A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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- Salisbury - Salwarpe
Salisbury - Salwarpe
SALISBURY, a city, having separate civil jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Underditch, S. division of Wilts, 82 miles (S. W. by W.) from London; containing 10,086 inhabitants. This city owes its origin to the ruin of Old Sarum. The bishops of the diocese for some time had their seat in that place; but from its exposed situation on an eminence, its want of water, and the annoyance to which the bishops were subject from its military tenants, who not only levied contributions on their property, but insulted the priests in the exercise of their devotions, Bishop Herbert Pauper solicited permission from the pope to transfer the see to a more appropriate spot. Bishop Poore, his successor, selected the site of the new city, in a pleasant vale, about two miles from Old Sarum; and in 1220 laid the foundation of the present magnificent cathedral. The completion of that edifice was followed by the removal not only of the members of the establishment, but also of the inhabitants, who, gradually deserting the old town, built houses near the church; and Salisbury consequently soon grew into importance. Its progress was much accelerated by a charter of Henry III., constituting the place a free city, and conferring on its inhabitants the same privileges and immunities as were enjoyed by the people of Winchester. That monarch also empowered the bishop to surround the city and the cathedral-close with walls and ditches, to repair the roads and bridges, and to levy tallage for the completion of the walls. Disputes arising between the ecclesiastical authorities and the citizens respecting these aids, in the reign of Edward I., both parties appealed to the king in council, who decided in favour of the bishop, and deprived the citizens of their charter, which was subsequently restored to them upon an amicable arrangement of the matter by the parties themselves. About this period. Bishop Bridport built a bridge at Harnham, and thus changing the direction of the great western road, which passed through Old Sarum, that place was completely deserted, and Salisbury became one of the most flourishing cities in the kingdom.
Edward I. presided over a parliament here, to deliberate upon measures for recovering the province of Gascoigne, that had been seized upon by Philip of France; on which occasion none of the clergy assisted, the king having suspended them from the exercise of their secular functions for refusing him aid. In the reign of Edward III., a second parliament, for inquiring into the state of the kingdom, was held at Salisbury, to which Mortimer, Earl of March, and his partisans, came with their followers in arms. The Earls of Kent, Norfolk, and Lancaster, who, on being summoned to attend, were prohibited by Mortimer from appearing with any military forces, perceiving on their arrival the warlike preparations of his adherents, retreated for the purpose of assembling their retainers, and returning with an army, were about to take vengeance on Mortimer, when the quarrel was compromised through the intervention of the clergy. From the time of Edward I., the bishops and the citizens appear to have lived in harmony, till the time of Richard II., when the prelate requiring the corporation to concur with him in his efforts to suppress the meetings of the Lollards, who assembled here in great numbers, the latter refused, and the bishop appealing to the crown, obtained an order in council compelling them to assist him in that object. In the reign of Richard III., the Duke of Buckingham, who had headed an unsuccessful insurrection against the king, was taken prisoner in his retreat, and being brought hither, was immediately executed, in 1484, without any trial. No other event of historical importance appears in connexion with the city, till the interregnum after the close of the parliamentary war, when Col. Wyndham, with other gentlemen of the county, marched into Salisbury with 200 armed men, and proclaimed Charles II. king; but they were not supported by the inhabitants of the surrounding country.
The city is pleasantly situated in a spacious valley, near the confluence of the Nadder and the Willey with the river Avon; and consists of several principal streets regularly formed, and intersected at right angles by smaller ones, dividing the town into a number of squares called Chequers. These squares derived their form from the original grant by the bishops of a certain number of perches in front and in depth allotted for building; the areas are laid out in gardens. Most of the buildings are of brick, and modern; many of them are handsome, while some are irregular in form and size, and constructed with timber and brick-work plastered over. The waters of the river run through most of the streets in canals lined with brick, and contribute greatly to their cleanliness. The city is connected by two stone bridges of six arches each, with the suburb of Fisherton, including which it occupies an area nearly three-quarters of a mile square. It is joined to the suburb of East Harnham by an ancient bridge of ten arches, divided into two parts by a small islet, on which was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. John, where three chaplains were appointed to say mass, and to receive the contributions of passengers towards keeping the bridge in repair. Some improvement has been lately effected in paving and lighting, and the town is amply supplied with water. The Salisbury and Wiltshire library and newsroom was established in 1819, and is supported by a proprietary and by annual subscriptions. A small neat theatre is opened for some months in the winter; assemblies and concerts are held occasionally, and races take place in August.
