A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Torbrian (Holy Trinity)
TORBRIAN (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Haytor, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Newton-Bushell; containing 264 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1972 acres, of which 200 are common or waste land; it abounds with limestone of excellent quality. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 14. 7., and in the gift of John Wolston, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £340, and the glebe comprises 14 acres. The church contains three sepulchral chapels, and has an elegant wooden screen, an enriched pulpit of wood, an ancient font, and a piscina; the porch is ornamented with sculptured angels, and in the churchyard is a cross.
TORKINGTON, a township, in the parish and union of Stockport, hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Stockport; containing 345 inhabitants. It comprises 670 acres, the soil of which is partly clay.
Torksey (St. Peter)
TORKSEY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Lawress, though locally in the wapentake of Well, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3 miles (N.) from Newton-on-Trent; containing, with the chapelry of Brampton, and the township of Hardwick, 615 inhabitants, of whom 420 are in Torksey township. This place formerly enjoyed many privileges, on condition that the king's ambassadors, when travelling this way, should be conveyed by the inhabitants, in their own barges, down the Trent to York. A priory of Black canons, in honour of St. Leonard, was founded here by King John, which at the Dissolution was valued at £27. 2. 8. per annum. The parish is situated on the road from Gainsborough to Lincoln, at the junction of the Fosse-dyke with the river Trent; and comprises by admeasurement 1487 acres, of which 530 are arable, 945 grass-land, and about 12 wood. The soil in some parts is sandy, and in others clayey. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £42; patron and impropriator, Sir A. Hume, Bart. The body of the church was rebuilt in 1821.
Tormarton (St. Mary)
TORMARTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Sodbury, Lower division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Chipping-Sodbury; containing 620 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the road from Bristol to Malmesbury, and consists of 2616 acres. The living is a rectory, with the vicarage of Acton-Turville united, valued in the king's books at £27; net income, £800; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Beaufort. There is a chapel of ease at West Littleton.
Tor-Mohun, or Tor-Moham
TOR-MOHUN, or Tor-Moham, a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Haytor, Paignton and S. divisions of Devon; containing, with the town of Torquay, 5982 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Cockington annexed; net income, £270; patron, C. Mallock, Esq.; impropriators of Tor-Mohun, Sir L. V. Palk, Bart., and H. G. Cary, Esq. The church has an elegant wooden screen, formerly painted and gilt; and an ancient stone font. At Torquay are two other incumbencies. Of 32 Praemonstratensian monasteries in England, that of Torre, founded and endowed by William de Brewer in 1196, was by far the richest; it was dedicated to Our Holy Saviour, the Virgin Mary, and the Holy Trinity, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of £396. 0. 11. The situation of the abbey is most beautiful; and the remains of the church (which is said to have been richly furnished with cloth of gold), the chapter-house, &c, evince the former magnificence of the buildings: the refectory was, many years since, converted into a Roman Catholic chapel, still existing. One of the three gateways mentioned by Leland is still remaining, and is much admired for the beauty of its proportions. The modern mansion of Torre Abbey is the seat of Mr. Cary, in whose family it has continued since 1662. On a hill about half a mile from the church, are the remains of a chapel dedicated to St. Michael.
Torpenhow (St. Michael)
TORPENHOW (St. Michael), a parish, in the poorlaw union of Wigton, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland; including the townships of Bewaldeth with Snittlegarth, Blennerhassett with Kirkland, and Bothel with Threapland; and containing 1067 inhabitants, of whom 315 are in the township of Torpenhow with Whitrigg, 2½ miles (W. by N.) from Ireby. This parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Ellen, abounds with freestone and limestone. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £33. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Bishop of Carlisle: the tithes were commuted for land under inclosure acts, in 1807 and 1814. The church is principally in the Norman style; the roof of carved oak, is painted and curiously embellished, On a hill called Caer Mot, are the remains of a square double intrenchment, intersected by the old road from Keswick to Old Carlisle; near it is a smaller encampment, defended by a rampart and fosse.
