A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
April (1 of 3)
Col. Algernon Sydney to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. lxvii. p. 324.
[Paragraph contains cyphered content — see page image]
I did yesterday receave two letters from you, which, though they were not dated, by the matter conteined in them, and coming after that, which I formerly received, dated the 16/26th of March, shewed they weare very freshly written. Though the important points, that have been in controversy between the crowns of Sweden and Denmark, are by generall declarations one both sides admited, we still find difficultys and delayes in the treaty. The commissioners on both sides did the last week meet three days successively, one after another, without advancing one step towards a conclusion. The method they agreed upon as the most expeditious was, to go through the Roskyld treaty, examine every point, and change that, which should be necessary. The first day was spent by the Danes in a dispute upon the second article, they desiring such a mutation, as might leave them a liberty of continuing and contracting defensive alliances. The Swedes knowing, that under the name of defensive alliances they did intend thoes, that were truly offensive, and that theare was a design betwixt the emperour, kings of Poland and Denmark, and elector of Brandenburgh, under pretences of mutual defence, to make a league against Sweden, would not consent, that the article should be changed. The mediators, according to their orders, joyned with them: the Danes yeilded. Nevertheless the next day they brought the same point again into dispute, and spent their whole time upon it, without coming to any conclusion. The third day the Danes proposed the changing of their methode of proceeding, offerring, that they would give unto the mediators a project containing the conditions, upon which they would make peace. I was ready to accept this, knowing, that they must in that conforme themselves unto the agreement of the Hague; and then the peace could be immediately concluded; or by varying from it, they must be refusants. But the other mediators did rather choose, that equally on both sides they should deliver unto us thoes mutations, which each of them desired should be made in the treaty of Roskyld, in writing, that we might do our office in reconciling the differences between them. The Swedes assented unto that alsoe. This morning was appointed for receaving the papers on both sides. The Swedes are ready; but I hear nothing from the Danes. I cannot but wonder at the confidence of thoes ambassadors, that desire satisfaction for their losses by the delayes of the peace this winter, when nothing is more true, then that they have bin caused by the Danes, at least as much as by the Swedes. And now they do in all things proceed with more frivolous disputes, to evade the conclusion of the peace, then the others; and unless they be forced, will never consent to the conditions proposed, notwithstanding all their declarations and promises. In my opinion the states had no reason to wonder at our protest, unless they thought, that we, having no force here, should in all things receave the lawe from their ministers, as if we served a state, that had not a ship in the world, or that was plunged into such difficultys and disorders, as we could never hope to see it recover out of them. We were of another opinion; and though England hath noe force heare, nor is at present in a condition of sending any, whereby we can defend ourselves against the wrongs we receave, we thought it necessary to leave such a paper, as might justify our proceedings, whensoever it should please God to put us into a condition of demanding right and satisfaction. The truth is, the proceedings of the Dutch embassadors insupportable; for besides their insolency in treating with France and England as subjects, 137 147 48 86 63 11 142 138, Sidney cannot trust what they say. 141 113 The Fr. embass. and we do sometimes humble them; but they return again to their old course. This obliged us to deliver the paper, which Slingerland did professe was reasonable, and that they could expect no lesse. And when they could not find fault with the matter, they took exceptions at it for being false Latin, which probably is true; for our two secretaries being absent, I writ it, having never in my life written so much as three lines in that language. But I am not sollicitous for that reproach in a man of my profession; the breaking of Pritian's head is noe great crime. Pray do you take care, that the Danes doe not obtain any order, that may retard the peace: perhaps they will not be sorry to be denied. They think they must ask for the satisfaction of their allyes; but I think are willing to be forced to the peace by the Hollanders, that they may visibly deny them any reward for their assistance. And I beleive the cheif reason, that makes the Hollanders unwilling to force them, is the knowledge, that they shall thereby ruin theire pretence to be reimbursed for their charges. We shall not be unmindfull of the interest of England in any time, wherein we may advance it; but very little liberty is left unto us more then by obtaining the same priviledges in trade for our nation in the dominions of Sweden and Denmark, as by any treaty is allowed unto the Hollanders. And whatsoever is in the treaty of Elbing, which may be drawne unto prejudice under the name of turbatores pacis, &c. it is not in our power to hinder it; the agreements of the Hague ratified by parliament and our instructions obliging us to endeavour the confirmation of it, together with its elucidations. I am, Sir,
Copenhagen, April 2/12. [1660.]
