A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BRENTWOOD, a district chapelry and market-town, in the parish of South Weald, union of Billericay, hundred of Chafford, S. division of Essex, 11 miles (S. W.) from Chelmsford, and 18 (E. N. E.) from London, on the road to Norwich; containing 2362 inhabitants. The name, which is of Saxon origin, signifies a burnt wood; the woods that once occupied the site having been burnt down. The hamlet comprises by computation 395 acres. The town is pleasantly situated on a commanding eminence, and consists principally of one street; the houses are in general ancient, and irregularly built: the inhabitants are supplied with excellent water from wells. Races take place occasionally on a common near the town. There are cavalry barracks at Warley, about a mile and a half distant. A large ale and porter brewery and malting establishment was established about 30 years since; the produce is chiefly for home consumption, and about 5000 quarters of malt are annually sent to London. The Eastern Counties railway runs near the town; the station here is of red brick, and in the Elizabethan style. The market, lately revived, is on Saturday; the fairs are on July 18th and Oct. 15th, and are for horses and cattle. Courts leet and baron are held by the lord of the manor of South Weald: pettysessions for the division take place every Thursday; and the assizes were formerly held here. The powers of the county debt-court of Brentwood, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Ongar, and part of that of Billericay. A portion of the old town-hall has been converted into shops.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £124, with a residence; patron, Christopher T. Tower, Esq. The old chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket, was originally founded early in the thirteenth century, by David, Abbot of St. Osyth, and is now used for a national school, a new chapel having been erected by a grant from the Incorporated Society, and by subscription; it is a plain edifice, with lancet windows. There is a meeting-house for Independents, and the Roman Catholics have chapels at Pilgrim Hatch and Thorndon Hall. The free grammar school was founded and endowed in 1537, by Sir Anthony Browne, Knt., and is open to all boys residing within three miles of Brentwood; the income arising from the endowment is £1452, which is paid to the master, subject to an allowance of £10 per annum each to five alms-persons, and to the expense of keeping the school premises and almshouses in repair. An exhibition of £6 per annum to Caius College, Cambridge, was founded by Dr. Plume, with preference to Chelmsford, Brentwood, and Maldon. The Roman station Durositum is supposed to have been situated in the vicinity.
Brenzett (St. Eanswith)
BRENZETT (St. Eanswith), a parish, in the union of Romney-Marsh, partly in the hundred of Aloesbridge, but chiefly in the liberty of Romney-Marsh, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 4½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Romney; containing 228 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1768a. 2r. of marshy land, subject to flood. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 11½.; net income, £73; patron and impropriator, the Rev. W. Brockman, as lessee of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower surmounted by a spire. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Breock, St. (St. Breoke)
BREOCK, ST. (St. Breoke), a parish, in the union of St. Columb Major, hundred of Pyder, E. division of Cornwall, 1 mile (W. S. W.) from Wadebridge; containing 1733 inhabitants. The parish comprises 6846 acres, of which the soil is generally shelfy, and the surface hilly, with some large coppice woods in the valleys; 1719 acres are common or waste. It is situated on the road between Launceston and Falmouth, and on the river Camel, by which it is bounded on the north and east, and over which is a handsome bridge of 16 arches. The river is navigable for two miles above Wadebridge; and a railway has been completed to Bodmin and Simonward, with branches to Ruthyn Bridge and Wynford Bridge. There are iron-mines at Pawton, and an iron-foundry: copper has been found, but not of such quality as to pay the expense of raising it; slate is obtained for building purposes. Fairs are held on March 2nd, May 12th, June 22nd, and October 10th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £41. 10. 10., and in the patronage of Sir W. Molesworth, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £966. 4. 11., and the glebe consists of about 83 acres, with a residence. In the church are some old monuments of the Tredenick and Vyal families, now extinct. There are a chapel of ease at Wadebridge; and places of worship in the parish for Independents, Wesleyans, and Bryanites. Dr. Hall, Bishop of Exeter in the reign of Charles I., held the living here in commendam. On the summit of an eminence which commands an extensive view of the coast, are the remains of an ancient cromlech.
