A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Beverstone (St. Mary)
BEVERSTONE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Tetbury, Upper division of the hundred of Berkeley, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 2 miles (N. W.) from Tetbury; containing 178 inhabitants. This place is of very remote antiquity, and there are still some remains of a castle in which a meeting was held, in 1048, by Earl Godwin and his son, for the alleged purpose of aiding Edward the Confessor to repress the incursions of the Welsh. The castle in the reign of Edward III. was enlarged and repaired by Thomas, Lord Berkeley, and in the civil war was garrisoned for the king, but was besieged and taken by the parliamentarians, and subsequently destroyed by fire. The parish is situated on the road from Dursley to Tetbury and Cirencester, and intersected by a branch of the Lower Frome, which has its source within its limits. The living is a rectory, with the living of Kingscote annexed, valued in the king's books at £30, and in the gift of the Crown, with a net income of £590: the tithes were commuted for corn-rents in 1803. The church was rebuilt by R. S. Holford, Esq., and opened for divine worship in October, 1845.
Bewaldeth, with Snittlegarth
BEWALDETH, with Snittlegarth, a township, in the parish of Torpenhow, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 6¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Cockermouth; containing 73 inhabitants. The manor of Bewaldeth or Bowaldeth was given by Waldieve, lord of Allerdale, to Gilmin. Having reverted to the lord paramount, it was granted by Alice de Romely to John de Utterfield; after which, the family of Mulcaster had the manor for several descents. In or about the year 1400, Robert de Mulcastre or Mulcaster conveyed it to Robert de Highmore, whose descendant, Mr. Benson Highmore, sold the property to James Spedding, Esq., grandfather of John Spedding, Esq., of Mirehouse, of whom it was purchased by Sir Frederick Fletcher Vane, Bart.
Bewcastle (St. Cuthbert)
BEWCASTLE (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Longtown, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Brampton; comprising the townships of Bailie, Bellbank, Bewcastle, and Nixons; and containing 1274 inhabitants, of whom 181 are in the township of Bewcastle. This place, which was a Roman station on the Maiden-way, derived its name from a fortress erected here soon after the Conquest by Bueth, lord of Gilsland, and in which, in the reign of Elizabeth, and also in 1639, a border garrison was placed; during the civil war the castle was demolished by the parliamentarians, and only some slight vestiges of it now remain. The parish comprises about 41,221 acres, of which 21,221 are rateable, and about 20,000 undivided common; it abounds with richly varied and picturesque scenery, and within its limits the Leven or Line and the Irthing have their sources. The substrata are chiefly limestone and coal, and lead-ore is found in abundance. In the 7th of Edward I., license was granted to John Swinburn, to hold a weekly market and an annual fair. The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £2, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, with a net income of £120. The rectorial tithes for the township of Bewcastle have been commuted for £60; and there are 40 acres of glebe. In the churchyard is a curious antique cross composed of a single stone, bearing Runic inscriptions which have been variously interpreted, and some curious devices supposed to be emblematical of the conversion of the Danes to Christianity, and commemorative of the death and interment of one of their kings. Here is a place of worship for Presbyterians. Many coins, inscribed stones, and other relics of Roman occupation have been found, and there are various relics of antiquity in the vicinity. The parish contains two mineral springs, one sulphureous, the other chalybeate; and at Low Grange, a quarter of a mile to the east of the church, is a petrifying spring.