Your humble servant,
Mons. Frezendorf to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. lxvii.p. 272.
Quam indigne serenissimum ducem Holsatiæ contra pacta conventa ipsamque rei æquitatem tractare cœperint Dani, illustritati vestræ antea prolixius exposui. Quum autem in hesterna conferentia obliti fuerimus hujus mentionem injicere, illustritatem vestram officiose rogandam duxi, haud gravetur illustrissimum concilium status de momento rei debite informatum movere, ut non tantum illustrissimi domini plenipotentiarii mandatis instruantur de habenda serenitatis suæ ducalis æque ac nostri ratione in pace Danica, sed & ut ministris Danicis atque Hollandicis hic remonstretur cœpta contra serenitatem suam indignitas atque summa injustitia, non modo contra pacta Roschildiensia, verum etiam contra ipsas vobiscum Hagæ-Comitum initas conventiones. Cætera illustritati vestræ coram exponam; mansurus,
Illustrissimæ Dominationis vestræ
addictissimus ad serviendum paratus,
Westmon. 3. April. 1660.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the H. and M. lords states general of the United Netherlands.
Mercurii, 14. April, 1660. [N.S.]
The lord Huygens, and other their H. and M. lordships commissioners for the Danish affairs, have exhibited and caused to be read in the assembly, a certain project of treaty upon the conclusion and upon delivery of the obligation mentioned therein for the 60000 rixdollars, mentioned in their H. and M. lordships resolution of the eighth and twenty-seventh of March last, and the sixth of this month, which are to be sent by this state to the king of Denmark, and likewise concerning the security, which their H. and M. lordships desire for the reimbursement of the charges, which this state hath been at by assisting of Denmark against the king of Sweden during this late war, over and above the ordinary assistance and succour promised in the alliance made in the year 1649. the said projected agreement being as followeth:
This day, the — of April, 1660. is between us the commissioners of the king of Denmark on the one hand, and the states general of the United Provinces on the other, agreed and concluded, by virtue of our respective powers, that there shall be sent by the state to the said king of Denmark the sum of 150000 gilders, at 5 per cent. and under a promise to pay in the said capital sum at the end of a year; for security of which sum his said majesty is to give bond, and likewise secure the same unto this state out of the revenue of Drontheim. And the said revenue is also to be security for the charges, which this state hath been at in assisting the king of Denmark during his war against the king of Sweden, over and above the assistance promised in the alliance made between the king of Denmark, and their H. and M. lordships.
Whereupon being debated, their H. and M. lordships have approved of the said agreement, and resolved, that the same shall be sent to the lords commissioners extraordinary in Denmark, and to conclude the same with the lords commissioners of the said king.
An intercepted letter.
Calais, 14. April, 1660. [N. S.]
Vol. lxvii. p. 332.
We have little on this side to acquaint you with: only 'tis said the court of France is moving towards the frontiers to meet the Spanish court, who intend shortly to have their interview, and the marriage to be consummated. Our king, we hear, is lately come to Breda to see his sister the princess royal. Sir, I hope the time approaches likewise for our interview, if all things tend so well there still, as it was expected, and is hoped by us. I presume, till the parliament sit, little of moment will offer.
Sir Robert Honeywood to secretary Thurloe.
Copenhagen, 16/6. April, 60.
The changes on that side have been so many of late, and so suddain, that before we in this corner of the world could have knowledge of the first, a second and third have been brought forth, which has kept us much in the dark as to the knowledge of many things very essentiall to our negotiation. It is but very lately (and that by accident too) that we got notice of the present turn of things on that side; whereby finding yourself a member of the councell, and more particularly deputed to the management of forreigne affairs, I have presumed to recommend unto your favour whatever may concern our business here, or ourselves. In order thereunto we have weekly given an account to the councell of our proceedings, which I presume hath come safe to your hands; and by that, which goeth hearwith, you will see, that in all probability the differences betwixt those two crowns are drawing to a conclusion; wherein I should speak with more confidence, did not their animositys and slow manner of proceeding render things more subject to change. Yet this is such a truth, that the Swedes find it now their interest to make peace; and the Danes cannot make war alone, or without the assistance they have hitherto had from Holland, which now seems to be very weary of giving it any longer. And those ministers do at present so much press a conclusion, that a few days will put it to an issue, which I hope will be that of peace, which will render our further service here useless; and therefore obliges us to desire the favour from you, to procure and send the councell's leave then to returne, which will be no small satisfaction to us, after so long and so much unexpected absence. I shall then be glad to give you a further account of our proceedings, and more particular assurance, that I am,
Your humble and obedient servant,
For my honourable frind Mr. secretary Thurlo, these, at Whitehall.
