State Papers, 1658: November (3 of 5)

Pages 511-521

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

November (3 of 5)

Dr. Thomas Clarges to H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

May it please your Excelency,
The officers heere continue once a week their meetings in St. Jeameses chappell; but the time is cheifly spent in prayer. At the last time there was some litle mention of the petition, but nothing done. His highnes, by his moderation, hath pretty well allayed the distemper, and I hope there will be no eruption. I have heard privately, that they would have had five or six eminent officers displac'd; but I know not their names: but certainly your excellencie's being made liutenant of Ireland gave the alarme to those emotions.

The Spanish army in Flanders are a litle incouraged by a late affront given to a parcell of French horse by a party from the garrison of Hesdin. They write from Bruxells, that the archduke Leopold shall come to commande in these parts the next spring; and that allreadie commissions are issued in Germany for the levyeing of four-and-twenty regiments for their succours.

The king of France is supposed to be about this time at Lyons, where there will be a magnificent interview betwixt him, the duke, and duches of Savoy, and the duke of Parma.

There is nothing come to my knowledge of the proceedings of the king of Sweden at Copenhagen, or of the Duch fleet, but what is publique in the publique printed book. I could sometimes give your excelency account of private transactions, but wanting a cypher, dare not be too bussy in such matters; but I shall from time to time inform doctor Petty of what I know, and upon all occasions strive to render myself in the quality of,

May it please your Excelency,
Your excelencie's most obleig'd and most humble servant,
Tho. Clarges.

London, the 16th of
Novemb. 1658.

General Fleetwood to H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

Deare Brother,
I showld be very unwilling to have the lik occation as I had in my last, of wrighting to you concerning that subject, whearin I am more charged then I shall be found guilty; but that is a subject I delight not in the discourse of, whearin you may take any occation of exception against me, I desiring so much to be found in wayes of kindnes, which to maintaine will be by more mutuall confydence, and not hearkning to reports and discourses of others. We have now received the certeinty of the late engagement 'twixt the Sweeds and Holland fleet, which though it hath bine very prosperous on the Sweeds part, yet is like to increase the flame in thos parts through this interposition of the Hollander, who designe the wafeting over of the Brandenburgers and Imperiall forces, hoping to gayn an advantage to themselves in the Sownd. How farr this concerns ourselves, I neade not tell you; and accordingly we have order'd a fleet of 20 ships to goe into the Sownde, upon the account of mediation. What other errand they have, I presume Mr. secretary will acquaint you with, whearin if the Lord please to give his blessing, it may prove of happy consequence to us. I presume, I gave you an account of a litle somme, which I moved the counsell to send you in specie, for which you must send a vessel. It is very inconsiderable in itselfe; but may a litle help you with beter coyne then I feare goes now in Ireland. We are forced again to call in your next 6 months assessments befor the time. Excuse the haste of
Nov. 16. [1658.]

Your most affectionate brother, and humble servant.

Col. John Clerke to H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

May it please your Excellencie,
These 3 daies past are full of the late newes concerning the fight, that happened betweene the Duch and the Swede on the 29. of October last, in which the Swede is said to have had the better. Enclosed is the narrative, which is extracted from the K. of Sweden's letters; and what comes from his highness's resident is much the same. Indeed the Swede hath acquitted himself in this sea encounter much beyond what was expected, and the losse of the Duch vice-admirall de Witte and his ship (which was the same, in which Van Trump was slaine) renders neither their courage nor successe such, as their owne people neverthelesse cry it up to be in this action, nor suiteable to what they have formerly done. However, though they had a sore brunt of it, yet they have carried on their releefe to Coppenhagen; and there they have the accesse of some 10 or 12 ships of warre belonging to the Dane, which will so far reinforce them, as 'tis feared they may overpower the Swede, if they come to a second encounter, to which neverthelesse the Swede is fully resolved, if the Duch fleet come forth. This great affaire fills all mens minds and mouths; and 'tis strange 'to observe, that those, who have bene of the cavaleer party heere, are favorable to the Duch, and the rest of the Swedes enemies; and those, who have bene of the parliament party, to the Swede, as if our divisions here had an influence upon these great transactions abroad. His highnes and councell conceve these affaires of so great import to the interest of these nations, that they have resolved to send a fleet to the Sound, which is now ready to saile from the Downes, which, if those new-growne contests betweene the Duch and Swede be not accomodated, may in all likelyhood terme very great consequences; and I wish heartily we were in a better case to beare them. May it please your excellencie, I have humbly to pray your excellencie's favor in the behalfe of my major Rawlins, whom I presume both able and faithfull for lieutenant-colonel to my regiment, which place, I understand, is void; and truly I should not have adventured to have offred him, had I not a very good beleefe of his answering your excellencie's favor and trust in that employment; and indeed having so good an assurance thereof, I accompted myselfe obleidged to preferre this humble request on his behalfe; and craving your excellencie's pardon for this great trouble, I subscribe,
Your Excellency's most humble servant,
John Clerke.