BEWDLEY, a borough, market-town, and chapelry, having separate jurisdiction, in the parish of Ribbesford and union of Kidderminster, locally in the Lower division of the hundred of Doddingtree, and in the Hundred-House and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 14 miles (N. W.) from Worcester, and 126 (N. W.) from London; containing 3400 inhabitants. This place, in Camden's "Britannia" called Bellus Locus from the pleasantness of its situation and the beauty of the surrounding scenery, anciently obtained also the appellation of Beaulieu, of which its present name is a corruption. In the 13th of Henry IV., a petition was presented to parliament from the "men of Bristowe" and Gloucester, praying that they might navigate the river Severn without being subject to new taxes levied by the men of Beaudley. At this time Bewdley appears to have enjoyed many privileges, among which was that of sanctuary for persons who had shed blood: it was extraparochial, but, by letters-patent granted by Henry VI., was annexed to the parish of Ribbesford. Edward IV. gave the inhabitants a charter of incorporation in the twelfth year of his reign; and Henry VII. erected a palace here for his son Arthur, who was married in it by proxy to Catharine of Arragon: the prince dying soon after at Ludlow, his corpse was removed to this town, where it lay in state previously to interment in the cathedral of Worcester. Bewdley was formerly included in the marches of Wales, but by an act of parliament, passed in the reign of Henry VIII., was added to the county of Worcester. During the civil war in the time of Charles I., that monarch, who had been driven from Oxford by the parliamentary forces, retired with the remnant of his army to this town, where he encamped, in order to keep the river Severn between himself and the enemy. Whilst staying here, he was attacked by a party of Scottish cavalry, when several of his officers, and seventy men, were made prisoners; and in these attacks the palace was greatly damaged: the site is now occupied by a dwelling-house, and not a single vestige of the original edifice can, with certainty, be traced. The more ancient part of the town was built at a greater distance from the river, and the portion now called Load-street is supposed to have been merely the place where the inhabitants loaded their boats: there were four gates, two of which were standing in 1811, but have since been entirely demolished.
The town is beautifully situated on the western bank of the river Severn, over which a light and elegant stone bridge was erected in 1797: the street leading from the bridge diverges right and left, but extends farther in the latter direction; it is paved, and lighted with gas. The houses in this street are in general well built, and of respectable appearance, and there are some handsome residences in the vicinity, among the most distinguished of which are Winterdyne, Ticknell, Spring Grove, and Ribbesford House; the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, the air is salubrious, and the surrounding scenery richly and pleasingly diversified. Some years since, Bewdley was a place of considerable trade, having two markets and four fairs, and for a long period was the mart from which the neighbouring towns were supplied with grocery and other articles of consumption; but in consequence of the recent construction of canals, that portion of its trade has been diverted to other towns. The manufacture of woollen caps, known by the name of Dutch caps, was introduced here in consequence of the plague prevailing at Monmouth, where it had previously been carried on, and being encouraged by legislative enactments in the reign of Elizabeth, it continued for some time to flourish, but has now declined, and the present trade is principally in malt, the tanning of leather, and the making of combs. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held on April 23rd, July 26th, and December 10th and 11th. The inhabitants were first incorporated in the 12th of Edward IV.: they received additional privileges from Henry VII., which were confirmed by Henry VIII.; and James I. granted a new charter. The corporation now consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors; the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, and two permanent magistrates have also been appointed. Bewdley sent members to parliament so early as the reign of Edward I., after which there was a long intermission. The elective franchise was again conferred by James I., since which time it has returned one member to parliament: the borough embraces the town of Stourport, three miles distant, also the Forest of Wire: the mayor is the returning officer. The town-hall is a neat building of stone, erected in 1808, with a front decorated with six square pilasters supporting a pediment, in which are the arms of the family of Lyttelton; under the hall is the entrance into the market-place, which has an arcade on each side for stalls, and an open area in the centre; at the extremity are two small prisons, one for malefactors, the other for debtors.
The township comprises 2840 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £8 per annum, paid out of the exchequer, the revenue of a dissolved chantry which formerly existed here; net income, £220; patron, the Rector of Ribbesford. The chapel, a neat stone edifice, at the upper end of the street leading from the bridge, was erected in 1748, by the old corporation, aided by a subscription among the inhabitants and a brief, and has recently undergone considerable alteration by the expenditure of more than £800, contributed by the corporation and the inhabitants. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. The free grammar school, founded and endowed in 1591, by William Monnox or Monnoye, and further endowed in 1599 by Humphrey Hill, was made a royal foundation by charter of James I.; the endowment, augmented by subsequent benefactions, produces an income of £46. The Blue-coat school, for thirty boys and thirty girls, has been enlarged, and united to the National School Society, two good rooms having been built for 160 children. Almshouses for six aged men, founded by Mr. Sayer, of Nettlestead, in the county of Suffolk, and endowed with £30 per annum, were rebuilt in 1763, by Sir Edward Winnington, Bart., member for the borough. Burlton's almshouses, for fourteen aged women, were founded and endowed in 1645; and eight other houses were erected, and endowed with £6 per annum, in 1693, by Thomas Cook. John Tombes, a celebrated biblical critic of the seventeenth century; and Richard Willis, Bishop of Winchester, and principal founder of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, were natives of the town.
