A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Eaton-Hastings (St. Michael)
EATON-HASTINGS (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Farringdon, hundred of Shrivenham, county of Berks, 3¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Farringdon; containing 161 inhabitants. It comprises 1278a. 1r. 18p., of which about 140 acres are woodland, and the remainder chiefly pasture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 7. 1.: net income, £280; patron, the Rev. R. Price.
EATON, LITTLE, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Alkmund, Derby, union of Shardlow, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 3¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Derby; containing 712 inhabitants. It comprises 552 acres, of a sandy limestone soil; and has a scattered village of stone houses, mostly thatched, with some neat modern residences. There are extensive paper-mills, a bleach-yard, and eight stone-quarries, in the township; a few of the inhabitants are engaged in the manufacture of stockings. The road from Derby to Alfreton passes through, and the Derby canal has a branch to the village. Edge Hill, a handsome seat, is situated on a lofty eminence, with thriving plantations, and has a fine view of the country around. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £94; patron, the Vicar. The present chapel was built by subscription in 1790, and enlarged in 1837. The Independents and Methodists have places of worship.
EATON, LONG, a chapelry, in the parish of Sawley, union of Shardlow, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 6¼ miles (N.) from Kegworth; containing 859 inhabitants. It comprises 1919 acres, and has an extensive village on the Ashby-de-la-Zouch and Nottingham road. The river Erewash forms its confluence with the Trent at the north-east extremity of the township. Near this place the Midland railway is carried over the Trent by a viaduct supported on three arches of cast iron, each 100 feet span, and 20 feet above the level of the water; and here is a station on the line. The chapel is dedicated to St. Lawrence, and is a small neat edifice, having a nave, chancel, gallery at the west end, and a tower with a short spire; it was repaired in 1831, and will seat 252 persons. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a school in union with the National Society.
Eaton-Socon (St. Mary)
EATON-SOCON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of St. Neot's, hundred of Barford, county of Bedford, 1½ mile (S. W.) from St. Neot's; containing, with the hamlet of Wyboston, 2600 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the river Ouse, and comprises 7322a. 3r. 23p., of which a small portion is arable and woodland, and the remainder chiefly pasture and meadow. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20. 13. 9.; net income, £439; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Bedford. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1795. The church is an ancient structure, in the early and decorated English styles, of which it displays some elegant and interesting details. Here was anciently a castle, the residence of a branch of the family of Beauchamp; also a priory for Augustine friars, founded by Sir Oliver Beauchamp and his son Hugh, the only remaining portion of which is the refectory, now converted into stables.
EATON-TREGOES, a township, in the parish of Foy, union of Ross, Upper division of the hundred of Wormelow, though locally in the hundred of Greytree, county of Hereford, 2¾ miles (N. by E.) from Ross; containing 215 inhabitants.
EAVES, a township, in the parish and union of Stoke-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 5¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Newcastle; containing 382 inhabitants. This is an agricultural village, lying between Bucknall and Bagnall, about a mile north-east from the former.
EAVESTONE, a township, in the parish and liberty of Ripon, W. riding of York, 6¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Ripon; containing 88 inhabitants. The township is situated in a hilly district, and north of the road from Ripon to Bishopside; it comprises about 1150 acres, the property of Lord Grantley.
Ebberston (St. Mary)
EBBERSTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and lythe of Pickering, N. riding of York, 5¾ miles (E.) from Pickering; containing 579 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Kirkby-Moorside to Scarborough, and comprises about 6000 acres, of which the soil is various, rich as it approaches the vale of Derwent, but barren on the higher grounds. The scenery is very picturesque; and the hills leading to the moors, and at the base of which is the village, form an amphitheatre of plantations. The moor hamlet of Bickley comprises 554 acres, in six farms. Excellent stone is quarried for building and for burning into lime. Ebberston Lodge, a handsome mansion delightfully situated, is the sporting residence of George Osbaldeston, Esq., lord of the manor. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Allerston, which has been annexed to it upwards of 600 years, valued in the king's books at £5. 17. 3½.; income, £135; patron, the Dean of York. Certain tithes were commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1768; and Bickley pays the vicar £12. 12. per annum in lieu of small tithes. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A Benedictine nunnery, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was founded before 1163, by Roger de Clere, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of £26. 6. 8.
