A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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BUTTOLPHS, a parish, in the union and hundred of Steyning, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 1½ mile (S. E.) from Steyning; containing 48 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east by the navigable river Adur; and the Roman road from Bognor to Lewes probably passed near it. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to the rectory of Bramber: the church is an ancient edifice with a low embattled tower, and consisted formerly of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, which last was divided from the nave by arches, now filled up. About 1830 a considerable number of Roman bricks, tiles, and pottery, was discovered by the plough, on the downs.
Buttsbury (St. Mary)
BUTTSBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 7 miles (S. W. by S.) from Chelmsford; containing 521 inhabitants. At the time of the Norman survey, the lands were the property of Henry de Ferrers; at present not less than seven manors are either wholly or partly within the limits of the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Ingatestone: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £323. 6. 8., and the glebe consists of 8 acres. The church is a small ancient building with a tower of stone surmounted by a shingled spire.
Buxhall (St. Mary)
BUXHALL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Stow, W. division of Suffolk, 3¼ miles (W. by S.) from Stow-Market; containing 533 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Gipping, and comprises 2249 acres; the surface is moderately undulated, and the soil a stiff, rich, fertile clay. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 0. 5., and in the patronage of the family of Hill: the tithes have been commuted for £668, and the glebe comprises 39 acres. The church is a spacious and handsome structure, in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower: there are some remains of ancient stained glass in the windows, and in the chancel are some memorials of the Hill family.
Buxted (St. Margaret)
BUXTED (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Uckfield, hundred of Loxfield-Dorset, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 1¾ mile (N. N. E.) from Uckfield; containing 1574 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Lewes to TonbridgeWells, and comprises 8208 acres, of which 829 are common or waste; it abounds with sandstone and ironstone, and it is said that the first pieces of ordnance cast in England were produced here. Buxted Park, the seat of the Earl of Liverpool, is an elegant mansion, in an ample and richly-wooded demesne. The living is a rectory, with the living of Uckfield annexed, valued in the king's books at £37. 5. 2½., and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the tithes of Buxted have been commuted for £960, and there is a glebe of 50 acres. The church, beautifully situated within the grounds of the park, is a spacious and venerable structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a lofty spire. A district church was erected at Hadlow Down, in 1836. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Dr. Saunders, rector of Buxted, in 1719 bequeathed land now producing £70 per annum, for the establishment of a free school at Uckfield, for six boys of this parish and six of Uckfield. His successors in the benefice have been eminently distinguished for their talents: of these may be noticed the Rev. William Clarke, author of a work on the connexion of the Roman, Saxon, and English coins, and his son Edward, who published Letters concerning the Russian Nation, and other productions, and who was interred here: a later rector was Dr. D'Oyly, whose successor was Dr. Wordsworth, master of Trinity College, Cambridge, who died in 1846. That celebrated scholar Dr. W. Wotton, father-in-law of the Rev. William Clarke, lies interred in the churchyard; and the accomplished and intrepid traveller, Dr. E. D. Clarke, grandson of the Rev. William Clarke, was born, and passed his boyhood, in the parsonage-house. There are several chalybeate springs.
BUXTON, a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Bakewell, union of Chapel-en-le-Frith, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 33 miles (N. W.) from Derby, and 159 (N. W. by N.) from London, on the high road from Derby to Manchester; containing 1569 inhabitants. Antiquaries agree in considering this to have been a Roman station, although they have not been able to ascertain its name. The place was subsequently called Bawkestanes, supposed to be a corruption of Bathanstanes, signifying "the bath stones;" and one of the Roman roads noticed below still retains the appellation Batham-gate. The Romans, attracted by the temperature of the waters, constructed a bath, the wall of which, covered with red cement, and other parts, were remaining until some years ago, when they were removed to make way for improvements; and several Roman coins have been discovered. Near this spot two great military roads intersected, one connecting Little Chester and Manchester, and the other leading from Middlewich to Brough, and thence to York and Aldborough.
