A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Gaddesby (St. Luke)
GADDESBY (St. Luke), a parish, in the union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of East Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 6 miles (S. W.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing 331 inhabitants. It comprises 1624 acres of land, and has a pleasant village seated on the north side of a rivulet, near which is Packe Hall, a large brick mansion with octagonal wings, in a small park. The lands were inclosed in 1655, when the tithes were commuted. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Rothley: the church is an ancient structure with a tower and spire. There are some small bequests for the poor.
Gaddesden, Great (St. John the Baptist)
GADDESDEN, GREAT (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Hemel-Hempstead, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 2½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Hemel-Hempstead; containing 1109 inhabitants. This parish, which takes its name from the river Gad, comprises 4074 acres, whereof 69 are waste land or common; the surface is hilly, and the soil clay, alternated with flint. The village is on the south-west bank of the river. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 1. 10., and in the patronage of Mrs. Halsey; impropriator, the Rev. J. F. Halsey: the great tithes have been commuted for £750, and the vicarial for £260.
Gaddesden, Little (St. Peter and St. Paul)
GADDESDEN, LITTLE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Berkhampstead, hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, 6 miles (N. W.) from Hemel-Hempstead; containing 454 inhabitants. The parish comprises 924a. 3r. 36p., of which 21 acres are waste land or common; it is situated within 3 miles of the Grand Junction canal and the London and Birmingham railway. The straw-plat manufacture is carried on, affording employment to many women and children. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 12. 8½., and in the gift of the Trustees of the Earl of Bridgewater: the tithes have been commuted for £270, and the glebe comprises 17 acres. The church is an ancient structure, built at different periods, with a square embattled tower, and contains several monuments to the Egerton family, of whom, among many interred here, was Francis, Duke of Bridgewater, the great patron of inland navigation. About £30 per annum, arising from bequests by Philip Power, the Earl Brownlow, and the Rev. George Burghope, are appropriated to the use of the poor.
GAGINGWELL, a hamlet, in the parish of Church-Enstone, union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Chadlington, county of Oxford; containing 57 inhabitants.
Gainford (St. Mary)
GAINFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the unions of Teesdale, Darlington, and Auckland, chiefly in the S. W., but partly in the S. E., division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham; comprising the chapelries of Barnard-Castle, Denton, and Whorlton, and the townships of Bolam, Cleatlam, Gainford, Headlam, Houghton-le-Side, Langton, Marwood, Morton-Tynemouth, Pierse-Bridge, Stainton with Streatlam, Summerhouse, and Westwick; the whole containing 7083 inhabitants, of whom 585 are in the township of Gainford, 7¾ miles (W. by N.) from Darlington. This place was anciently a seigniory detached from the palatinate jurisdiction of the county, and invested with several valuable privileges and immunities. It appears to have been indebted for its origin to Egfrid, Bishop of Lindisfarne, who founded a church, which in 830 he gave to the see, together with the lands annexed to it, and which continued to form part of the episcopal possessions till the commencement of the 11th century. The parish includes the market town of Barnard-Castle, and is separated from Yorkshire by the river Tees, along the north bank of which it stretches for many miles: the surface is undulated, the soil fertile, and the scenery, in many parts enriched with timber, is generally of pleasing character. The substratum near the river is principally gravel, and freestone of good quality for building is abundant; at Summerhouse, Morton, Langton, and Pierse-Bridge, are extensive quarries of magnesian limestone.
The village is situated in the middle of the river-vale, surrounded on the Durham side by rich meadows and wooded inclosures sloping gently to the Tees, on the other side of which the grounds rise rapidly, and are crowned by scattered woods. It forms an irregular square, with a level green in the centre, and contains many modern houses, extending along the high road parallel with the river. Gainford Hall, a mansion of the age of James I. or Charles I., is at the west end of the village, environed by old gardens and orchards. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £39. 6. 0½., and in the gift of Trinity College, Cambridge, to which the impropriation also belongs; net income, £768, with a parsonage-house. The great tithes of the township of Gainford have been commuted for £230, and the small for £164. The church has been frequently repaired, and is a handsome and regular structure, consisting of a nave, aisles, and chancel, with a tower; a gallery was erected on the north side by the late J. W. Elliott, Esq. There are churches at Barnard-Castle, Denton, and Whorlton; and in the village is a place of worship for Wesleyans. By the side of a hedge on the road between the village and PierseBridge, stands the pedestal of a cross, called White Cross. There are some mineral springs. Gainford was for many years the residence of the humble but industrious antiquary, John Cade, who died here in 1806.
