reasons against it, they for it.

This day he hath beene pleased to give in severall exceptions to other parts of it. The whole will be reported to the house to-morrow. What resolution the house will take thereupon, I am not able to tell you. Many thinke they will adhere, and againe bringe it to his highnes, and leave it with hym. And this is all that I knowe of this matter; and I beleeve there are very few that knowe more. Certeinly H. H. hath very great difficulties in his owne minde, although he hath had the clearest call that ever man had; and for ought I see, the parlament will not be perswaded, that there can be any settlement any other way. The title is not the question, but it's the office, which is knowne to the lawes and this people. They knowe their duty to a kinge, and his to them. Whatever else there is will be wholly new, and be nothinge else but a probationer, and upon the next occasione wil be changed againe. Besides, they say, the name protector came in by the sword out of parlament, and will never be the ground of any settlement; nor will there be a free parlament soe longe as that continues; and as it favours of the sword now, soe it will at last bringe all thinges to be military. These and other considerations make men, who are for settlement, steady in their resolutions as to this governement now in hand; not that they lust after a kinge, or are peevish upon any account of opposition; but they would lay foundations of libertye and freedome, which they judge this the next way to.

My lord-deputy and generall Desbrowe oppose themselves with all earnestnes against this title, but thinke the other thinges in the Petition and Advice are very honest. The other gentleman stands at distance, hath given over his opposition, and lets thinges take their owne course. Many of the souldiers are not only content, but are very well satisfyed with this change. Some indeed grumble, but that's the most, for ought I can perceive. And surely whatever resolutions his highnes takes, they will be his owne, there beinge nothinge from without, that should be any constreint upon hym, either to take of refuse it: the greatest is, which indeed hath weight in it, the advise of a parlament. Those thinges, which his highnes offered this day, are not of the essence of the paper, but are such as the parlament will, without much difficultye, comply with him in. The cheife and maine is that about money; to witt, for the asserteyneinge thereof, both as to the 1300000 l. promised, as alsoe to knowe what temporary supplyes they will grant hym, and for how longe. In the close of the discourse H. H. told them, that when he knew their mindes in those perticulars, which he then delivered unto them in writeinge, whereas kingship was none, he then would freely and plainely give them his answere upon the whole. The truth is, his carriage in this debate was such, that it gave great hopes to some, that he would at last comply with the parlament; but that tyme must shew: for the present, wee can but guesse. Its certeyne the body of this nation doth defire it.

Our forreine newes is not much, save that which concernes the death of the emperour. He died the 2d instant, new stile. Wee expect by the next letters to heare, who shall is like to succeede hym. There beinge noe kinge of the Romans, it is very like, that it will occasion some greate alteration of affaires in that part of the world. Vice-admirall Goodson arrived heare from Jamaica the last saterday: he lest the island in a healthfull condition, and in a hopefull way of settlement. There is a report, that the Spanysh gallions are come to the Canaryes, and have there unladen: wee are not willinge to beleeve it, and therefore doe expect a confirmation. A Spanysh prize was lately brought in to the Downes by some of our ships: she came from the West-Indyes. Her ladinge was hides, indico, &c. and shee had in her some peeces of eight. I rest
Your lordship's most affectionate,
humble, and faithfull servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

21 Aprill 1657.

Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xlix. p. 206.