The town is situated near the source of the small river Wye, in a valley surrounded by bleak elevated tracts of moorland; but several plantations have been formed on the adjacent eminences, which, with other improvements, have materially altered the appearance of the immediate vicinity. The older part, occupying the high grounds, consists chiefly of houses built of limestone, without order, and of mean appearance; the more modern, situated in the vale, comprises lodging-houses and hotels, erected and fitted up with every regard to the comfort of the numerous visiters. The old Hall, built in the sixteenth century by the Earl of Shrewsbury, for several years afforded temporary accommodation to visiters of rank, and for some time was the abode of Mary, Queen of Scots, who, while in the custody of the earl, accompanied him and his countess in an excursion to this place. The house underwent considerable alteration and enlargement in 1670, and is still one of the principal hotels; it has stairs communicating directly with the natural baths. The Crescent, erected in 1781, by the Duke of Devonshire, is a fine range of building in the Grecian style, erected of gritstone obtained near the spot, fronted with freestone brought from a quarry about a mile distant. At the eastern extremity, and contiguous to the Great Hotel, hot baths have been constructed, which are supplied from Bingham's Well. The new square, nearly adjoining, has an arcade communicating with that of the Crescent, and forming a continued promenade; it contains many handsome lodging-houses, and there are others in various parts of the town. St. Anne's Well, near the Crescent, the resort of those who drink the waters, is inclosed within a building in the style of a Grecian temple: the water issues from the spring into a marble basin, and opposite to it is a double pump, by which both hot and cold water are simultaneously raised from springs lying within a few inches of each other; the hot spring has a temperature of 82° of Fahrenheit. The waters are saline, holding nitrogen gas in solution, and are efficacious in gout, rheumatism, and indigestion, and in nervous, scorbutic, and nephritic diseases: the season commences early in June, and continues generally till the end of October. There is also a chalybeate spring, the water of which is strongly impregnated with iron held in solution by acidulous gas. The environs abound with picturesque and romantic scenery, and with pleasant walks and rides: of the former is the Serpentine, beautifully wooded, following the course of the Wye; and of the latter, the Duke's Ride, on the Bakewell road, extending over the summit of a rock called the Lover's Leap, is a favourite excursion.
The principal branch of trade consists in the manufacture and sale of many beautiful ornaments in marble, fluor-spar, alabaster, and other mineral productions of the Peak; and a great quantity of lime, noted for its strength, is burnt to the west of the town, the workmen and their families living in huts excavated in the cinders, which cement firmly together, and become as hard as the rock itself. In the vicinity passes the Cromford and High-Peak railway; and an act was obtained in 1846 for a railway from Stockport, by Buxton, to Ambergate, on the Midland line. The market is on Saturday; fairs are held on Feb. 3rd, April 1st, May 2nd, and Sept. 8th, for cattle. The Living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £105; patron, the Duke of Devonshire. A new church or chapel, an elegant structure near the town, was erected in 1812, at the expense of his Grace. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. A school, now conducted on the national system, was founded towards the close of the seventeenth century, and re-opened in 1817, after a suspension of 25 years, during which period its affairs had been in chancery: the income, arising from land and property in the funds, is £80 per annum; the school is held in an excellent room provided by the Duke of Devonshire. The Bath charity, for the benefit of poor invalids coming hither for the use of the waters, is liberally supported by subscription, and the benefit it confers is proved by the numbers who are annually claimants for its aid: in 1844 as many as 1491 persons were admitted, of whom 970 were cured or much relieved, 341 were relieved, 67 only derived no benefit, and 113 remained under cure. About three-quarters of a mile to the south-west of the town is Pool's Hole, a dark and dreary cavern, narrow and very low at the entrance, but lofty and presenting an exceedingly interesting appearance within, abounding with stalactites, representing various natural forms; near the extremity is a rude mass, called the Pillar of Mary, Queen of Scots, beyond which few persons advance. About one mile and a half beyond the cavern is Diamond Hill, so called from the detached crystals found there in profusion, denominated Buxton diamonds: their form is hexagonal, and their surface and angles well defined, but of bad colour; when first found they are hard, but they soon lose that property.
