State Papers, 1658: September (1 of 4)

Pages 369-380

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

September (1 of 4)

Dr. Thomas Clarges to Henry Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelis burn.

May it please your Excelency,
The violent sicknes of his highnes fils me with sad aprehensions, that I have skearse sense enough to give your excelency an acount of any thing. His disease is a double tertian ague, which at this season, in a person of his age and constitution of body (being much distemper'd by his late grief and melancholly, besides his other infirmities) is a very violent companion.

Yesterday a fast was kept by many of the officers of the army at my lord Fleetwood's house, and some considerations were had amongst them afterwards (as I am informed) concerning the present condition of his highnes, and the posture of our affaires; but the result I know not, but hope it was for the best. I shall ad nothing more, but my prayers to the Lord for his highnes recovery, and the happines of your excelencie's family, shall never be wanting in,
May it please your Excelency,
Your excelencye's most humble servant,
Tho. Clarges.

London, this 1st of
September, 1658.

Colonel Barkstead, lieutenant of the Tower, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 5.

Right Honourable,
This evening late I received the two warrants from the councell for the duke of Buckingham's going to Windsor; and imediately gave him notice of them, that soe he might prepare himselfe for his journey. He tells me, it being soe farr in the night, he cannot possibly be provided to goe to-morrow, but desires he may stay till saturday morning; and both he and his lady make it their earnest request to mee, to give him liberty, as he goeth, to stop at Yorke-house, an hower or two, to see his father and mother. The request seemes very reasonable; yet I have refused hitherto to graunt it, and shall continue soe to doe, if you thinke there may be any thing in it prejudiciall to the publique. I shall not further adde, but that I am,
My Lord,
Your honour's most affectionate friend,
and reall servant,
Jo. Barkstead.

Tower, 2d September, 1658.

9 at night.

Lord chief justice St. John to secretary Thurloe.

In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great-Britain.

I Received your sad letter even now, and am more sensible of the contents by much, then what in the nearest could concerne my person or familie. We heard before of some distemper, but nothing of any dainger. Uppon the receite of yours I would not stay for the post, but have sente one of myne owne servants; and what I now write, is uppon the suddayne, viz. that if my coming up may be but in the least servisable to any of his highnes familie, I shall account it a great happines, and shall make no delay. Concerning that part of your letter of the desyre of some uppon the publique account, I can say thus much; my owne ease or presente concernements, either of life, or any thing else deare, shall not stay me one minute. My owne thoughts are, that if uppon any debate concerning affayres, the advise of persons conceived faithfull to the publique interest be desyred, and if I shall be named amongst them, I am most reddy to joyne; but to come otherwise, I am affrayd, that it may have a contrarie effecte. I hope the Lord will be mercifull to us, and prevente our feares by restoring and continueing him to us, by whom he hath done soe much. In shorte, I leave all to your discretion, whoe are uppon the place, and order me as you shall conceive fitting; and that I may receive the orders with speede and safety, I have sent this messenger; and if theire be any thing you would not comit to a letter, you may by word of mouth safly imparte your minde unto him. I rest
Your most affectionate servant,
Ol. St. John.

3d September, 1658.

Mr. Pierrepont is not now in these parts, but att Tongue-castle in Shropshire.

The superscription,
For the right honourable Mr. secretary
Thurloe, at Whitehall, these.

Instructions of the high and mighty lords states general of the United Provinces for James de Wassenaer, lord of Wassenaer, lord admiral of Holland, and W. Frise, going toward the Sound, with a fleet, to execute as followeth.

Vol. lxi. p. 333.

The said lord admiral shall first know, that the intention of the state is, that in this expedition he shall deliver and defend the subjects of these provinces, particularly those that trade in the Baltic sea, from all sort of outrages; as also to resist the king of Sweden, who hath lately made war upon him very unexpectedly, in such manner, and with such vigour, as may secure himfrom this oppression.

II. For this purpose, he shall speedily, with his fleet, that is before the isle of Schelling, sail toward the Sound, there to convoy the forces, which this state sends for relief of the king of Sweden, particularly to raise the siege of Copenhagen and Cronenberg.

III. Being arrived near the castle of Cronenberg, he shall endeavour to put in part of his forces, if the governor of the castle shall find it meet.

IV. He shall endeavour to conduct the rest of his forces to Copenhagen.

V. He shall endeavour to recover out of the hands of the Swedes, the ships, and goods, and men of these provinces, which have been taken or arrested by the Swedish men of war.

VI. And in meeting with the Swedish fleet, or any part of them, he shall attack them vigorously to overcome them, if it may be; employing all courage, wisdom and vigour, as occasion shall serve, according to what is expected from him.

VII. And he shall deal according to the former article, with all those, who will hinder him in the execution of what is aforesaid.