Brereton, with Smethwick (St. Oswald)
BRERETON, with Smethwick (St. Oswald), a parish, in the union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Sandbach; containing 666 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 4200 acres, of which the soil is clay and sand; and is situated on the road from London to Liverpool, and on the Manchester and Birmingham railway. The ancient residence of the lords Brereton, from whom the place derived its name, is a fine old mansion in good preservation, lately purchased by its present occupier, John Howard, Esq. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 0. 5., and in the patronage of the family of Royds; net income, £681: the glebe consists of about 20 acres. The church, a stately structure in the later style of English architecture, with a roof of carved oak, was formerly a chapel of ease to the church at Astbury, but was made parochial, and endowed with the tithes of Brereton cum Smethwick, in the reign of Henry VIII.; it contains monuments of Lord Brereton and the Smethwick family. There is a place of worship for Independents; and a school has an endowment of £4 per annum.
BRERETON, a chapelry district, in the parish of Rugeley, union of Lichfield, E. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 1¼ mile (S. E.) from Rugeley; containing about 1160 inhabitants. This district is the south-eastern portion of the parish. The river Trent forms its boundary on the north-east, and the Grand Trunk canal passes through it, communicating by two railroads with collieries of considerable extent belonging to Earl Talbot and the Marquess of Anglesey. The scenery is extremely beautiful, presenting the varieties of woodland, moorland, well-cultivated fields, and hill and dale: a large portion of Cannock Chase is included in the district; the remainder is partly pasture, and partly arable land. The village lies on the road from Lichfield to Stafford, and is distant seven miles from the former, and nine from the latter place; it contains several well-built houses.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Rugeley, endowed partly by private benefaction, and partly by grants from Queen Anne's Bounty and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners; net income, £120, with a parsonage-house, and nine acres of glebe. The church, named St. Michael's, stands on the brow of a hill by the side of the road; it was built in 1837, at the cost of nearly £1800, and is a cruciform structure with lancet windows, containing 422 sittings, of which 222 are free. Its situation has been happily chosen to set it off to advantage, and it is much admired. A national school for boys was established in 1843, and is supported by subscription; there is also a national school for girls, founded by Miss Sneyd. A boys' day school, established by Miss Birch, was endowed by her with £70 per annum; and the same lady founded almshouses for six poor people, to each of whom she left a perpetual allowance of 4s. per week. This last school and the almshouses are in connexion with the Wesleyan Methodists, who have here a place of worship.
Bressingham (St. John the Baptist)
BRESSINGHAM (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Guiltcross, hundred of Diss, E. division of Norfolk, 2½ miles (W.) from Diss; containing 647 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2364 acres, of which 1569 are arable, 634 pasture, and 76 woodland; and is situated on the road from Thetford to Diss, and bounded on the south by the river Waveney, which separates it from Suffolk. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15, and in the patronage of C. Bidwell, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £604. 16.; there are 37 acres of glebe. The church was rebuilt, with the exception of the chancel, in 1527, having been commenced some time previously by Sir Roger Pilkington, Knt., lord of the manor; it is in the decorated style, and consists of a nave, chancel, and aisles, with an embattled tower. Conduit Meadow, in the parish, is so called from a spacious conduit, now in a ruinous state, constructed by Sir Richard de Boyland, to supply some baths and an extensive moat which encompassed his grounds.
Bretby, county of Derby.—See Bradby.
BRETBY, county of Derby.—See Bradby.
Bretforton (St. Leonard)
BRETFORTON (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Evesham, Upper division of the hundred of Blackenhurst, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3¾ miles (E.) from Evesham; containing 511 inhabitants. The lands belonged to the abbey of Evesham even before the Conquest. The parish is situated on the border of Gloucestershire, which bounds it on the east and south; it is intersected by the road from Evesham to Campden, and comprises 1632 acres. The soil is various, but the greater part is stiff clay; and the surface is flat. The village is of neat and respectable appearance. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 5.; net income, £82; patron, Admiral Morris; impropriators, the landowners. Land and a money payment were assigned to the vicar, in lieu of all tithes, in 1765; the glebe consists of 90 acres. The church is spacious and airy, with a well-built tower at the west end; a chapel juts out on the north and south, and the building is thus rendered cruciform.