Buxton (St. Andrew)
BUXTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of South Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 3¼ miles (N. W.) from Coltishall; containing 713 inhabitants. The village is pleasantly situated on the western bank of the navigable river Bure. The living is a discharged vicarage, united, with the living of Oxhead, to the rectory of Skeyton, and valued in the king's books at £5. 13. 9.: the tithes of Buxton have been commuted for £256. 16., of which £145 belong to Sir E. Stracey, Bart., £12 to the Dean and Chapter of Norwich, and £99. 16. to the incumbent, who has also a glebe of 35½ acres. The church is in the later English style, and has a square embattled tower: the nave, which is lighted with clerestory windows, is separated from the chancel by the remains of a carved screen; and on the north side of the chancel is a beautiful piscina, with stone stalls for three priests. There are places of worship for Particular Baptists and Wesleyans. Thomas Bulwer, in 1694, left £200 for the poor, which, with the bequests of Sir John Picto and others, produce about £60 per annum. This was a subordinate Roman station, and several remains have been discovered.
BWLCH, a township, in the parish of Cwmyoy, union, division, and hundred of Abergavenny, county of Monmouth; containing 87 inhabitants. It comprises 724 acres, of which 200 are common or waste; and on the north-east is connected by a bridge over the river Munnow with the county of Hereford: the surface is undulated and well wooded, but the soil rather under the average fertility. The tithes have been commuted for £32. 2. payable to the perpetual curate of Cwmyoy, £24. 4. 9 to the incumbent of Oldcastle, and £12 14. to the incumbent of Llancillo. There are the remains of a square camp.
BYAL-FEN, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hundred of Ely, Isle of Ely, county of Cambridge; containing 33 inhabitants. The tithes belonging to the crown for Byal, West, Hale, and Grunty Fens, have been commuted for £400.
BYERS-GREEN, a township, in the parish of St. Andrew Auckland, union of Auckland, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Bishop-Auckland; containing 489 inhabitants. It was anciently a part of the possessions of the family of Neville. The ByersGreen branch of the Clarence railway diverges from the Durham branch at Ferry Hill, about 6 miles distant, and terminates at this place. A district church dedicated to St. Peter has been built, and endowed by the Bishop of Durham, for the townships of Byers-Green and Newfield, and part of Binchester. The tithes have been commuted for £57 payable to the impropriators, £51 to the bishop, £21 to the rector of Whitworth, and £6 to the rector of Brancepeth.
Byfield (Holy Cross)
BYFIELD (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Daventry, hundred of Chipping-Warden, S. division of the county of Northampton, 7¼ miles (S. W. by S.) from Daventry; containing 1079 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the borders of Warwickshire, which partly bounds it on the north; and consists of 2962a. 16p., the surface being generally level, and the soil of full average fertility. It is crossed from south to north by the road from Banbury to Daventry. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £28; net income, £917; patrons, the President and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxford: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1778.
Byfleet (St. Mary)
BYFLEET (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chertsey, First division of the hundred of Godley, W. division of Surrey, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Cobham; containing 672 inhabitants. At the time of the Domesday survey, the manor was included among the possessions of the abbot of Chertsey; it eventually came to the crown, and Edward II. is supposed to have resided here occasionally, and to have granted the lands to his favourite, Piers de Gaveston. The river Wey, and the Guildford canal, pass through the parish, and the South-Western railway very near: it contains by measurement 2034 acres, the soil of which is sandy. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 11. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £187. There is a pleasant parsonage-house, with 32 acres of old glebe lying around it, and the incumbent has about 90 acres of other land, allotted in lieu of tithes in 1800. The church has a monument to the Rev. Joseph Spence, the well-known author, who died at Byfleet in 1768. An old mansion called Byfleet Park, at present a farmhouse, was built by Edward the Black Prince; and at this place Henry VIII. was nursed.