Gainsborough (All Saints)
GAINSBOROUGH (All Saints), a parish, markettown, and port, and the head of a union, in the wapentake of Corringham, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln; comprising the townships of Morton, East Stockwith, and Walkerith; and containing 7860 inhabitants, of whom 6948 are in the town, 18¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Lincoln, and 147 (N. by W.) from London. This place appears to have been inhabited by the Saxons soon after their first invasion of Britain, and, under the heptarchy, to have formed part of the kingdom of Northumbria, and afterwards part of that of Mercia. In 868, Alfred the Great celebrated his nuptials with Ealswitha, daughter of a Saxon noble, here. In 1013, the Danes, under the command of their king Sweyn, landed at the place, and commenced their sanguinary career of devastation, which terminated in the final subjugation of the kingdom. Sweyn, while revelling with his followers, was assassinated here, according to Matthew of Westminster; but other historians describe that event as having occurred at Thetford, in the county of Norfolk. Upon the death of Sweyn, his son Canute was chosen king of England by the Danes; but he did not long enjoy that honour; for Ethelred II., who, during the devastation of the kingdom, had taken refuge in Normandy, returning with a powerful retinue, attacked and defeated the Danes at this place, and compelled Canute and his followers to evacuate the country. Subsequently to the Norman Conquest, the manor of Gainsborough was granted to Geoffry de Wirce, from whom, in the reign of Henry I., it passed to Nigel de Albini, and in that of Stephen to William de Laci, Earl of Lincoln. After being owned by the Talbots, Percys, and others, it came to Sir Thomas Burgh, whose descendant, created Lord Burgh in the reign of Henry VIII., sold it to William Hickman, Esq., of London, who received the honour of knighthood from James I., and whose son was made a baronet by Charles I. It is now the property of his descendant, H. B. Hickman, Esq. At the commencement of the war in the reign of Charles I., the town was garrisoned for the king, by the Earl of Kingston, but being attacked by the parliamentarians, the earl was made prisoner, and ordered to be taken to Hull; in crossing the Humber, the boat was observed by a party of royalists, who, in an attempt to rescue him, fired some shots, by one of which he was unfortunately killed. The royalists, under the command of the Marquess of Newcastle, soon after regained possession of the town, which was placed under the government of Col. St. George; and in 1643, Cromwell, on his route to York, encountered and defeated a party of troops near the town under the command of General Cavendish, the brother of the marquess, and Col. Markham, of Allerton, both of whom fell in the conflict.
The town is pleasantly situated on the eastern bank of the river Trent, along which it extends for more than a mile; and is connected with the county of Nottingham, on the opposite side, by a handsome stone bridge of three arches, erected in 1791, by a proprietary, at an expense of £10,000. The streets in the more ancient part are irregular, but those portions which have been built within the last twenty years are handsome and of uniform character, consisting of regularly formed streets, and terraces of pleasing appearance. The town is well paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water from the Trent, by an engine constructed for that purpose. A theatre has been formed out of part of a building called the Old Hall, said to have been the residence of John of Gaunt; it is opened for six weeks during the October mart, and a room in the town-hall is occasionally used for assemblies and concerts.