TORPOINT, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Anthony, union of St. Germans, S. division of the hundred of East, E. division of Cornwall, 3 miles (W.) from Devonport. The village occupies a peninsula formed by the river Tamar, the Lynher, and St. John's Lake, from which the inhabitants derive an abundance of fish. Though small it is highly respectable; and in the vicinity are many genteel seats, of which Trematon Castle is the most distinguished. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £124; patron, the Vicar of St. Anthony. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. Sir Coventry Carcw founded a small free school here.
TORQUAY, a chapelry, in the parish of Tor-MoHun, union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Haytor, Paignton and S. divisions of Devon, 7 miles (S. E. by S.) from Newton-Bushell, and 23 (S.) from Exeter; containing 4085 inhabitants. This town, about half a century since an insignificant fishing-hamlet, is now a fashionable and attractive watering-place, situated in the most northern cove of Tor-bay, and occupying a somewhat irregular but singularly beautiful site. The first great improvement was the erection of a pier and quay, for which an act of parliament was obtained by Sir Lawrence Palk, to whom the town is greatly indebted; it was commenced in 1803, and completed in 1807, and another pier has since been constructed, forming a secure basin 500 feet long and 300 broad. A considerable portion of the town, consisting of neat and comfortable residences (principally lodging-houses) and shops of the best description, is built at the sides of the basin and on the strand. On the north, east, and west sides, the town is completely sheltered by hills, on whose declivities are terraces and detached houses, some of them very handsome buildings; and the heights being richly clothed with wood, their appearance from the pier-head is strikingly beautiful. A regatta takes place about August, at which the principal prize is a gold challenge cup, of the value of £100, with an accumulated fund added. There are two excellent hotels, some warm and cold baths, and a library with billiard and news rooms. An assembly-room, erected in 1826, is much frequented during the season, which is from September to May. The salubrity and mildness of the air of Torquay, arising from its contiguity to the sea and its sheltered situation, render it a most desirable winter residence for persons of a consumptive habit, or others for whom a mild climate is necessary; and it is usually, at this period of the year, very full of company. It is adequately supplied with water.
Torquay has a trifling share in the Newfoundland trade; and in addition to several coasting-vessels employed in the importation of coal and other commodities, it has a weekly communication by water with Loudon, and the advantage of steam-boats passing four times in the week. An act was passed in 1846 for a branch to Torquay, four miles in length, of the South Devon railway. There is a small but very convenient marketplace, well furnished with provisions at the customary markets, which are on Tuesday and Friday: a fair is held at Easter. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income £204; patron, the perpetual Curate of TorMohun. The chapel, dedicated to St. John, being found insufficient to accommodate the increasing population, and, from its confined situation, being incapable of enlargement, another dedicated to the Holy Trinity, has recently been erected; they are both handsome structures. The living of Trinity chapel is in the gift of the Rev. R. Fayle. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists and Wesleyans; and a national school. In the cliffs in the neighbourhood are some remarkable fissures, or openings, particularly one of extraordinary magnitude, called Kent's Hole, comprising numerous caves of various elevations, to which are several openings, one of them 93 feet deep, 100 wide, and 30 in height, containing many interesting specimens, both stalactital and organic, and fossil remains of the elephant and other animals. Druidical knives have also been discovered.
Torrington, Black (St. Mary)
TORR1NGTON, BLACK (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Holswortuy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Hatherleigh; containing 1252 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by the river Torridge, comprises 7200 acres of land, chiefly arable; 708 acres are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 8. 9.; patron. Lord Poltimore: the tithes have been commuted for £450, and the glebe consists of 191 acres. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Torrington, East (St. Michael)
TORRINGTON, EAST (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Caistor, W. division of the wapentake of Wraggoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Wragby; containing 113 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Wragby united in the year 1735, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 10.; net income, £327; patron, C. Turnor, Esq.
