A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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TODBERE, a parish, in the union of Shaftesbury, hundred of Redlane, Sturminster division of Dorset, 4½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Shaftesbury; containing 138 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, united in 1746 to that of Stower-Provost, and valued in the king's books at £5. 19. 4.: the tithes have been commuted for £105, and the glebe contains 23 acres. The church was considered a chapel to Gillingham till 1434, when it was made parochial, though the inhabitants, by ancient custom, bury at Stower.
TODBURN, a township, in the parish of Long Horsley, union of Rothbury, W. division of Morpeth ward, N. division of Northumberland, 8 miles (N. W. by N.) from Morpeth; containing 22 inhabitants. This place belonged to the Merlays, and some lands were also held here by the Plessys; other proprietors have been, the families of Thornton, Lumley, Horsley, and Collingwood. The township comprises about 691 acres, of a thin clayey soil, and is now the property of C. W. Bigge, Esq. It is divided from Wingates by the Tod burn, which is formed by the Wray and Wingates burns, and which, after taking in the Linden, falls into the Coquet a little above Weldon bridge; the banks are generally steep and narrow, but beautifully wooded, especially on the left side.
Toddenham (St. Thomas à Becket)
TODDENHAM (St. Thomas à Becket), a parish, in the union of Shipston-upon-Stour, Upper division of the hundred of Westminster, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3¾ miles (N. E.) from Moretonin-the-Marsh; containing 474 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east and north by parts of Warwickshire, and on the north-west by parts of Worcestershire. The road from Stow-on-the-Wold to Warwick passes on the west. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 19. 9½.; net income, £254; patron, the Bishop of London; impropriator, A. Pole, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in the year 1775. The church is a handsome structure, with a tower and spire, and contains some canopied stone stalls.
Toddington (St. George)
TODDINGTON (St. George), a market-town and parish, in the union of Woburn, hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford, 5 miles (N.) from Dunstable; containing, with Chalton hamlet, 2225 inhabitants, of whom 2001 are in the township of Toddington with Fancot. This place, which is of remote antiquity, was distinguished as the scene of a battle between the Romans under Aulus Plautius, who encamped his forces on Conger Hill, near the church, and the Britons commanded by their prince Togodumnus; the latter were defeated, with the loss of their leader. In the reign of Henry III., the manor, which was a free warren, was given by that monarch to Sir Paulinus Peyvre, who obtained for the inhabitants a market and other privileges. The grand manor-house, rebuilt by Sir Paulinus Peyvre, was situated at the distance of a mile from Toddington, and was the seat of his descendants, amongst whom was Sir John Broughton, Lord Cheney, chamberlain to Edward VI. and to Elizabeth. Queen Elizabeth, in 1563, passed some time in the manor-house, which was also honoured by a visit from James I., in 1608; it was the residence of the Duke of Cleveland, and of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. James, Duke of Monmouth, was concealed in it for some time after the battle of Sedgemoor in 1685. During the civil war of the 17th century, the parliamentary general called Hudibras was encamped with his army at Toddington; and the king, who had posted himself on Sundon hills, occupied a house at Woodend, in the parish, the site of the encampment and the moat surrounding it being still visible.
The town is pleasantly situated on an eminence; the houses are chiefly of ancient appearance and irregularly built. The young persons are principally employed in making straw-plat. The market, granted by charter of Henry III., is on Saturday, but has greatly declined; the fairs are on St. George's day, the first Monday in June, September 4th, November 2nd, and December 16th: the ancient market-house, which was very spacious, was demolished in 1799. The parish contains 5437 acres of a rich loamy and gravelly earth; 2718 acres are under tillage. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £29. 2. 11.; net income, £829; patron, W. D. C. Cooper, Esq.; the tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1798. The church is in the later English style, with earlier portions; and is ornamented with grotesque sculptures of various animals. In the interior are several interesting monuments to the descendants of Sir Paulinus Peyvre, and a very costly monument to Henrietta, Baroness Wentworth, who is said to have died of grief, a few months after the execution of the Duke of Monmouth, to whom she had been betrothed. The Wesleyans and Baptists have each a place of worship; and there are six almshouses. When digging gravel in a field on the estate of Mr. William Harbett, in 1829 and 1830, great quantities of human bones and sculls, several urns containing small bones, the head of a spear, a sword-blade, some beads, and other relics of antiquity, were discovered.
Toddington (St. Leonard)
TODDINGTON (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Winchcomb, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Winchcomb; containing 229 inhabitants. It comprises about 1300 acres; the surface is in general flat, and the soil a strong fertile clay. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Stanley-Pontlarge annexed, valued in the king's books at £7. 15. 4.; net income, £56; patron, Lord Sudeley. There is a parsonage-house, with a glebe of 34 acres.