The port, which was a creek under that of Hull, was, on a memorial presented by the merchants of this place to the Lords of the Treasury, setting forth the great increase and importance of the trade of the town, made distinct and independent in 1841; and a custom-house, with a collector, comptroller, and other officers, was established here. The limits of the port, as determined by a commission of the exchequer, on the 7th of March, in that year, comprehend the whole of the river Trent, and all streams flowing into it, throughout its course from Trent Ness, near its confluence with the Ouse, to Gainsborough, including a distance of about 30 miles. The navigation admits of vessels not drawing more than 14 feet water at spring tide. The tide is very rapid, producing that rush of water called the Hygre, which rises to the height of six or eight feet above the level of the river, and extends from its mouth to a considerable distance above the town. The bonding-trade is very considerable, and consists chiefly of hemp, flax, timber, deals, staves, tobacco, and most articles of East India produce; the last being removed from places at which those articles of trade are allowed to be imported. The principal exports hitherto have been coal, salt, and materials for the construction of railroads; but an increase in other articles is likely to arise from the facilities which the port affords to the neighbouring towns of Lincoln, Nottingham, Retford, Newark, &c., for the exportation of their manufactured produce. The number of vessels that entered inwards with cargoes in a recent year, from foreign ports, was 29, and the number that cleared outwards 11; the number of vessels employed in the coasting-trade in the same year was 828: the amount of duties paid at the custom-house for cargoes imported from foreign ports direct, was £2153, and for goods and merchandise bonded, £24,261. There are three extensive yards for building ships, several of which, of from 200 to 700 tons, have been built, though those generally used in the coasting-trade seldom exceed 200 tons' burthen; also a dry-dock for repairing vessels, three rope-walks, numerous large timber-yards, commodious wharfs and warehouses, several brass and iron foundries, and four mills for crushing linseed. Great facilities of communication are afforded by steampackets, sailing vessels, and by land conveyance with the towns adjacent. An act was passed in 1845 for the construction of a railway to Great Grimsby, with a branch to Lincoln, and another branch to New Holland, opposite Hull; and in 1846 two acts were obtained, one for a railway from Gainsborough to Newark, and the other for a railway to Sheffield. The market, which is amply supplied with corn and provisions of all kinds, is on Tuesday; there is a great market for fat-stock every alternate Thursday: fairs are held on Easter-Monday and the 20th of October, and a statute-fair on the 5th of November. The town is governed by officers appointed annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor; and a court baron is held at Easter and Michaelmas, under the steward of the manor. There are petty-sessions every alternate Thursday. The powers of the county debt-court of Gainsborough, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Gainsborough. The town-hall is a plain building of brick, situated in the market-place; and near the bottom of Church-lane is the prison.
The parish comprises about 7210 acres, of which 3530 are in the township; the land is generally fertile, the surface well wooded, and the scenery pleasingly diversified. The Old Hall, already referred to, the seat of the Burgh and Hickman families, forming three sides of a quadrangle, though now converted into different tenements, retains much of its ancient character. The front is chiefly of timber frame-work; on the north side is a handsome structure of stone in the early English style, which was probably the domestic chapel, and at the north-western extremity is a tower of brick 80 feet high, commanding extensive views of the Trent, reaching nearly to its junction with the Humber. Thonock Hall, the seat of Mr. Hickman, is situated in the hamlet of Thonock, two miles from the town, on an eminence surrounded by woods and thriving plantations; the demesne is tastefully laid out, and combines much variety of scenery. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £22. 16. 8.; net income, £529; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Lincoln. The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents, under an act of inclosure, in 1795; the appropriate tithes for 495a. 3r. 30p., and a corn-rent of £70. 14. 10½.; and the vicarial for 428a. 2r. 2p., and a corn-rent of £40. 2. 4¼. The church, which appears to have been originally founded and endowed by the Knights Templars, about 1209, was, with the exception of the tower, rebuilt in 1748, at an expense of £5230, raised by a duty upon coal brought to the town, and by a parochial rate; the ancient tower, a fine specimen of the early English style, forms a striking contrast with the modern portion of the edifice, which is Grecian. A district church dedicated to the Holy Trinity, of which the first stone was laid by Mr. Hickman in September, 1841, has been completed at Southolme, at an expense of upwards of £3000, towards which the Church Commissioners granted £600 and the Incorporated Society £300, the remainder being raised by subscription, in aid of which Mr. Hickman contributed £500; it is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a spire, and contains 900 sittings, whereof 540 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop, with a net income of £150. At Morton and East Stockwith are other incumbencies. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive Methodists, Unitarians, and Wesleyans.