VIII. The forces being landed, he shall lie with his fleet in the Sound or thereabouts, to contribute upon all occasions what may serve to hinder the said oppression, and particularly to defend the ships of the subjects of these provinces, and prevent all disorders, sending some ships, if occasion be, to convey them.

IX. And in case the city of Copenhagen, and castle of Cronenberg, should be (which God forbid) surrendered before his arrival, he shall lie with his fleet upon the ca sts of Denmark and Norway, in a sure and commodious place, and such as he shall judge most fit for the effect of the eighth article, there to wait for further orders from their high mightinesses.

X. The said lord admiral shall observe all this; yet without holding himself to the letter of this order, but according to the exigencies of affairs, he may act as he shall judge best, to arrive to the effect of the intention of their high mightinesses, and there follow principally the considerations and orders of the king of Denmark, and to whom he shall give notice of his coming, and always hold correspondence with his majesty, or his ministers.

XI. He shall, during this voyage, endeavour, that the ships of this fleet may be treated according to the treaties, and with regard had to this state; and that they use also, with all courtesy and friendship, the commanders of the fleets or squadrons of kings, republics, princes and potentates, who are allies and friends of this state; yet not to suffer any violation of these instructions, either in receiving commands, or in suffering ships to be visited, or mariners to be taken out, and to be hindered in their endeavours; but if they will attempt so much, and no reason will serve, they shall defend themselves against them with all the means they have, and so as they ought to do, according to their order, with charge to every one to carry himself herein as he ought.

XII. If during this voyage any of the commanders come to be killed, (which God forbid !) or to die of sickness, the most ancient officer shall be put in his place, as also the lieutenants of ships in place of their captains, if the said lord admiral hath no reasons to the contrary, which shall take place, when any captains or others officers shall have been cashiered by the council of war, &c.

XIII. He shall keep a journal of all things of importance, and give notice thereof upon all occasions to their high mightinesses, and to the colleges of the admiralties, &c.

XIV. Finally he shall deliberate and resolve in all things, whereof there is no mention made in these instructions with his council of war, that so he may have respect to the service and good of the state.

Made and decreed in the assembly of the high and mighty lords, &c. Hague, 14th of September, 1658. [N. S.]

Captain Langley to secretary Thurloe.

Leith, September 4. 1658.

Vol. lxi. p.13.

May it please your honour, since the writing of my last, fresh desires in the Anabaptists to begine a new propagation, and for that end they have presented many with new bookes, or an new booke, containing all there strongest arguments against pedobaptisme, as they call it. The manner of the binding of the booke is to rowle up like some of your alminakes sit for one's pockitt, that soe they may be ready at guards or elsewhere. That which makes mee give notis of this is, that just at the time when it is whispered, that my lord protector is very dangerosely ill, they should thus breake out with these things, in which they have beene silent som yeares, nay resolved, they was not to medle with that controversey any more, but, as they said, let God perswade the harts of men, that soe all might be free. I add further, that they take noe notis outwardly of my lord's being not well, nor meet nor seek God, though they see the council and judges have don it, which they would not be last in doeing, did it like them: but doubtles, something seemes to put fresh life to there designe, which hath allways been in there eie, though hetherto stranguled in the hearts. It is evident to mee they are lifted up with sum dark hopes, that if, &c. which God divert! Here is a ship come com newly in from Borgine in Norway, which brings tidinges, that the Sweads are doubtles at Copenhagen; and that the Danish king fled over the water in a boat in the night towards . . . . and which is oposit to Copenhagen, as they say. In Norway they permit severall vessels to be taken out of . . . . . and the man of war to continue there. The post is come. Pardon me. I am
Your Honor's,
Timothy Langley.

Sir John Copleston to secretary Thurloe.

September 4th, 1658.

Vol. lxi. p. 15.

I Have been at Weymouth, and shipped there sowerscore and eleaven souldiers.

They had a very good wind, and are, I beleeve, (erre this) at Dunkerke. Out of the 200 l. I charged on you I have laid out 132 l. 3 s. So there remains in my hands 67 l. 17 s. which you shall be paid as you shall require.

l. s. d.
The souldiers had 80 0 0
The conductors 20 0 0
The purser for provisions 20 0 0
A plattforme for the souldiers to lye on 3 15 0
For boates to carry them on board 2 3 0
For their quarters at Chard 4 18 0
For bread and beare at their shipping 1 7 0
132 3 0

I am troubled they fall soe very short of the number; there wee above 240 listed; but a man cannot be certain of these people, till they are shipped, and 'tis noe good time in harvest to raise men; and heere's a report, that the French in a late engagement dealt very tracherously (or cowardly) with the English, soe that many were lost. This was written by Mr. Prideaux and some others.

I am exceedingly sorry to heare of his highnesse indisposition of health. The Lord preserve him to this poore nation, and the interest of his people, is the most earnest prayer of,
Your most humble and obliged servant,
Jo. Copleston.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. earl of Shelburn.