Salisbury was formerly celebrated for its manufactures of flannels, druggets, and the cloths called Salisbury Whites; but these branches of trade are now almost extinct, and what remains is confined to a very inconsiderable number of persons. The town, however, is still noted for the manufacture of select articles of cutlery of superior quality, though the sale is limited; and a silk-factory, employing about 120 persons, has been established for some years. The Salisbury canal, joining the Andover line near Romsey, was originally intended to be continued westward to Bath and Bristol, connecting the Bristol and English Channels, but the completion of the design was abandoned. An act was passed in 1845 for the construction of the Wilts, Somerset, and Weymouth railway, one of whose termini is at Salisbury. The Romsey and Salisbury branch of the London and South-Western railway was opened in 1847; it quits the main line at Bishop'sStoke, and is 21 miles in length. In 1846 an act was obtained for making another branch of the same railway, from Basingstoke to Andover and Salisbury, 32 miles long. The market-days are Tuesday and Saturday; the former for corn, of which there is an abundant supply, and the latter for cheese and all kinds of provisions: a large cattle-market is held every alternate Tuesday. The fairs are on Tuesday after January 6th, for cattle; the Tuesday after the 25th of March, for cloth; Whit Monday and Tuesday, for horses and pedlery; and October 20th, for butter and cheese. The poultry cross, which appears to have been built in the reign of Edward III., and of which only the lower part is remaining, is situated without the south-west corner of the market-place, an extensive quadrilateral area.
The first charter granted to the city was that by Henry III., in the eleventh year of his reign, which was confirmed by several succeeding sovereigns; but the control, at the time of the passing of the Municipal Corporations' act, was wholly regulated by the charters bestowed by James I., Charles I. and II., and Queen Anne. The government, agreeably with that act, is now vested in a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors. The municipal boundaries are co-extensive with those for parliamentary purposes; the city is divided into three wards, and the number of magistrates is five. Salisbury exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd of Edward I., since which time it has continued to return two members to parliament; the borough was extended in 1832, and now comprises an area of 601 acres: the mayor is returning officer. The recorder holds quarterly courts of session. On the part of the bishop are a bailiff and deputy-bailiff, who may hold a court of record for the recovery of debts to any amount, but no process has issued for several years past; they hold a court leet for the bishop as lord of the manor. The spring assize and the Lent quarter-session for the county regularly take place here, and petty-sessions occur every Monday. The powers of the county debt-court of Salisbury, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Salisbury, Alderbury, Amesbury, and Wilton. The council-house, having been destroyed by fire, was rebuilt in 1795, under the provisions of an act of parliament, at the expense of the late Earl of Radnor; it is a handsome building of white brick, with rustic quoins and cornices of stone, and consists of two wings connected by a central vestibule. The county gaol and bridewell, at the western extremity of Fisherton-Anger, was erected in 1818, at an expense of about £30,000.
The seat of the diocese was originally established about the beginning of the tenth century, at Wilton, in this county, where it continued under the superintendence of eleven successive bishops. Hermannus, the last of these, having been appointed to the see of Sherborne, annexed that bishopric to Wilton, and founded a cathedral for the united dioceses at Old Sarum. The see remained at Old Sarum till the year 1220, when Richard le Poore transferred the episcopal chair to Salisbury, where it has since remained. Under the provisions of the act 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. 77, a considerable alteration has been made in the territorial extent of the diocese, which now comprises the county of Dorset, and part of Wiltshire. The establishment consists of a bishop, dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, five canons residentiary, three archdeacons (for Dorset, Sarum, and Wilts), a subdean, succentor, thirty-eight prebendaries, four minor canons or priest-vicars, six singing men, eight choristers, and an organist. The bishop appoints the precentor, the chancellors of the church and diocese, the treasurer, archdeacons, subdean, succentor, and prebendaries, and has an income of £5000. The Dean and Chapter have the patronage of the minor canonries.