The free school was originally founded as a free grammar school, by charter of Queen Elizabeth, in 1590, and was most probably endowed with funds for its support; but during the parliamentary war, in which the town suffered severely, the deeds of this and other charities are supposed to have been destroyed, and the school fell into decay, till, in 1704, Sarah Mott, of Doncaster, bequeathed property now producing £53, and in 1731 James Wharton property producing £107, per annum, for its support. A new schoolroom, with a dwelling-house for the master, was erected in 1795, by a tontine subscription of £400, and £300 from the bequests. Parochial schools were established in 1784, by subscription; and in 1813, Mrs. Hickman purchased the site of the buildings, and granted land for the erection of two more extensive schoolrooms, with houses for the master and mistress: about 200 boys and 80 girls are instructed, and many of them are clothed from the funds of the Mott and Wharton charities. £140 from bequests are annually distributed among the poor. The union comprises 49 parishes or townships, of which 7 are in the county of Nottingham, and includes a population of 25,855, under the superintendence of 50 guardians: the workhouse is situated on the south side of the town. Near Southolme is a spring posessing tonic qualities, similar to the Buxton waters, but of different temperature. Among the most distinguished natives of the place, have been, William de Gainsborough, a zealous advocate of the infallibility of the Pope, who was advanced by Boniface VIII. to the see of Worcester, and who died here in 1308; Simon Patrick, Bishop of Ely, who was born in 1625; and his brother John Patrick, one of the translators of Plutarch. Gainsborough gives the title of Earl to the Noel family.
Galby, county of Leicester.—See Gaulby.
GALBY, county of Leicester.—See Gaulby.
GALGATE, a hamlet, in the chapelry of Ellel, parish of Cockerham, union of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 4 miles (S.) from Lancaster, on the road to Preston. The population is employed in agriculture, and in two small silk-mills. The Lancaster and Preston railway passes at this place over a viaduct 265 feet in length, 27 feet in width, and 40 feet in height, supported on six semicircular arches of about 30 feet span; the whole work is handsomely faced with sandstone. The chapel of Ellel is situated near Galgate.—See Ellel.
GALLOW-HILL, a township, in the parish of Bolam, union of Castle ward, W. division of Morpeth ward, N. division of Northumberland, 8¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Morpeth; containing 41 inhabitants, and comprising 603 acres of land. This place derives its name from having been the place of execution for the barony of Bolam: property has been held here by the families of Thornton, Aynsley, Cook, Bell, and Beresford, of whom the second-named built the mansion of Gallow-Hill, which was for some time occupied by a duchess of Atholl. The tithes have been commuted for £61. 19. payable to the impropriators, and £9. 16. 6. to the vicar. There are remains of a camp, and also a cairn.
GALMINGTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Wilton, union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and Taunton Dean, W. division of the county of Somerset; containing 109 inhabitants.
GALMPTON, a hamlet, in the parish of ChurstonFerrers, union of Totnes, hundred of Haytor, S. division of Devon; containing 261 inhabitants.
GAMBLESBY, a township, in the parish of Addingham, union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 10 miles (N. E.) from Penrith; containing 259 inhabitants. It comprises 4783 acres, of which 3376 are waste land or common. The tithes have been commuted for £49 payable to the vicar, and £127 to the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
Gamblesby, with Biglands.—See Biglands.
GAMBLESBY, with Biglands.—See Biglands.
Gamlingay (St. Mary)
GAMLINGAY, (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 2¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Potton; containing, with the hamlet of Woodberry, 1434 inhabitants. A market was held, but it has for many years been discontinued. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; net income, £188; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely. There is also a sinecure rectory, valued at £15. 14. 2.; net income, £256; patrons, the Warden and Fellows of Merton College, Oxford. A glebe of 3½ acres, with a house in good repair, belongs to the vicarage. The church is a handsome edifice. There are places of worship for Baptists and Methodists; also almshouses for ten widows, endowed in 1753 with a bequest of £2000 old South Sea annuities by Mrs. Elizabeth Lane. An inclosure act was passed in 1841.
GAMPSTON, a hamlet, in the parish of West Bridgford, union of Basford, S. division of the wapentake of Bingham and of the county of Nottingham, 2¾ miles (S. E.) from the town of Nottingham; containing 103 inhabitants.