May it please your Excellency,
I did by an expresse upon munday give your excellency an account of his highnesse sicknes, and the daunger he was in. Since that it hath pleased God to put an end to his dayes. He died yesterday about four of the clocke in the afternoone. I am not able to speake or write; this stroake is soe soare, soe unexpected, the providence of God in it soe stupendious, consideringe the person that is fallen, the tyme and season wherein God tooke hym away, with other circumstances, I can doe nothinge but put my mouthe in the dust, and say, It is the Lord; and though his wayes be not alwayes knowne, yet they are alwayes righteous, and wee must submitt to his will, and resigne up ourselves to him with all our concernements.

His highnes was pleased before his death to declare my lord Richard successor. He did it upon munday; and the Lord hath soe ordered it, that the councell and army hath receiv'd him with all manner of affection. He is this day proclaymed; and hitherto there seemes a great face of peace: the Lord continue it!

It is not to be sayd, what affection the army and all people shew to his late highnes; his name is already precious. Never was there any man soe pray'd for as he was dureinge his sicknes, solemne assemblie meetinge every day, to beseech the Lord for the continuance of his life; soe that he is gone to heaven, embalmed with the teares of his people, and upon the winges of the prayers of the saints. He lived desired, and dyed lamented, every body bemoaning themselves, and sayeinge, A great man is fallen in Israel! The Lord double his spirit upon his successor and upon your excellencye, that you both may be famous in your generation, and be helped by God with one heart and shoulder to carry on that worke, the foundation whereof your most renowned father layed, for which posterity will blesse hym! The councell hath given your excellency an account of what is done as to the proclayminge his highnes your brother. I only herewith send the voet of the councell; and though I know not what will be my portion or condition here, yet I shall alwayes be
Your Excellency's most humble and obedient servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

4th September, 1658.

His highnes intends to send a gentlemen to your excellency in the beginninge of the next weeke, to let you understand fully the state of all things here and of your family; and comanded me to desire you to excuse his not writeinge by this messenger. The truth is, his highnes death is soe soare a stroake unto him, and he is soe sensible of it, that he is in noe condition to write or doe yet. Here is a sadd family on all hands: the Lord support them!

There is a proclamation actually past for keepeinge on foot all comissions, which will be sent by the next; there need be noe scruple in the meane tyme.

Monsieur Schlezer, the elector of Brandenburg's agent, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 33.

Honoratissime Domine,
Exhibui nuper dominationi vestræ per dominum Marvillium serenissimi principis electoris domini mei literas ad gloriosissimum quondam dominum protectorem Olivarium, ac successionis lege ad serenissimum ac celsissimum dominum protectorem Angliæ modernum directas, quibus serenitas sua electoralis, pro illa, quam hactenus erga principem vestrum ac rempublicam hanc testata est, amicitia, liberius de serenissimo ac potentissimo rege Sueciæ, deque repetita ejus in Daniam irruptione, conqueritur, simulque causas susceptorum armorum suorum serenissimæ celsitudini suæ probare conatur. Quo genere dictionis illæ conscriptæ sint, aliorum judicio permittendum est. Pro meo ad pacem ac tranquillitatem publicam, unionemque principum Protestantium, firmam ac synceram continuo nisu ac labore, mihi saltem gratulor, nullas alias in negotio hoc partes mihi demandatas esse, quam ut literas illas tantummodo traderem, quo vultu animoque eæ acciperentur, adverterem ac referrem, simulque responsum debita cum reverentia urgerem acelicerem. Si quid tamen est, quod serenissimo domino electori animum addidit, eo modo ad serenissimum ac celsissimum dominum protectorem scribendi, vel illud præcipue suisse crediderim, quod dominus Downingius, residens vester in Belgio, ministros Brandenburgicos non semel certos ac securos reddidit, serenissimum dominum protectorem Olivarium bello isti, quod tunc temporis ad huc sub cineribus latuit, nulla ratione se immixturum, sed medium atque utræque parti amicum permansurum. Illud ipsum quoque serenissimo domino electori ansam dedit, ut consilium caperet, non neminem ex consiliariis status sui extra ordinem huc ablegandi, quo tanto magis cum affectum ac observantiam, tum quoque siduciam suam erga serenissimum dominum protectorem, nec minus quem sibi scopum propositum haberet, ac quam non ulli operæ reducendæ pacis gratia optimus ipse princeps pepercerit, declararet, ac manisesta ea omnia redderet; nec dubitavit serenitas sua electoralis, quin grata acceptaque legatio hæc serenissimæ celsitudini suæ futura sit, vel propter merita viri multis ingenii dotibus conspicui, ac honoratissimo apud se loco constituti, vel propter negotii gravitatem, in quo intimos sensus principis sui depromere, eaque pariter agere, dispicere, dijudicare queat, quæ ad communem rem spectare videbuntur. Alia nonnulla de negotio religionis, deque Lutheranorum imprimis regiæ suæ majestati Sueciæ subditorum odio ac acerbitate, proponenda mihi erant; sed cum ab aliquo tempore nulla mihi occasio data suerit dominationem vestram accedendi, ex cujus sensu ac arbitrio, vel ad serenissimum dominum protectorem ipsum, vel ad concilium status me applicâssem, præstolanda ac optanda mihi suit valetudinis vestræ integra ac perfecta restauratio, quo ex ore ejus percipere possim, quidnam de supradictis omnibus serenitati suæ electorali renunciare debeam. Interim dominationi vestræ curæ fore spero, ne quid eorum intermittatur, quæ more inter principes Christianos omnes recepto (ut proximo nempe a regibus loco serenissimus dominus elector habeatur) ad honorem ac decus ipsius pertinent, utque in privilegii vinarii expeditione ratio tandem habeatur
Honoratissimæ Dominationis vestræ
observantissimi deditissimique, J. F. Schlezeri.