Mr. Downing to secretary Thurloe.
Hague, 16. April, 1660. [N.S.]
[Paragraph contains cyphered content — see page image]
I Received yours by the last post, with all the inclosed, concerning the affairs of the Sound, and have in myne to the councell inclosed a copy of the memoriall, which I have made ready on that subject, and intend to deliver to the states general to-morrow; and in the mean time I have acquainted Mons. Coyet, that I have received orders concerning his affairs. He said, he was very glad; but withall that the lord Nieuport's some had reported, that instructions were gone into the Sound to the ministers of England, to make the 400,000 rixdollars a condition fine qua non, as to the peace; and said, that in that England, which pretends so much friendship to Sweden, is still doing to their prejudice; and that whatever Holland hath a mind unto, they cannot persuade them to. But I told him, it was not so, nor any other order, than as formerly to use their endeavours therein; at which he was very glad, and said, that they valued the money, but yet not so much as that England, from whom they expect advantages, should be still putting them on things to their losse. The last post I wrote you my owne mind about this business, and that which is, I am confident, their interest.
When you have drawn up the proclamation concerning pyracies, and that I have a copy, I shall quickly send you my thoughts about it. I dowpt not, but that you do consider that, which was publisht at my instance by this state in November, 1657. And 199 although 328 158 it is fitt, that you do something, yet I think, the less, the better. 75 468 358 140 141 468 231 146 466 132.
As for the business of Poland, I weekely send you such letters, as come from the minister of this state there. If the emperor and Brandenburgh cannot finde that peace, it's thought, they will be comprehended in it, and restore what they had taken in Pomerania; yet some talk, as if they have a mind not to restore them, Poland shold make peace; and also to keep what they have taken from the king of Denmark. But that will be hard for them for them to do. France will certainly not suffer the king of Sweden to be beaten out of Pomerania. Of that you may rest assured, in regard of the king of France his interest in Alsatia.
It's said, that this great meeting of the king and his brothers at Bredagh is to meet some, that were to come to him from England; and much talk there is, as if a person of quality came lately from England to Rotterdam. It is said, that if the Spaniards do really apprehend his being called to England by the parliament, that they will stoppe him to gett Dunkirke. There came last weeke in one day eight expresses to him from England.
The deputy-governor of Bredagh, upon notice of his being to come thither, wrote to the 254 88 committee de Rade 263 437 263, to give them notice thereof, and to desire to know how he should carry himself. De Witt and Beverning were 294 exceedingly nettled, 53 362 390 149 that he 33 had 324 written 36 to the state 466 about 477 it, 142 463 466 182 70 150, as finding themselves 120 152 puzled what to do. 477 270, and sent 120 441 privately for 305 the governor, 286 who was then here 468 324 136, and commanded him to write to the deputy-governor, that when any thing of that nature arrived hereafter, he should 413 only 125 privately 219 advertise 33 152 them 475 174 42 of 102 it 71 151.
527 Lord Nieuport's son reports, 142, that there are thoughts in London of making 365 136 34 lord Craven 42 109 major-general of the city-militia's.
I have this day charged a bill of exchange of one hundred pounds, to enable me for to pay for the papers, which I weekly send to the councell, of publique affaires, and such other contingencys of my employment here, upon Mr. Frost; and I pray your care, that the bill may be accepted and payd. I have not had any thing since my coming out of England on that account; and you know I cannot do those things without charge. Also I pray your care for the payment of my salary, which before my coming out of London was setled to be paid monethly by Mr. Frost. My servant Fawley will wayt on you about that, if he find any obstacle therein. I am,
Your most faithfull humble servant,
Nieupoort, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
Westm. 16. April, 1660. [N.S.]