The cathedral, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, begun by Richard le Poore in 1220, and completed in 1258, is one of the most interesting ecclesiastical edifices in the kingdom. It is in the form of a double cross, with a highly-enriched tower, rising from the intersection of the nave and larger transepts, and surmounted by a lofty spire which attains the height of 400 feet from the pavement, being the highest in England. The whole building, with the exception only of the upper part of the tower, and the spire, which are of later date, is in the purest style of early English architecture. The west front is divided into five compartments, by buttresses ornamented with canopied niches filled with statues; and between the two central buttresses is the principal entrance, through a richlymoulded arch of spacious dimensions: above the entrance is a large window, and at the angles of the front are square embattled towers, finely enriched, and surmounted by spires. The north front is of considerable beauty; and the end fronts of the transepts, projecting boldly from the sides of the main building, and displaying, in successive series of arches, a pleasing variety of composition, corresponding with the general style, are a fine relief to the exterior.
The interior is exquisitely beautiful, from the loftiness of its elevation and the delicacy and lightness of its structure. The nave is separated from the aisles by clustered columns and pointed arches; the roof, which is plainly groined, is 84 feet high, and the space above the columns is occupied by a triforium of elegant design, and a range of clerestory windows of three lights, of which the central is higher than the rest. The larger transepts, of the same character with the nave, consist of three arches of similar arrangement; and the smaller, of two arches. The choir is divided from the nave by a screen of modern workmanship supporting the organ; it consists of seven arches, and by the removal of the altar-screen, has been connected with the Lady chapel, the roof of which, being lower than that of the choir, in a great degree destroys the effect. The bishop's throne, the pulpit, and the prebendal stalls, are of finely-executed tabernacle-work, and harmonise with the prevailing character of the building; the floor of the choir is of black and white marble, and the east window is embellished with a painting of the Resurrection, by Eginton, from a design by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The choir is also ornamented with a painting of the Elevation of the Brazen Serpent in the Wilderness, from a design by Mortimer, executed by Pearson, the gift of the late Earl of Radnor. The cathedral was lately repaired, under the superintendence of Mr. Wyatt, at an expense of £26,000; the chapels in the transepts have been removed, and their principal ornaments are now distributed in various parts of the building. In the nave, choir, and transepts, are numerous monuments to bishops of the see, among which are those of Bishops Joceline and Roger, the latter perhaps the earliest specimen of monumental sculpture extant; also a monument of a chorister bishop, one of the children of the choir, who died while personating the character of a bishop, according to custom, during the festival of St. Nicholas. There are several monuments to earls of Salisbury, and the neighbouring nobility and gentry. The cloisters are the largest and most magnificent of any in the kingdom, and the cathedral close has entrance gateways of ancient character and of elegant design. The chapterhouse, of an octagonal form, is a beautiful building lighted by lofty windows, with a roof supported by one central clustered column; the frieze is ornamented with subjects from the sacred writings in bas-relief, which are in tolerable preservation. The episcopal palace is the work of different times, and combines various styles; a considerable portion was erected by Dr. Shute Barrington: it contains portraits of nearly all the modern prelates of the see.