Torrington, Great (St. Michael)
TORRINGTON, GREAT (St. Michael), an incorporated market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Fremington. Great Torrington and N. divisions of Devon, 34 miles (N. W.) from Exeter, and 202 (W. by S.) from London; containing 3419 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from its situation on the river Torridge; and its antiquity as a market-town is evident from various old records, in which it occurs under the appellation of Cheping- Toriton. At a very early period it gave the title of Baron to its lords, who had the power of life and death throughout the lordship. In 1340, Richard de Merton, in whose possession it then was, erected a castle here, of which the chapel was remaining about the close of the last century. In 1484, Bishop Courtenay was tried at the sessions here, on a charge of treason against Richard III.; and in 1590, the countysessions were held at this place, on the appearance at Exeter of the plague, which malady afterwards extended to Torrington. During- the civil war, Colonel Digby, who had fortified himself here, was attacked in 1643, by a party of the parliamentary forces (strengthened by the garrisons of Barnstaple and Bideford), whom he defeated and put to flight. In 1646, the royalists, under Lords Hopton and Capel, and Sir John Digby, having taken possession of and fortified the town, were besieged by some troops under Sir Thomas Fairfax, who, after a severe contest, drove them from their post, and obtained a victory which put an end to the power of the royalists in this part of the country, and which was celebrated by a thanksgiving sermon preached in the market-place by the noted Hugh Peters. Fairfax, however, was frustrated in his intention of prolonging his stay here, by the accidental explosion of eighty barrels of gunpowder deposited in the church, by which the south-west angle of that building was destroyed, and 200 prisoners who were confined in it, together with the soldiers on guard, perished. In 1724, the place suffered from an accidental fire, by which about eighty houses were destroyed, and the records of the corporation burnt.
The town occupies a singularly bold and picturesque situation on the summit and declivity of a lofty cliff, washed at its base by the river Torridge, over which is a bridge connecting this parish with that of Little Torrington. It is lighted with gas, and consists of several good houses surrounding the market-place, and of two streets respectively on the ridge and the declivity of the cliff, with gardens sloping towards the river; the banks of the stream are crowned with finely-varied scenery, and in its winding course, a little above the town, it passes beneath some of the richest hanging woods in the kingdom. The woollen-trade, which was formerly considerable, is now confined to the manufacture of a few serges, blankets, and some coarse woollencloths. The principal business at present is the making of kid, chamois, beaver, and other gloves, for the London and foreign markets. The beaver gloves are the same as those called Woodstock, and the preparation of the leather affords employment to a large number of men; great quantities of gloves are also sewn by commission, and in the trade altogether 3000 girls in the town and neighbourhood are engaged. There are two tan-yards, and on the river is a corn-mill. A canal constructed by the late Lord Rolle, at a cost of more than £40,000, extends from the town to the sea-lock near Bideford, and runs in a direction nearly parallel with the river, which at that place becomes navigable for sloops. The market, held by prescription, is on Saturday; and on the third Saturday in March is one of the largest cattle-markets in the west of England: there is a smaller cattle-market in November, and fairs are held on May 4th, July 5th, and October 10th. An act was passed in 1842, for the erection of a market-house, and for regulating the market.
Charters of incorporation were granted to the inhabitants by Philip and Mary in 1554, by James I. in 1617, and by James II. in 1686. The corporation now consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, and hold a court of petty-sessions every three weeks. The county magistrates have prettysessions for the division every Saturday. The powers of the county debt-court of Torrington, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Torrington. The place sent representatives to thirteen parliaments in the reigns of Edward I. and succeeding sovereigns, but the inhabitants were released on their own petition. They enjoy the right of pasturage on a large common, granted to the occupiers of ancient messuages by William Fitz-Robert, lord of the manor of Great Torrington: of this tract, fifty acres were inclosed a few years since for cultivation by the poor. The town-hall is a neat modern edifice of brick ornamented with stone, supported on arches affording a covered area underneath. There is a small prison.