Ebbesborne-Wake (St. John the Baptist)
EBBESBORNE-WAKE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Wilton, hundred of Chalk, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 12 miles (S. W. by W.) from Salisbury; containing 306 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 2680 acres, of which 1245 are arable, 1120 down, 176 meadow and pasture, and 140 wood and coppice; the surface is in some parts hilly and in others flat, and the soil generally clay alternated with chalk, producing good crops. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £19. 14. 2.; net income, £80; patron, the Subchanter in the Cathedral of Salisbury. The tithes have been commuted for £164 payable to the lay impropriator, and £291 payable to the appropriator, who has a glebe of 46 acres. The church is an ancient structure. There is a place of worship for Independents.
EBCHESTER, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Lanchester, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 12 miles (W. S. W.) from Gateshead; containing 331 inhabitants. Upon the banks of the Derwent at this place, St. Ebba, daughter of Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria, before the year 660, founded a monastery, which was subsequently destroyed by the Danes, when the royal foundress became abbess of Coldingham; and 500 years afterwards Ebchester is described as "the place of anchorets." The chapel and a few cottages occupy the site of a considerable Roman station, 200 yards square, with extensive works, supposed to be the Vindomora of Antoninus, and to have been partly constructed by the Legio Sexta Victrix, and of which traces are still discernible. Sepulchral and other monuments found upon the spot have been built up in the walls of the houses, and some are deposited in the library at Durham, with an urn of uncommon size and shape, having a small cup in the centre, as a lachrymatory or patera. The Roman Watling-street from Lanchester leads through the chapelry, where Gale places Ptolemy's Epiacum. David II., King of Scotland, in his unfortunate invasion, is said to have entered the county by this road, which may still be traced where it crossed the Derwent, by a ford near the present foot-bridge. The chapelry comprises 961a. 1r., of which 628 acres are arable, 300 pasture, and 24 woodland: the Derwent separates it from Northumberland on the north-west; on every other point it is bordered by the chapelry of Medomsley, whence the grounds fall gradually towards the north. A coal-mine is in operation, as is also a stone-quarry for building purposes. The village, which is on the road from Newcastle to Shotley-Bridge, stands at the foot of a long descent, yet on the edge of a still deeper declivity, on the south side of the Derwent; its cottages overlooking the green haugh-lands of the river. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Master of Sherburn Hospital, with a net income of £145. The chapel is a small ancient structure, dedicated to St. Ebba, and contains inscriptions to various members of the family of Surtees. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Ebony (St. Mary)
EBONY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Tenterden, partly in the hundred of Tenterden, Lower division of the lathe of Scray, W. division, but chiefly in the hundred of Oxney, lathe of Shepway, E. division, of Kent, 4 miles (S. E.) from Tenterden; containing 168 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 2400 acres, of which 2160 are pasture, 200 arable, and 40 woodland: the Grand Military canal passes through that part of it in the lathe of Scray, and the river Rother runs along its southern boundary. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Appledore: the church occupies the place of a larger edifice, destroyed by lightning early in the reign of Elizabeth, and is situated just within the border of Romney-Marsh, on a mound supposed to mark the site of an encampment.
Ebrington (St. Edburgh)
EBRINGTON (St. Edburgh), a parish, in the union of Shipston-upon-Stour, Upper division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 1¾ mile (E. by N.) from Chipping-Campden; containing, with the hamlet of Hidcote-Boyce, 583 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the Cotswold hills, and comprises 2861a. 27p.: stone is quarried, chiefly for the repair of roads, and for cottage-buildings. The living is a discharged vicarage, consolidated with that of Mickleton, and valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 4.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1813; the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church is a large and handsome structure, the east window of which is ornamented with stained glass, representing portions of the history of the patriarch Joseph; in the chancel is a monument, erected in 1677, to Sir John Fortescue, lord chancellor in the reign of Henry VI. Ebrington gives the title of Viscount to Earl Fortescue.
ECCHINSWELL, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Kingsclere, hundred of Evingar, Kingsclere and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Newbury; containing 506 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Lawrence.