Whitehall, the 16. Nov. 58.

Resolution of the states general touching the late sea-fight.

27th November, 1658. [N. S.]


After deliberation upon the letter of the king of Denmark received this day, dated 3/13. instant at Copenhagen, and news touching the sea-fight the 8th instant in the Sound, between the fleet of this state and the Swedes, it hath been resolved hereby to require Mr. Gent, and other deputies for the affairs of France, also Mr. Huygens, and other deputies for the affairs of England, to communicate these things to the embassadour de Thou, and the resident Downing, declaring, that their high mightinesses have no other intention, than to relieve the king of Denmark in this danger and oppression, in pursuance of the treaties and leagues, and to re-establish peace in those parts, and to contribute all good endeavours with other christian princes, particularly the king of France, and the lord protector of England, that so the troubles and wars between the crowns of the North, which must necessarily beget damages to their neighbours, may cease. And the said rencounter shall be by the agent de Heyde communicated to the envoys of the emperor and king of Poland, and a copy of this resolution shall be also sent to the embassadors Bareel and Nieuport, to serve them for information, and what shall be expedient.

Intelligence sent by Mr. Downing.

Resolution upon the king of Denmark's letter.

27th November, 1658. [N. S.]

Vol. lxii. p. 264.

Whereupon it hath been resolved, that letters shall be written to the lord admiral Opdam, that their high mightinesses have understood with great rejoicing and content of his diligence, and courage, and conduct, manifested in the late sea-sight against the Swede in the Sound; and that they doubt not, but that he will prosecute the victory for the relief of the king of Denmark; and that he will endeavour to recover the dead bodies of the chief officers of the fleet, and send them hither into these parts, if it may be done conveniently: and whereas their fleet, going to succour the king of Denmark, have acted only as auxiliaries, the said admiral shall leave the prizes to the disposal of the king of Denmark; yet declaring that order, which is wont to be observed for dividing the spoil in favour of those, that have taken them, leaving to his majesty the disposal of the Swedish prisoners, with charge however to endeavour, that some of them, if need be, may be made use of for redeeming such of this state as are fallen into the hands of the Swedes.

Another resolution of the same date.

Since it is evident by many letters come from the North, particularly by those by lord admiral Opdam of the ninth instant, that in the late naval fight in the Sound some captains did not their duties, as they were obliged by oath; after deliberation, it hath been resolved, that letters shall be written to the said lord admiral, that notwithstanding that their high mightinesses do not doubt, but that he exercises their intention, they do hereby charge him, that he inform himself exactly of the carriages of the captains and other officers, soldiers and mariners; and having sound those, who have failed in their duties, he shall examine them speedily before a council of war, to punish them, and execute the council's sentences at sea aboard their ships, proceeding against them according to their cowardliness, without any favour whatsoever.

From Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England.

Nov. 27. [1658. N. S.]


I HAVE from good hands, that the intention of this state is to incline the king of Denmark by this fleet now sent to treat separately, and upon the treaty of Rotschill, or else to assist the king of Sweden with a part thereof, which shall be seconded by some Swedish ships commanded by Sir G. Askew, and manned with mariners, and furnish'd with cannon of this state, and to maintain the castle of Cronenburg and the Sound. The most part of the Seamen hold, that it is very dangerous for the great ships to go to the Sound at this season, but some officers of the army and others are inclined thereto in favour to the Swedes. Others say, that the king will yield up Cronenburg and the Sound to this state, so to engage them against all whatsoever. I perceive also, that the merchants and others labour to stir up new troubles. The owners of the three ships taken at Bantam continually press for letters of mart, and they give me no answer to the offer I made according to the resolution of their high mightinesses of the sixth of August last.

Yesterday I wrote to Mr. Thurloe, that I might speak with him; but he sent me word, that about the evening he would let me know the hour, which he did not till yesterday morning, that I should come at two of the clock afternoon. Then I told him, that the owners of the said three ships brag, that they had got letters of mart, or that they should have them to-day, which I did not believe. However, that I had made ready a memorial, desiring him to present it to his highness and to the council, which he promised me, assuring me also, that there were no thoughts thereof, and that they hoped, that their high mightinesses would give good satisfaction to the owners. He asked me also about the late fight. I answered, that I had received nothing thereof from the Hague. He told me, that he had letters from Elseneur, but written during the fight, without the particularities; and that he expected an order of the council touching my memorials. Afterward Mr. Marvell came to me with a letter from the secretary Thurloe, and a great writing signed by the commissioners Fiennes and Wolsely, Jones, Strickland, and Thurloe, being an answer of my memorial of the sixth, the copy whereof is here inclosed.