Die 5. Sept. S. V. ann. 1658.

General Monck to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 22.

My Lord,
I have received two letters from you, by which I understand his highnesse is very ill, which truly makes many a sad heart heere. The councill and some others here on thursday last kept a private day of humiliation, and seeking God for his recovery; and I hope God will looke downe in mercy uppon us, and restore him to his health, that hee may continue a while longer amongst us for the settling of the peace of this nation. I shall take the best care I can to keepe all thinges quiett heere, which I doubt not by the blessing of God to doe. I desire you will bee pleas'd, when your occasions will give you leave, to acquaint mee how his highnesse does, because wee still heare soe many severall reports, and you will doe mee a very great favour in itt. I remayne
Your Lordshipp's most humble servant,
George Monck.

Dalkeith, 7th September, 1658.

Secretary Thurloe to Henry Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

May it please your Excellencye,
I did by an expresse signifye to you the sad condition wee are in here by the losse of his highnesse your father, whose death is lamented by all, but can be repaired by none but God himselfe, to whom wee are to looke as to our great and soveraigne Lord, that is not to give an account of any of his matters; nor can any say unto him, What doest thou? This bearer Mr. Underwood is a very sober gentleman, was of the bed-chamber to his late highnes, and attended him in all his sicknesse, and can give your excellencye a full account of all that past in this sadd occasion; to which purpose his highnes hath sent hym over to your excellencye, that you might fully understand the perticulars of God's dealinge with his highnes your father, through his whole visitation.

It hath pleased God hitherto to give his highnes your brother a very easie and peaceable entrance upon his government. There is not a dogge that waggs his tongue, soe great a calme are wee in. The Lord continue it, and give hym a just and understandinge heart, that he may knowe how to goe out and in before this great people, whose peace and libertye he is intrusted with!

But I must needs acquaint your excellencye, that there are some secret murmurings in the army, as if his highnes were not generall of the army, as his father was; and would looke upon him and the army as divided, and as if the conduct of the army should be elsewhere, and in other hands: but I am not able to say what this will come to. I thinke the conceite of any such thinge is dangerous; and if any thinge of this kinde breakes out further, you shall have an account of it, or whatever else can come within the knowledge of
Your Excellencye's most humble faithfull servant, Jo. Thurloe.

7. September, 1658.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

May it please your Excellencye,
I haveinge writt this day already by Mr. Underwood, whom his highnes hath sent to your excellencye with letters from hymselfe, I shall not need to trouble you with any thinge save the enclosed proclamation, which was issued to prevent a failer of justice. I am not able to see farre into our affaires. If it please God to preserve the unitie, which now is, many daungers, which some feare, will, through the goodnes of God, be prevented. Truly, my lord, I am not in a condition to write you the forreine newes, nor I beleeve will your excellencye take much pleasure to read things of that nature. I am endeavouringe to submitt myselfe to the will of the Lord, and to looke to him in this great stroake: 'tis his hand that hath done it. Afflictions of this kinde doe not rise out of the dust; and I beseech the Lord to support your excellencye under it. You had your burdens afore, and truly this is too bigge to come by way of addition. God hath to us all added sorrow to sorrow; but it is the Lord, and therefore we must be silent before hym. I begge your excellency's pardon for this intrusion, and remeyne
Your Excellencye's humble and faithfull servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