I Understand in the beginning of the week, that there was a design on foot to persuade the council to believe, that their H. and M. lordships, closing more narrowly with Denmark, had sent new orders thither to assault Sweden again by sea and land with all their power; as also, that their H. and M. lordships had a design to get Drontheim and other places under their power, thereby to cut off the commerce and fishing-trade of the English nation about Iceland and Muscovy. So I thought it my duty to make all such stories and fictions fruitless; and upon the twelfth instant I fully informed the general of all that I had heard, and clearly demonstrated, that their H. and M. lordships had proceeded with all integrity and justice, and had not in the least transgressed against the conventions at the Hague, nor did not pretend to get any place into their possession, to the prejudice of this state. His excellency said, that there were many people, that endeavoured to sow jealousies between both nations; but that he conceived, that the present constitution of affairs, as well of England as of the United Provinces, ought to move them to unite closer to each other. I spoke likewise to his lordship about the piracy committed at sea, and related to him several particulars about it. Upon which he declared to me, that it was highly displeasing to him; and that he would speak with the council of state about it.
The next day some lords came, and had a conference with me, and delivered me a project of a proclamation against the excesses of the pirates and private men of war, desiring to resume the conference as soon as I should be ready to communicate my considerations unto them, declaring, that they were not qualified without special order from the parliament to conclude with me the articles formerly agreed upon with me; but that they conceived the publication of the said proclamation would be of good operation. After I had taken the proclamation, I asked their lordships, if they had made report of what I had proposed in the last conference concerning the pacifying of the two Northern kings. The said lords told me, that the report was made, and such orders given to be sent to the lords plenipotentiaries in Denmark, as will put an end to the long-desired treaty of peace. I then assured their lordships, that the reports spread up and down, that their H. and M. lordships intended to get Drontheim or other places of Denmark into their power, were false and fictitious, and were only invented to raise jealousy; and that some people had often endeavoured to make use of such stories, to the prejudice of their H. and M. lordships; but that truth had still suppressed those lyes. Yesterday in the afternoon I spoke with Sir J. Holland and others, and proposed to them my considerations upon the said projected proclamation. I shewed them, that there was no penalty specified in the said proclamation, being only a general prohibition; and that there should be proceeded in the court of admiralty against the transgressors, according to the rights and laws of this nation. Their lordships said, that they had no legislative power, and therefore could dispose no further concerning it. I declared to their lordships what their H. and M. lordships had done to cause all complaints to cease, which had been made on the side of England; and I delivered unto their lordships copies of such placarts, as had been published by their H. and M. lordships. Their lordships said, they would report the whole to the council of state.
Mons. Fresendorf to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. lxvii. p. 281.
Quum ad superiores literas meas in negotio serenissimi ducis Holsatiæ, nihil adhucdum responsi loco intellexerim, & eo extremitatis cum serenitate sua deventum sit, ut per literas suas nobis injunxerit ab Anglia, in qua unicum sibi refugium in tantis angustiis superesse dicit, auxilium petere; incluso memorando ad illustrissimum concilium status rem hanc porro urgendam duxi, officiose rogando, velit sibi eandem illustritas vestra eatenus commendatam habere, ut, si fieri potest, ante abitum hujus tabellarii favorabile responsum una cum exemplari mandati illius ad ministros vestros obtinere queam. Præterea eriam, si serenitati suæ aliquo modo subveniri posset navi quadam bellica, de qua olim minister ejus huc solicitaverat, magni id beneficii loco reputabit; qua de re, uti aliis, cum illustritate vestra oretenus conferre prima occasione magnopere desidero; mansurus,
addictissimus ad serviendum paratus,
Westm. 6. April. 1660.
Secretary Thurloe to Mr. Downing, the English embassador in Holland.
Vol. lxvii. p. 342.
I have received yours of the ninth of April, N. S. and am fully of your minde touchinge the peace in the Sound, and have been soe longe; but I finde, that all here are not of that opinion, which is the reason, that the instruction touchinge the 400,000 rixdollars was given to the plenipotentiarys there in the manner, that my last mentioned. The postscript I got put in afterwards, whereby it is wholly left to them upon the place; and I hope they will manage it accordingly. The Dutch ambassador presseth here very much to know, what direction is given touching the 400,000 rix-dollars: but the councell do delay to do it; and it will not be fitt for you to take any notice of it where you are. The last week you had direction from the councell, how to carry yourself in the business of the Sound, which I hope is come to your hands. Since that the counsell have given an answer to several papers of the Danes, a copy whereof is herewith sent to you, which will be a further light, how to carry yourself in that business; the scope whereof, as you will see, is to keep the treatys exactly upon the foot of the conventions of the Hague, though possibly to be a little lax therein would be the best wayes to delay the conclusion; but this is the way the councell intends to goe.
