Chalgrove - Charing

Pages 545-549

A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.

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Chalgrove (St. Mary)

CHALGROVE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thame, hundred of Ewelme, county of Oxford, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Bensington; containing, with Rufford liberty, 691 inhabitants. This place was distinguished in the civil war as the scene of an action that occurred at Chalgrove Field, in June, 1643, between the royalists under Prince Rupert, and a detachment of the parliamentarian army under the Earl of Essex; in which the latter were defeated, several officers killed, and the celebrated Hampden mortally wounded. In 1843, precisely two centuries afterwards, a monument was erected to the memory of Hampden, on the spot where he received his death-wound. The parish comprises 2364 acres, whereof 167 are common or waste inclosed under an act passed in 1843. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 5. 5.; net income, £276; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. Tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1797; and under the recent act, the tithes belonging to ChristChurch have been commuted for £435. 2., those belonging to the Dean and Canons of Windsor for £164. 6., and the vicarial tithes for £158. 1.: the appropriate glebe contains 65½ acres, and the vicarial 3½ acres, with a glebe-house. The church, whose steeple was struck down by lightning in 1727, contains some interesting monuments, and a curious ancient font. There are a chapel of ease at Berrick-Salome, in the parish, and a place of worship for Baptists.

Chalk (St. Mary)

CHALK (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of North Aylesford, hundred of Shamwell, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 1¾ mile (E. S. E.) from Gravesend; containing 385 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the north by the Thames, and intersected by the Thames and Medway canal, comprises 1941 acres, whereof 45 are woodland; the soil is chalk, with a little gravel. There was formerly a considerable manufactory for gun-flints, esteemed the best in Europe. A fair is held on Whit-Monday. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, the Earl of Darnley. The great tithes have been commuted for £481. 10. 10., and the vicarial for £198. 10.; the impropriate glebe contains upwards of 30 acres. The church is very ancient, and has various figures carved over the entrance, the origin and meaning of which have caused much controversy.

Challacombe (Holy Trinity)

CHALLACOMBE (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Sherwill, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 10 miles (N. E. by E.) from Barnstaple; containing 305 inhabitants. The parish comprises 5342a. 1r. 22p., nearly one-half of which is common: the South-Molton and Combmartin road passes through its western extremity. Slate and stone are quarried, the former of inferior quality. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 9. 2.; and in the patronage of Earl Fortescue: the tithes have been commuted for £189, and the glebe contains nearly 60 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a small edifice in the later English style, and has a fine stone font, of curious workmanship. About a mile and a half south-east of the church, is an encampment called Showlsborough or Shrewsbury Castle, of an oblong form, containing about two acres, surrounded by a mound of earth.

Challoc (St. Cosmus and St. Damien)

CHALLOC (St. Cosmus and St. Damien), a parish, in the union of East Ashford, hundred of Felborough, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 6 miles (S.) from Faversham; containing 429 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2739 acres, of which upwards of 1000 are arable, 694 wood, and 970 meadow and pasture, the larger part of the last being park land. A fair is held on the 8th of October, for horses, cattle, and pedlery; a grant for which, and for a market now disused, was obtained in the 38th of Henry III., by Henry de Apulderfield, then lord of the manor, whose mansion is said to have stood upon a spot called Apulderfield's garden, in the Earl of Winchilsea's park. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Godmersham: the church is a spacious edifice in the early English style, with an embattled tower, a spire, and beacon-turret.

Challow, East

CHALLOW, EAST, a chapelry, in the parish of Letcomb Regis, union of Wantage, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 1¼ mile (W.) from Wantage; containing 336 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 1293a. 14p. It is crossed by the Wilts and Berks canal, and the Great Western railway approaches within 1¼ mile of the chapel; which is dedicated to St. Nicholas.

Challow, West

CHALLOW, WEST, a chapelry, in the parish of Letcomb Regis, union of Wantage, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Wantage; containing 248 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 666 acres; the Wilts and Berks canal intersects it, and the Great Western railway passes within a mile. The chapel is dedicated to St. Lawrence; the living is a donative, in the gift of Miss Ferard.


CHALTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Toddington, union of Woburn, hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford; containing 224 inhabitants.

Chalton, or Chalkton (St. Michael)

CHALTON, or Chalkton (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Catherington, hundred of FinchDean, Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (N. E.) from Horndean; containing, with the chapelry of Idsworth, 659 inhabitants. The parish is situated chiefly on the downs; the soil is unfavourable. There is a small iron-foundry at Idsworth. The living is a rectory, with that of Clanfield united, valued in the king's books at £20. 0. 10., and in the patronage of King's College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £218, and the glebe contains 77 acres, with a glebe-house. The Independents have a place of worship.


CHALVEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Upton, union of Eton, hundred of Stoke, county of Buckingham, 1¼ mile (N.) from Eton; containing 674 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in the year 1808. Here is a place of worship for Independents.

Chalvington (St. Bartholomew)

CHALVINGTON (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of West Firle, hundred of Shiplake, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 10½ miles (S. by E.) from Uckfield; containing 192 inhabitants. It comprises about 730 acres, of which 446 are arable, 259 meadow, and about 15 wood; the surface is altogether flat, and the soil has several varieties. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the gift of Augustus Elliott Fuller, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £190, and the glebe comprises 29 acres. The church is principally in the decorated English style.


CHANDLINGS, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Abingdon, hundred of Hormer, county of Berks, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Abingdon; containing 11 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Abingdon to Oxford, and comprises 75 acres of land.

Chapel, Essex.—See Pontisbright.

CHAPEL, Essex.—See Pontisbright.

Chapel-Allerton, or Chapeltown

CHAPEL-ALLERTON, or Chapeltown, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Peter, liberty of Leeds, W. riding of York, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Leeds, on the road to Harrogate; comprehending the villages of Chapeltown, Meanwood, Gledhow, and Moor-Allerton; and containing 2580 inhabitants. It abounds with picturesque scenery, and is noted for the salubrity of its air. The lands, which comprise by admeasurement 2763 acres, are well cultivated; and from the gentle undulation of the surface, embellished with villas and plantations, the district has a strikingly beautiful aspect. Stone of good quality abounds, and the quarries have afforded materials for the erection of the church, and several of the principal residences. The great tithes have been commuted for £260, and the small for £28. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £361; patron, the Vicar of Leeds. The church, which is in the Grecian style, was enlarged and repaired in 1840, at a cost of £1200, raised by subscription. There is a place of worship for a congregation of Wesleyans; and at Meanwood is a school where divine service is performed by license from the bishop.

Chapel-En-Le-Frith (St. Thomas à Becket)

CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH (St. Thomas à Becket), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 41 miles (N. W. by N.) from Derby, and 167 (N. W. by N.) from London, on the road from Sheffield to Manchester; containing 3199 inhabitants, and comprising the townships of Bowden-Edge, BradshawEdge, and Coombs-Edge. The town is pleasantly situated on the acclivity of a hill rising from a vale embosomed in the mountains that bound this extremity of the county; it is partially paved, and amply supplied with water. A small subscription library was established a few years since. The principal branch of manufacture is that of cotton, in which more than 300 people are employed: about 100 persons are engaged in the manufacture of paper, chiefly for the London newspapers; and there are a rope-walk and an iron-forge near the town; also several coal-mines in the parish. The Peak Forest canal passes three miles to the north-west, and, by means of a railway, communicates with the Peak Forest limeworks, about three miles to the east of the town: there is a reservoir in the parish that occasionally supplies the canal with water. The market, which is on Thursday, has greatly declined: the fairs, most of which also are insignificant, are on the Thursday before February 13th, on March 24th and 29th, the Thursday before Easter, April 30th, Holy-Thursday, and the third Thursday after, for cattle; July 7th, for wool; the Thursday preceding August 24th, for sheep and cheese; and the Thursday after September 29th, and the Thursday before November 11th, for cattle. The High Peak court, for the recovery of debts under £5, at which the steward of the Duke of Devonshire presides, is held every third week: the powers of the county debt-court of Chapel-en-le-Frith, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Chapel-en-le-Frith, and part of that of Hayfield and Glossop. The parish comprises about 8370 acres, the surface of which is in general hilly. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the resident Freeholders, of whom a committee of 27, chosen in equal numbers from the three "edges," or hamlets, into which the parish is divided, elect the minister by a majority; net income, £145. The glebe contains about 60 or 70 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a neat edifice in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, which, with the south front, was built in the beginning of the last century, at the expense of the parishioners. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The union of which the town is the head, comprises 17 parishes or places, and contains a population of 11,349. At Barmoor-Clough, about two miles to the east, is an ebbing and flowing well; and on a hill two miles to the south, are the vestiges of a Roman encampment, from which a Roman road leads to Brough, about eight miles distant.