TODMORDEN, a parochial chapelry, and the head of a union; containing 16,830 inhabitants, of whom 10,776 are in a part of the town of Todmorden, and in the townships of Langfield and Stansfield, parish of Halifax, W. riding of York; and the remaining 6054 in the greater portion of the town of Todmorden, and in the hamlet of Walsden, parish of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster; 20 miles (N. E.) from Manchester, and 207 (N. W. by N.) from London. This place, which is situated in the fertile and romantic vale of Todmorden, anciently Todmaredene, or " the valley of the Fox mere," belonged in the reign of Edward III. to the family of Radcliffe, a branch from Radcliffe Tower, which resided here and at Mearley, alternately, for more than four centuries. The estate was ultimately conveyed by marriage with Elizabeth, heiress of Joshua Radcliffe, Esq., to Roger Mainwaring, Esq., of Carincham, in the county of Chester, by whom it was alienated, and subsequently sold, about the close of the 17th century. The vale, which is watered by the Calder, abounds with coal, and with stone and timber for building. Numerous mills for spinning cotton, and spacious factories for the weaving of calicoes, fustians, dimities, satteens, and velveteens, have been erected on the banks of the river, and are scattered throughout the valley; the manufacture also of worsted goods has been introduced, and is carried on to a very great extent. In addition to the mills on the Calder, there are several in the township whose machinery is propelled by steam; the number of engines employed is 34, of the aggregate power of 608 horses. In the extensive cotton-works of Messrs. Fielden are five steam-engines of the aggregate power of 242 horses, and water-power equivalent to that of 15 horses. About 60,000lb. of cotton-yarn are spun, and 7000 pieces of calico woven, weekly in the town and vicinity, exclusively of fustians and other goods; and ten packs of wool are used weekly in the manufacture of various kinds of worsted goods.
The town is situated near the junction of the several townships, and skirted on the south by the Rochdale canal, which opens a direct communication with the inland navigation of Yorkshire and Lancashire, and through those channels, with the eastern and western sea-ports. The intercourse has been latterly increased by the Manchester and Leeds railway, which has a station here; and the Burnley branch of this railway quits the main line at Todmorden. The market for corn and provisions is on Thursday, and for cattle on the first Thursday in every month; fairs for cattle, which continue for three days each, commence on the Thursday before Easter, and on the 27th of September. A court ot petty-sessions, established in 1833 by John Crossley, Esq., of Scaitcliffe, at the request of the inhabitants, is still continued. The powers of the county debt-court of Todmorden, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Todmorden. The chapel, erected about the time of the Reformation, on land given for its site and for a spacious cemetery by the Radcliffes, of Todmorden Hall, having become ruinous, was rebuilt in 1770, by Anthony Crossley, Gent., at an expense of £605, and is at present used for the performance of the funeral service. A church dedicated to Christ, which is now the parochial chapel, was erected in 1832 at a cost of nearly £4500, by subscription, aided by a liberal grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower. Near it are excellent national schools just erected at a cost of £2000; and a parsonage-house. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £165; patron, the Vicar of Rochdale. In the hamlet of Walsden is another incumbency. A school adjoining the old churchyard was endowed in 1713, with £100 by the Rev. Richard Clegg, vicar of Kirkham-in-the-Fylde, and with £50 by subscription. The union of Todmorden comprises six townships, containing a population of 31,656.
TODRIDGE, a township, in the parish of Hartburn, union, and W. division of the ward, of Morpeth, N. division of Northumberland, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Hartburn; containing 6 inhabitants. It comprises about 60 acres of a good arable soil, formerly the property of Newminster Abbey, and now tithe-free.
Todwick (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TODWICK (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Worksop, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 10 miles (E. by S.) from Sheffield; containing 214 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Sheffield to Worksop, and comprises about 1700 acres of tolerably fertile land, including 50 acres of wood: good red gritstone is quarried for building. From a hill called Gospel Hill, views are obtained embracing seven churches and fourteen hamlets. Todwick Grange, the seat of George Colton Fox, Esq., is a handsome residence. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 14. 7.; net income, £160; patron, Mr. Fox. The tithes for the manor were commuted for land and a money payment in 1767: there is a parsonage-house, with 68 acres of glebe land. The church is a small neat edifice, with a square tower.
Toft (St. Andrew)
TOFT (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Caxton; containing 338 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, with the vicarage of Caldecote annexed, valued in the king's books at £6. 16. 10½.; net income, £287; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Christ's College, Cambridge. A national school has been endowed by the Rev. John Preston with the interest of £500.
TOFT, a township, in the parish of Knutsford, union of Altrincham, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 1¾ mile (S.) from Knutsford; containing 200 inhabitants. It comprises 1135 acres, the soil of which is partly clay and partly sand; the land is of good quality, and cultivated for dairy purposes. Toft Hall is the ancient seat of the Leycester family, of whom Ralph Gerard Leycester, Esq., is the present representative.