The city comprises the parish of St. Edmund, containing 4461 inhabitants; part of St. Martin's, 3051; and the parish of St. Thomas, 2515; also the extraparochial district of the Cathedral Close, with 596 inhabitants. The living of St. Edmund's is a perpetual curacy; net income, £176; patron, the Bishop. The church was formerly collegiate, and is a fine structure in the later English style, with a tower which, having fallen down in 1653, was rebuilt in an appropriate manner; the chancel has been modernised, and contains a beautiful painted window of the Ascension, by Eginton, the gift of the late Samuel Whitchurch, Esq. The living of St. Martin's is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 3. 1½.; net income, £188; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. The church is a spacious building, combining different styles, with a tower surmounted by a spire. The living of St. Thomas' is a perpetual curacy; net income, £118; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. The church is a large handsome edifice in the later English style, with a tower on the south side of the south aisle; the chancel and some other parts are specimens of considerable merit, and among the monuments is one supposed to be that of the Duke of Buckingham who was executed here in the reign of Richard III. There are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, Wesleyans, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics. The grammar school in the Close is for the education of eight boys: among the scholars taught in it was Addison, the poet. The city grammar school was instituted by Queen Elizabeth, and is endowed with £15. 9. 1. crown rents, and £10. 12. 2. previously appropriated to the schools at Trowbridge and Bradford, in lieu of which it was established. Among the other schools is one endowed by the late Charles Godolphin, Esq., for the maintenance and education of eight orphans, daughters of poor gentlemen; the mistress is allowed £280 per annum, and £30 for house rent. The Infirmary, a commodious brick building near Fisherton bridge, owes its origin to Lord Feversham, who bequeathed £500 to the first institution of the kind which should be established in the county. The College of Matrons was founded in 1683, for the maintenance of the widows of ten clergymen, by Seth Ward, bishop of the diocese, who assigned to it certain property which was augmented by a bequest by W. Benson Earle in 1794, and some subsequent donations; the buildings are within the Close, and the establishment is under the direction of the Bishop, and the Dean and Chapter.
Bishop Richard le Poore established an hospital near Harnham bridge for a master, eight aged men, and four women, which was completed by his successor, Bishop Bingham, and is now occupied by a master, six aged men, and six women. Trinity Hospital, instituted in 1379 by Agnes Boltenham, and augmented in 1397 by John Chandler, was placed upon its present foundation by charter of James I., and the endowment has since received several additions. Among other similar establishments are, Bricket's hospital, in Exeter-street, established in 1534, for six aged men or women; Eyre's hospital, in Winchester-street, in 1617, for six men and their wives; Blechynden's hospital, in Green Croft-street, in 1683, for six aged widows; Taylor's hospital, in Bedwin-street, founded in 1698, and the endowment subsequently augmented by Matthew Best and Francis Swanton, for six aged men; and Frowd's hospital, in Rolleston-street, instituted in 1750, for six aged men and six women. The affairs of the poor of the three parishes are under a local act; the Close is in the union of Alderbury. A college was established here by Egidius de Bridport in 1260, in which many of the students who had retired from Oxford in consequence of their quarrel with Otho, the Pope's legate, in 1238, afterwards continued their studies. There were formerly remains of a monastery of Grey friars, instituted by the Bishop of Salisbury, in the reign of Henry III., on a site given by that monarch; of a convent of Black friars, to which Edward I., if not the founder of it, was at least a considerable benefactor; of the hospital of St. Michael; and the college of St. Erith.
Among the natives of the city have been, Walter Winterton, cardinal of St. Sabric; William Herman, author of several works in prose and verse; John Thornborough, Bishop of Worcester; George Coryate, author of The Crudities; Michael Muschant, an able civilian and poet; Sir Toby Matthews, a celebrated Jesuit and politician; Dr. Thomas Bennet, a divine and writer; Thomas Chubb and John Eden, distinguished controversial writers; John Greenhill, portrait-painter; William and Henry Lawes, musicians and composers; Dr. Harris, an eminent historian and biographer; James Harris, author of Hermes; John Tobin, author of The Honeymoon, and other dramatic works; and the late Admiral Tobin, who died in 1838. Salisbury gives the title of Marquess to the family of Cecil.