CHAPEL-HILL, a chapelry, in the parish of Swineshead, wapentake of Kirton, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln; containing 213 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £47; patron, the Vicar of Swineshead. The chapel was erected by subscription, in the year 1826.


CHAPEL-HILL, a parish, in the union and division of Chepstow, hundred of Raglan, county of Monmouth, 5 miles (N.) from Chepstow; containing 521 inhabitants, several of whom are employed in the manufacture of iron wire. This parish, consisting of 820 acres, is romantically situated on the right bank of the Wye, in a district abounding with richly varied and beautiful scenery. It contains the venerable and stately remains of Tintern Abbey, founded for Cistercian monks by Walter de Clare, in 1141, and dedicated to St. Mary: at the Dissolution, the revenue was estimated at £256. 11. 6., and the site was granted to the Earl of Worcester, from whom it has descended to the Duke of Beaufort. The remains consist principally of the walls of the abbey church, which are almost entire, and richly mantled with ivy; and the exterior of the building, though defaced by mean cottages built with the materials of the abbey, forms a striking object as seen from the opposite bank of the river. The clustered columns, of light and graceful proportion, which separated the south aisle from the nave, and the sharply pointed arches that supported the roof, are yet entire; and those of loftier elevation which sustained the central tower, though dilapidated, still retain their grandeur of effect. The ranges of pillars and arches in the transepts are also in good preservation. The east window, which occupies nearly the whole of the end of the choir, is beautifully enriched with tracery; and the interior generally, from the beauty of the style (the early English in its richest state, merging into the decorated), the symmetry of its parts, the harmony of its arrangement, and the richness and elegance of its details, is unsurpassed by any specimen in the kingdom. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Beaufort.

Chapel-Le-Dale.—See Ingleton.

CHAPEL-LE-DALE.—See Ingleton.


CHAPEL-SUCKEN, a township, in the parish of Millom, union of Bootle, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 12 miles (S. E. by S.) from Ravenglass; containing 214 inhabitants.


CHAPEL-THORPE, a district chapelry, in the parish of Great Sandall, union of Wakefield, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Wakefield; containing 1479 inhabitants. It comprises the township of Crigglestone, and is separated from Horbury by the river Calder; the number of acres is 3000, and the district is rich in coal and freestone. The living is a perpetual curacy: net income, £200; patron, the Vicar of Great Sandall; impropriator, R. Allatt, Esq. The chapel, dedicated to St. James, is a neat plain edifice, built 80 years since, by parochial rate.


CHAPELTOWN, a church district, in the parish of Ecclesfield, union of Wortley, wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill (N. division), W. riding of York, 6 miles (N.) from Sheffield; containing about 3000 inhabitants. The district is three square miles in extent, and contains two villages. It lies on the new line of road called the Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield, Pontefract, and Goole road, which passes through the village of Chapeltown, as do the turnpike-road from Sheffield to Barnsley and Leeds, and the Rotherham, Worsley, and Penistone road. Coal and ironstone of good quality are obtained; and the Chapeltown Company's and Thorncliffe Company's iron-works employ respectively several hundred hands. Good stone, also, is quarried for building. The district was constituted in Sept. 1844, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37; and the erection of a church was commenced in the summer of 1847: it is in the decorated style, the cost being estimated at £2500. There are three Wesleyan places of worship. At the Thorncliffe works is an excellent chalybeate spring; and in the garden of Howsley Hall is a fine old cork-tree in full growth, supposed to be the only one in England, with the exception of that at Windsor Castle.

Charborough (St. Mary)

CHARBOROUGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Blandford, hundred of Loosebarrow, Wimborne division of Dorset, 6¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Blandford. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to the vicarage of Morden, and valued in the king's books at £7. 3. 6½. The church, a handsome and interesting edifice, is the burial-place of the Drax family. Over the door of a small arched building in the grounds of Charborough House is a tablet put up by Thomas Erle Drax, Esq., in 1780, with an inscription commemorating the meeting, in 1686, of some patriotic individuals who here concerted the plan of the Revolution.


CHARCOMBE, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hundred of Kilmersdon, county of Somerset; containing 30 inhabitants.