Gamston (St. Peter)
GAMSTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of East Retford, South-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 3½ miles (S.) from East Retford; containing 331 inhabitants. It comprises 1100 acres, part of which is very rich land: the village contains some good houses, and is pleasantly situated on the east bank of the river Idle. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 16. 5½., and in the gift of the Crown, with a net income of £248: the tithes were commuted for land in 1808. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty embattled tower. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Ganerew (St. Swithin)
GANEREW (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Monmouth, Lower division of the hundred of Wormelow, county of Hereford, 2½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Monmouth; containing 123 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the most southern part of the county, and bounded on the south-east by the river Wye, comprises by computation 802 acres; 426 are arable, 80 pasture, 80 woodland, and about a similar quantity in common, besides mountain. The soil is chiefly sandy, alternated with clay; and in some parts limestone of good quality is quarried for building and for the roads, and also burnt into lime. The road from Monmouth to Ross runs through the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to that of Whitchurch, and valued in the king's books at £1. 10.: the tithes have been commuted for £107. 10., and there is a glebe of about 14 acres. On the summit of a hill called Little Doward, a lofty iron skeleton-tower has been erected by R. Blakemore, Esq., from which is a splendid view of several reaches of the picturesque Wye; and on the same hill are traces of a camp which Caractacus is supposed to have formed, and where broad-arrow heads have been found.
GANSTEAD, a township, in the parish of Swine, union of Skirlaugh, Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Hull; containing 66 inhabitants. It comprises about 800 acres, of which two-thirds are arable, and one-third is meadow and pasture; the surface is generally level, the soil in the low grounds a strong clay, but in the higher more tenacious, with some good turnipland.
GANTHORPE, a township, in the parish of Terrington, union of Malton, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 7 miles (W. by S.) from New Malton; containing 118 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 700 acres of arable land, all the property of the Earl of Carlisle, whose beautiful demesne of Castle Howard Park is situated a short distance to the east. There is a powerful chalybeate spring.
Ganton (St. Nicholas)
GANTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Scarborough, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 14 miles (E. N. E.) from Malton; containing, with the township of Potter-Brompton, 428 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 4000 acres, of which 700 are pasture and meadow, 270 woodland, and the remainder arable. Ganton Hall, a neat mansion encompassed by fine grounds, has long been the seat of the ancient family of Legard, of whom John Legard, for his loyalty to Charles II., was created a baronet at the Restoration. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 6., and in the patronage of Sir Thomas Digby Legard, Bart., with a net income of £150: the tithes were commuted for land in 1803. The church is a large and handsome structure of the 14th century, and has an embattled tower at the west end, surmounted by a commanding spire; in the interior are several memorials of the Legard family.
Garboldisham (St. John the Baptist)
GARBOLDISHAM (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union and hundred of Guilt-Cross, W. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (S. S. E.) from East Harling; containing 777 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the river Ouse, which separates it from the county of Suffolk; and comprises 2735 acres. An act was obtained in 1840, for inclosing lands. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 16. 0½., and in the gift of C. M. Montgomerie, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £590, and the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with an embattled tower, and a north porch of elegant design. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. Part of the tower of the ancient church of the merged parish of All Saints is remaining.
GARENDON, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 2 miles (W.) from Loughborough; containing 71 inhabitants, and comprising 1345 acres. An abbey for Cistercian monks, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, was founded here in 1133 by Robert Bossu, Earl of Leicester, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, amounted to £186. 15. 2.
GARFORD, a chapelry, in the parish of Marcham, union of Abingdon, hundred of Ock, county of Berks, 5 miles (W. by S.) from the town of Abingdon; containing 163 inhabitants, and comprising 951a. 3r.
Garforth, West (St. Mary)
GARFORTH, WEST (St. Mary), a parish, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Skvrack, W. riding of the county of York, 7 miles (E.) from Leeds; containing, with part of the township of Austhorpe, 1220 inhabitants. The parish includes the villages of East, West, Church, and Moor Garforth, and comprises by computation 1700 acres, the substratum of which is chiefly coal; the soil is partly clay, the scenery is pleasing, and a beautiful and commanding view is obtained from an elevated range of ground called the "Cliffs." Coal-mines are in operation, and there are limestonequarries. The Aberford and Wakefield road, and the Leeds and Selby railway, run through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 17. 8½., and in the patronage of the Rev. G. H. Whitaker: the tithes have been commuted for £420, and the glebe comprises 55 acres, with a house. A new church, a neat unpretending edifice in the early English style, of cruciform design, with a spire at the intersection, was consecrated in November 1845. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A parochial school was built by subscription, in 1737, and endowed with land by Sir Edward Gascoigne: it was rebuilt in 1818. A Roman road passes through the parish. Some very rare fossils are found in the Cliffs.