A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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ELYHAUGH, a township, in the parish of Felton, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 9 miles (S. S. W.) from Alnwick; containing 27 inhabitants. This is a small township, about two miles to the west of Fenton. Elyhaugh House stands in a pleasant and sequestered situation on the north brink of the Coquet, and is inclosed by abrupt banks, natural woods, and high lands.
EMBER, with Weston, a hamlet, in the parish of Thames-Ditton, union of Kingston, Second division of the hundred of Elmbridge, W. division of Surrey; containing 1256 inhabitants. These are two manors of considerable antiquity, and both mentioned in Domesday book: Weston remained in the possession of the abbess of Barking till the reign of Henry VIII., who bought it when making the chase of Hampton Court. Ember Court is a substantial mansion, in grounds finely wooded, and watered by the river Mole: here are many valuable pictures.
Emberton (All Saints)
EMBERTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 1½ mile (S.) from Olney; containing, with the merged parish of Okeney cum Petsoe, 658 inhabitants. The parish is situated within a mile of the river Ouse, and intersected by the road from London to Wellingborough; and comprises by measurement 1700 acres. The females are nearly all employed in making pillow-lace. Stone of good quality for building is found in abundance, and, at a greater depth, some excellent freestone. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 0. 5.; net income, £453; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Thomas Fry. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1798; the land comprises 280 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated English style, with an embattled tower: the east window is a rich specimen of elegant tracery, and over the entrance doorway is a window of corresponding design; the side windows of the chancel have some good specimens of stained glass. Schools are supported by subscription; and a charity founded by the Bakewell family, produces £20 per annum. Sir Everard Digby, concerned in the Gunpowder Plot, is supposed to have been interred here.
EMBLETON, a chapelry, in the parish of Brigham, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 2¾ miles (E. by S.) from Cockermouth; containing 408 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £54; patron, the Earl of Lonsdale. As a commutation for the tithes, a rent-charge of £190 has been awarded. The chapel, dedicated to St. Cuthbert, is a neat edifice, rebuilt in 1816.
EMBLETON, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Sedgefield, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 8½ miles (N. by W.) from Stockton; containing 98 inhabitants, and comprising 3356 acres of inferior land, principally arable. This place, anciently called Elmdene from its deep hollow glen abounding with elms, gave name to a family that became resident here about the commencement of the 13th century. Though consisting now of only a few houses, it was formerly of considerable size: in a field south of the village are numerous tumuli, evidently resulting from the ruins of buildings; and the parish registers testify that the number of inhabitants about two centuries ago was much greater than at present. Here are two acres of glebe belonging to the rector of Sedgefield: the tithes have been commuted for £138. 13. The chapel, situated on the brink of the dene, appears to have been originally of larger dimensions than it now is.
Embleton (St. Mary)
EMBLETON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Alnwick, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland; comprising the townships of Broxfield, Bruton, Craster, Dunston, Embleton, Fallowdon, Newton-by-the-Sea, Rennington, Rock, and Stamford; and containing 2030 inhabitants, of whom 525 are in the township of Embleton, 7¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Alnwick. The township comprises about 2000 acres, of which, with the exception of 600 acres of fine old grass-land, nearly the whole is arable, and in a high state of cultivation; the principal substrata are limestone and coal, both of which are found in great abundance, but the latter is of inferior quality. The village, which is about a mile to the west of the sea, is irregularly built at the base of a ridge of hills, and has a postoffice in connexion with that of Alnwick. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 3. 4.; net income, £815; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford. The church is ancient. The townships of Rennington and Rock have each a chapel. There is a place of worship for members of the Kirk of Scotland; and a school for not less than ten, and not more than fourteen, children, is endowed with £20 per annum.
EMBLEY, a tything, in the parish of East Wellow, union of Romsey, hundred of Thorngate, Romsey and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2¼ miles (W.) from Romsey; containing 51 inhabitants. Embley Park is situated here.
Emborough, In and Out (St. Mary)
EMBOROUGH, IN and OUT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Chewton, E. division of Somerset, 5½ miles (N. E.) from Wells; containing, with the tything of Whitnell, 210 inhabitants, a few of whom are engaged in making edgetools. The parish is situated on the road from Wells to Bath, in a district abounding with interesting scenery, and comprises by measurement 1829 acres, of which about 600 are arable, 150 woodland, and the remainder pasture. By the road side is a lake covering about ten acres, with a thick wood behind, and some pleasant walks. The living is annexed, with that of StoneEaston, to the vicarage of Chewton-Mendip: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £140, and the vicarial for £74; the glebe comprises 2 acres.