Mons. Nieuport acquainted his commissaries yesterday, that the cessation is accepted of; and that the treaty is renewed between Sweden and Denmark; and that a peace will follow forthwith; and that the fleets of Sweden and the Dutch ride together like good friends, whereof I finde noe mention in yours.
I am of your mind, that England shall doe well to appeare with a little warmth in the
business of Portugall; and I shall endeavour to obtain from the councell an instruction to
you touching that business, to be sent away by the next post. I am
Whitehall, 6. Apr. 1660.
Your very affectionate servant.
As to the articles about the pyracyes, as the Dutch ambassador calls them, the councell chooseth rather to goe by way of a proclamation, and enclynes to issue this proclamation. I pray let me have your opinion of it, and whether they should not issue one to the like effect.
There are here great thoughts of heart touching the present constitution of affairs. The sectarians with the commonwealth's-men look upon themselves as utterly lost, if the king comes in; and therefore probably will leave no stone unturned to prevent it; but what they will be able to do, I see not, of themselves, unless the Presbyterian joynes with them, whereto I see no disposition; yet many of them are alarmed also, and are thinking how to keep him out, and yet not mingle again with the sectaries. Others of the Presbyterians are studying strickt conditions to be put upon the king, especially touching church-government, hoping to bind him that way; and therein are most severe against all the king's old party, proscribing them, which are already beyond sea: not one of them is to returne with him, if he comes in upon their termes; and prohibiting his party here to come near him: he must also confirm all sales whatsoever. The peeres and others of the more moderate party speak of the isle of Wight treaty: but there is another brisk party of the old and new cavaliers, and these are the most numerous, that would have him in the same condition his father would have been in, if he had prevailed in the warre against the parliament. And these being generally armed through your nation, will in all likelyhood carry it, if they will push for it; and scarce a day but reviling pamphlets come out against all the parliament did, from top to toe, without making any difference. All are trayters now, all rebells. One doctor Griffith printed and published a little book, justifying the kinge in all his warrs against the parliament; and wherein he called the five members traytors; and the warr the parliament made in the beginning of it, rebellion. And being sent for to the councell, he justifyed it: whereupon he is committed to the gate-house to be tried according to the nature of his offence.
There was like to have been a great stirr at Gloucester. Massey went down thither to stand for a burgesse. Before the election some of the soldiers by order of the general seized him. Upon this grew a great tumult, the people endeavouring to rescue him. In this scuffle many were wounded on both sides. The soldiers at last taking Massey's paroll, the matter was appeased, and Massey is sent for to appear before the councell.
What elections are made, you will see by the printed diurnall, which I suppose is sent you by another hand.
There is a test signed and signinge in that army, whereby the officers do oblige themselves to submitt to and acquiesce in the determination of the next parliament. St. Omers and Air, by a new treaty, are to be delivered to the French; which is strange.
I heare the king is at Breda. If you could have a person there, or where he is, that might give some constant intelligence immediately, and acquaint me with what persons go and come, I would return to you an hundred or two hundred pounds for the service. I do not see, but that the next parliament will endeavour to settle the nation by the king; but certainly great difficultys will attend it.
Col. Algernon Sidney to Mr. Downing.
Vol. lxvii. p. 350.
I writt this inclosed letter some days since, but had not an opportunity of sending it since that time. Wee have receaved a long formall project from the Swede, with a multitude of elucidations of the Roskyld treaty, and other littell things they would endeavour to bring in, but not in any materiall point contrary unto it. The Danes did at the same time give us thare exceptions to our project delivered to them in January last. They do not consist of so many sheets of paper, as the other; but do directly contradict the Roskyld treaty, theare own declarations, and our agreements in all the materiall points, concerning alliances, the cession of provinces to Swede, and the businesse of Holsteine, with some others. We forget not to make use of this, to shewe the sinceritye of theire desires of peace, and how well they deserve the satisfaction expected. Wee have had somme conferences with the commissioners one both sides upon thare severall papers communicated unto each party, what we had receaved from theire adversarys, and heard what they could say to justify their own pretences; finding that they would dispute and cavill for ever, without concluding any thing. The mediating ministers are to meet tomorrow, and forme a project suitable unto the treaty of Roskyld, the declarations of both kings, and theare owne orders; by which wee hope both partyes will sufferr thare interests to be regulated. I am
Your humble servant,
Copenhagen, 7. April. [1660.]