BEWERLEY, a township, in the chapelry and union of Pateley-Bridge, parish of Ripon, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 11¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Ripon; containing 1329 inhabitants. This extensive moorland township includes the village of Greenhow-Hill, and comprises 5872 acres, whereof 2983 are common or waste: the vicinity formerly abounded with valuable lead-mines, which were worked to a considerable extent. The tithes have been commuted for £52, payable to the Dean and Chapter of Ripon. At Greenhow are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans; and a school endowed with a house and land, producing about £20 per annum. There are remains of an ancient chapel.
BEWHOLME, a township, in the parish of Nunkeeling, union of Skirlaugh, N. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 3½ miles (N. W.) from Hornsea; containing 199 inhabitants. The principal landowners have been the families of Fauconberg, St. Quintin, and De la Pole; the monastery of Swine also held possessions here, which were afterwards, in the reign of Mary, granted, under the designation of "the Grange of Bewhall," to John Constable, to be held in capite by military service. The village, which is pleasant and well built, and on a commanding eminence, extends over a considerable space.
BEWICK, NEW, a township, in the parish of Eglingham, union of Glendale, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 9½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Alnwick; containing 121 inhabitants. It comprises about 1200 acres of arable land: the river Breamish and the great north road to Edinburgh form portions of the boundary line. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £140. 14., and the vicarial for £57. 15.
BEWICK, OLD, a township, in the parish of Eglingham, union of Glendale, N. division of Coquetdale ward and of Northumberland, 10 miles (N. W. by W.) from Alnwick, on the road to Wooler; containing 176 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river Breamish, and comprises about 5000 acres, of which 1000 are arable, 50 woodland, and the remainder pasture and moorland. The village, which is well built, commands an extensive and delightful prospect. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £176. 2. 6., and the vicarial for £110. 5. There was anciently a chapel dedicated to the Holy Trinity, the ruins of which are situated a little to the north-west of the village; it was destroyed by the Puritans, was restored in 1695, but again fell into decay. On Bewick Hill is a British encampment of a semicircular form, with a double rampart; and at Harehope burn, half a mile eastward, is another, supposed to have been an outwork.
Bexhill (St. Peter)
BEXHILL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Battle, hundred of Bexhill, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 8 miles (S.) from Battle; containing 1916 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by the English Channel, and comprises 6000 acres by computation; the surface is pleasingly varied, and in the northern parts richly embellished with wood; about 70 acres are planted with hops. The village, which is situated on an eminence, commands extensive prospects; and the coast road from Dovor, by way of Hastings and St. Leonard's, to Brighton, passes through it. Here also is a station of the Hastings and Brighton railway. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £24. 10. 2½.; net income, £977: patron, the Bishop of Chichester. The church is an ancient cruciform structure, partly in the early and partly in the later English style, with a low embattled tower. A chapel of ease has been erected on Little Common, and there is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Sir Richard de la Wyche, 13th bishop of Chichester, died here. There are several chalybeate springs.
Bexley (St. Mary)
BEXLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Dartford, partly in the hundred of Lessness, but chiefly in the hundred of Ruxley, lathe of Sutton-AtHone, W. division of Kent, 3 miles (W.) from Dartford; containing, with the hamlets of Blendon, Bridgend, and Upton, 3955 inhabitants. The manor was purchased from the crown in the reign of James I., by the celebrated antiquary William Camden, who conveyed it to the University of Oxford, in trust, to found a professorship of ancient history. The parish comprises 5025 acres, of which 1093 are woodland. The living is a vicarage, rated in the king's books at £13. 4. 7.; patron, Viscount Sidney; impropriators, the coheiresses of Thomas Latham, Esq.: the rectorial tithes have been commuted for £1046, and the vicarial for £700. 10. A chapel of ease was erected on Bexley Heath in 1836, by subscription, aided by a grant from the Church Building Society; and a district chapel was built in 1840 at Halfway-street, at the expense of John Malcolm, Esq., in whom the patronage is vested. The Right Hon. Nicholas Vansittart, on retiring from the chancellorship of the exchequer, was created Baron Bexley, March 1st, 1823.