The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £20; net income, £162; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The church, owing to its partial destruction by gunpowder in 1646, was rebuilt in 1651; and the present structure, which in the interior is of the Tuscan order, includes suc h portions of the original edifice as escaped destruction. In 1831, a south transept was erected at an expense of £130 on the site of the old steeple, and a western tower surmounted by a spire was built at a cost of £1600, of which £700 were defrayed by the feoffees of the town lands, and the remainder by a rate. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. The Blue school, in Wellstreet, was established in 1709, by Denys Rolle, Esq., who endowed it with a messuage and with £200 in money, which sum was increased by the Rolle family to £950. An almshouse for eight persons, since increased to twelve, was founded and endowed in 1604 by John Huddle. The poor-law union comprises 23 parishes, and contains a population of 18,188. On the restoration of Charles II., General Monk, among other honours, was made Earl of Torrington: at present the place gives the title of Viscount to the family of Byng.
TORRINGTON, LITTLE, a parish, in the union of Torrington, hundred of Shkbbear, Black Torrington and Shebbear, and N. divisions of Devon, 2 miles (S.) from Great Torrington; containing 588 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2597 acres, of which 227 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 18. 11½., and in the patronage of the Rolle family, Mr. Buckingham, and Mrs. Stephens: the tithes have been commuted for £460; there is a parsonage-house, and the glebe comprises 44 acres. At Taddiport, in the parish, is an hospital with a chapel attached, appropriated to the poor.
Torrington, West (St. Mary)
TORRINGTON, WEST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, W. division of the wapentake of Wraggoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles (N. by E.) from Wragby; containing 138 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4; patron and impropriator. Sir R. S. Ainslie, Bart. The tithes have been commuted for £84. 8., and the glebe contains about an acre.
TORRISHOLME, a hamlet, in the township of Poulton, Bare, and Torrisholme, parish of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 2½ miles (N. W.) from Lancaster; containing 217 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book Toredholm, was the residence, in the reign of John, of the family of Thoroldeholm, and afterwards of the Paries: in the 23rd of Edward III. the manor was held by Margaret, wife of Robert de Holland. The hamlet comprises 640a. 3r. 33p. of land, and lies on the road from Lancaster to Poulton-le-Sands. The Hall is a large ordinary building.
TORTINGTON, a parish, in the hundred of Avisford, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Arundel; containing 75 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the river Arun. The living is a vicarage not in charge, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and in the gift of the Duke of Norfolk: the tithes have been commuted for £175. The church is a small structure in the early English style, containing portions of Norman architecture; an arch of rich workmanship forms the south entrance, and another arch, separating the nave from the chancel, is ornamented with a curious moulding: figures of the Four Evangelists in stained glass were put into the east window in 1835. A priory of Augustine canons, in honour of St. Mary Magdalene, was founded here by the Lady Avicia Corbet, before the reign of John, and at the Dissolution possessed a revenue of £101. 4. 1.
Tortworth (St. Leonard)
TORTWORTH (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Thornbury, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (W.) from Wotton-under-Edge; containing 240 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the road between Chipping-Sodbury and Berkeley, and comprises 1523 acres, of which 50 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 3. 9.; net income, £428; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of Oriel College, Oxford.
TORVER, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Hawkeshead; containing 199 inhabitants. The manor of Torver, which takes its name from the river Torver, belongs to the noble owner of the liberties of Furness. The chapel was erected before 1661. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £59; patron, T. R. G. Braddyll, Esq. The interest of £200 was given by John Fleming, in 1777, in support of a free grammar school, for which a house has been built by subscription. The Baptists have a place of worship.
TORWORTH, a township, in the parish of Blyth, union of East Retford, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 4¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from East Retford; containing 252 inhabitants, and consisting of 1362 acres. A rent-charge of £420 has been awarded as a commutation for the impropriate tithes, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge; and one of £80 for the vicarial tithes.