Chard (St. Mary)

CHARD (St. Mary), a borough, market-town, and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Kingsbury-East, W. division of Somerset, 12 miles (S. E. by S.) from Taunton, and 139 (W. S. W.) from London; comprising the tythings of Forton and Tatworth; and containing 5788 inhabitants, of whom 2877 are in the borough, 1331 in the tything of Old Chard, 517 in Crim-Chard, and 471 in South Chard. This was a place of considerable importance during the heptarchy, and was by the Saxons called Cerdre (subsequently Cherde or Cerde), a name supposed to be derived from Cerdic, the founder of the kingdom of Wessex. In the 14th of Edward I. it was incorporated by Bishop Joslin, who set apart fifty-two acres out of his manor of Cherde, which he constituted the borough, giving leave for any person to settle here except Turk or Jew. It made eight returns of members to parliament, the franchise being exercised until the 2nd of Edward III., when the privilege was discontinued. In the civil war of the seventeenth century a battle took place, in which a party of royalists, under the command of Colonel Penruddock, was defeated.

The town is situated at the southern extremity of the county, and upon the highest ground between the Bristol and English Channels, both of which are visible from Windwhistle Hill, about three miles to the east. It is in a flourishing state, and consists principally of two streets, intersecting each other, and lighted with gas; the houses are in general well built, and the inhabitants are supplied with water conveyed by leaden pipes into four conduits, from a spring at its western extremity, which furnishes a clear stream of water running through it. A handsome and commodious hotel, called the Chard Arms, has been erected in the Fore-street, at an expense of £5000. The clothing-trade was formerly the staple trade of the town, but it has been almost superseded by the manufacture of lace, for which several large works have been built within a few years, and which at one time employed 1500 of the inhabitants; this also is now on the decrease. Two attempts to find coal have been made in the vicinity, one in 1793, the other in 1827, when, after boring to the depth of 378 feet, without penetrating through the lias formation, the operations were discontinued: the stone found is chiefly flint, which is used for building. A branch canal to the town from the Taunton and Bridgwater canal, near Creech St. Michael, was lately completed at a cost of about £70,000: in 1846, however, an act was passed for converting a large portion of the bed of the canal into a railway. The market is on Monday, and is noted for the sale of corn, potatoes, and various other commodities: the fairs are on the first Wednesdays in May, August, and November; and there are four great cattle-markets, namely, on the first Monday in December, the second Mondays in January and February, and the third Monday in March. The ancient assize hall, used as a market-house, the shambles, and the town-hall (originally a chapel dedicated to St. Stephen), which stood in the centre of the Forestreet, have been removed; and an elegant structure comprising a town-hall, market-house, and butchery, has been erected on the south side of the same street, at an expense of more than £3000, from a design by Mr. R. Carver, architect, of Taunton. The town was formerly governed by a portreeve and twelve burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk, two bailiffs, and a constable; but by the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the corporation now consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors; the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace. The powers of the county debtcourt of Chard, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Chard. A petty-session is held monthly at the hotel.

The parish comprises about 5400 acres, nearly equally divided between arable and pasture land. The Living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £36. 18. 9.; patron, the Bishop of Bath and Wells: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £520, and those of the impropriator for £322; there are four acres of glebe, of which one belongs to the vicar, who has also a house in good repair. The church is a handsome cruciform structure, with a low tower at the west end. In the north-east corner of the south transept is a splendid monument having the effigies of William Brewer, M.D., and his wife, kneeling before an altar, with their family of eleven children behind them; and in the south corner of the same transept, and various parts of the church, are other handsome monuments. The edifice was repaired and enlarged in 1830. A second church has been erected at Tatworth. There are places of worship for Particular Baptists, Independents. and Wesleyans; also a school established by the portreeve and burgesses, to whom a house and field were devised by William Symes, of Pounsford, in 1671. An almshouse for poor people, which has been rebuilt, was founded in 1668, by Richard Harvey, who endowed it with estates producing about £300 per annum. The union of Chard comprises thirtyfour parishes or places, of which thirty-two are in Somerset, and one in each of the counties of Devon and Dorset; and contains a population of 26,609: the union-house forms a striking object at the eastern entrance into the town, on the London road. A few years since, a beautiful tessellated pavement was discovered on the road to Taunton, leading to a Roman encampment called the Castle of Neroche, about six miles from the town; and, in 1831, the gardener of Henry Host Henley, Esq., of Leigh House, in the vicinity, dug up in the garden a Roman urn, containing a number of gold coins of the Emperor Claudius.