BRETHERDALE, a township, in the parish of Orton, East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 3 miles (S. W.) from Orton; containing 82 inhabitants. The manor belonged to Byland Abbey, Yorkshire, but at the Dissolution was purchased by the family of Wharton, and is now the property of the Earl of Lonsdale. A rent-charge of £22. 9. 10. has been awarded as a commutation for the vicarial tithes; the rectorial were purchased by the landowners in 1618.
BRETHERTON, a township and ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Croston, union of Chorley, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Ormskirk; containing 833 inhabitants. This place was the manorial residence of the Banastres or Banisters, previously to the reign of Edward III.; and a Thomas Banastre, who is conjectured to have been of this family, was beheaded in the reign of Edward II. by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, for his active opposition to that powerful and factious baron. The township comprises 2292 statute acres, of which 816 are arable land, 618 meadow, 732 pasture, 13 woodland, and 113 acres gardens, &c.; the surface is rather flat, and the soil a stiff clay, marsh, loam, and hazel. The river Lostock bounds the township; the rivers Douglas and Yarrow meet here, and run into the Ribble about a mile distant: here is also a branch of the Leeds and Liverpool canal, and the Liverpool and Preston turnpike-road runs across the township from Bank bridge to Cara-House bridge. Bank Hall, the seat of George Anthony Legh Keck, Esq., was built in 1608, and restored in the Elizabethan style, in 1832. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Croston; net income, £150, with a house erected in 1847. The tithes have been commuted for £325, payable to the rector of Chorley, and £45 to the rector of Croston. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was consecrated on the 26th of June, 1840; it is in the early English style, and cost £1260. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Independents. A free school was built in 1654, at the expense of James Fletcher, who endowed it with £230, to which various donations have been added.
BRETSFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of Wolstan, union of Rugby, Kirby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 6½ miles (E. by S.) from Coventry; containing 148 inhabitants. The name is a corruption of Bradforde, and is derived from the breadth of a ford here. In the 11th of Henry III., Nicholas de Verdon, lord of the manor, obtained a special charter for a weekly market on Tuesday; and his descendant, Theobald, had the power of life and death both at this place and Brandon, with other privileges. Here was anciently a chapel dedicated to St. Edmund, supposed by Sir William Dugdale to have been founded by one of the Turviles.
Brettenham (St. Mary)
BRETTENHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Shropham, W. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Thetford; containing 62 inhabitants. It comprises 2001 acres, of which 573 are common and heath. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 12. 6., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely: the tithes have been commuted for £200, and the glebe comprises 18 acres. The church is in the decorated style, and consists of a nave only; the chancel, with the parsonage-house, having been burnt down in 1693: the entrance on the south is by a Norman doorway. Roman coins of Vespasian and other emperors, and urns, have been dug up.
Brettenham (St. Mary)
BRETTENHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Cosford, W. division of Suffolk, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Bildeston; containing 367 inhabitants. This place is supposed by some to have been the site of the Roman station Combretonium, which others have endeavoured to fix at Brettenham in Norfolk; but the distances in the Itineraries justify neither of these suppositions. The station was most probably Burgh, near Woodbridge, where are evident remains of a Roman post. The parish comprises by computation 1300 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 3. 11½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £377.
BRETTON, MONK, a township and district chapelry, in the parish of Royston, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of the county of York, 1½ mile (N. E.) from Barnsley; the township containing 1719 inhabitants. The chapelry includes Upper and Lower Cudworth, and comprises 3809 acres, of which 2129 are in Monk-Bretton township and tithe-free. It is intersected by the Barnsley canal and the Midland railway: the population has rapidly increased within the last ten years, and many persons are employed in linen weaving and bleaching. A district church dedicated to St. Paul, containing 700 sittings, was built at a cost of £1200, defrayed principally by subscription, and was consecrated 9th June, 1840; it is in the Anglo-Norman style, built of stone supplied from quarries here, and occupies a site given by Sir George Wombwell, Bart., lord of the manor. The living is in the patronage of the Vicar of Royston, with a net income of £150. A priory of the Cluniac order was founded in the reign of Henry II., the remains of which may still be seen: at the Dissolution, its revenues amounted to £323. 8. 2. An almshouse, comprising six tenements, is supposed to have been founded by Dame Mary Talbot, in 1654; Sir G. Wombwell allows 50s. annually to each, and repairs the buildings.