H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xii. p. 258.

I Received yours of the 2d and 9th instant. I thanke you for being so particuler; yet I could wish you had given mee the names of those that mett at your chamber; and indeed if you could at any time let mee know, who meet, and where, and when, you say more then in telling all they do. But let these these men bee who they will, I hope such little knacks will not fright you from your duty. It is good to bee square, and sober, and trust God.

If they, that now seem to threaten our peace, have evill designs, and if honest men dare stand still, and not seem afraid, as they will want a specious occasion, so they will want courage to use force, and matter to work upon to make their wickednes so great, that they cannot be safe but by a greater. But I doubt the industry you speake of in useing all wayes to satisfy jealosies, is the chief thing, that keeps life in their enterprize; and if you doe it simply and plainly, hopeing thereby to convince, will they not laugh in their sleeve, that they are not perceived to strike deeper then open pretences? Alas! I feare their crime is not ignorance, but ambition, which in some cases is rather strengthened than cured by tampering. But why doe I talke thus? I confess myself ignorant of the full state of your case, and therefore have noe bottom to build upon, and would have you take all that I have said for nought. Pray God direct you, and keep you close to him, and I am sure it will bee well with you. I am glad to heare, that God is so good to his highness, as to keep up his spirit in this day of tryall. If our instructions are not yet past, I wish they may hange in the hedg till I come over, which I take for granted will not bee long deferred; and I have allreadie assured his highness, that I would not stirr, if I were not fully assured, that I could secure bothe the civill and military interest in my absence. I remane

Your very affectionat freind, and faithfull servant,
H. Cromwell.

Nov. 17th, 1658.

Mr. Downing, the English resident in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxii.p.295.

Right Honourable,
I Received yours by the last post, whereby I perceive, that you had then received an account from Sir Philip Meadowes of the late fight between the king of Sweden and this state's fleets. Upon tuesday last, and not before, the states general had a letter from admiral Opdam, which came by a galliot dated the 9th instant, which was the day after the fight, and had been ever since at sea upon her way hither, by reason of contrary winds, a copy whereof I have herewith sent you, as also of all such other relations as are come thereof. But the accounts, which we have of that business, do all of them much differ from that of Sir Philip Meadowes, it not being acknowledged, that Opdam hath lost any more ships than that of Witt de Wittens only; but the loss of Witt de Wittens and Peter Floris is much lamented, but especially the loss of Peter Floris, who is judged without doubt to have been the best sea-officer, that this state had; and Opdam's fleet being reinforced by the conjunction of 9 or 10 great Danes ships, a further account is hourly expected of a further attempt upon the rest of the Swedes fleet; and if any considerable part of them be gone into Landsschronen, as it is here said, it is not much doubted here, that admiral Opdam will stop up the mouth of that harbour by sinking some vessels, so that they shall not be able ever to get to sea again; and an account is also now dayly expected of the landing of considerable forces of the elector of Brandenburgh at Copenhagen, and attempting the Swedish forces, which are in that island. De Ruyther hath orders to go to the Sound, and he hath 12 men of war near ready; and it's said, that some 3 or 4 more shall be joined to him, which they hope also to have ready; and there are also 16 great flutes near ready for the transporting the soldiers and provisions. The council of state did send for Mons. Beverward, and some other of the chief officers of the army, that were in town, to have their opinion, whether it were best to send the remaining 4000 men now or in the spring. They gave their opinion, that considering how far the season of the year was advanced, and the want, which was like to be of necessaries for them, how great a weakning 'twould be to their own strength at home, and the impossibility in their opinion of besieging Croningberg castle in this winter time, by reason of the great frosts; that for these, and other reasons, it were best to delay the sending of them until the spring. Yet notwithstanding such is the instance made by the Danish ministers, and such as assist them, that orders were issued out the day before yesterday to all such officers, as were not yet gone, to repair to the rendezvous at Amsterdam; and they are accordingly gone in all haste, and there the soldiers are in boats, not being suffered to come into the town, and in those boats are to be transported thence to the flutes, to the Vlye, and so to the Sound.

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The states general do earnestly press, that part of them 362 120 132 287 467 422 408 468 90 may go for Gluckstad; but the Danish 140 463 35 244 468 260 393 138 60 381 393 141 ministers would have them all go for Zeland; and the 305 558 207 468 truth is, the k. of Denm. hath no need of them at Gluckstad, but the states general have 74 144 463 38 244 468 535 323 in their hands that place and Croningberg castle. 467 120 355 251 207 26 443 393 106 55 231 132 Coilonei Killigrew, that commands 85 351 82 358 55 132 41 160 467 254 90 371 the English, is a desperate cavillier. 56 362 143 64 346 14 263 139 426 437 466 245 514 85 362 286. And so far as I can suppose, notwithstanding all, 324 231 42 106 450 34 these four thousand men will speedily goe, and for Zealand. 279 70 362 314 207 305 558.