Eccles (St. Mary de Eccles)
ECCLES (St. Mary de Eccles), a parish, in the hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (W.) from Manchester; containing, with the townships of Barton-upon-Irwell, Clifton, Pendlebury, and Worsley, and the chapelry of Pendleton, 33,792 inhabitants. Mention of a family of the local name occurs temp. William II., but the Traffords were settled here at a period anterior to the Norman Conquest; and ancient documents in the possession of the family show that their property has descended to the present representative, not only by an uninterrupted line of male heirs, but without alienation. The name of Eccles is evidently contracted from the Latin ecclesia. The parish comprises by computation 16,514 acres, whereof a considerable portion forms part of Chat Moss, and the remainder is chiefly meadow and pasture, with a very small quantity of arable land. Coal abounding in various parts, mining operations employ a large number of the population; and cotton weaving and spinning, calico printing and bleaching, and the manufacture of silk, nankeen, gingham, and linen-cloth, are carried on extensively. The parish is intersected by numerous roads; and the river Irwell, which is navigable, and the Duke of Bridgewater's, the Worsley and Leigh, and the Manchester and Bolton canals, also pass through it; as do the Manchester and Liverpool and the Manchester and Bolton railways, the first having two stations within the parish. There are numerous villages; that of Eccles is in Barton township, and in it is held, on the first Sunday in September, an annual festival of great rustic cel brity, and of high antiquity, called the Eccles Wake. A court leet is held for Barton, and a court baron for Worsley. Among the principal old halls are Worsley, Wardley, Agecroft, and Irlam; and throughout the parish are many mansions of modern erection.
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £500. The church, which is in the later English style, belonged to Whalley Abbey, but at the Dissolution was made parochial. Seven additional churches have been erected, viz.: at Barton, Ellenbrook, Pendlebury, Pendleton, Swinton, Walkden-Moor, and Worsley; and there are places of worship for Independents, Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, Swedenborgians, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics. The day, Sunday, and infant schools are also very numerous. Some curious geological strata are to be met with in the parish, as at Worsley, in the line of the great tunnel; there are brine-springs at Barton, a weak salt-spring on the Woolden estate, and at Worsley a mineral spring. Connected with Eccles were, among other distinguished men, William and Lawrence Booth, archbishops of York; and Thomas Langley, cardinal of St. Peter's, Rome, and lord chancellor of England. Robert Ainsworth, author of the Latin and English Dictionary, was born at Woodgate, near Clifton, in September, 1660.
Eccles (St. Mary)
ECCLES (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Happing, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (N. E.) from Stalham; containing 53 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the coast, and comprises 318 acres, whereof 145 are arable, 112 pasture and meadow, and 61 waste. In 1605, the land was reduced several hundred acres by a dreadful inundation of the sea, which swept from the village 66 houses, leaving only 14; and in the reign o Charles I. a similar calamity occurred; but the sandhills now oppose a sufficient barrier to any further encroachments. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the gift of Edward Lombe, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £58. 10. The church, with the exception of the tower, which still remains, was swallowed up by the inundation of 1605, and the inhabitants use the church of Hempstead.
Eccles (St. Mary)
ECCLES (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Guiltcross, hundred of Shropham, W. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (E.) from Larlingford; containing 124 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the north side of the river Thet, was the residence of the bishops of the diocese, till, after the time of Henry VIII., the palace was abandoned. The parish comprises by admeasurement 1690 acres, of which 950 are arable, 650 low meadow, pasture, and heath, and 80 acres young plantations; the common was inclosed in 1812, but there are still sheep-walks. Here is a station of the Norfolk railway. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14, and in the gift of Sir Thomas B. Beevor, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £255, and the glebe comprises 27 acres; the rector is also entitled to the tithes of Bishop's Hall, New Buckenham. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated style, with a small round tower. There are several tumuli, one of much greater size than the others.