Salkeld, Great (St. Cuthbert)
SALKELD, GREAT (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Kirk-Oswald; containing 441 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 3600 acres, of which about 1000 are rough pasture, 250 woodland, and the remainder chiefly arable. The river Eden is crossed here by a bridge of singular construction, with elliptical, semicircular, and pointed arches, partly built with the materials of an old bridge taken down about seventy years since: the remains ot a pier belonging to a still more ancient structure, demolished by a great flood in 1360, are yet visible in the stream. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 10. 10.; net income, £345; patron, the Bishop of Carlisle. The church tower, which appears to have contained four rooms one above another, was formerly resorted to as a place of security, and under it is a dungeon. There are places of worship for Presbyterians and Primitive Methodists. In the neighbourhood are vestiges of an ancient encampment, the ramparts of which are twelve feet high; on the common is a chalybeate spring. Among eminent natives of the parish have been, Dr. George Benson, a nonconformist divine and biblical critic, born in 1699; Rowland Wetheral, the mathematician and astronomer, born in the middle of the last century; and the late Lord Ellenborough, chief justice of the king's bench.
SALKELD, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Addingham, union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of the county of Cumberland, 3½ miles (S.) from Kirk-Oswald; containing 120 inhabitants.
Sall (St. Peter and St. Paul)
SALL (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Aylsham, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of Norfolk, 1¾ mile (N. N. E.) from Reepham; containing 267 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1802a. 3r. 15p., of which 1100 acres are arable, 609 pasture and meadow, and 55 woodland. Sall House is a handsome mansion, situated in a well-wooded park. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 19. 7., and in the gift of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £560, and the glebe comprises 30 acres, with a house lately enlarged. The church is a stately cruciform structure, principally in the later English style, with a lofty embattled tower crowned by pinnacles; the chancel is separated from the nave by a carved screen, and on each side are thirteen stalls.
Salmonby (St. Margaret)
SALMONBY (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, hundred of Hill, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5¼ miles (E. N. E.) from the town of Horncastle; containing 116 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 10. 2½.; net income, £308; patron and incumbent, the Rev. H. Fielding.
Salperton (All Saints)
SALPERTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Northleach, hundred of Bradley, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 5 miles (N. w. by N.) from Northleach; containing 206 inhabitants. The parish comprises an area of nearly 1400 acres, of which the surface is undulated, and the soil generally stony, and of little depth. It is situated a little to the north of the road from Northleach to Cheltenham, and to the south of that from Stow-on-the-Wold to the same town. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of John Browne, Esq., with a net income of £95. The tithes were commuted for land in 1780.
SALSEY FOREST, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Potters-Pury, hundred of Cleley, S. division of Northamptonshire, 6½ miles (S. S. E.) from Northampton; containing 20 inhabitants.
Salt, with Enson
SALT, with Enson, a township, in the parish of St. Mary and St. Chad, Stafford, union of Stafford, S. division of the hundred of Pirehill, N. division of the county of Stafford, 4 miles (N. E. by N.) from Stafford; containing 580 inhabitants. The tithes have been commuted for £247, payable to the trustees of the Stafford charities. A church dedicated to St. James has been erected and endowed by Earl Talbot, in whom the patronage is vested. There is also a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Saltash, or Essay
SALTASH, or Essay, a market-town and chapelry, and formerly a representative borough, in the parish of St. Stephen, union of St. Germans, locally in the S. division of the hundred of East, E. division of Cornwall, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Plymouth, 21 (S. S. E.) from Launceston, and 220 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 1541 inhabitants. This place at an early period obtained a high degree of importance; and about 1393, the assizes for the county were regularly held here. During the war in the reign of Charles I., the town sustained repeated assaults from both of the contending parties, by which it was alternately possessed, till its final abandonment by the royalists in 1646. It is pleasantly situated on a steep rocky elevation rising from the western bank of the river Tamar, and consists principally of three narrow streets irregularly formed; the houses in general are of ancient appearance. The inhabitants are chiefly seafaring men and others employed in the fisheries, or connected with the docks of Devonport. There are still some extensive malting concerns, for which the place was formerly celebrated. The market is on Tuesday, and a market for provisions is held on Saturday. Fairs are held on the 2nd of February and 25th of July, mostly for cattle; and four quarterly cattle-markets on the Tuesdays preceding the quarter-days.