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I did last night, as soon as I had my letters, according to what was in yours, forthwith goe to Monsieur Appleboon to desire him to 132 210 154 241 412 477 263 141 70 send an expresse to the king of Sweden to give him notice, that the 477 313 326 394 475 251 477 lord protector's fleet would set saye 289 450 358 about Monday last, 261 356, that so accordingly hee might order his affayres, 416 263 132 327 192 298 71 133 287, which he forthwith did by land; and the lord Nieuport's letters by the former 140 361 141 239 468 305 379 135 post did assure them, that the lord protector's fleet would not go to 358 289 501 395 149 314 477 the Sound, 153 106 35, a copy whereof I have herewith sent you.

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I have herein inclosed to you the resolution of the states general upon my memorial concerning the Postillion, and other English ships, taken coming out of Britain, whereby you will see they have sent it, together with the papers therewith presented to the East India company at Amsterdam, which yet they did not do, till the 395 147 270 475 84 468 certaynety came, how matters had passed 159 371 148 466 133 139 319 24 120 217 141 between their fleet and the king of Sweden; 71 134 48 358 289 207 536; and I believe would not yet have done it, if victory had been total, 72 50 155 335 477 441 319 33 232 477 463 as was expected. 294 426 28 145 279. Some time the beginning of the next week I understand that the deputies of the states do intend to have a conference with me about theis ships; and they say, that much is untrue, that is alledged. I tell them, that enough is too clear, to wit, that the ships were taken merely upon the account of trading with their enemy, and that not in counterbanded goods, and that in places not blocqued up as Cadiz hath been by his late highness, or Lisbon by them; and plainly, that his highness, that now is, is resolved to have reason done him in this business; and that whatever orders or instructions they may think fit to send to their embassador at London, yet that it is in vain for them to expect any issue thereof, until satisfaction be given in this business. I do earnestly also wish, that you would be pleased seriously to take order for the restoring of that ship mentioned in one of mine by the last post, which was taken in open sea by general Penn in the West-Indies. It would stop many mens mouths, and take away the whole cry of that long list of ships said to be wrongfully taken in the est-Indies, whenas in truth, so far as I can understand, all the rest of them were taken actually trading at the Barbadoes, contrary to the law of England. There are several ships come into this country lately from Barbadoes, and one which hath been trading at Jamaica also, whereof I thought it my duty again to give you notice.

The king of France, finding that the prince of Condé's instruments did all make their way out of Flanders into this country, and so hence, for avoiding suspicion, into France, hath given order, that all such Frenchmen as come into France from this country, shall be secured, unless they have the pass of his embassador residing here, which is a great stop to their frequent passage to and from France by this country; and thereby he hath notice of such persons as do pass to and again; and whether such a course might not be of use for you, is worth consideration. This country is but very small, and this the French embassador practiceth constantly.

Three regiments of the elector of Brandenburg's forces are most of them cut off by a sally of the Swedes out of Fredericksode; and some letters say, that the general of the Poles is taken, but that is not certain.

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Just as I am writing hereof, I have received yours of the 16th instant, which you sent me by a man of war; and because it is near the going away of the post, I can only say, that I shall endeavour to observe such instructions as you have therein sent me. I do not yet find, that the French embassador hath yet received such instructions 279 142 153 27 62 as yours mentions, 141 380 475 412 141, and I was with him since he received this week's letters. 361 142. Possibly the reason may be the absence of the court 109 251 408 468 254 from Paris; 147 306 122 213 346; but it is good making sure on that hand betimes, that the king of France may be engaged as well as the lord protector 42 84 217 534; for you must expect, without all peradventure, that the states general will do as much in 154 25 61 339 this business, as if it were their own war; 49 73 151 162 43 135 468 71 133 112 159 105 487; and if the winds new vour, de Ruyther may be 152 131 263 447 468 136 377 231 in a very little time in the Sound with twelve or fourteen men of 159 41 83 153 416 304 158 war more, and twenty flutes, and 487 384 133 40 207 148 160 41 49 370 72 149 287 four thousand land-men. 474 355 104 33 380. And upon this you may build the Fr.amb. hath some general instructions; 343; and I will go to him this night 393 55 61 146 again, and try how far I can upon them prevayle with him. 15 69 358 500 326. I know I can do much with him. I am,
Right Honourable,
Your most faithful humble servant,
G. Downing.

Hague, Novemb. 19/29. 58.

This week we have news from England, that a small English frigat being encountered by two Dutch men of war, she commanded them to strike; which they refusing to do, they fell to fighting; that most of the men in the said English man of warr were killed in the frigate. This is written hither by the same person, that wrote hither the news of most of your councell's being to be turned out; and scarce a week but that hand writes some malignant story hither, which may not be amiss for you to know.