ECCLESALL-BIERLOW, a chapelry, and the head of a union, in the parish of Sheffield, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (S. W.) from Sheffield; containing 19,984 inhabitants. This very extensive and populous chapelry, which includes numerous villages and hamlets, forming the south-western portion of the parish, is principally the property of the Earl Fitzwilliam, who is lord of the manor. It is situated between the rivers Sheaf and Porter: in the beautiful valley of the latter are many good mansions and picturesque villas, and on the Glossop road are several handsome streets; the whole being one of the most important suburbs of Sheffield. Banner-Cross, formerly the seat of the late General Murray, is an elegant structure, in a demesne richly embellished with wood. Near the head of the vale of the Porter is Whiteley Wood estate, with a mansion surrounded by plantations; and on the opposite acclivities of the valley are the general cemetery, the botanic gardens, and the collegiate school. The chapel, situated on an eminence near Banner-Cross, is a stone edifice in the early English style, and has lately undergone extensive alterations; there is a spacious burial-ground, beautifully planted with trees and shrubs. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £160; patron, the Vicar. The Ecclesall poor law union comprises 7 parishes or places, of which 4 are in the West riding of Yorkshire, and 3 in the county of Derby; and contains a population of 31,645.
Ecclesfield (St. John the Baptist)
ECCLESFIELD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Wortley, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York; containing, with the chapelry of Bradfield, 15,150 inhabitants, of whom 8832 are in the township of Ecclesfield, 4½ miles (N.) from Sheffield. The manor, in Domesday book Eclesfelt, was anciently possessed by various families, and passed through the Viponts, Lovetots, Furnivals, Nevils, and Talbots, to the Howards. The parish is of great extent, being about 11 miles in length, and from 3 to 5 in breadth; and the strata on the north-eastern and north-western boundaries are rich in iron-ore and coal, both of excellent quality, and the working of which principally engages the population. The large village of Ecclesfield is situated on an eminence near the Barnsley road; the manufacture of files, nails, and forks, is carried on in it to a considerable extent. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Rev. Edward Ryder, with a net income of £573; impropriator, the Duke of Norfolk: the tithes were commuted for land in 1811. The church, sometimes styled the "Minster of the Moors," is a very handsome edifice in the later English style, and contains 1196 sittings, onethird free; it was repaired in 1825, at a cost of £2151: in the interior is a fine monument of Sir Richard Scott, in armour. There are churches at Bradfield, Bolsterstone, Chapel-Town, Midhope, Oughtibridge, Stannington, and Wadsley; and places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and others.
The endowed schools comprise Lound school, endowed in 1711 by Ann Sylvester; Parson-Cross and Shire-Green schools, endowed by the Rev. Robert Turie in 1720; Grenoside school, originally instituted by the inhabitants, and subsequently aided by numerous bequests; and High-Green school, endowed with £500 left by Ann Reresby, in 1801, for teaching girls. An infants' school has within these few years been built, and endowed with £400, by Miss Hannah Rawson, who also left the interest of £500 to be distributed among poor widows. The other charitable endowments comprises the Feoffee estate, bequeathed by Sir Thomas Gargreaves and others for several purposes, one of which is the education of 28 children at the Ecclesfield township school; Sylvester's Hospital for seven persons, founded and endowed by Edward Sylvester in 1693, and the income of which, aided by a bequest of £200 from Ann Reresby in 1801, amounts to about £100 per annum; Barnes Hall hospital for six people, erected in the 15th of Charles I. by Richard Watts, to whom Sir Richard Scott, in 1668, devised certain estates for the purpose; an almshouse for three poor persons of Ecclesfield, and three of Owleston, erected by George Barnforth; and Freeman's almshouses, for six aged widows, at Chapel-Town, founded by Mr. Freeman, and endowed with £2000. Here was a priory of Benedictine monks under the abbey of St. Wandragisilius, in Normandy; at the suppression of alien priories, it was granted to the Carthusian monastery of St. Anne, near Coventry. In the neighbourhood are vestiges of a Roman intrenchment, termed "Devil's Ditch."