Byford (St. John the Baptist)
BYFORD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Weobley, hundred of Grimsworth, county of Hereford, 7½ miles (W. N. W.) from Hereford; containing 236 inhabitants. The parish comprises 873a. 1r. 14p., of which about 175 acres are arable, 647 pasture, and 50 woodland: it is intersected by the river Wye, and the road from Hereford to Hay. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 1. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £182, and there is a glebe of 32¼ acres, with a house.
BYGRAVE, a parish, in the union of Hitchin, hundred of Odsey, county of Hertford, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Baldock; containing 154 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1620 acres, about 100 of which are pasture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 9. 7.; net income, £377; patron, the Marquess of Salisbury.
BYKER, a township and a church district, in the parish of All Saints, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, union of Newcastle, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 1¼ mile (E.) from Newcastle; containing 6024 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the north bank of the Tyne, and forms the easternmost part of the parish, comprises about 636 acres, nearly equally divided between arable and pasture, with upwards of 100 acres occupied by houses, manufactories, and yards for various uses. The soil is chiefly a bright clay, and of moderate quality, yet productive from good manure. Sandstone is quarried which is well adapted for large works; some of it is shipped to London, and much has been used in the handsome new quay and other works undertaken by the corporation of Newcastle. There are three or four coal-mines worked under the surface, though there are few pits, these being sunk in the adjoining townships: the shaft of one of the mines is on the south bank of the Tyne, so that the works extend below the entire bed of the river, and coal is dug beneath the lands of Byker at a distance of a mile and a half from the shaft. Among the manufactories, which are very numerous, are potteries for brown and common, and blue and white, ware, crown and bottle glass-works, cinder and coke kilns, foundries, chain and other iron works, soap-manufactories, white-lead and colour establishments, flour-mills, saw-mills, a considerable flax-mill, fire-brick works, alkali-works, and ropewalks; and on the banks of the river are large timber, and ship and boat building, yards. Of these manufactures an extensive export trade is carried on, and the pottery-ware is much esteemed in the north of Europe; while the India vessels built at St. Peter's dock by Messrs. Smith, are among the finest specimens of our commercial marine. The living was formed under the 6 & 7 Victoria, c. 37, and is in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Durham alternately. A handsome church is about to be erected, for which a subscription has been opened, aided by grants from the Incorporated Society and the Church-Building Commissioners; and Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart., has given a site, nearly in the centre of the township. A tithe rent-charge of £80 is paid to the Bishop of Carlisle, one of £80 to the Dean and Chapter, and one of £35 to the vicar of Newcastle. There are six places of worship, nearly all belonging to the different Methodist connexions.
BYLAND-ABBEY, a township, in the parish of Coxwold, union of Helmsley, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Helmsley; containing 97 inhabitants. The township comprises 1527a. 3r. 30p., of which 444 acres are arable, 414 meadow and pasture, and 669 wood, water, and common. A monastery and church were founded here, in 1177, by the abbot and monks of Furness in Lancashire, who, having been disturbed by the Scots, fled to this part of the country, and were well received by Roger de Mowbray, at Thirsk Castle, who assigned lands at Byland for their support: at the Dissolution the revenue was estimated at £238. 9. 4. Of the abbey, which was a magnificent structure, the western front and other parts yet remain, in a high state of preservation, and afford a beautiful specimen of early English architecture: on the removal of a quantity of rubbish in the year 1818, was found a stone coffin, containing a perfect skeleton, conjectured to be that of Roger de Mowbray; and at the same time, fragments of a tessellated pavement were discovered.