The first charter of incorporation was granted in the reign of Henry III.; it was confirmed by Richard II., and renewed with additional privileges by Elizabeth, Charles II., and George III. The municipal body consists of a mayor and six aldermen, styled "the Council of the Borough," with an indefinite number of free burgesses, assisted by a recorder and other officers. The property of the oyster-fishery to the mouth of the Tamar, except between Candlemas and Easter, with river dues for anchorage, buoyage, and salvage, and a right of ferry, is vested in the corporation. The magistrates hold a court of record, and a general court of quarter-sessions, for the borough and liberties; and the inhabitants are exempt from all church and county rates, and from serving on juries, except in their own courts. Saltash first returned members to parliament in the reign of Edward VI.; it was disfranchised by the act 2nd of William IV., cap. 45. The court of record, established by charter of George III., for the recovery of debts to any amount, is held every week, the mayor and aldermen, or any two of them, presiding. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the family of Hawks; net income, £45; appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Windsor. The chapel, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is an ancient structure with a fine massive tower, and contains a magnificent monument to the memory of three brothers named Drew. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans; and a grammar school endowed with £6. 7. 6. per annum.
Saltby (St. Peter)
SALTBY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of Leicester, 8¼ miles (N. E.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing 299 inhabitants. It is situated on the border of Lincolnshire, near the road from Grantham to Melton-Mowbray, and about equi-distant from those towns. The living is a discharged vicarage, consolidated with that of Sproxton, and valued in the king's books at £7. The church is chiefly in the later English style, with some Norman details, and has a very elegant window on the south side of the nave.
SALTER, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Bootle, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of the county of Cumberland, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Whitehaven; containing, with Eskat, 40 inhabitants, and 490 acres of land.
SALTERFORTH, a township, in the parish of Barnoldswick, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 8¼ miles (S. W. by W.) from Skipton; containing 676 inhabitants. It comprises 1139 acres, of which a considerable portion, called White moor, was inclosed in 1815. Limestone of excellent quality is quarried extensively by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company; and there is a large quarry of good freestone. The village is situated on the banks of the canal.
SALTERHEBBLE, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 1¼ mile (S.) from Halifax; containing about 2000 inhabitants. This district was constituted in November 1845, under the act 6th and 7th of Victoria, cap. 37. It comprises about 1000 acres; the surface on the north side is level, while on the other sides the district is remarkable for its picturesque valleys. The river Hebble, the Calder and Hebble canal, the Manchester and Leeds railway, and the road from Halifax to Huddersfield, pass through. The canal, which runs up to Halifax, is supplied with water brought by machinery from the Hebble. The population is chiefly employed in worsted manufactories, some of which are on a very large scale; and the district abounds in excellent freestone. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Ripon, alternately. Divine service is performed in a licensed room; and there is a place of worship for dissenters.
SALTERNS, GREAT, an extra-parochial district, in the hundred of Portsdown, union of Portsea Island, Fareham and S. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 26 inhabitants, and comprising 452 acres of land.
SALTERSFORD, a chapelry, in the parish of Prestbury, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Macclesfield. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar of Prestbury, with a net income of £47: the chapel is a neat edifice, erected in 1731. Saltersford gives the inferior title of Baron to the family of Stanhope, earls of Courtown.
SALTERS-STREET, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Tanworth, union of Solihull, Warwick division of the hundred of Kington, S. division of the county of Warwick, 2½ miles (W. by N.) from Hockley; containing 1010 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north-east by the turnpike-road between Birmingham and Henley, and is intersected by the Birmingham and Stratford canal. Brick-making is carried on. The living is in the patronage of the Vicar of Tanworth, and has a net income of £120, chiefly paid by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The church was erected in 1840, at a cost of £1400, derived from land sold to the Canal Company, and is a neat building with a cupola: it is dedicated to St. Patrick. A boys' and girls' school is supported by subscription, aided by an endowment.
SALTERTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Durnford, union and hundred of Amesbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts; with 91 inhabitants.