May it please your honor,
At my audience yesternight, the cardinall did renew his desyers for the landing of your forces against the day mentioned in my last, which was 403, 123, 364, 226, 366, 87. Upon your accompt, it is expected, that those, who come armd, cary swords with them, the French disciplin allowing no souldier to be seen (either in the camp or in garrison) without his sword. Their are arms ready for the others at the place of their landing, onely the collonells must provyd collers and drums, the expense of which will soone be made up. I have acquainted sir John Reinolds with this and some other particulars, and have done it without apprehensione of danger; because I finde its generally knowen, that the French make levyes in England for the service of this campagne. The cardinall hath earnestly pressed my beinge with the forces at their landing: tho' my last tolde you of my owne resolutions that way, yet I suffered myselfe to be entreated, and seem'd to condescend to it, out of complacency to his desyers; he hath reasumed his hops of performing all France is oblydged to by the papers sent to mr. Walker; is consident this will proove a very happy campagne; and expects your ratification of those papers. He hath condescended to add a clause in their ratificatione heare, which will increase the serjeants and corporalls pay, and will much secure their precyse paying of what is already condescended too all the tyme, that any of these troopes shall be entertained in the French service. He hath also promised soe to intend the accomodatione, as if he performe, which I hope he will, their condition will be not far short of those entertained in your service at home. I have given that caracter of John Reynolds, which he doth trewly merit, and dare promise him such a reception from this court, as shall sufficiently witnesse their esteeme of him.

The cardinall hath confidence (by his highnes assistance) to give . . . . . . . (as he termes it) to the house of Austria.

He promiseth himself to carry the empyre into some other family, and speaks of vast summs of money he is to employ for that end. I gave the Dutch ambassador a visit upon monday last: the accompt he gave me of his masters sense of their differences with France, and the discourse the cardinall had upon that subject at my audience yesternight, gives me cause to apprehend that business will not admit of any accomodation. If his highnes have any desyers it should, or be sollicited by the stats of Holland to mediatt for it, the first step towards it, must be the recalling of this ambassador; who tho' he be a person, for whom I have a reall esteeme, yet I clearly see this court hath so great prejudice against him, as it is impossible for him to do his masters any more service heare.

Last day I see count Tot, and found him bigg with expectatione, that his master will be elected emperor. He told me, this was the tyme, wherein his highnes, by his endeavours that way, might readily oblydg his master. I assured him, his highnes would have nothing unattempted, that might contribute to it; tho' I feare the electors will not easily be induced to choose a prince of so great a spiritt.

Sir, at my last audience I obtained a very great favor from his eminence, which is this: their is a generall tax putt upon all marchants and others heare, that are strangers; it is so considerable, that by a letter from one English merchant in Rowan I am informed, his share amounts to 300 l. sterl. I did represent, that the cry of such a grievance would without doubt reach his highnes ears, and was confident, their sufferings upon that account would be imputed either to my want of care or interest, and so occasion both my recall and disgrace. He tould me, his majestie could not part with his antient right of taxing such strangers as did reside in his dominions, and theirfore the arrest could not be revoked; but in consideration of his highnes he would releive a list of such of his subjects, as I should offer to him, and would give order, that the summs imposed upon them by arrest should not be exacted. The queen received his highnes's civill return to her desyers with great satisfaction, and many acknowledgements of his favor.

I am resoved to leave mr. Paten with my wys. Mr. Disbrow and he will have opportunity to continue their exercyses together; he is really a very ingenios gentleman, and I am consident will answere the hight of all your expectations concerning him. Poore mr. Pirceville hops your honor will be myndfull of him. I earnestly desyer to know what may be expected concerning the two ingineers, about whom I have formerly troubled you, and ame,
May it please your honor, Your most humble and obedient servant, Will. Lockhart.

May 2 stilo novo 1657.

A letter of intelligence from Col. Bamfylde.

Vol. xlix. p. 208.