EMBSAY, with Eastby, a township, in the parish and union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Skipton; containing 962 inhabitants. This place was distinguished for its priory, founded in 1120, for Augustine canons, by William de Meschines and his wife Cecilia de Romili, and which, after flourishing for about thirty years, was removed by their daughter Adeliza to Bolton: a chapel was continued long after its removal. The township is situated in a hilly district, and comprises 4000 acres, of which about two-thirds are inclosed: the population is partly employed in cotton and worsted mills. The village of Eastby is to the north-east of Embsay, and both lie north of the road from Skipton to Ripley. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. A spring in the township bears the name of St. Cuthbert's Well.
Emley, or Elmley (St. Michael)
EMLEY, or Elmley (St. Michael), a parish, in the Upper and Lower divisions of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 8 miles (S. W.) from Wakefield; containing, with part of the township of CumberworthHalf, 2568 inhabitants, of whom 1575 are in Emley township. This place belonged to the family of Heton, whose estates passed to the Saviles, and whose ancient mansion of timber frame-work, surrounded by a moat, stood in an extensive park, more than two miles in length, but which has been long divided into farms. The parish comprises 3120 acres of land, all under cultivation, and contains an abundance of excellent coal, and stone suitable for building: the village is pleasantly situated on the declivity of a hill, and a considerable number of its inhabitants are employed in weaving, and as wheelwrights and carpenters. Fairs for cattle are held on Lady-day and Michaelmas-day. The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £14. 0. 7½., and in the patronage of the Earl of Scarborough, lord of the manor; net income, £422: the tithes of the park lands have been commuted for a modus, and part of the estate of T. W. Beaumont, Esq., formerly abbey land, is tithefree. The church is a neat structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
Emmington (St. Nicholas)
EMMINGTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Thame, hundred of Lewknor, county of Oxford, 3¼ miles (S. E.) from Thame; containing 97 inhabitants. It comprises 700 acres, of which the soil is generally a strong clay, and the surface level. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 0. 2½., and in the gift of P. T. Wykeham, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £195. 15., and the glebe comprises 2 acres.
Emneth (St. Edmund)
EMNETH (St. Edmund), a parish, in the union of Wisbech, hundred of Freebridge-Marshland, W. division of Norfolk, 2½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Wisbech; containing 1065 inhabitants. This place, which in ecclesiastical affairs is a chapelry in the parish of Elm, comprises by admeasurement 3360 acres, whereof 1950 are arable, 1400 pasture, and 10 woodland and plantations. The church is an ancient structure, and contains an altar-tomb with the recumbent effigies of Sir Thomas Heward, his lady, and infant son.
Empingham (St. Peter)
EMPINGHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Oakham, hundred of East, county of Rutland, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Stamford; containing 914 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Stamford to Oakham, and comprises by computation 5000 acres, of which 4000 are arable, and the rest woodland and roads. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 9½.: net income, £316; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln. The church is a handsome edifice, in the early English style, with some later insertions.
Empshot (Holy Rood)
EMPSHOT (Holy Rood), a parish, in the union of Petersfield, hundred of Selborne, Alton and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5 miles (N.) from Petersfield; containing 148 inhabitants. It comprises 700 acres, of which the surface is hilly: stone of good quality for building is obtained in abundance. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 16. 5½., and in the patronage of J. Eldridge, Esq.; impropriators, the landowners: the tithes have been commuted for £89. 18., and there is a glebe of 9 acres. The church is in the early English style, and consists of a nave and aisles, separated by handsome pillars and richly-moulded arches; the chancel is divided from the nave by a beautiful arch of a similar character and a screen of carved oak.
EMSWELL, with Kelleythorpe, a township, in the parish and union of Driffield, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 2 miles (W.) from Driffield; containing 100 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 2610 acres: the village is on the road from Driffield to Sledmere. There are several fine springs, shaded by lofty elms, and hence the place derives its name.