SALTFLEET-HAVEN, a hamlet, and formerly a market-town, in the parish of Skidbrook, union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 38 miles (N. E. by E.) from Lincoln. This place is situated on the seashore, and in 1359 was of sufficient note to furnish two ships and 49 men to the navy of Edward III., for the invasion of Brittany. So lately as half a century since, when the market was discontinued, it was of some importance; but it is now decayed: the old town, it is said, was destroyed by an inundation of the sea. A fair is held on Oct. 3rd, which is celebrated for its show of foals. Here is a fine bed of oysters. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
Saltfleetby (All Saints)
SALTFLEETBY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 10¼ miles (E. by N.) from Louth; containing 181 inhabitants. It comprises about 1500 acres of rich marsh land, extending eastward to the sea-coast. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 19. 4½., and in the gift of Magdalen College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £305, and the glebe comprises 28 acres. The church is a neat structure, with a tower containing five bells. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Rev. Dr. Cholmeley, rector, in 1785 bequeathed the sum of £200, which with accumulations now produces £32. 16. per annum, for the poor.
Saltfleetby (St. Clement)
SALTFLEETBY (St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 10½ miles (E. N. E.) from Louth; containing 109 inhabitants. It comprises about 1000 acres of land, on the sea-coast; the surface is level, but well drained, and the soil is strong and rich. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 0. 1., and in the gift of Earl Brownlow: the tithes have been commuted for £263. 7., and the glebe contains 3 acres. The church is a small edifice, thoroughly repaired in 1841.
Saltfleetby (St. Peter)
SALTFLEETBY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of LouthEske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8½ miles (E. by N.) from Louth; containing 246 inhabitants. This place, with Saltfleetby St. Clement's and All Saints', forms one long and scattered village. It is much embellished by the handsome seat of Saltfleetby House, near which is an observatory commanding pleasing and extensive prospects both of sea and land. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the gift of Oriel College, Oxford: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £240, and the incumbent's for a like sum; the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church is a small building with a tower.
Saltford (St. Mary)
SALTFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Keynsham, E. division of Somerset, 5¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Bath; containing 427 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east and north by the river Avon, and comprises about 823 acres; the surface is varied, and the soil of different qualities. On the bank of the river are some extensive brass-works. A cutting has been made here for the Great Western railway through a stratum of blue lias, to the extent of 525,000 cubic yards; and an embankment has been constructed, containing 583,400 yards. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 5. 10., and in the gift of the Duke of Buckingham: the tithe rentcharge is £185, and the glebe comprises 13 acres.
SALT-HILL, a village, partly in the parish of Farnham-Royal, hundred of Burnham, and partly in the parishes of Stoke-Poges and Upton, hundred of Stoke, union of Eton, county of Buckingham, 2 miles (N.) from Eton. This place is situated on the road to Bath, and distinguished by two large inns. It is noted as having been connected with the triennial ceremony of the Eton scholars, termed the Montem, when a procession repaired to a tumulus on the south side of the road, which probably acquired the name Salt-Hill from the money collected by the boys being called "Salt-Money." The Great Western railway passes near the village, and has a station at Slough.
Salthouse (St. Nicholas)
SALTHOUSE (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of Holt, W. division of Norfolk, 2¼ miles (E.) from Clay; containing 266 inhabitants. It comprises 1559a. 2r. 8p., of which 631 acres are arable, and 905 meadow and pasture; the surface is undulated, and the higher grounds command fine views of the sea. The neighbourhood is much frequented by wild fowl, and in the pools are great numbers of eels. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to that of Kelling, and valued in the king's books at £20: the tithes have been commuted for £219. 11., and the glebe comprises one acre. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty square embattled tower, formerly surmounted by a spire; the foundation of a second church may still be traced in the burial-ground. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists.
SALTHROP, a tything, in the parish of Wroughton, union of Highworth and Swindon, hundred of Elstub and Everley, Swindon and N. divisions of the county of Wilts; containing 56 inhabitants.