7. September, 1658.

General Fleetwood to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

Deare Brother,
The sadde condition, wherein the Lord is pleased to lay us under by this late grivious stroake, is, I doubt not, com to your hands befor this, though the perticulers thereof is referred to this bearer's relation, who deserves respect from us. Oh! that the Lord would give us hearts to search and try our wayes, and turn to him, who hath thus sorely smitten us! Great displeasur is broken forth: we have cause to lay our mouths in the dust, and to say, We have sined: that we have great cause to bewaile; else there would not have bine such a sore rebuke, as at this day is our porcion. What is don as to the succession, is in your brother, and the great quietnes, that is, will be better related, then I shall trouble you with my pen. The Lord keeps the army in a quiet condicion, and have expressed a readynes to what is don, by their attendance and affection in what was required or expected from them, though I think with the saddest hearts reflecting upon what they lost, as ever army did, who have not lost a generall and protector only, but a dear and tender father to them and all the Lord's people. The Lord affect our hearts with such a sense of this, princepels and practise therin, as we may make it our buysnes to walk more conformable therunto. He hath left us a blessed example for us to walke by: his hearte was full of love to the interest of the Lord's people, yea above all other concernments; and made every thing else bow down unto it. The Lord give us that frame to walke by, is the desire of him, who subscribes, what I am
Your most affectionate brother and servant,
Cha. Fleetwood.

September 7. 1658.

There will some addresse be made: it is desired all 3 armyes might joyn in one: you shall have it assoone as agreed upon.

Lord Fauconberg to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

Deare my Lord,
This bearer Mr. Underwood brings your lordshipp the sad news of our generall losse in your incomparable father's death, by which theese poore nations are deprived of the greatest personage and instrument of happinesse, not only our owne, but indeed any age else ever produced. The preceding night, and not before, in presence of 4 or 5 of the councell, he declared my lord Richard his successor; the next morning grew speechlesse, and departed betwixt 3 and 4 in the evening. A hard dispensation it was, but so it has seemed good to the allwise God; and what remaines to poor creatures, but to lay our hands upon our mouthes to the declaration of his pleasure? Some 3 houres after his decease, (a time spent only in frameing the draught, not in any doubtfull dispute) was your lordshipp's brother, his now highnesse, declared protector of thez nations, with full consent of counsell, soldier, and city. The next day he was proclaimed in the usuall places. All the time his late highnes was drawing on to his end, the consternation and astonishment of people is unexpressible: their harts seemed as sunke within them. And if this abroad in the family, your lordshipp may imagine, what it was in her highnes and other neer relations. My poor wise, I knowe not what in the earth to doe with her; when seemingly quieted, she bursts out again into passion, that tears her very hart in peeces; nor can I blame her, considering what she has lost. It fares little better with others. God, I trust, will sanctifye this bitter cup to us all. His mercy is extraordinary, as to the quiet face of things among us, which I hope the Lord will continue. I am
Whitehall, September the Your Lordshipp's most affectionately faithfull and very humble servant,

7th 1658. [N. S.]

Wee think the king of Sweden is master by this time of Copenhagen, and that king his prisoner. The Dutch have embarqued 6000 men for his succour, which, wee hope, will come too late.

Col. H. Smith to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 28.

Right Honourable,
I received yours of the 4th instant, with the most sad newes of our great losse of his highness, which saddens the hearts of all good people. The Lord quicken up all our hearts, to bee sensible of this sharpe rebuke, which our owne unworthy walking hath brought upon us.

Sir, his highnes Richard lord protector was this day solemnly proclaimed by the magistrates of this towne, with such solemnitys as is usuall in cases of that nature. There is not at present the least appearance of disturbance in these parts. I finde the officers and souldiers of this garrison soe well satisfyed with what is done, that they doe unanimously resolve to stand by, and to live and dy with his highnes, and to serve him faithfully with their lives, against any that shall oppose him, under what pretence soever.

Sir, I formerly writt to you concerning the prisoners, who are under restraint in this garrison, and did intreate you to send mee word, whether I might give any of them liberty for some time, uppon their peroll, or uppon security; but received noe answer from you. I lately received a letter from the high sheriff of Yorkeshire, signifying that it was your desire, that one Mr. Thornehill, who was a prisoner here, should bee set at liberty, till hee shall bee summoned, which I have accordingly done. Haveing noe more to trouble your honour with at this time, I humbly take leave to subscribe myselfe,
Right Honourable, Your most faithfull servant, Hen. Smith.

Hull, September 7th, 58.

H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 32.