By the last currier from Rome the newes is, that the plague is soe far abated, as that the pope gives publique audience, and all the ecclesiasticall and temporal courts execute their sonctions. He has already sent 3000 men to the assistance of the Venetian, and all the church-gallies are ready at Civita Vechia, to sett sayle under the command of his nephew, with the first wind. The pope has likewise dispatched the abot Galliotti post to his noncio at Vienne, with new directions touching the affairs of the empire, who has likewise particular letters to the three ecclesiastical electors, touching the election of the arch-duke Leopoldus. They had not long since hopes here, that the death of the emperor might have wrought some change in the duke of Mantoue; but here is very lately arrived a currier with a dispatch to the duke of Modena, which gives an account of his haveing sent a person of condition to Cazall, to try what might be done to the drawing of that duke at least to a newtrality, whoe shew'd the messenger a letter, which he had not long before receaved from the empress, to acquaint him with the emperor's death, and the courses which were taken for the establishment of the family of Austria, and to incite him to continue firm in his declared amitie to that house, which he prosessed to doe, and sent away the messenger with only a verball answer, without any letter, so as the duke of Modena desires the cardinall neither to diminish nor retard the last promised assistance for that warr, upon any vain hopes of any advantage from the duke of Mantoue. Some letters from Madrid say, that the plate-fleete is arrived at Cadiz, and that the Spaniards have entred Portugall, and have taken and sacked de Evora; which newes I heare comes lykewise from Lisbon. The ambassador of Portugall has lately made new offers touching the king's marriage, and, as I am told from a good hand, offers ten hundred thousand pistolls (but 'tis soe vast a sume as is hardly credible) with that princess, provided that the king will oblidge himself never to make peace with the Spaniard, without comprising the king of Portugall; and that for the present he will assiste them with some forces; and that the count d'Harcourt may command there in chief; but there will not be any thing determined in the business, 'till her picture comes, which is expected about six weeks hence. 'Tis lykewise sayd, that four councellors, which were to assist the queen of Portugall, are retyred from Lisbonne, being suspected of correspondence with the Spaniard, and threatned by the people in papers pasted up upon their doors, and in divers publique places. The king had given orders to all his guards, which constantly attend his person, to be ready against to morrow, to attend him to Champagne; but his journey is delayed upon the assembly of the churches refusing to dissolve, 'till they have better satisfaction touching some of the king's concessions in theyr favour; particularly the king haveing passed an edict, that all the farmers of the church-lands should be free from taxes, the court des aides, which is to ratify the sayd edict, refuse to doe it, but with such restrictions as render it of little or no benefit; but the king has issued forth a command, to have it confirmed by them in the same forme that he has passed it. 'Till this be done, and some other of his edicts ratifyed in parliament, the court moves not, which they say will be finished this weeke, that his majesty may parte the beginning of the next. It has passed in councell, that all commerce with the Hollanders shall be prohibited, 'till a better understanding betwixt this crowne and that state; and that letters of reprisalls shall be granted. I have received some letters out of Spayne and from Ittaly yesterday, wherein your affayrs are concerned, but you haveing my cyphers (which I sent you amongst the papers the pursivant siez'd on at Dover) I knowe not how to make out the particulars, which I believe may be of importance, since I know in generall, that they relate to sir Henry Bennet's negotiation at Madrid, and to another person's employed both to the pope and duke of Florence, to borrowe moneye for Charles Stuart. I have noe more to say but that I am,
May the 2d N.S. 1657.

Your most humble and most faithfull servant.

H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland, to the protector.

Vol. xlix. p. 209.

May it please your highnes.
Among the many mercys your highnes hath received, there hath scarce any bin more eminent, then the late discovery of the dangerous purposes of the fist-monarchymen, against whom there needs noe other invectives, then what their own declaration will prove in the judgment of all honest hearts; for therein it's most visible, that their destructive and inconsistent principles, as to the publique, were persued with a deadly malice towards your highnes in particular; and, which is worst of all, that those bloody designes should proceed from them, whoe pretend soe nere a communion and interest with the prince of peace.

The dangers, which I hope are hereby prevented, are very great; and the good, which I trust the Lord will bring out of this evill, are noe less: for I thinke that both your highnes and the parliament will by this see the necessitie of a closer union, and that titles and names are of little moment, in comparison of the effect which a breach or distance might produce, when not onely the Cavalier and Leveller (I mean Syndercombe's party) have bin of late soe busie; but allsoe when this bosome-viper of the 5th monarchy hath soe much poyson prepared, wherewith to annoy these nations. Certaynly, these wylde notions concerning the right of saints to reign, and the imaganary immediate government of Christ upon earth, must needs call aloud for some settlement both in church and state, such as the parliament hath lately advised your highnes unto.