EMSWORTH, a town, in the parish of Warblington, union of Havant, hundred of Bosmere, Portsdown and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Havant; containing 1165 inhabitants. This place is situated on the road from Portsmouth to Brighton, and on the Sussex border, opposite to Thorney Island, at the head of Emsworth Channel, which is navigable along Hayling Island to the English Channel, for vessels of 200 tons' burthen. It formerly consisted only of a few fishermen's huts, but from its favourable situation has, within the last few years, grown into considerable importance, and become a thriving and populous town, containing many well-built houses, and in the immediate vicinity several neat and pleasant villas; it is amply supplied with water, conveyed by pipes from a reservoir on Emsworth Common. Hot and cold seawater baths have been erected; and a literary and scientific society has been established since 1834. The manufacture of sailcloth, sacking, ropes, fishing-nets, and twine, is carried on, employing about eighty persons; and there are a ship-building yard and two breweries. The place is a member of the ports of Portsmouth and Chichester, and has a considerable trade in the importation of coal, and exportation of flour and timber; for which two good quays have been constructed. There are several vessels occupied in the coasting-trade, and about thirty boats in the oysterfishery for which the place is celebrated; prawns are also found in abundance, and various other kinds of fish. Fairs, chiefly for toys, are held on the 15th of April and the 18th of July. A proprietary chapel dedicated to St. Peter, a neat building of brick, was erected in 1790; the minister's stipend is £50. A district church, dedicated to St. James, was erected in 1840, at an expense of £1200: it is a cruciform structure of brick, with two towers at the west end surmounted by octangular turrets terminating in low spires, between which is the entrance porch; it is in the Norman style, and contains 566 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector, who has endowed it with £50 per annum, in addition to the seat-rents. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
Enborne (St. Michael)
ENBORNE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Newbury, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 2¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Newbury; containing 384 inhabitants. It comprises 2486a. 2p., and is crossed by the Kennet and Avon canal. The custom of free bench prevails. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of the Earl of Craven: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and the glebe comprises 80 acres.
Endellion (St. Endelian)
ENDELLION (St. Endelian), a parish, in the union of Bodmin, hundred of Trigg, E. division of Cornwall, 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Camelford; containing 1154 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the coast, about midway between Tintagel Head and Padstow Point, and comprises by measurement 3777 acres, nearly all arable: slate is shipped hence to various parts. A fair, of recent origin, is held in the Church Town on the first Tuesday after Sept. 7th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for £225, and the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church is a capacious edifice in the later English style, erected about 300 years ago, having a lofty tower visible as a landmark at a great distance; it is collegiate, containing three prebends which are sinecures, exclusively of the rectory. The King's, or Bodmin, prebend is in the patronage of John Bassett, Esq., and the tithes have been commuted for £131; that of Heredum-Marney is in the patronage of the Hon. Mrs. Agar, and the tithes have been commuted for £134; that of Trehaverock is in the patronage of Richardson Gray, Esq., and the tithes have been commuted for £130: the glebes comprise respectively 12, 15, and 15 acres. The Wesleyans and Bryanites have places of worship. According to tradition, there was a religious house belonging to the Grey friars, in the vale of St. Tillick. On the estate of Roscarrock are two barrows.
Enderby (St. John the Baptist)
ENDERBY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Blaby, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4½ miles (S. W.) from Leicester; containing 1336 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south-east by the river Soar, and comprises 1535 acres; the soil is generally of a light sandy quality, and the substrata are granite and sandstone. The village is pleasantly situated on a hill rising from a widely-extended plain. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Whetstone annexed, valued in the king's books at £10. 8. 9.; net income, £192; patron and impropriator, C. Smith, Esq. A school was endowed with a house and the interest of £200, by Richard Smith, Esq., in 1762.
Enderby, Bag (St. Margaret)
ENDERBY, BAG (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, hundred of Hill, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 6½ miles (E.) from Horncastle; containing 102 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Horncastle to Alford, and in the Wolds; and comprises 617 acres by measurement. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 18. 1½., and in the gift of W. B. Burton, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £210. 15., and the glebe comprises 34½ acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the early and decorated English styles. In the churchyard is a beautiful cross in high preservation; the shaft is fifteen feet in height, and the head of the cross has on one side a sculptured figure of the Saviour, and on the other of the Virgin and Child.