BRETTON, WEST, a chapelry, partly in the parish of Sandall Magna, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, and partly in the parish of Silkstone, wapentake of Staincross, union of Wakefield, W. riding of York, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Wakefield; containing 564 inhabitants. This place, which is on the Denby-Dale road to Manchester, is the property and residence of Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, Esq., lord of the manor; and comprises by computation 1992 acres, tithe-free, of which 760 are within the limits of the demesne of Bretton Hall. The present Hall was erected by Sir William Wentworth, Bart., in 1730, when the original mansion of the family, with the adjacent chapel, was taken down; considerable additions were made by the late Col. Beaumont and his lady, after designs of Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, and many improvements have been completed by the present proprietor. Henry VIII. and suite slept three nights in the old mansion; and the panels, chairs (the latter of oak, curiously carved), and draperies of his bedroom were removed to the new Hall. The park abounds with sylvan scenery, enlivened by the windings of the river Dearne, which flows through a picturesque valley, and in the southern part of the grounds expands into two beautiful lakes; the upper lake is called Virginia Water, and is surrounded by bold rocky banks, with drives and walks enriched by grottos and Virginian plants. The chapel is a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, built in 1737, by Sir William Wentworth; it is the private property of Mr. Beaumont, who pays the chaplain, but it is open to the public.
Breward, St., or Simonward (St. Bruard)
BREWARD, ST., or Simonward (St. Bruard), a parish, in the union of Camelford, hundred of Trigg, E. division of Cornwall, 6¾ miles (N. by E.) from Bodmin; containing 724 inhabitants. It comprises 9230 acres, of which 2780 are common or waste. The surface is boldly undulated; and the lofty hills of Rough Tor (contracted into Rowtor) and Brown Willy are both within the limits of the parish. From the latter, which is 1368 feet above the level of the sea, a most extensive view is obtained over the English and Bristol Channels; and on the summit of the former are the remains of an ancient building supposed to have been a chapel, and a Logan stone. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter: the tithes have been commuted for £150 payable to the Dean and Chapter, and £290 payable to the vicar, who has also 70 acres of glebe. The church is an ancient structure, partly Norman, and partly in the later style of English architecture. There are some circles of stones in the vicinity of the parish.
Brewers, Isle.—See Isle-Brewers.
BREWERS, ISLE.—See Isle-Brewers.
BREWHAM-LODGE, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hundred of Norton-Ferris, E. division of Somerset, 5 miles (E. by N.) from Bruton; containing 8 inhabitants. This place consists of one estate, comprising nearly 800 acres; and acquired its extra-parochial privileges from having been one of King John's hunting-seats: a wood in the vicinity retains the name of King's Wood. Alfred's Tower, here, was erected by Henry Hoare, Esq., in commemoration of a victory obtained in the vicinity by that prince over the Danes: it is a triangular brick building, 155 feet in height, surmounted at each angle by a turret; and over the entrance is an inscription, recording the good qualities and noble exploits of Alfred. About half a mile towards the north-east is a small oval encampment, called Jack's Castle, which is thought to be of Danish construction; and human bones, spears' heads, and urns containing the ashes of burnt bones, have been dug up in the neighbourhood, which was the scene of various conflicts between the Saxons and the Danes.
Brewham, North and South (St. John the Baptist)
BREWHAM, NORTH and SOUTH (St. John the Baptist), in the union of Wincanton, hundred of Bruton, E. division of Somerset; containing 905 inhabitants, of whom 392 are in North Brewham, 3½ miles (E. N. E.) from Bruton. This district takes its name from the river Brew, and is divided into two distinct parishes having one church: North Brewham comprises 2023a. 2r. 10p., of which about 100 acres are woodland and 139 common or waste; and South Brewham, 2661a. 2r. 30p., of which 1845 acres are pasture, 379 arable, and 437 wood. The soil is mostly clay, stony in some places, and in some parts tolerably good mould; the surface is much diversified with hill and dale, and thickly wooded. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £102; patron and impropriator, Sir H. R. Hoare, Bart.: the tithes of North Brewham have been commuted for £169, and those of South Brewham for £180. The church is a neat edifice, lately repaired at a great expense; in the churchyard are the shaft of an old cross, and two fine yew-trees. A chapel formerly stood at North Brewham, the remains of which have been converted into a barn.