BEXTON, a township, in the parish of Knutsford, union of Altrincham, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 1 mile (S. S. E.) from Knutsford; containing 96 inhabitants. The manor was for many centuries in moieties, one of which passed from the Bextons to the Tableys, and from them to the Daniels, who, in 1699, purchased the other moiety of Lord Cholmondeley: the whole came by purchase, in 1775, to the Leicester family. The township comprises 520 acres, the soil of which is clay and sand; about one-fourth is arable, and the remainder pasture: the surface of the land is level.
Bexwell (St. Mary)
BEXWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Downham, hundred of Clackclose, W. division of Norfolk, 1 mile (E.) from Downham; containing 70 inhabitants, and comprising 1177a. 3r. 17p. The manor anciently belonged to William de Bexwell, to whom Henry III. granted permission to hold a market on Thursday, and a fair on Whit-Monday. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 8., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely: the tithes have been commuted for £330, and the glebe consists of 41 acres. The church is built of ragstone obtained in the vicinity.
Beyton, or Beighton (All Saints)
BEYTON, or Beighton (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Stow, hundred of Thedwastry, W. division of Suffolk, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Bury; containing 384 inhabitants, and consisting by measurement of 1625 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 3. 9., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £210, and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church has a round tower with buttresses.
Bibury (St. Mary)
BIBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Northleach, partly in the hundred of Bradley, and partly in that of Brightwell's-Barrow, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 5 miles (N. W.) from Fairford; comprising the chapelry of Winson, and the tythings of Ablington and Arlington, and containing 1077 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement upwards of 4000 acres, chiefly arable land. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 1. 5½.; net income, £1023; patron, W. Strahan, Esq. There is a chapel of ease at Winson, two miles distant from the parochial church. Thomas Tryon, author of a curious work entitled The Way to Health, Long Life, and Happiness, published in 1691, was a native of the place.
Bicester (St. Eadburg)
BICESTER (St. Eadburg), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 12½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Oxford, and 55 (N. W. by W.) from London; comprising the townships of Market-End and King's-End, and containing 3022 inhabitants. This place, by the Saxons called Burenceaster and Burnacester, both implying a fortified place, is supposed to derive its name either from its founder, Birinus, a canonized Saxon prelate; from Bernwood, a forest in Buckinghamshire, not far from which it is situated; or from the small stream of the Bure, on which it stands. A priory for a prior and eleven canons of the Augustine order was founded in 1182, and dedicated to St. Eadburg, by Gilbert Basset, Baron of Haddington, and his wife, Egiline de Courteney: the revenue, at the Dissolution, was £167. 2. 10. In 1355, a royal license was granted to Nicholas Jurdan, warden of the chapel of St. John the Baptist, for the establishment of an hospital for poor and infirm people; but the design does not appear to have been carried into execution. During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., the inhabitants suffered by repeated exactions levied on them by both parties; and, in 1643, a skirmish took place, in which the royalists were defeated and driven through the town.