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I could not rest satisfyed, but have been with the Fr. emb. and though he hath no instructions, yet I have prevayled with him, and to-morrow he will give a memorial with me. But if you intend clearly to carry the k. of France with you, you must let them know you will also be willing to push by itself also with them the peace between the k. of Sweden and k. of Poland, so as that h. of Austria be not included; 26 370 263 38; wherein you will highly content them, for they are much engaged in that affair, both upon the account of that queen, which is a French 493 346 16 47 woman, 106 27 60 158 411 205, and to keep Poland out of the hands of the h. of Austria.

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I have also acquainted Monsieur Appleboon, that the fleet of the lord protector hath 140 set sayle 358. Yesterday it was resolved again forthwith to send the 4000 men to Denmarke.

Instructions to Mr. Downing.


In the handwriting of secretary Thurloe.

The council having by your letters understood the state of the treaty of peace between the king of Portugal and the lords the states general of the United Netherlands, and that the proceedings thereupon have been such hitherto, as give no great hopes of any speedy conclusion thereof, but that the war between them is like to be continued; and although they are sorry, that the former good offices of this state for reconciling the differences between them have not been more successful, nor the great importance of that affair made great impressions upon the minds both of the one and the other, yet the council are still resolved to continue their utmost endeavours, in all friendly and amicable ways, for the re-establishing of a good understanding between them. You shall therefore in the name of this state, do all good offices both towards the lords the states general, and the embassador of the king of Portugal now residing at the Hague, for accommodating the differences yet remaining between them, and shall by such ways and means, as you shall find most proper and effectual, represent to the particular lords of the government, to the states of Holland, and also, if it be necessary, to the states general, the great desire that this state hath to see the war between them and the king of Portugal well ended; looking upon it as that, which is not only prejudicial to their own navigation and commerce, and also that of their neighbours, but to be of most dangerous consequence, in other respects, it being a thing not to be expected in a human way, that the king of Portugal should be able to defend himself both against Spain, now ready to assail him, with an intire and united strength, and against the army of the United Netherlands also. And this state doth conceive, that the greatest security, which the states general can possibly hope for by this war, can't in any sort recompense the detriment, which will befal themselves, this state, and, most of all, the common interest of that religion, which we both prosess, if the kingdom of Portugal should at this time fall into the hands of the king of Spain, who by the late peace with France is also become formidable to all the Protestant party in Europe. Upon which grounds we hope the lords the states general will maturely weigh, and make such reflection upon these things, as the nature of them requires; and rather abate of their demands (the justice whereof we object not to) for peace sake, and to prevent a greater danger, than by peremptory insisting thereupon, to run the hazard before expressed.

2dly, In case you find, that a peace cannot at this time be obtained, you shall propound a truce to be concluded between them for some years, upon such conditions, in reference to trade, and otherwise, as may be of mutual convenience to them both. And if during the truce (the treaty being continued) the main questions may possibly be determined in an amicable way, or if not, but that the war must be renewed, it is to be hoped, the time for it may be more seasonable, and that a war then will not be so hazardous in all respects as in this juncture.

3dly, If either a peace or truce can be obtained, you shall then endeavour to dispose the states to consider with England touching the means for the preservation of Portugal out of the Spaniards hands, which their interest doth oblige them to, equally with that of any other state; and they are not hindered by any of the publick treaties, which they have with Spain, but that they may give assistance to the crown of Portugal.

4thly, Whereas by your letter of the 7th instant, N. S. you give an account to the council of an alliance designed by the states general to be made between France and their commonwealth, wherein are many things of great consequence to England, and of the representations, which you have made of that affair to those of the government; the council doth well approve of your carriage therein; and you are further to desire a fight and communication of the particulars of the intended alliance; and that, in case they shall think it adviseable to proceed therein at this time, you shall insinuate, as you have already begun, the conveniency and necessity, in order to the common good, of having a business of this nature managed by their joint counsels with England.

5thly, And upon this occasion, you shall take notice to them of a proposition, which hath been here discoursed between the council and the lord Nieuport, embassador of the United Netherlands, touching a defensive alliance to be made between England and that state; whereinto might be drawn such princes and states, as might either from their principles in religion, or other interests, be of use to the Protestant party; and that the said embassador declared, that his superiors were very ready to co-operate with England in all things, which might be thought advisable to be done for the defence of the Protestant religion and professors thereof. You shall therefore endeavour to understand, how that government stands disposed to any counsels of this kind; and whether they have thoughts of any means to obviate the dangers now impending, declaring to them the sense, that this state hath hereof, and the readiness they will find here for the ends aforesaid.