BYLAND, OLD, a parish, in the union of Helmsley, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Helmsley; containing 185 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 2200 acres of arable land, and by computation 800 acres in wood, and is chiefly of a red light soil; the aspect of the land is in many situations mountainous and wild. Freestone is quarried for building. The living is a donative; net income, £55; patron and impropriator, George Wombwell, Esq., of Newborough Park. The church is an ancient edifice with a square tower, and is supposed to have been attached to Rivaulx Abbey; the whole of the pavement is tessellated, and wrought with a variety of figures.
Bylaugh (St. Mary)
BYLAUGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 5¼ miles (N. E.) from East Dereham; containing 85 inhabitants. It comprises 1544a. 2r. 19p., of which 1100 acres are arable, 200 pasture, and 200 woodland and heath. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £82; patron and impropriator, E. Lombe, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for £200. The church, which is in the later English style, with a tower circular in the lower and octangular in the upper part, was thoroughly repaired in 1809, when the chancel was rebuilt and transepts added by the late Sir John Lombe, who lies buried in the north transept.
Byley, with Yatehouse
BYLEY, with Yatehouse, a township, in the parish of Middlewich, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 1¼ mile (N. E. by N.) from Middlewich; containing 149 inhabitants. The manor of "Bively" was given by Richard de Aldford to the abbey of Pulton. After the dissolution of religious houses, it was purchased of the crown by Geffrey Shakerley, ancestor of the present family. The township comprises 1002 acres of land, the soil of which is clay. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £128. 15. 9.
BYRNESS, a chapelry, in the parish of Elsdon, union of Rothbury, S. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 13¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Bellingham. This place is situated on the road from Newcastle to Jedburgh, and is watered by the Rede river: coal-mines, freestone, and limestone are worked. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £75; patron, the Rector of Elsdon. The income is paid from Queen Anne's Bounty and the rent of 16 acres of land; there is a good glebe-house, with about 3 acres of land attached. The chapel was built by subscription, in 1793, in an ancient burial-ground; it is 34 feet long, by 22 wide, and has a very small chancel, and a porch at the west end. Here was a Druidical temple, but every vestige of it has disappeared.
Byrome, or Byram, with Pool
BYROME, or BYRAM, with Pool, a township, in the parish of Brotherton, Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 1¾ mile (N. N. W.) from Ferry-Bridge; containing 79 inhabitants. It is situated on the east of the river Aire, and comprises by computation 850 acres, including the hamlet of Pool. Byram Hall is a handsome mansion, in a fine and well-wooded park of about 200 acres.
Byshottles, in the parish of Brancepeth, and county of Durham.—See Brandon.
BYSHOTTLES, in the parish of Brancepeth, and county of Durham.—See Brandon.
Bytham, Castle (St. James)
BYTHAM, CASTLE (St. James), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Corby; containing, with the chapelry of Holywell with Aunby, and the hamlet of Counthorpe, 855 inhabitants. This place derives its name from an ancient castle, the origin of which is generally attributed to the Romans: it appears to have been strongly fortified; and within the foundations have been dug up, at various times, stone coffins, and other relics of antiquity. In 1080, Odo, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, having married Adelina, sister of William the Conqueror, obtained a grant of the castle and adjoining territory for the purpose of enabling them to feed their infant son, Stephen, with wheaten bread; from which circumstance a close, constituting a part of the territory, still retains the name of "Wheaten Close." In 1340, William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, rebelling against Edward III., fortified his castle of Bytham, and plundered the surrounding country; but the castle being soon afterwards besieged by the royal forces, was taken and levelled with the ground. The living is a discharged vicarage, consolidated with the rectory of Little Bytham, and valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 6.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1803. At Holywell is a chapel of ease. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is partly supported by £25 per annum, from an estate belonging to the parish.