Enderby, Mavis (St. Michael)
ENDERBY, MAVIS (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, E. division of the soke of Bolingbroke, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 1¾ mile (W. by N.) from Spilsby; containing 211 inhabitants. It comprises 1338a. 2r. 38p., of inclosed land, belonging to various proprietors; the village is small and scattered, on a declivity of the Wolds. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 11. 3., and in the gift of the Rev. William Morley, with a net income of £350: the tithes were commuted for land and a corn-rent under an inclosure act of the 38th of George III., when, also, 4½ acres were allotted to the poor, which are now let in small gardens. The church is a neat edifice, with a tower containing three bells; in the porch is a mutilated basin for holy water, standing on a shaft of clustered columns.
Enderby, Wood (St. Benedict)
ENDERBY, WOOD (St. Benedict), a parish, in the union and soke of Horncastle, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Horncastle; containing 233 inhabitants, and comprising 1025a. 16p. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £56; patron, the Bishop of Carlisle; impropriator, M. D. R. Langdale, Esq. The church is an ancient edifice. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
ENDON, a township, in the parish and union of Leek, N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county of Stafford, 4½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Leek; containing 571 inhabitants. The townships of Endon and Stanley together constitute the chapelry of Endon, which comprises by measurement 2653 acres. Stone of very good quality is extensively quarried at Moss Hall farm, for flagging, railway blocks, and strong building uses. The road from Leek to Newcastle passes through the village, and a branch of the Grand Trunk canal through the chapelry. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Earl of Macclesfield, with a net income of £120: the tithes have been commuted for land; the glebe comprises 92 acres. The chapel is a neat plain edifice, with a handsome tower crowned by turrets and pinnacles; the angles of the building are embellished with turrets. A school here is endowed with £7 per annum; and there is a bequest of 70 acres of land, producing £73, to be divided among the poor of Stanley.
Enfield (St. Andrew)
ENFIELD (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Edmonton, county of Middlesex, 10 miles (N. by E.) from London; containing 9367 inhabitants. This place is in Domesday book called Enefelde, denoting its situation among fields, or in the felled part of a forest. The Chace extended to the river Lea, in the neighbourhood of which, from the facility of conveyance, the timber would probably be felled prior to that in any other part of the parish. Richard II. granted the inhabitants exemption from tolls, and various privileges, which were confirmed by succeeding monarchs. Edward VI. had a palace here, where he kept his court for a considerable time; and in 1557, the princess, afterwards Queen Elizabeth, spent some days in the palace, when with great pomp she came to hunt in Enfield Chace, which was well stocked with deer. In the earlier part of her reign the queen made this her principal residence, where she held her court previously to its removal to London. James I., who had a palace at Theobalds, made frequent excursions to this forest, to enjoy the diversion of the chace; and Charles II. here had a hunting-seat, where he occasionally resided. During the great civil war, the parliamentarian army destroyed the game and cut down the trees, and a considerable part of the land was divided into small farms: it continued in this state till after the Restoration, when it was replanted and stocked with deer. In 1777, it was finally disafforested by act of parliament, and allotments assigned to such parishes and individuals as claimed a right of common: the Chace, on admeasurement, was found to contain 8350 acres, of which the greater part is now in tillage. Of the ancient palace, which was probably repaired during the reigns of Edward VI. and Elizabeth, but of which the major part was taken down in 1792, only one of the principal rooms on the ground floor is remaining. This room is still in its original state, with oak panels and a richly-ornamented ceiling. The chimney-piece, of freestone, which is embellished with finelysculptured birds and foliage, is supported by columns of the Corinthian and Ionic orders, and decorated with the rose and portcullis crowned, and with the arms of England and France quartered, having for supporters a lion and dragon, and the motto Sola salus servire Deo; sunt cætera fraudes. Part of a similar chimney-piece, removed from one of the upper rooms, has been placed on the wainscot over the door. A fine cedar of Libanus was planted in the garden of the palace in 1666, the girth of which at a short distance from the ground is 19 feet 3 inches.