6thly, And in case you find them inclined seriously and in good earnest to consider these things, you may, as you have opportunity, conser with such of them, as you shall think fit, touching the affairs, as they stand between the emperor and the Swede; and whether means may not be found to induce France to engage with England, Sweden, the United Provinces, and such other princes and states as will join them in a defensive league, upon terms wherein France may find its own interests, which seems not difficult to be done, in case a peace be not concluded between the emperor and Sweden. And in case any thing of this be thought practicable, then you shall endeavour to have it so ordered at the Hague, that their embassador intended for France may have instructions to deal with the French court therein; and that no alliance may be propounded to France but in conjunction with this state.

7thly, Whereas, in pursuance of your former instructions, you have communicated unto the lords the states, what the sense of the council was touching the satisfaction de manded of the king of Denmark by their lordships, for the charge their state had been at in assisting against Sweden; and not understanding, that there is any answer yet returned thereunto; and perceiving by the lord embassador Nieuport, that satisfaction and security for the payment thereof is expected from the said king; and although he is pleased to disclaim all intentions in their states to take into their hands and possession either the seignory of Druntheim, or any other part of the territories of the king of Denmark; yet he acknowledgeth and maintaineth the justice of their demands of satisfaction, and the taking the profits of Druntheim, as a pawn and pledge for securing the payment; you shall therefore let the lords of that government know, that you have received new orders to confer with them upon that subject; and that it is not only the actual possession of themselves of Druntheim, that this state expressed jealousy of, but are also very much unsatisfied, that the United Netherlands should expect any satisfaction of the king of Denmark, for the charges they have been at in this assistance, their fleets and forces having been employed, in conjunction with those of England, upon treaties made between them and France, not so much for the assistance of either king, as for the compelling both of them to make peace upon such terms and conditions, as the 3 states agreed upon; having respect therein to the common good of ourselves, as well as of those 2 kings; and upon this ground, England hath not demanded from the one or the other any satisfaction, for the great and vast expences the same hath been at, either by their fleets or embassies, for the making of this peace, which yet they have the same pretence to as Holland hath. And it will be very hard upon the king of Denmark, to be compelled to make peace upon terms agreed upon by other states, without him, and contrary to his own inclinations, and then be constrained to be at the charge himself of that compulsion. And if he must pawn his provinces to his friends for the charges of making the peace, it will not make his condition much better, than if he had lost them to his enemies in the war, especially if the greatness of the sum be considered, which, without doubt, the United Provinces (if we may make the computation by the charge of our own fleets) have expended upon this occasion; for the securing the payment whereof a great part of the United Provinces will be required; and although the profits of Druntheim are first to be applied for the re-payment, yet it can't otherwise be but the possession itself must needs follow after.

It is to be considered also, that England, both in respect of its own, as also for the common interest, is obliged to favour the king of Portugal, and to afford him supplies in his wars against Spain; and to that purpose a treaty hath been lately made with him, a copy whereof is herewith sent to you, to the end you may communicate the substance of it to the states general. If now the war be at the same time continued between Portugal and the United Netherlands, it is to be feared, that occasions of difference and misunderstanding may fall out between these two states, the preventing whereof is equally to be endeavoured by both sides; and the council doth believe, that the states general have that sense of the present posture of affairs, that they themselves will not advise this state to forbear their assistance to Portugal against Spain, and thereby suffer Portugal to fall into the hands of Spain. It must then necessarily follow, that the United Netherlands ought, out of their desire to maintain a good understanding with England, to contribute their endeavours to establish the peace aforesaid.

Intelligence sent from Holland by resident Downing.

Hague, 29th November, 1658. [N. S.]


The states here are resolved to send away the 4000 that are behind the Denmark, the 8th of December. They are to go to sea in 20 fly-boats, to be convoyed by 4 men of war: colonel Killigrew commands them; and order shall be sent to Opdam to come and meet them with all his fleet; and that he shall return home with 12 or 16 ships, and leave the rest to winter in Denmark; and the prizes taken by him he is to give to the mariners.

The old princess of Orange hath communicated to the states the marriage concluded lately between the prince of Anhalt and the princess Henrietta her daughter.

Vice-admiral de Ruyter last monday made report to the states of his return from Portugal, having been there 4 months without doing any thing, because the Portuguese durst not come out of the river of Lisbon. He greatly commends the English frigats, which he met thereabouts, of whom he received all civility and courtesy imaginable.

Prince William of Nassau and his princess go hence next week towards Friseland.

Paris, 22d November, 1658. [N. S.]

From Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England.

November 29th, 1658. [N. S.]


Two days ago I sent my son with letters, whereof here are the copies inclosed. The same day the secretary went to his house at Kensington, to stay there till after the burial. This afternoon I visited him, to have some interpretation of the writing given me by the commissioners. He told me, that if their high mightinesses would declare, that they would not tye the peace between the two kings to the emperor and Poland, and that they would divert the elector of Brandenburg from joining with that party, they would make some proposals thereupon. I find also, that they have sent new orders to Mr. Downing, touching the said writing; also that the fleet of 22 ships went yesterday to Yarmouth to ship some pilots and mariners. The frigate, Maidstone, of 50 guns was to join with them, to transport also the last envoy from Sweden. The secretary promised me, that after the funeral he would endeavour to get me an answer touching the 2 prizes of sugar, and my memorial of the 3 Bantam ships.