Chardstock (St. Andrew)

CHARDSTOCK (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Axminster, hundred of Beaminster, Bridport division of Dorset, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Chard; containing 1405 inhabitants. The parish comprises 5800 acres, of which 1018 are common or waste. It is intersected by the road from Bristol to Lyme Regis, and by that from Chard to Honiton; and is bounded on the south-east by the river Axe. Limestone is quarried, and burnt chiefly for manure. Great quantities of cider are made. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Bishop of Salisbury, and valued in the king's books at £14. 2. 6.; impropriator, and lord of the manor, Lord Henley. The great tithes have been commuted for £490, and the vicarial for £490; the impropriate glebe consists of 65 acres, and the vicarial contains about an acre, with a glebe-house. The church, rebuilt in 1839, is a handsome structure in the later English style: the pulpit is of stone, and the altar-screen, also of stone, is richly carved, and embellished with canopied niches: the windows of the chancel are of painted glass. A district called All Saints was formed in 1841, and attached to a chapel at the southern extremity of the parish; it comprises a population of about 400 persons, half of whom reside in this parish, and half in that of Axminster. The chapel was consecrated April 23rd, 1840: Robert Williams, Esq., presented an elegant service of communion-plate. The income of the living, which is a perpetual curacy, was augmented in 1842 to £80 per annum by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.

Charfield (St. James)

CHARFIELD (St. James), a parish, in the union of Thornbury, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester; containing 471 inhabitants. The Gloucester and Bristol railway has a station here, two miles from the Wickwar station. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 1. 3.; patron, J. Neeld, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £304, and the glebe contains 36 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is principally in the later English style, with a low tower.

Charford, North (St. Peter and St. Paul)

CHARFORD, NORTH (St. Peter and St. Paul,) a parish, in the union and hundred of Fordingbridge, Ringwood and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3½ miles (N. by E.) from Fordingbridge; containing 116 inhabitants, of whom 62 are in the tything of South Charford. In the Saxon annals this place is called Cerdickford, from Cerdic, who defeated the Britons near a ford on the Avon, and subsequently became the founder of the West Saxon kingdom. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £5. 13. 4.: the church is in ruins.

Charing (St. Peter and St. Paul)

CHARING (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of West Ashford, hundred of Calehill, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 12½ miles (E. S. E.) from Maidstone, on the road from London to Folkestone; containing 1241 inhabitants. On the division of the possessions of the monastery of ChristChurch, Canterbury, in the time of Archbishop Lanfranc, Charing was allotted to the archbishop, who had a palace here, the ruins of which are still standing near the churchyard. It is uncertain when and by whom the palace was built, but it was of great antiquity, and must have been extensive: it is reported to have been the residence of King John. Archbishop Morton rebuilt it in the reign of Henry VII., and in March, 1507, lodged and entertained that monarch here; Henry VIII., also, slept in it on the 23rd of May, 1520, when on his way to the continent to have his celebrated interview with Francis I. of France, in the Field of Gold Cloth. The parish is in the bailiwick of Chart and Longbridge, and comprises 4551a. 19p., of which about 2414 acres are arable, 1229 pasture, 60 acres hop-grounds, 684 wood, and 72 common. The Hill of Charing contains an inexhaustible supply of chalk, immense quantities of which are yearly converted into lime, principally consumed in the Weald of Kent. It also abounds with fossil exuviæ of marine production; and some beautiful specimens of palatal and other teeth of Plychodus, Polygyrus, and other varieties of extinct species of fossil sharks, with spongia, oysters, echinites, vertebræ, ammonites, plagiostoma, spinosum, &c., have been procured from the chalk. In the galt below the hill, ammonites, belemnites, hamites, and other chambered shells, enamelled scales, and various bivalve shells, are plentiful. Its summit affords a beautiful, varied, and extensive prospect of the surrounding country, with the British Channel in perspective. Fairs are held at the village on April 29th and October 29th, for cattle (mostly Welsh) and pedlery.

The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, London. The rectory is valued in the king's books, with the annexed chapel of Egerton, at £47. 5. 4., and is held on lease under the Dean and Chapter by the executors of Mrs. Cassandra Marshall. The great tithes have been commuted for £735, and the vicarial for £480; the glebe contains 29 acres. The church consists of an aisle, transept, and lofty chancel, with a chapel on the south side of it (built by Amy Brent in the reign of Richard II.), and a square tower with a turret at the south-eastern angle; it is chiefly in the later style of English architecture, and has twice sustained injury by fire. The arms of Hugh Brent, and a rose, the badge of Edward IV., are still visible in the belfry. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free school, founded by a bequest of Elizabeth Ludwell, who died in 1765, is endowed with £25 per annum, and has two exhibitions to Oriel College, Oxford. Urns, coins, and other evidences of a Roman station, have been found in the parish.