Toft, with Lound
TOFT, with Lound, a township, in the parish of Witham-on-the-Hill, union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 3 miles (S. W.) from Bourne; containing 225 inhabitants, of whom 167 are in Toft hamlet.
Toft, Monks' (St. Margaret)
TOFT, MONKS' (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Loddon and Clavering, hundred of Clavering, E. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (N.) from Beccles; containing 349 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Beccles to Yarmouth, and comprises 2205a. 1r. 21p., of which about 1402 acres are arable, 164 pasture, 76 in woods, 552 marsh, and 10 waste. The Hall, which is moated, is supposed to have been part of an alien priory, a cell to the abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul, at Preaux, in Normandy, founded here in the time of Henry I., and the revenue of which was given by Henry V. to the Carthusian monastery at Witham, by Henry VI. to Eton College, and by Edward IV. to King's College, Cambridge. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Haddiscoe, and valued in the king's books at £8: a tithe rent-charge of £316.13. is paid to King's College, a rent-charge of £153. 16. to the rector, and one of £26 to the incumbent of Gillingham. The inhabitants, by a charter, are exempt from serving on juries.
Toft-Next-Newton (St. Peter and St. Paul)
TOFT-NEXT-NEWTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Caistor, N. division of the wapentake of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4½ miles (W.) from Market-Rasen; containing 71 inhabitants, and comprising 1230 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9.10.10., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £230; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 43½ acres.
Toft, West (St. Mary)
TOFT, WEST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Grimshoe, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (N. E.) from Brandon; containing 182 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Thetford to Watton, and comprises 2700 acres, of which 500 are woodland in the demesne of the Hall. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 6.; income, £110; patron, Sir R. Sutton, Bart. The church is an ancient building of flint and stone, with a large square tower erected early in the reign of Edward IV., and coped and embattled with freestone. In 1720, an oaken coffin was discovered, containing, among other relics, human bones, the representation of a face cut in jet, a blue cypher, and several beads.
Toftrees (All Saints)
TOFTREES (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Walsingham, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Fakenham; containing 84 inhabitants. It comprises 1184a. 2r. 4p., of which 774 acres are arable, 286 meadow and pasture, and 93 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 6., and in the gift of the Townshend family: the great tithes have been commuted for £155, and the vicarial for £157. 12.; the glebe contains 9 acres. The church is chiefly in the early English style, with a square tower; the font is Norman, and there are some other details of that character.
TOGSTON, a township, in the parish of Warkworth, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 10 miles (S. E. by S.) from Alnwick; containing 151 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the sea, and comprises 1031 acres, of which two-thirds are arable land, of a good strong soil: 634 acres are the property of Thomas George Smith, Esq., of Togston House. In 1830 a colliery was opened by Mr. Smith, and another is also in operation, both for the supply of the district. The appropriate tithes have been commuted for £157. 13., and the vicarial for £32. 12. 2. The Winston Dyke passes through the township.
Tolland (St. John the Baptist)
TOLLAND (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and TauntonDean, W. division of Somerset, 3½ miles (N. N. E.) from Wiveliscombe; containing 124 inhabitants. The parish comprises 825 acres by admeasurement. The road from Wiveliscombe to Dunster and Minehead runs through it on the south-west, and the old road to the same places on the north-east. Lime is quarried for agricultural use. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £140; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church is a very small ancient edifice.
Tollard-Royal (St. Peter)
TOLLARD-ROYAL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Tisbury, partly in the hundred of Cranborne, Shaston division of Dorset, but chiefly in the hundred of Chalk, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 6¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Shaftesbury; containing, with the tything of Farnham-Tollard, 548 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2807 acres, of which 416 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16, and in the gift of the Rev. John Austin: certain impropriate tithes have been commuted for £10, and the incumbent's for £560; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 55 acres. In the parish is an old farmhouse called King John's Huntingseat, thought to be the remains of an ancient royal residence for hunting in Cranborne Chase.
Toller-Fratrum (St. Basil)
TOLLER-FRATRUM (St. Basil), a parish, in the union of Dorchester, hundred of Tollerford, Dorchester division of Dorset, 9 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dorchester; containing 67 inhabitants. The parish belonged to the brethren of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, whence it derived its distinguishing appellation Fratrum. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Winford-Eagle annexed, valued in the king's books at £10. 6.; net income, £161; patron, J. Fleming, Esq. Near the road to Maiden-Newton are traces of an ancient intrenchment, upon an eminence called White Sheet: on Farn down, a barrow was opened many years since, which contained seventeen urns, full of firm bones and black ashes.