BREWHOUSE YARD, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Radford, S. division of the wapentake of Broxtow, N. division of the county of Nottingham; containing 110 inhabitants. This district adjoins the town of Nottingham, lying south-east of the Castle rock, and on the north bank of the Leen. It was formerly under the jurisdiction of the castle, and had a malt-kiln and brewhouse for the use of the garrison; but in 1621 James I. constituted it a distinct constablery. A society, called the "Philadelphians," or the "Family of Love," from the love they professed to bear all men, even the most wicked, used to meet here; their founder was one David George, an Anabaptist, of Holland, who first propagated his doctrines in Switzerland, where he died in 1556.
BREWOOD, a parish, in the union of Penkridge, E. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Wolverhampton, and 10 (S. by W.) from Stafford; comprising by survey 11,900 acres; and containing, with the liberty of Coven and the township of Brewood, 3641 inhabitants, of whom 2991 are in the township. The town, though small, is of great antiquity. Stukeley, in his Itinerary, speaks of it as "a village on the Penk, which they say has been an old city; on plowing the fields they frequently find Roman coins and other antiquities; in that great old city King John kept his court." It is about a mile south of the Roman Watling-street, which forms the northern boundary of the parish for upwards of three miles; there are several streets and a spacious market-place, but the market held on Friday has been discontinued, and the market-house pulled down. Fairs for cattle, horses, &c., are held on the 2nd Thursday in May, and the 19th of September. The parish is intersected by the Staffordshire and Worcestershire and the Birmingham and Liverpool canals, for the latter of which here is a reservoir covering about 200 acres; the Liverpool and Birmingham railway also passes through, and has one of its stations, the Four Ashes', near Brewood.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15; patron, the Dean of Lichfield: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £670, and the impropriate for £1928. The church is a large and ancient edifice, with a tower and fine lofty spire, which latter is a most picturesque object from every part of the surrounding country: in the chancel are four very handsome recumbent monuments to the Giffard family. A chapel of ease was erected at Coven in 1839. The Independents have a place of worship; and there is a Roman Catholic chapel, built in 1844: at Coven is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The free grammar school here has existed from time immemorial, and is supposed to have been founded by a Dr. Knightley; the instruction is classical, but an English education is also afforded, a small annual charge being made for writing and arithmetic. Bishop Hurd, who, with other distinguished persons, was educated in it, appropriated in 1800 two houses for the benefit of the school; and in 1827, £1000 four per cents. were bequeathed by Richard Hurd, Esq., nephew of the bishop: the endowments are now upwards of £400 per annum. There are national schools in the town, and one in Coven, supported by subscription; two schools are maintained by the ladies of two families, and in one of them the children are clothed as well as educated. A bank for savings was established in 1818. The charity funds of the parish amount to £62 per annum, and are at the disposal of the churchwardens.—See Chillington, Coven, &c.
BRIAVELL'S (ST.) a parish, in the hundred of St. Briavell's, union of Chepstow, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 8 miles (W. by S.) from Blakeney; containing, with Hucknalls and other extra-parochial portions, 1287 inhabitants. This is a place of considerable antiquity, having given name to the hundred. Milo, Earl of Hereford, built a castle here in the reign of Henry I., as a frontier fortress against the Welsh: the north-western front, including two circular towers, now used as a prison for the hundred, is all that remains. Edward II. granted the inhabitants a charter for a weekly market, which has long been disused; and Edward III. exempted the burgesses from the payment of toll throughout the kingdom: this exemption is not now claimed, but the inhabitants still enjoy the right of cutting wood in the Forest of Dean, which they form into hoops and other articles, and send to Bristol. The parish comprises by computation 3312 acres, of which 1477 are meadow and pasture, 1307 arable, 508 woodland, and 20 waste. There are several coal-works in the vicinity; and until lately a court was held for regulating matters in dispute among the miners, but an act was passed in 1842 for abolishing this court. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Lidney: the appropriate tithes, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Hereford, have been commuted for £215, the vicarial tithes for £229, and the impropriate for £8. The church is a small cruciform edifice, principally in the Norman and early English styles.
Bricett, Great (St. Mary and St. Lawrence)
BRICETT, GREAT (St. Mary and St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 3½ miles (E. N. E.) from Bildeston; containing 214 inhabitants, and comprising 912a. 3r. 21p. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patrons and impropriators, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge. A priory of Augustine canons was founded about 1110, by Ralph Fitz-Brien, in honour of St. Leonard; the possessions of which, on the suppression of alien priories, were given by Henry VI. to the Provost and Fellows.