The states general to the king of Denmark.

29th November, 1658. [N. S.]

Vol. lxii. p. 280.

Serenissime, &c.

Not long since was sent relief to your majesty by our fleet under the command of the Sieur de Wassenaer or Opdam, which also is happily arrived; since which time we have issued forth again letters patents for 40 other companies of foot, to make up the number of 6000 men, which have been promised by the treaty of alliance, and resolved this morning, that the said relief shall be speedily sent, to the end that during their voyage it may be manifest by this new levy, what we have found fit to make known to your majesty, that the 7th of the next month they are to go to sea, if time permit; praying and recommending to your majesty, that in the mean time lodging and fire, and other necessaries, may be provided; and to use them as our own militia, manifesting to them all kind of favour and good will, as occasion shall be, which will be very acceptable to us; and our militia shall be thereby the more encouraged to do their duty in serving your majesty.

Intelligence sent from Holland by Mr. Downing.


By other letters of the 13. and 15. instant N.S. it is written, that eight great Danish ships are joined with the Hollanders, and that the Hollanders have sent 8 of their own ships, which were disabled, into Copenhagen: That upon the 10th instant they had taken a Swedish man of war, which was then coming from Sweden, to join with the Swedish fleet, and had chased two Swedish ships on shore near Landschronen: That the 11th instant soldiers landing at Copenhagen took their oaths of fidelity to the king of Denmark: That in the islands of Laland, Langland, and Falster, great store of furniture of war are making ready for 5000 Brandenburgers, that are to be transported out of Holstein; and that a fly-boat sent with letters from admiral Opdam was lost by a tempest with all the people that were in her: That on the 15th instant, the Hollander and Danes continued to block up the Swedish fleet, part in Croningburg, and part in Landschronen. This news comes by several particular letters, to which no full credit can be given. In the mean time three regiments of Brandenburgish forces have been totally routed by a sally from the Swedes out of Fredericsode; and some letters say, that the general of the Poles is taken prisoner. The 4000 men, that are going hence for Denmark, are almost ready, and so also is vice-admiral de Ruyter with 12 men of war. The death of de Witt and Peter Floris is greatly lamented. 400 Hollanders, which were killed in the fight, are buried at Copenhagen; and there are very many wounded there.

Hague, 29th November, 1658. [N. S.]

Resolution touching relieving the king of Denmark.

November 30th, 1658. [N. S.]

Vol. lxii. p. 281.

The advice of the admiralties of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and North Holland being read touching the demand made by the king of Denmark for a part of this fleet to stay all winter in Denmark; after deliberation it was resolved, that 12 ships should be there lest this winter; and to this purpose letters should be written to admiral Opdam, that he should leave 4 ships of Amsterdam, and 2 of each other admiralty; and if the Swedes strength required more ships to be lest, he might have 3 or 4 more ships upon the king of Denmark's desire, observing the said proportion for the several admiralties. And because the ships to be lest must be victualled, and for transporting there must be fly-boats fraught, it was resolved, that letters should be written to the admiralty of Amsterdam, that they shall freight them, and buy the provisions in presence of the other admiralties; and a month's pay shall be given to all the officers and mariners, that shall stay there: and the council of state shall be required to agree with the receiver-general for one hundred thousand florins, to be employed for all these charges, upon condition that it shall be repaid out of the moneys, which are not yet paid by the provinces for the equipage of the sea; and to execute the same with all diligence. And hereby is authorized the vice-admiral Ruyter to command all the ships of war lest in Denmark; and for this purpose, to go to Copenhagen with the men of war appointed for the convoy of the 4000 men, and to command them also; taking also, if he think fit, his own officers; and being there arrived, or at the Sound, to put himself aboard the ship called the Joshua, or such other he shall please to chuse; and he shall have an order, whereby he may have power to command the ships, that there remain, and all in them; and to this end he shall be dispatched without delay.

Mr. Downing, the English resident in Holland, to the states general.

Vol. lxii. p. 309.

The underwritten resident of England, &c. having received the resolution of their lordships the states general of the 27th instant by the agent de Heyde, wherein they do declare, that their intention in intermingling in the present war between the kings of Denmark and Sweden is no other than to re-establish peace in the northern parts, that so they may afterwards with all their power co-operate jointly with other Christian princes, and particularly with the most serence lord protector of England, and the king of France, to the end, that those parts may be freed from all sorts of troubles and wars, which tend only to the prejudice of their neighbours, represents, that his most serene highness his master hath most heartily accepted of the said offer, and is now ready to co-operate with the king of France, and their lordships the states general, for the said ends.