Toller-Porcorum (St. Peter)
TOLLER-PORCORUM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Dorchester, partly in the hundred of Beaminster-Forum and Redhone, Bridport division, but chiefly in the hundred of Tollerford, Dorchester division, of Dorset, 10 miles (W. N. W.) from Dorchester; containing, with the tything of Kingcombe, 543 inhabitants. This parish is said to have derived its distinguishing name Porcorum from the great number of swine formerly bred in the district. It comprises by admeasurement 3145 acres. Here are chalk-pits; and stone is quarried, for all kinds of buildings. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5; patron and impropriator, J. Fleming, Esq.: the great tithes have been commuted for £242, and the small for £90; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe contains 71 acres. The parish partakes with Toller-Fratrum in the benefit of a school founded in 1772 by George Browne, and endowed with a school-house, &c, and an annuity of £21.
Tollerton (St. Peter)
TOLLERTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Bingham, S. division of the wapentake of Bingham and of the county of Nottingham, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Nottingham; containing 155 inhabitants. This place, which takes its name from Torlaston, one of its possessors before the Conquest, in the reign of Stephen became the manor of Radulphus Barre, with whose descendants it still remains. The parish comprises by admeasurement 1198 acres; the surface in some parts is hilly, and the soil consists of sand, clay, and marl. The Hall is situated in the midst of extensive grounds, and has a fine lake ornamented with a small woody island: the village stands on a declivity. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 9. 4½.; net income, £435; patron, Pendock Barry, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1803; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe altogether contains 218 acres. The church suffered much in the civil wars: it has been nearly rebuilt and greatly beautified by the present patron, to whose family it contains some handsome memorials.
TOLLERTON, a township, in the parish of Alne, union of Easingwould, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 4½ miles (S. by W.) from Easingwould; containing 521 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation about 2000 acres: the village is in the vale of the small river Linton, which is supposed to have been formerly navigable; and a station of the York and Newcastle railway is situated here. A large cattle and sheep fair is held on the 15th of August. The tithes, with certain exceptions, were commuted for land and a money payment in 1810. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Tollesbury (St. Mary)
TOLLESBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Maldon, hundred of Thurstable, N. division of Essex, 8 miles (E. N. E.) from Maldon; containing 1149 inhabitants. The parish comprises 7918 acres, of which 1382 are common or waste land. It is bounded on the south by the river Blackwater, and the creek of Southfleet is navigable to the village for vessels drawing six feet of water. Tollesbury is supposed to derive its name from having been the place where customs or tolls were paid by ships entering the bay. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16. 6. 3.; net income, £484; patrons, the family of Lawson; impropriator, R. Benyon de Beauvoir, Esq. The church is an ancient edifice, with a stone tower. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Tolleshunt, D'arcy (St. Nicholas)
TOLLESHUNT, D'ARCY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Maldon, hundred of Thurstable, N. division of Essex, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Maldon; containing 733 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the south-east by the river Blackwater and Northfleet creek, derives the adjunct to its name from the family of D'Arcy, who were anciently its lords. Corn is sent to Maldon to be shipped, and great quantities of fish-manure are landed in the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 10.; patrons and impropriators, the Rebow family. The great tithes have been commuted for £351, and the vicarial for £250; the glebe contains 3 acres. The church has a square embattled tower of stone. New-House or White-House Farm, in the parish, was purchased in 1635 by the trustees of Henry Smith, who, besides his munificence to almost every town and village in Surrey, left money to buy lands, directing the rents to be distributed among the poor of fourteen parishes, of which this is one.
Tolleshunt, Knights' (All Saints)
TOLLESHUNT, KNIGHTS' (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Maldon, hundred of Thurstable, N. division of Essex, 9 miles (N. E.) from Maldon; containing 313 inhabitants. This parish comprises 2079a. 3r. 17p., mostly arable land; it is pleasantly situated, and contains some ancient mansions. A fair is held on the 29th of June. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £540, and the glebe contains 60 acres. The church is a very ancient edifice, with a belfry-turret of wood, and has a monument of a Knight Templar. Near the manor-house of Barnewalden here, some Roman pavements were discovered a few years since.
Tolleshunt Major, or Beckingham (St. Nicholas)
TOLLESHUNT MAJOR, or BECKINGHAM (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Maldon, hundred of Thurstable, N. division of Essex, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Maldon; containing 447 inhabitants. It comprises 2185a. 3r. 5p., three-fourths of which are arable. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; income, £150; patron, the Rev. C. W. Carwardine; impropriators, the New England Company. The church is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel: on the north side was a chapel, now destroyed, and the arched entrance walled up.
TOLPUDDLE, a parish, in the union of Dorchester, hundred of Piddletown, Dorchester division of Dorset, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from Dorchester; containing 368 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1856 acres, of which 169 are common or waste; the soil is chalky. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15. 7. 3½.; net income, £240; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ Church, Oxford, whose tithes have been commuted for £400, and who have a glebe of 10 acres. The church is a small ancient fabric, built of rubble. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.