Bytham, Little (St. Madardus)
BYTHAM, LITTLE (St. Madardus), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Beltisloe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (S.) from Corby; containing 311 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1100 acres of land: Lord Willoughby de Eresby is lord of the manor and chief owner of the soil. The village, which is ancient, is seated on an acclivity, near the confluence of the river Glen with one of its tributary streams. The living is a rectory with the vicarage of Castle Bytham consolidated, valued in the king's books at £4. 8. 4., and in the alternate patronage of the Bishop and the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln; net income, £610. At the inclosure in 1804, land was allotted in lieu of tithes, and 11½ acres were given for the repairs of the church.
Bythorn (St. Lawrence)
BYTHORN (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Thrapston, hundred of Leightonstone, county of Huntingdon, 6½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Kimbolton; containing 322 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Huntingdon to Northampton, and comprises by measurement 1500 acres. The living is united, with that of Old Weston, to the rectory of Brington: the tithes have been commuted for £20. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists. John Mason Hustwait, in 1816, bequeathed £300, the interest of which is appropriated to the teaching of children.
Byton (St. Mary)
BYTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Knighton, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Presteign; containing 172 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 847 acres, of which 359 are arable, 400 meadow, and 88 woodland: there are also about 70 acres of common. It is bounded on the north by the river Lug, and intersected from north to south by the road between Leintwardine and Kington. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £115.
Bywell (St. Andrew)
BYWELL (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland; containing 452 inhabitants, of whom 51 are in part of the township of Bywell, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Corbridge, and 13½ (W. by S.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The parish is on the north and south sides of the river Tyne, and comprises the townships of Bearl, Broomhaugh, Riding, Stocksfield-Hall, Styford, and part of Bywell; the whole forming an area, by computation, of 3680 acres. It is intersected by the road from Newcastle to Hexham; and the Newcastle and Carlisle railway also passes through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 9. 2., and in the patronage of T. W. Beaumont, Esq.; impropriators, R. Trevelyan and H. Witham, Esqrs. The great tithes have been commuted for £434, and the small for £100; the vicar has a glebe of 14 acres. The church is a small edifice with a lofty steeple.
Bywell (St. Peter)
BYWELL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland; containing 1512 inhabitants, of whom 131 are in part of the township of Bywell, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Corbridge, and 14 (W. by S.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne. This parish, which is about 13 miles in length, and from 2 to 3 in breadth, is on the north and south sides of the Tyne, and comprises the townships of East Acomb, Apperley, Broomley, Espershields, High Fortherley, Healey, Newton, Newton-Hall, Newlands, and Stelling; the chapelry of Whittonstall; and part of the township of Bywell; the whole forming an area, by measurement, of about 14,000 acres, of which 7000 are arable, about 4850 pasture, and 2150 woodland. The north and north-west parts are intersected by the parish of Bywell St. Andrew: a portion of the land is very fertile and beautifully diversified by gentle swells, and wood and water; but much consists of wild moors, of which nearly 3000 acres have been inclosed. The Mansion-House, the seat of Mr. Beaumont, stands in a lawn adorned by forest-trees, having the river on its south side, with a beautiful islet, and on the opposite bank are extensive plantations. The village, which is partly in the parish of Bywell St. Andrew, and partly in that of St. Peter, is pleasantly situated on the north bank of the Tyne: it was formerly noted for the manufacture of saddlers' ironmongery, which was in a flourishing state in the 16th century, and is mentioned in their report by the commissioners of Queen Elizabeth; but which has now wholly declined. The Newcastle and Carlisle railway has a station here; and Mr. Beaumont has erected a handsome stone bridge of seven arches, at a cost of £10,000. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 18. 1½.; net income, £119; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham, whose tithes have been commuted for £1358, and who have a glebe of 21 acres. The church is an ancient edifice of large dimensions, with a tower, standing near the church of St. Andrew. At Whittonstall is a separate living. There are places of worship for Baptists, Roman Catholics, and Wesleyans. At a short distance from the Hall are the ruins of the old baronial castle of Bywell, once a very strong fortress; the fine square tower is entire, and from its top is an extensive prospect.