I wish with my soule, that that parte of the advice were practised, allthough as to the price of it (which is the acceptance of the name of a king) I dare say nothing; allthough for my own parte, I cannot apprehend the necessity of it, notwithstanding many wise men alledge great reason on its behalf, from the nature of severall lawes, wherein I am not soe well verst as to consute them; but notwithstanding all those arguments, I could never be yet convinced, that all those excellent proposalls of the parliament are soe inseparably affix'd to the name of king, that all should stand or fall together, as the adhæringe vote of parliament seems to importe. I have of late largely written hereof to mr. secretary. As I much rejoyced that your highnes took the moste safe way of consulteing with the Lord and your own heart in this moste difficult matter, soe I was alsoe glad to understand those rationall results, which the Lord gave in unto your highnes thereuppon, as appeared in your highnes's late answere to the parliament. I say it rejoyces me, to see your highnes proceed upon those wayes and principles of seeking the Lord, mature deliberation, and of frequent conference with the parliament; especially since those actings of your highnes are owned with such consistent conclusions on the one hand, and with such arguments of the Lord's presence on the other hand, as I take this seasonable unmaskeing of these new incendiaries to bee.

Here hath bin frequent meetings one this syde, between Allen, Vernon, and that party, whose very spirit is legible in this libellous declaration. It was a providence, that they and som others were not in England at this juncture; neither doe I think the stopping of colonell Thomlinson (who endeavoured to have bin in England about that time) was a triviall or needless caution; for in him alsoe appeares the like spiritt more then his flye carriage is able to conceal. I believe they have bin tampering, yet I cannot perceive they have made any vissible impression upon the army here, which, for ought I can see, is yet in a good temper, and like for to continue. I cannot well tell how to interprett Axtell's selling of all his stocke, and letting longe leases of all his land, together with his too sudden slipping away from hence; which course diverse others of that party were alsoe upon.

I understand something of an intention to put the command of the intended foreign expedition upon sir John Reynolds, which I beleive he would not stick at, if he thought it originally proceeded from your highnes, and not from some, who would bee ridd of him. Now, inasmuch as he hath bin allwayes faithfull and industrious in your highnes service, and hath allwayes born a good affection to your family and relations, and particularly to myself, I cannot but humbly beg your highnes, that nothing may be put upon him but what may be suteable to his merit, and which may be rather a preferment to him than otherwaies, with respect, and in comparison to his present condition here. Besides his interest here is such, as I believe your highnes would not spare him from hence but for some considerable reason. I thought to have offered somewhat to your highnes, touching the matter of lieutenant-colonell Warren's address, for compleating the satisfaction of the army, which at present is not like to exceed 14 s. 3 d. in the pound, being more then the full satisfaction according to the English measure first intended. I could wish your highnes might avoide denying any favour to the army; but I shall at a more seasonable tyme offer my thoughts against being too lavish of those lands reserved by the act, as that whereupon the prosperitie of this nation, and consequently the good of the whole doth depend. But for the present, I shall earnestly desire the Lord to continue his presence with you as hitherto. I remane
Dublin, Aprill 22 1657.

Your highnes's most obedient sonn,
H. Cromwell.

Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xlix. p. 229.

The packett, which goes here, which I received from general Blake by the Non-such catch, that came in here yesterday, which will give your honour what news is in the fleet. This catch is ordered to stay in Caskais roade seven days, for intellgence from Ingland, and then to retourne to the fleete. For want of the packett-boates, I send this by a marchant-ship. I received a packett by this catch from general Blake, to be sent forwarde to captain Stoakes, that commands the squadron about the North-cape, which I am forced to send by this ship, haveing noe other convayance. The master hath promised me to do his utmost to delyver it, but it will be uncertin; so the wante of the packettboates is very prejudiciall in many respects.