BRICETT, LITTLE, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 4½ miles (S. S. W.) from Needham-Market; containing 25 inhabitants. It was formerly a separate parish, but is now a hamlet to Offton: the living, a discharged rectory, was consolidated with the vicarage of Offton, when the church fell into decay, about the year 1503.
BRICKENDON, a liberty, in the parish of All Saints, Hertford, union, hundred, and county of Hertford, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Hertford; containing 757 inhabitants.
Brickhill, Bow (All Saints)
BRICKHILL, BOW (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 2 miles (E.) from Fenny-Stratford; containing 566 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the Roman Watling-street; and comprises by computation 1550 acres, the soil of which is various, being sandy on the hills, and heavy clay in other parts: a very hard species of ironstone is quarried for building. Many females and children are employed in making lace and platting straw. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 0. 2½., and in the patronage of Queen's College, Cambridge; net income, £370. Land and annual money payments were assigned under an inclosure act, in 1790, in lieu of tithes; the land consists of 250 acres. The church was enlarged a few years since. Charles Purrett, in 1633, left several bequests for charitable purposes. There is a national school, and the poor have 198 acres of heath land. The remains of the Roman station Magiovintum are still visible here, and coins are frequently turned up by the plough.
Brickhill, Great (St. Mary)
BRICKHILL, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 2¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Fenny-Stratford; containing 721 inhabitants. The manor was anciently possessed by the Beauchamps, from whom it passed by female heirs to the Bassets and Greys. Richard Grey, Earl of Kent, sold it in 1514 to the Somersets, and the Somersets, in 1549, to the Duncombes; from this last family it passed to the Bartons and Paunceforts. The parish is bounded on the west by the Levet river, and on the east by the road from FennyStratford to Dunstable: the London and Birmingham railway passes within about a mile and a half of the church. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 2. 11.; net income, £425; patron, P. P. Duncombe, Esq.: land was assigned in 1771, in lieu of tithes, and other tithes have been recently commuted for a rent-charge of £80. In the church are monuments to several of the early families connected with the parish. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans; and a sum of £5 is annually contributed by Mrs. Duncombe for instructing a few children.
Brickhill, Little (St. Mary)
BRICKHILL, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from FennyStratford; containing 563 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the great road to Holyhead, was at an early period of considerable importance, and received the grant of a market by charter dated in 1228: a fair was at the same time bestowed, to be held on the festival of St. Mary Magdalene; and by subsequent charter, another, on May 12th. The latter fair is still held, and there is also one on the 18th October; but both are insignificant. The assizes were formerly held here, and for the last time in 1638; the gallows stood upon a heath about a mile distant, and between the years 1561 and 1620 the names of forty-two executed criminal offenders appear among the burials in the parochial register. The parish comprises by computation 1254 acres; the quality of the soil is various, a strong clay being found on the level ground, and on the hills a light sand. The manufacture of plat and lace affords employment to about 200 persons. Prior to the inclosure in 1796, the living was a discharged vicarage, which it is still considered to be, or will be after the next presentation, although at present designated a perpetual curacy: it is in the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury, as impropriator of the rectory, which is valued in the king's books at £9; net income of the minister, £119. Under the inclosure act, land and annual money payments were assigned in lieu of tithes; the glebe consists of 58 acres. The church is an ancient structure of English architecture. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and an endowment of £5 per annum is applied in teaching poor boys. Fine specimens of sulphate of lime have been found.
BRICKLEHAMPTON, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Andrew, Pershore, union, and Upper division of the hundred, of Pershore, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3¼ miles (S. E.) from Pershore; containing 173 inhabitants. The parish is bounded by the river Avon, and intersected by the road between Evesham and Pershore; it contains 859 acres. The living, which is valued in the king's books at £2. 14. 2., is annexed to the vicarage of Pershore: the chapel, dedicated to St. Michael, is a neat stone edifice with a brick tower.
BRICKLETON, a tything, in the parish of HurstBourn-Tarrant, union of Andover, hundred of Pastrow, Kingsclere and N. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 145 inhabitants.