The town, which is to the west of the road from London to Ware, consists of two streets, containing several handsome houses, and is well supplied with water from springs. In the immediate vicinity are numerous good-residences in detached situations, and several pleasing villas; at Forty Hill is the fine seat of Christian Paul Meyer, Esq., lord of the manor, embosomed in a richly-wooded park. A royal manufactory for small-arms, previously carried on at the Tower and at Lewisham, was in 1816 established partly in this parish and partly at Waltham-Abbey: there are a corn-mill, and a mill for dressing skins, a brewery, and an extensive tannery; and at Ponder's-End, in the parish, is a manufactory for finishing crape, which affords employment to 150 persons. The New River runs through the town; the Lea navigation intersects part of the parish. In 1846 an act was passed for a railway to join the London and Cambridge line at Edmonton, nearly three miles in length. The market on Monday, granted by charter of Edward I. in 1304, and another on Saturday, by charter of James I., are both discontinued; but a fair is still held on Sept. 23rd, which is a statute-fair, and another on Nov. 30th, for horses, cows, and cheese. Near the site of the market-house, which has been taken down, a handsome stone cross in the ancient English style was erected in 1826, by subscription. The county magistrates hold a petty-session for the division every alternate Wednesday, and courts leet and baron are held on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week. Enfield is a liberty belonging to the duchy of Lancaster, and the inhabitants appoint their own coroner.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £26; net income, £1174; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for land and corn-rents, under successive inclosure acts. A lectureship was established in 1631, by Henry Loft, who endowed it with £4 per annum. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated and later English styles, with a low embattled tower, and contains several splendid monuments, among which are, the tomb and effigies of Sir Nicholas Raynton and his lady; an altar-tomb to the memory of Joyce, Lady Tiptoft, mother of John, Earl of Worcester; and a monument of Italian veined marble to Thomas Stringer, Esq. A district church, dedicated to St. James, has been erected on Enfield Highway, in the division of Green-Street and Ponder'sEnd; it is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower ornamented by pinnacles at the angles. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, the Vicar of Enfield. Jesus district chapel, at Forty Hill, an elegant structure in the early English style, with four open campanile turrets at the angles of the nave, enriched with canopies and surmounted by crocketed spires, was erected in 1832, at the expense of Mr. Meyer: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar. The living of Christ Church, Trent, is in the gift of R. C. L. Bevan, Esq. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Presbyterians. The free grammar school is endowed with funds arising from a bequest of land by Robert Blossom, in 1418, for the establishment of a chantry at South Benfleet, the revenue of which after the Dissolution was granted to trustees for the payment of a schoolmaster of Enfield, with remainder for distribution among the poor: the produce arising from this and subsequent benefactions, is at present about £200 per annum. Mrs. Anne Crowe, in 1763, endowed almshouses for four aged persons with £500 reduced Bank annuities. Thomas Wilson in 1590 bequeathed rents, now yielding £212 per annum, for distribution among six aged men. John David left the rents of tenements on Enfield Green, producing £50. 5. per annum, to be divided among four widows; and King James I. gave £500 for the purchase of 335 acres of land, a part of Enfield Chace, with which sum the churchwardens bought an estate at North Mimms, in Hertfordshire, afterwards exchanged for another at Eastwood, in Essex, the produce of which is given to aged widows.
The Ermin-street led through part of the Chace to Hertford; and in a meadow called Old Bury, about half a mile to the east of the church, is the site of an ancient mansion, surrounded by a wide and deep moat, with high intrenchments, including a quadrilateral area 96 yards in length, and 40 in breadth: at the north-west angle is an eminence having the appearance of the keep of a castle, probably the manorial residence of Humphry de Bohun. To the south-west of the town, and about a mile from Old Bury, is a smaller moat; and south of Goulsdown-lane is another, separating two square fields, in the first of which are the remains of out-buildings belonging to a mansion in which Judge Jeffreys is said to have resided, and near the entrance a deep well called King's Ring, the water of which is deemed efficacious in diseases of the eye: a celt was dug up in 1793, at the depth of twelve feet from the surface. In 1816, several Roman urns and coins were found in a gravel-pit in the vicinity; and in Windmill field, large painted tiles have been frequently discovered by the plough, and lately part of a coffin, and some urns, in one of which were bones, and in another three pieces of gold. In Sept. 1820, several Roman coins of silver and brass were ploughed up in a field near Clay Hill. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, was an inhabitant of Enfield for several years; and Richard Gough, the antiquary, resided here till his decease in 1809. It gives the title of Baron to the Earl of Rochford.