Eccleshall (Holy Trinity)
ECCLESHALL (Holy Trinity), a town and parish, in the union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford; comprising the townships of Aspley, Bromley, Broughton, Charnes, Chatcull, Chorlton, Chorlton-Hill, Coldmeece, Cotes, Croxton, Eccleshall, Horsley, Millmeece, Pershall, Podmore, Slindon, Sugnall Magna and Parva, Three-Farms, Walton, and Wootton; and containing 4730 inhabitants, of whom 1439 are in the township of Eccleshall, 7¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Stafford, and 149 (N. W.) from London. This place, which is supposed to be of very remote antiquity, belonged at the time of the Conquest to the see of Lichfield. In 1160, Bishop Durdent procured for it the grant of a weekly market and an annual fair; and about the year 1200, Bishop Muschamp obtained from King John licence to embattle the episcopal residence, and to empark the adjoining grounds. The castle was extensively repaired, or entirely rebuilt, by Bishop Langton, in 1310. During the civil war, it sustained so much damage in a siege, prior to its being taken by the parliamentarians, as to be unfit for the residence of the bishops, until Bishop Lloyd, in 1695, rebuilt the south part, and connected it with the remaining old buildings, then occupied as a farmhouse; since which time it has continued to be the palace of the see, and has been repeatedly improved. Bishop Hough planted the grove, which has been more recently laid out in shrubberies and plantations; and Dr. Cornwallis, a late bishop, by draining the lands, added greatly to the salubrity of the situation. Bishop Ryder also much improved the house, and the ancient moat was beautifully laid out in pleasure-grounds by his lady. The environs are pleasant, and the woods belonging to the palace are extensive. The town, which is agreeably situated on a tributary of the river Sow, contains some good houses, and is amply supplied with water; it is about 2½ miles distant from the Norton-Bridge station of the Liverpool and Birmingham railway. The market is on Friday; the fairs are on the Thursday before MidLent, on Holy-Thursday, Aug. 16th, and the first Friday in November, for cattle, sheep, and horses. Two constables and four headboroughs are appointed at the court leet of the Bishop of Lichfield, who is lord of the manor. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 4.; net income, £200; patron, the Bishop, The great tithes of Eccleshall township have been commuted for £149, and the impropriate glebe consists of 61 acres. The church was the sanctuary of Queen Margaret, after Lord Audley's defeat by the Earl of Salisbury, at Bloreheath; it is a spacious structure in the ancient English style, and contains several monuments. At Broughton, Chorlton, Croxton, and Cotes-Heath are additional churches; and there is a place of worship for Independents. An act for inclosing waste lands was passed in 1841. About a mile to the north of the town is a paved vicinal way; and a mile to the east of it are some ancient remains.
ECCLESHILL, a township, in the parish and union of Blackburn, Lower division of the wapentake of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 3¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Blackburn; containing 510 inhabitants. This place was anciently called Ockleshill, and the family of Langton were connected with it in the reign of Edward II.: in that of Richard II. the Molyneuxs held the lordship; and subsequently the Grimshaws, of Clayton, held a moiety, if not the whole manor. The township lies on the road from Blackburn to Bury, which passes through the village. There are a cottonmill, and a brown-ware pottery. The great tithes have been commuted for £78.
ECCLESHILL, a township, in the parish of Bradford, union of Carlton (under Gilbert's act), wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 2¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Bradford; containing 3008 inhabitants. The township continued to form part of the ancient parish of Dewsbury for many years after the parish of Bradford had been separated from it; it contains 1209a. 3r. 34p., of which about 1000 acres are arable, and 200 moorland inclosed in 1842. Clay of fine quality for earthenware, and also for fire and common bricks, and drainingtiles, is abundant; and there is an extensive pottery, established in 1836: the substratum also contains coal, whereof several mines are in operation, and freestone, which is quarried for building. Eccleshill Hall is a handsome and ancient mansion of stone, commanding some fine views of the adjacent country. The village is situated on an eminence, and its inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture, for which there are three mills. Apperley-Bridge, in the township, is at the base of a verdant hill, on the south side of the Aire; on the bank of the river, are a dye-house, and an extensive corn-mill. The Leeds and Liverpool canal passes through the township. A church, dedicated to St. Luke, was erected in 1846, on a site given by George Baron, Esq., at an expense of £2000, of which £1000 were a grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a neat structure in the early English style, with a tower and spire, and contains 700 sittings, of which one-third are free; the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Bradford. There are places of worship for Independents, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.