Saltley, with Washwood
SALTLEY, with Washwood, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Aston, Birmingham division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick; containing 695 inhabitants. In the time of Henry II. this place was called Saluthley, and belonged to the Rokebys. It was subsequently held by the family of Clodshale, who had their seat here, and one of whom received licence from Bishop Stretton in the 34th of Edward III. for an oratory or chapel at Saltley. The village lies in the hamlet of Duddeston, a short distance east of the town of Birmingham, and is remarkable for a handsome viaduct. Here are also the newly-erected and extensive works of Mr. Henry Wright, for building railway-carriages. A room has been licensed by the bishop for divine service.
SALTMARSH, an extra-parochial district, in the poor-law union of Bromyard, hundred of Broxash, county of Hereford; containing 12 inhabitants, and comprising 127 acres of land.
SALTMARSH, a township, in the parish and union of Howden, wapentake of Howdenshire, E. riding of York, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Howden; containing 157 inhabitants. It comprises about 960 acres of a fertile soil, and is situated on the north side of the river Ouse, across which is a ferry. The Hall is a handsome stone mansion, with a well-wooded lawn and pleasure-grounds, the seat of the Saltmarsh family. The village is on the bank of the river, and nearly opposite to Reedness.
Salton (St. John of Beverley)
SALTON (St. John of Beverley), a parish, in the union of Malton, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of the county of York; containing, with the township of Brawby, 371 inhabitants, of whom 153 are in Salton township, 6¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Pickering. The parish comprises by computation 2810 acres of generally level and fertile land, extending from the river Dove to the Seven, near the former of which the village is seated. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 10. 10.; net income, £90; patron, E. Woodall, Esq.
Saltwell, or Saltwell-Side
SALTWELL, or Saltwell-Side, a rural district, in the parish of Gateshead, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 2 miles (S.) from Gateshead. This locality is formed of the side of a hill rising from the Team rivulet, and extending in an eastern direction to the turnpike-road from Newcastle to Durham. It is remarkable for the salubrity of its air, and commands fine views of Ravensworth Castle, Lamesley church, Whickham and Dunston hills, and the vale of the Tyne. Saltwell House is an ancient mansion, surrounded with wood, and contains a Roman Catholic chapel.
SALTWICK, a township, in the N. division of the parish of Stannington, union, and W. division, of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Morpeth. This place formed a manor in the Merlay barony, and has been held by the families of Camhow, Greystock, Ogle, and Brown. It stands on the brow of a high green slope, and commands on every side but the north a very extensive prospect. The township comprises about 950 acres. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £116. 1. 8., and the vicarial for £3. 3. 6.
Saltwood (St. Peter and St. Paul)
SALTWOOD (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Elham, hundred of Hayne, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, ¾ of a mile (N. by W.) from Hythe; containing 520 inhabitants. This place was distinguished for its castle, which is said to have been first built by the son of Hengist, the Saxon, in 448, and in the reign of John to have become one of the palaces of the archbishops of Canterbury. The remains of the castle, which are sufficiently considerable to convey some idea of its former magnificence, are situated on an eminence commanding a fine view of the sea. The parish consists of 2600 acres, of which 332 are in wood. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Archbishop, valued in the king's books at £34; net income, £784. The church is principally in the decorated English style.
SALVINGTON, a hamlet, in the parish of West Tarring, hundred of Tarring, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex; containing 114 inhabitants. The celebrated John Selden was born here in 1584.
Salwarpe (St. Michael)
SALWARPE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Droitwich, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Droitwich and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2½ miles (W. S. W.) from Droitwich; containing 482 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1979a. 35p., two-thirds of which are arable, and one-third pasture; the soil is partly marl, and partly of a better kind, the surface undulated, and pretty well wooded. The Droitwich canal passes through. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 14. 7.; net income, £520; patron, the Rev. Henry Douglas: the tithes were commuted for land in 1813; the glebe altogether comprises 306 acres. The church exhibits portions in the Norman, and in the decorated and later English styles. A parochial school was rebuilt a few years since; the master receives £20 annually, the bequest of Talbot Barker, Esq. An old mansion here, erected in the time of Henry VIII., is supposed to occupy the site of a religious house. Richard Beauchamp, the celebrated Earl of Warwick, was born at Salwarpe in 1351.