Our last letters, though they brought us sad newes, (as to the loss of my deare sister) yet put us in great hopes of his highness's health. Wee now receive twoe packetts at once; one whereof is by your express. These give us greater grief then wee are able to beare. The particuler assureance given to his highness, to which his experience on former occasions beares som witnes, gives mee som relief, though most letters fill us with feares. I am glad to heare, that the hearts of good men with you are so powerfully drawn out in prayer; and it rejoyces mee to observe the like here. It were a double mercy, if his highness repreive might bee given us as the answere of prayer. O that our stubborne hearts would lett us say with a true submission, Thy will bee done! But how hard is it to reflect upon the consequences of his highness's death, and yet cheerfully to kiss the rod! If wee may speak as men, if no settlement bee made in his life-time, can wee be secure from the lust of ambitious men? Nay, if he would declare his successor, where is that person of wisedom, courage, conduct, and (which is equivalent to all) reputation at home and abroad, which we see necessary to preserve our peace? Would not good men seare one another, and the world them? Would not the sons of Jeruiah bee too strong, and the wheele be turned upon us, even though the most wise and powerful single person could bee chosen out? Though I know none like his highness, yet hee himself is not sufficient for these things, but by and through his communion with God. It is then God alone; 'tis good to fly to him; 'tis good to call mightily upon him in this day of our distress. Wee are the worke of his hands: let him doe with us as seemeth good in his eyes. Indeed, Sir, I am under so great a burthen, that I am scarce competent to consider the condition I am in, though I know I must not forget the publique trust in my hand. I desire, Sir, that you would pitty mee, and consider the great anxietie under which I labour; and as God shall please to give any hopes of his highness's recovery, pray let me not stay for an account thereof by the ordinary dispatches hither. In the mean time all the ease I can finde is by powreing out my soule before the Lord, which I shall doe uncessantly. I remaine
Your very affectionate and faithfull friend and servant,
H. Cromwell.

Dublin, September 8th, 58.

Your messenger had beene dispatcht sooner, if the winde had served.

H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to the lord Fauconberg.

September the 8th, 1658.

In the possession of William Cromwell esq;

My Lord,
Although the last letters brought a very sad memento of mortality, yet I was not well enough prepared to receive yours by this post, without (it may be) too much consternation. I know the highest greises arising from my natural affection to my dear sather ought so farr to give way, as to let me remember my present station; but I see more of this kind, then I am able to practice; and truly when I recollect myself, and consider the desperate distractions, which so nearly threaten us, I am quite lost in the way to the remedy. For I may truly tell your lordshipp, that either through the design or unfaithfulness of my friends, or through their ignorance and incompetency for a work of that nature, I have never been acquainted with the inside either of things or persons, but fob'd off with intelligence, about as much differing from Mabbot, as he from a Diurnall; so that I can contribute little to prevent our danger, more than by my prayers, and keeping the army and people under my charge in a good frame: I wish yours may be so kept in England. Methinks some begin their meetings very early. It may be they intend to give the law; but if they do not keep to what is honest, they may meet with disappointments. I do heartily thank your lordship for your freedom and confidence in me. I am sure I cannot plead meritt, but shall be glad to cherish that sympathy, or whatever else it is, that makes me yours. I hope I shall be always just to your lordship. Some late letters do a little revive us, and give hopes of his highness's recovery; yet my trouble is exceeding great. I remain, &c.

The mayor of Exeter to secretary Thurloe.

Exon, 8th September, 1658.


Right Honourable,
I Thought itt my duty to give your honour an accompt, that on monday evening last I received a letter from his highnesse most honourable privy councell, briaging the sad tydings of the death of the most serene and renowned Oliver lord protector; and with it a proclamation for the proclaming of the most noble and illustrious lord Richard to be his successor. Uppon receipt of which, I did summon some of the cheife majestrates of this citty, and itt being late in the evening, wee agreed for the summoning of all the majestrates, common councell, and severall companyes of our citty next morning, being tuesday, by eight of the clock, to be at the Guildhall; where being mett in the councell chamber, I did send about all the streets of the citty the citty-waytes, to give notice to all the commoners and inhabitants, to appeare at the proclayming of the most noble and illustrious the lord Richard. And haveing read the councell's letter and proclamation to a full chamber, (though some absent by sickness, and some out of towne) they all declared with a cheerfull heart for his present highnesse. After that, I made known unto the companyes and commons the occasion of that day's meeting, and they all cheerfully concurred with us. After which, all those that had borne the office of mayor, being in there scarlett gowns and robes, those that had been sheriffes in scarlett gownes, the rest with gownes and habitts, according to there degrets, with found of trumpett, the city musick contynewally playeing on the topp of the Guildhall, wee first proclaymed his said highnesse before the Guildhall; then marching in like equipage wee did the like in the most emynent places in the sower quarters of the said city (Sir John Copplestone was pleased soe farr to honnor us as to accompany us in the whole worke); att all which we had a mighty concourse of people, with great acclamations, to the rejoycing of my heart, and, to my apprehension, to the great satisfaction of the people of this place; which was alsoe farther manifested by ringing of bells all the rest of the day, and makeing bonefires att evening: that seeing God hath byn pleased to take to himselfe his highnesse never to be forgotten, yett blessed bee his name, that he was pleased to put into his heart to name his successor; and unto yours and the most honourable councell, with the concurrence of the army, citty, and soe many noble persons, soe seasonably to concurre, and speedily to proclayme that most worthy, noble, and illustrious prince to succeed him, in which the nations have such good cause to acquiesse, and give God the glory. I have not else at present, only to desire your honnor to pardon these unpollished lines, and briese accompt, with the tender of my utmost faithfull servyce, shall ever subscribe, Your Honnor's to command in uttmost servyce,
Ja. Pearse, mayor.