And his said highness doth conceive the most proper and most probable means hereunto conducing to be a joint offer of a mediation for making a peace separately between the kings of Sweden and Denmark, without intermingling of any other interest or matter whatsoever; nor doth he doubt, but that this proposition will be very acceptable to the states general, considering that they have herein the same interest, and that they are wholly at liberty to endeavour the said peace in this manner, not being engaged in any offensive treaty against the king of Sweden, but only in a defensive treaty with the king of Denmark, as hath lately been declared by their embassador now at London, in his memorial of the 6th instant.

And his said highness is the more stirred up to the moving of their lordships hereunto, in regard of the reports scattered abroad, as if (notwithstanding what hath been declared as abovesaid by their embassador) their forces were to be joined with the forces of the house of Austria, and as if their fleets and shipping were to be made use of for blocking up by sea such places as should be besieged by land by the imperial forces now in Holstein, and for transporting considerable parts of them, a thing which doth in no-wise seem to his master to tend to the restoring of peace, the liberty of commerce in those parts, but to have accidentally in it most dangerous consequences, even to the hazard of putting the command of the Baltic sea into the hands of the house of Austria; and therefore to be hindered by his master to the utmost of his power, be it by whomsoever attempted.

And considering the present posture of affairs in these parts, and to the end their minds on both parts may be the more inclined and disposed to the acceptation of the said mediation, his said highness doth most affectionately desire, that it would please their lordships to forbear the sending any further supplies of men, ships, or other warlike provision into these parts for the assistance of either side.

And as to what may concern other the friends of his master and this state now also in war in those parts, he will be most ready and desirous, together with France and the United Provinces, to use his utmost endeavour for the obtaining and settling peace amongst them also, and doth not doubt of a good and happy issue of these his endeavours in this separate way to the freeing of the aforesaid kings of Sweden and Denmark, and other his good friends in those parts, from the great dangers they are now in, especially if it shall seem good to their lordships heartily and thoroughly to concur therein. But however, his master is resolved to proceed upon this foundation; and to that end to employ such means, as God hath put into his hands, leaving the issue to him, who is the only wise disposer of all things.

Given at the Hague, the 30th of November, 1658. [N. S.] Signed,
G. D.

The French embassador to the states general.

Vol. lxii. p. 311.

The underwritten embassador of France, having considered and examined the resolution of the 27th instant, received at the hands of the baron de Ghent, finds himself obliged to assure their lordships by this present memorial, that the intention of the king his master is still, as it was, to endeavour by his ministers with all possible diligence the reconciliation of the kings of the north; and that he cannot see without extreme grief and displeasure, that the treaty of Roschfield hath not had its effect, and hath not been perfected by reason of the suspicions and diffidences, which have been cast into the minds of the two kings, and of their council, by the artifices of those, who will have no peace, and who seek indirect advantages in the continuation of war, which they would continue through all Europe, although till now it hath been very advantageous. Wherefore the said embassador believes it to be his duty to represent to their lordships, that in the intention, which they profess to have for peace, it behoves them nearly, that they suffer not themselves to be surprised in entering into new engagements, which renders the accommodation not only difficult, but as it were impossible, and in sending of new reliefs of such importance, and in such a season, which may cause one to doubt of the truth of their intention; as also not to pretend to make a general peace, which may comprehend those, who (it is well known) desire it not, but those who are truly in war, and have a common interest to get forth; and for this end to enter speedily into the matter, and make propositions jointly with England, who prepare things for an accommodation, and to search all security possible, that may render it firm and lasting, which leaving to their wisdom, he offers them all what his care may contribute for the advancement of a work, wherein all sides may find contentment.

Given at the Hague, the 30th of November, 1658. [N. S.]

General Monck to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xii. p. 303.

My Lord,
I make bold to give your lordshippe this trouble att this time, being desired by some gentlemen of the bishoprick of Durham to write unto you, that Mr. Timothy Whittingham having bin sheriff of that shire these two yeares, and having given a great offence to the honesst gentlemen of that country, hee is an anabaptist in his judgement, and, itt should seeme, very violent too in his carriage; and soe they have desired me, that I would write to you, that some other man may bee chosen, and hee may not keepe itt any longer, which if you can prevaile with his highnesse to doe, itt will give a great deale of satisfaction to many gentlemen in these parts. I have nothing of newes to acquaint you with: all thinges are very quiett and well, both amongst the Scotts people and the officers; and I heare nothing yett of Charles Stuart's endeavouring to promote any designes in this country: soe soone as I doe, you shall be sure to heare of it from
Dalkeith, 20th November,

Your Lordshippe's very affectionate and humble servant,
George Monck.