Bicester is situated in a valley, on the banks of a stream which falls into the river Ray, which joins the Cherwell, near Islip; it is neatly built, and amply supplied with water. The female inhabitants are employed in making pillow-lace; and the town is noted for excellent malt-liquor. The market is on Friday; and fairs are held on the Friday in Easter-week, the first Friday in June, August 5th, and the third Friday in December; there are also statute-fairs on the first three Fridays after Michaelmas. The county magistrates hold pettysessions for the district every Friday: the powers of the county debt-court of Bicester, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Bicester. The Living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16; net income, £250; patron and impropriator, Lady Page Turner: the tithes for King's-End were commuted for land and annual money payments in 1793. There is an excellent parsonage-house, with a large and productive garden; the premises have been greatly improved by the incumbent, the Rev. J. W. Watts. The church, which is supposed to have been built about the year 1400, on the site of a former edifice, is a spacious and handsome structure with a lofty square tower, and contains many interesting monuments and some antique sculptures. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. A school is supported partly by endowment; and lands producing about £200 per annum, and a few minor charitable bequests, are appropriated to the relief of the poor. The union of Bicester comprises 38 parishes and places, of which 36 are in the county of Oxford, and two in that of Bucks, and contains a population of 15,201; the union house is situated near the town. In the vicinity, on the Londonroad, is Graven-hill Wood, on the north side of which ran the Akeman-street; and not far from the town, on the west side, is St. Eadburg's well, famous before the Reformation for miraculous cures, and which proved very useful in supplying water to the town during the dry summer of 1666. In making some excavations in 1819, the foundations of the priory, a vast mass of sculptured fragments, pieces of painted glass, and other relics, were discovered.
BICKENHALL, a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Abdick and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset, 5½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Taunton; containing 264 inhabitants. The living is annexed to the rectory of Staple-Fitzpaine: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £200, and there are about 8½ acres of glebe.
Bickenhill, Church (St. Peter)
BICKENHILL, CHURCH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Meriden, Solihull division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 8½ miles (E. by S.) from Birmingham; containing, with Church, Middle, Lyndon, and Marston Quarters, 774 inhabitants. This place is of considerable antiquity, and included Kington, or Kingsford, now partly in this parish and partly in that of Solihull, the church of which was given to the nuns of Mergate, now Market-street, in the 5th of Henry III. by Henry le Notte, owner of the Marston-Hall estate. The parish comprises 3771a. 3r. 17p., of which the soil is in some parts a stiff clay, and in others of a lighter quality. It is situated near the London and Birmingham and the Stratford and Warwick canals, and is intersected by the London and Holyhead road, and the London and Birmingham and the Derby railways, the rateable annual value of the railway property in the parish being £2652. Many improvements have lately taken place. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 17. 3.; patron, the Earl of Aylesford: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £325, and the glebe consists of 19 acres, with a vicarage-house. The church, on whose site, according to Dugdale, a beacon existed in very early times, is an ancient structure chiefly in the Norman style, with a tower, but has received some subsequent additions of inferior character. A national school is supported by subscription.
Bicker (St. Swithin)
BICKER (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Boston, wapentake of Kirton, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 1½ mile (N. E. by N.) from Donnington; containing, with the extra-parochial liberties of Copping-Sike and Ferry-Corner, 925 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Donnington to Boston, and bounded on the west by the navigable river Forty-foot, which falls into the Witham at Boston. It comprises by measurement 3579 acres, of which one-half is arable, and the other half pasture and meadow; the soil is chiefly sand and clay; the surface is flat, and, being subject in part to inundation, has been much improved by draining. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15; net income, £560, arising from 270 acres of land given in lieu of tithes on the inclosure; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln. The church is an ancient structure, with a central tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BICKERING, a hamlet, in the parish of Holton, union of Lincoln, W. division of the wapentake of Wraggoe, parts of Lindsey, union and county of Lincoln, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Wragby.
BICKERSTAFFE, a township and ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Ormskirk, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3½ miles (S. E.) from Ormskirk; containing 1579 inhabitants. This was very early the seat of a family of the same name, from whom it passed to the Athertons and the Stanleys: the Earl of Derby is now proprietor of the entire township. It comprises 6291 acres, whereof 3550 are arable, 2250 pasture, 41 wood, and 450 common or waste. The soil is a sandy loam, part inclining to moor, and part to clay, with a red sandstone formation, beneath which is abundance of coal; the surface is elevated, presenting distant views of the Welsh hills and the sea. There is a quarry of a hard blueish stone; and two excellent collieries are in operation. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Earl of Derby; income, £150, with a house: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £750. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and erected in 1843 at an expense of £2500, is in the early English style, with an apse at the east end, and a square tower surmounted by a graceful spire of great height, forming a conspicuous object in the surrounding scenery. The cost of the church, the endowment, and parsonage-house, with most of the cost of the schools, was defrayed by the noble patron. Bickerstaffe Hall, now a farmhouse, was the seat of the Stanley family. The present earl, in the lifetime of his father, the late earl, in 1832, was created a peer by the title of Lord Stanley, of Bickerstaffe; and his son, the present Lord Stanley, was, under the same circumstances, summoned to the upper house, in 1844, as Baron Stanley, also of this place.