Mr. Anthony Tatenell to secretary Thurloe.


May it please your Honour,
After my humble service tendered unto youe, I have made bold to write these, certyfieing your honour, that yesterdaye the order from oure high sheriffe and bayeliff, with the approved men and burgesses of Andover, did proclaime his highnes lord protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, with all the dominions thereto beelonging, drum and trumpet sounding, and some vollys of shott, with joye of the people, and desire of his happy contynuance over us. But, Sir, in the midest of this joye, some newes came of his highnes beeing ill, which occasioned sorow; yett We hope God will bee pleased to restore his highnes health, to the glorye of God, his highnes comfort, the good of the nation, and the church of God, for which I shall prayeing rest

Youre Honour's humble servant,
Antho. Tatenell.

Andover, the 9. September, 1658.

Mr. Thomas Errington to secretary Thurloe.

Newcastle, September 9th, 1658.


Right Honourable,
My humble service presented to your lordship, the trust your honour have reposed in me craves leave to acquaint your honor with the passages in these partes since the death of his highness the laite lord protector. On tusday last, upon receipt of the maile, I immediately delivered Mr. Shastoe, our deputy-mayor, my lord president of your councell letter, with order for proclameing his now highnes my lord Richard protector; and presently the deputy-mayor sent for Mr. recorder, the aldermen, and severall of the common councell, myselfe being one, and did communicate the councell's pleasure, and forthwith his highness was proclamed in state, and in a very solemne maner, lord protector, and watches sett at every gaite in towne. Mr. mayor and others went the rounds that night, and every alderman goes the round a night, and sees the gaites be well locked in; and the watchmen, 6 at every gaite, doe theire dutyes. Blessed be our wise God, all these partes are in quietness; and I heare not one person as yet speake against his highnes, nor your lordship's proclamation. If any thing fall out in these partes, or newes, I crave leave to acquaint your lordship, and shall allwayes be redy to serve his highness, or your lordship, what is my power; and rests,
My Lord,
Your most humble servant,
Tho. Errington.

The councell letters to the high sherisses of Northumberland and Cumberland came to my hands this morning; and I presently dispatched them away.

Mr. Downing, resident in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 50.

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Right Honorable,
Yours, which came to my hand yesterday, hath fill'd me with unspeakable sorrow and thoughtfulness; such as I feare I could hardly have boren, but that the Lord is pleased to mingle his chastisements with mercys, knoweing well the weakness of poore man, and how quickly his sayth is ready to fayle him, even notwithstanding many and signall manifestations of his kindeness. I neede not tell you, what rejoyceing was heere at this news; yet withall, I assure you, the news of the quick and unanimous declareing of my lord Richard doth at their hearts coole their comfort, and men are indeede amased at and doe take it for granted, that all things being so well accorded at London, the like wil be throughout England, Scotland and Ireland. And it troubles them, that he should dye at this tyme, though, dureing his life, they thought every moment thereof too much; yet it troubles them, that he should dye now, when their plotts have bin so lately blasted, and thereby the councell, city and army, made so unanimous, and noe parliament sitting, which in a month or two was expected; and if his highness should then have dyed, thereby some hopes of changes in the government; and when the Spaniard is so lowe, that he is not able to defend himself, much less to afford your enemyes any succour, and your ships yet able to abide out, if in case any occasion were, and the campaigne so farr over, whereby your business in Flanders not interrupted. All theis circumstances, and many more, seeme very remarkable even to your enemies; and I trust, that the Lord, who hath so eminently unanimously raised his highness, and made him both heir and successor to such a father, in such an eminent manner, will also grant him of his grace and spirite, and to follow his steps, and be guided and councelled by the good and old councellors, which stood before his father, espouseing the same interests at home and abrode, whereby he will become yet more beloved of all good men, and terrible to all wickedness and evil doers; and the government thereby firmly establisht upon him, for the which my prayers shall not cease night and day. Yesterday Reade, that was in the Tower, (the little black man) was dispatched post by princess royal to Ch. Stewart, to give him an accompt of this newes; and I have, according to the usuall custome in such cases, given notice to all the publique ministers heere in amity with England, of my lord protector's death, and my lord Richard being proclaimed in his stead; and gave to each of them a copy of the proclamation, together with what other circumstances concerning the same were in your letter, and have caused the same to be printed, whereby quicker notice might come to all persons. De Witt came last night to see me, to condole and congratulate with me, and will this day give an account in the states of Holland of what is past, as also with the president of the states generall; and to each of them I gave a copy of what I caused to be printed. De Witt expressed much joy, that matters were so happily and quietly settled, and thereby such a disappointment to wicked men, enemies, as he said, as well to them as England. I cannot but see a peece of providence, in haveing the week before given the memoriall concerning Charles Stuart and other rebells of England, whereby very many of that sort of people are since gone out of this country, who otherwise had all bin in theis parts at this time.