The Portugall army are past over the river Goadiana, and are now incamped within souer leagues of the Spanish army, who continue still before Olivensa; which place, notwithstanding it belongs to the crowne of Portugall, it lyes in Spaine to the other side of the river. The Portuguez past over without any resistance, which makes these people conclude, the Spaniard is not in a condition to fight them. I wish it doe not fall out contraire to thire expectation, and that this is only a tricke of the Spaniard to expose them; for now the Portuguez cannot retreate without very great disadvantage; and if they cannot make theire party good against the Spaniard, they will cut them all off. I have not else to trouble your honour. I committ you to God's protection.

Lisbon the 4th May/24th Aprill 1657.

Your honour's most faithfull servant,
Thomas Maynard.

The Dutch embassadors at Marienburgh to Ruysch.

Marienburgh 4 May 1657. [N.S.]

Vol. xlix. p. 226.

My lord,
We have at last received the inclosed draught of ratification from the city of Dantzick, about the stipulation of the 10th of July 1656; but in regard we observed, in the extent thereof, some considerable alterations and pretences of loans of money, where of in their former draught of ratification no mention was made, and which we cannot judge to agree with the scope and intention comprehended in their H. and M. L. resolution of the 8th of June, 7th of July, and 18th of August, we thought fit to send the original to your lordship, that so we might know what their H. and M. L. shall think fit to resolve upon it. There are again several reports of a fight between the Swedes and Poles, near to Cracow, but we cannot write any particulars with any certainty. Here is also news, that the duke of Muscow is with a great army in person near to Smolensko; but the duke of Brandenburgh hath assured us, that the said great-duke doth desire an accommodation with his majesty of Sweden.

The gap in the Weyssel dam, lately made up by those of Dantzick, is again opened by the Swedes.


An intercepted letter of E. Burton, to mr. Samuel Fothergill, at the sign of the white cross at Wapping Old-stairs.

Rotterdam, 4 May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. xlix. p. 232.

Dear Friend,
I Received yours of the 13th of April last, and one more ten days before that, this day fortnight. I am very glad to hear of your health, and hope the same of your uncles and aunts; pray remember me to them all most affectionately. I am told, L. B. had recommendation from you to me, but it was not thought fit I should see him, though we were at the same time in one town; otherwise you should have heard something by him. I am glad to hear of his safe arrival. You tell me, when you writ you was in hast, but I rather think weary; and I may suppose lazy, that you would not read over what you had written, otherwise you would have corrected it. I hear you are reasonably well; I can be confident to chide you a little. I should be glad to hear from you about my business; I shall do nothing in it 'till I have your positive order; for I suppose you take advice, and I should be very sorry to make more hast than good speed, as you long yourself to be cheerful, and trust God withal, to whose goodness I commit you, resting
Your faithful friend,
E. Burton.

An intercepted letter of Ed. Burton, to mr. Sam. Fothergill at Wapping Old-stairs.

Rotterdam 4 May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. xlix. p. 230.

Loving Friend,
I Received yours of the 17th of the last month, wherein I understand of your health and good condition: it is the more welcome news to me by much, since I have heard of the late tumults about London. My love is great towards you; and had it been less, its probable my fear might have been as little. I dare say, your poor sister in the country hath had many sad thoughts about you, and wished you had rather let fall your suit, than to have spent so much money, time, and labour in it; and if it be gained, the advantage will not be very considerable to you. I hear my cousin Underwood is dead; but I am ignorant how he hath disposed of his estate, or whether he hath given me any legacy: mourning you know is the least I can expect for myself and wife; but his promises have been such, that I thought I might build upon them for the maintaining of my eldest boy three years at Oxford: my comfort is much in him. So desiring to hear from you, I commend you to the protection of the Almighty, and am
Pray deliver the inclosed to my mistress,
and seal it.

Yours whilst
Ed. Burton.