BICKERTON, a township, in the parish of Malpas, union of Nantwich, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 4¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Malpas; containing 401 inhabitants. The township comprises 1755 acres, of which 600 are common or waste; the soil is light. A church has been built, in aid of which the Incorporated Society contributed £120; 222 of the sittings are free: the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Rector, with a net income of £120. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £110. On the summit of a hill is an intrenchment called Maiden Castle.
BICKERTON, a township, in the parish and union of Rothbury, W. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 4¾ miles (W. by S.) from Rothbury; containing 18 inhabitants. It stands upon a pleasant level, the moorlands forming a semicircle on the south and west, and Coquet-haughs, with other rich pastures, being on the north and east. The village was formerly the property of four persons named Snowdon, who owned it jointly; but none of the family have any interest in the place at present. The tithes have been commuted for £44. 12.
BICKERTON, a township, in the parish of Bilton, W. division of Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York; 3½ miles (E. N. E.) from Wetherby; containing 110 inhabitants. The place once belonged to Bryan Rocliffe, a baron of the exchequer. It is situated on the road from Wetherby to York, and comprises about 1080 acres. The river Nidd winds its very devious course at a short distance north of the village. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BICKINGTON, a parish, in the union of NewtonAbbot, hundred of Teignbridge, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 3 miles (N. E.) from Ashburton; containing 374 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1300 acres, of which 100 are common or waste. A fair for cattle is held on May 14th. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Ashburton: the appropriate tithes, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, have been commuted for £115, and the vicarial for £110. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Bickington, Abbot's (St. James)
BICKINGTON, ABBOT'S (St. James), a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 9 miles (S. W. by W.) from Torrington; containing 75 inhabitants. The neighbourhood abounds with limestone, and with compact stone of a blue colour, which is quarried for building and other purposes; marble of good quality is also obtained. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with a portion of the great tithes, and in the gift of the family of Rolle, to whom the remainder of the tithes belongs: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £25, and those of the incumbent for £45. The church has some remains of ancient stained glass.
Bickington, High (St. Mary)
BICKINGTON, HIGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Torrington, hundred of North Tawton with Winkley, South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 7¼ miles (E. by N.) from Torrington; containing 895 inhabitants, and comprising 3433 acres, of which 437 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £29. 7. 6., and in the patronage of W. M. Stowell, Esq.; the tithes have been commuted for £430, and there are 150 acres of glebe. An endowment of £10 per annum by Gertrude Pyncombe, in 1740, is apportioned between two schools.
Bickleigh (St. Mary)
BICKLEIGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Tiverton, hundred of Hayridge, Cullompton and N. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Tiverton; containing 362 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 2469 acres, and is situated on the road from Exeter to Bristol and Bath, and on the river Exe, near its confluence with the Dart, over the former of which is a good bridge near the point of junction: stone is quarried for building and road-making. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 4. 9½.; net income, £420; patron, Sir W. P. Carew, Bart.; there are a glebe of 50 acres, and a house in good repair. The church contains some handsome monuments of the Carew family, who resided at Bickleigh Court, an ancient mansion, now destroyed. Bampfylde Moore Carew, "king of the beggars," was born in the parsonage-house, his father being the rector, and was buried here.
BICKLEIGH, a parish, in the union of Plympton St. Mary, hundred of Roborough, Midland-Roborough and S. divisions of Devon, 7 miles (N. N. E.) from Plymouth; containing 469 inhabitants. The Dartmoor and Plymouth railway passes along the parish. The living is a vicarage endowed with the great tithes, with the living of Sheepstor annexed, valued in the king's books at £11. 4. 7., and in the gift of Sir Ralph Lopes, Bart.: the tithes of Bickleigh have been commuted for £172. 10., and there are 33 acres of glebe. The patron lately rebuilt the church, and the new edifice was consecrated in August 1839.