The inclosed papers will give you an accompt of what we have from Copenhagen, Poland, Berlin, and those parts, whereby you will perceve, what a change is dayly more and more made by this late attacque of the king of Sweden, the consequences whereof I greatly apprehend, and the more for that I doe not yet heare of any overture of peace made by the king of Sweden to the king of Denmarke, noe declaration what will satisfy him; so that there is as yet little appearance of any thing but extreamityes, and the fruites thereof. Monsieur Appleboom had a conference the other day with the deputies of the states: a copy of what he then gave in to them is herein inclosed. Admiral Opdam went from hence upon sunday last, and is now at the Vlye with 18 men of warr; and Florisen hath bin dayly expected with six more out of the chanel. The 2000 souldiers are to be carryed in six greate flutes, which are hired to that purpose; and heerein is inclosed a copy of the resolution of the states, authoriseing Opdam to put those men either into Copenhagen or Croningburg. And the winde is now very fayre, and it's supposed he will be gone in two or three days at farthest. The French ambassadour shewed me his orders by the last post, which were to this effect; that seeing the king of Sweden had not thought fitt in any wise to communicate to his majesty of France this his present designe, although he had his minister with him, that therefore his said majesty was in an incapacity of doing any thing in this business, farther than to make known, that he knew nothing of it, nor had noe part in it; which accordingly Monsieur de Thou hath signifyed to Mr. de Witt, but withall expressing greate sorrow, that the king of Sweden should turne himself that way.

I had forgot to tell you, that de Witt desired me to lett you know, that it is the custome, when any prince dyes in amity with them, that his successor doe by letter signifye the same; and withall, how it hath pleased God to raise him up, and set him in his place.

Sixty sayle of ships, which were stopt by the king of Sweden in the Sound, are since released, and safely arrived in this country, whereby they were furnished with seamen for Opdam's fleete, which before they feared some want of.

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1st, The king of Spain's ambassadour 449 111 152 131: his business is to end the long debate of the partition of the lands of Outre-Mewes.

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2dly, To countenance Friequast 25 126 152 249 in his negotiation, to engage the states general in a league with the emperour 88 426 443 152 138.

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3dly, To hinder the peare with Portugall.

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4thly, To engage this state, if he can, to offer their mediation between the protector and the king of Spaine. 104 534 207 545.

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5thly, If he can, to engage the states general against England and France; but however, to obviate any further conjunction with them.

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6thly, If he can, to exchange Metkrickt 105 54 371 287 146 441 26 61 146 for some other garrisons 132 393 459 106 140 of the states, thereby to make the empereour 426 443 154 133 in a capacity to give the states general succours, 254 155 133 140, without being the capitulation. 468 245 429 150 157 355 475 412; for that that place is out of the Low Countries, and consequently not within the said capitulation.

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7thly, To endeavour by all possible meanes to borrow money; 159 384 393; and for that end to offer to sale the king of Spaine's part of the lands Oultre-Mewes, and also security of merchants in Anvers; 154 286 141; and if all this will not doe, rather then fayle, to offer for security Niewport or Ostend. 390 160 441 134 149 416 112 139 146 282.

The inclosed is a copy of what newes I have from Charles Stewart's court. 136 151. Yesterday the agent of the states generall came to me, to let me know, that the deputyes of the states generall did intend to meet to-morrow, at 3 in the afternoon, at the French ambassadour's; and that they desired my company there, to impart to us the present state of the treaty between them and Portugall. I returned them for answer, that untill I had a new commission, I was not in a condition to meddle in any publique business. I pray, let me speedily have a copy of the treaty with Portugall; for (wanting it) I am not able to help it, if any thing should be aggreed on prejudiciall to the treaty with England. Also let me have orders, what I shall do as to his highnesse's guarranty, if desired. I have by this post charged a bill of 500 l. upon Mr. Noell, that so I may have mony for my owne expences; and also as to the forthwith putting myselfe, and family, and house, and coaches into mourning, which till they be done, I am in an incapacity to give or receive any visites according to the custome heer, or to goe to the states upon and in pursuance of any orders, which I may receive from you; and it would not be fitt, that these things should be to be done, when your orders shall come, and therby his highnesse's affayres retarded. When the princes of Orange dyed, this state ordred the like to all their ministers great and small. I will be, as to the mourning, as good a husband as possibly I can. I am,
Right Honourable,
Your most humble servant,
G. Downing.

Hague, September 20. 58. [N. S.]

I heare the states, upon the notification, which I had given to them, have ordred my lord Newport to congratulate his highnesse, and to pursue his affayres; but 'tis so late, I cannot gett a copy of the resolution to send this post.

I shold be glad to know what contentment Ford gives you.