A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Horsemonden (St. Margaret)
HORSEMONDEN (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Tonbridge, hundred of Brenchley and Horsemonden, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 2¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Lamberhurst; containing 1218 inhabitants. It consists of 4517 acres, of which 564 are woodland, and 42 common. A fair for cattle and for toys is held on July 26th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 3. 9., and in the gift of the Rev. W. M. Smith Marriott: the tithes have been commuted for £971, and the glebe contains 77 acres. The church is situated at the extremity of the parish, upwards of two miles from the village. A school was endowed in 1792, with £1000, by Sir Charles Booth; and an additional benefaction of £200 was made by Dr. Marriott, the late rector.
Horsendon (St. Michael)
HORSENDON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Wycombe, hundred of Aylesbury, county of Buckingham, 7 miles (W. by N.) from Great Missenden; containing 27 inhabitants. During the parliamentary war, the manor-house, then the property of Sir John Denham, was occupied by a garrison for the king. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 17., and in the gift of the Duke of Rutland: the tithes have been commuted for £148. 13., and the glebe contains 20 acres.
Horsepath (St. Giles)
HORSEPATH (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Headington, hundred of Bullingdon, county of Oxford, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Oxford; containing 306 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £91; patrons and impropriators, the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. The church is an ancient cruciform structure, with a central tower. In the nave are two figures rudely sculptured in stone, supposed to be the effigies of persons who bequeathed money for the erection of the tower; in the east window are the arms of Magdalen College, and there is an altartomb of blue marble, with the effigy of a mitred abbot.
Horsey-next-the-Sea (All Saints)
HORSEY-next-the-Sea (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Happing, E. division of Norfolk, 11 miles (N. N. W.) from Yarmouth; containing 162 inhabitants. This parish, which principally consists of low marshes and bogs, is nearly insulated, being bounded by the sea on the east; by the Hundred stream or river, which separates the hundred of Happing from East Flegg, on the south; and by Eelfleet dyke and Horsey mere on the west and north. Little Waxham, a manor of 160 acres within the bounds of Horsey, was formerly a parish, the church of which, dedicated to St. Margaret, together with the village, was swept away in 1665 by an irruption of the sea. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 1. 5½.; patrons and impropriators, the Governors of North Walsham school. At the inclosure, 147 acres were allotted in lieu of rectorial tithes, and there is also a rent-charge of £70; the vicarial tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £83.
Horsford (All Saints)
HORSFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of St. Faith, hundred of Taverham, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Norwich; containing 593 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Holt to Norwich, and comprises 4176 acres, of which 2178 are arable; 1877 pasture and meadow, including 1600 acres of flat sterile heath; and 121 wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 5. 2¼.; patron and impropriator, Admiral Stephens. The great tithes have been commuted for £127. 7. 6., the vicarial for £100, and the glebe contains 10 acres. The church has portions in various styles of English architecture. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. At the inclosure in 1802, about 200 acres of heath were allotted to the poor for fuel.
HORSFORTH, a chapelry, in the parish of Guisley, Upper division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 5 miles (N. W.) from Leeds; containing 4188 inhabitants. This place, in the Domesday survey Horseford, formed part of the revenue of Kirkstall Abbey, after the dissolution of which establishment, the manor was granted to the Cranmer family, who sold it to Lord Clinton, from whom it was purchased by four of the freeholders. The chapelry is bounded on the south by the river Aire, and comprises by measurement 2729 acres of fertile land, of which 430 are arable, 1700 pasture, 100 wood, and 12 common; the surface is boldly varied. The village is pleasantly seated on the acclivities of the vale of Aire, and its inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of woollen-cloths: on two tributaries of the river are two paper-mills, two scribblingmills, and one silk-mill. There are three tanneries; also some extensive quarries of sandstone, from one of which was raised a block containing 225 cubic feet, for the London and Birmingham railway. The chapel was rebuilt in 1758, at a cost of £1020, chiefly defrayed by the Stanhope family, and is a neat edifice containing 460 sittings: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £158, patron, Mr. Stanhope. A new ecclesiastical district has been constituted, called Woodside; it is partly within the chapelry of Horsforth, and the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Ripon, alternately. A rent-charge of £121. 16. has been awarded as a commutation of tithes. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, and Methodists of the New Connexion.
Horsham (St. Faith)
HORSHAM (St. Faith), a parish, in the union of St. Faith, hundred of Taverham, E. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Norwich; containing, with the hamlet of Newton St. Faith, 1307 inhabitants. A priory of Black monks, dedicated to St. Faith, was founded here in 1105, by Robert Fitzwalter and Sibell de Cayneto his wife, and was at first a cell to the abbey de Cenchis, in Normandy: at the Dissolution its revenue was estimated at £193. 2. 3., and was granted, with the rectory and advowson of Horsham, to Sir Richard Southwell, and Edward Ellington, Esq. Attached to the institution was an hospital, at one time belonging to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. The parish comprises by admeasurement 2303 acres, nearly the whole arable: the village is situated on the road from Norwich to Aylsham, above a small rivulet, and is celebrated for its fair for Scotch and other cattle, which commences on the 17th of October, and continues for three weeks. The inhabitants are employed chiefly in weaving for the Norwich manufacturers. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £70; patron and impropriator, Admiral Stephens, whose tithes have been commuted for £711. The church was repewed in 1842. There are places of worship for Wesleyans. At the inclosure in 1802, nearly 60 acres of heath were allotted to the poor of Horsham proper. The union workhouse of St. Faith is situated in the parish.
Horsham (St. Mary)
HORSHAM (St. Mary), a borough, market-town, and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Singlecross, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 29 miles (N. E.) from Chichester, and 36 (S. S. W.) from London; containing 5765 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name from Horsa, the brother of Hengist, who is said to have been interred in the immediate vicinity, in 457, after the battle with Vortimer, near Aylesford, in which he was slain. The town is pleasantly situated on a branch of the river Adur, and in the centre of a fertile district surrounded by varied and interesting scenery; it consists principally of one street, from which others branch off in various directions, and is paved with stone found in the neighbourhood, and amply supplied with water. The houses are in general indifferently built, but there are some good modern buildings, especially on the London road; those in the street leading to the church are agreeably sheltered by rows of trees. The approaches to the town are by excellent roads. A mechanics' institute has been established, to which a library is attached. An act was obtained in 1845 for a branch railway from this place to the London and Brighton railway, 8¼ miles in length; it was completed at the close of 1847. There are two breweries and a tanyard; and quarries of excellent stone are worked in the vicinity, in which are found the exuviæ of large Saurian animals, the bones of the crocodile, plesiosaurus, turtle, and other amphibious reptiles, with the carbonized remains of monocotyledonous plants, arborescent ferns, palms, &c. A great quantity of poultry is reared in the neighbourhood, for the supply of the London market. The market-days are, Monday for poultry, and Saturday chiefly for corn. Fairs, principally for sheep and lambs, are held on April 5th and July 18th, and others for horses and cattle on the Monday before Whitsuntide and November 27th; on the Saturday after the July fair is a fair for pedlery and toys, and on November 17th is a large fair for Welsh cattle, called St. Leonard's fair, from its having been formerly held in an adjoining forest of that name.
In the 23rd of Edward I. a charter of incorporation was granted to Horsham, and the control was for some time vested in two bailiffs, chosen annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor, at which constables, &c. are now only appointed. It is a borough by prescription, and returned two members to parliament from the 23rd of Edward I. to the 2nd of William IV., when it was deprived of one, and the privilege of election was extended to the £10 householders of the entire parish; the sheriff appoints the returning officer. The Midsummer quarter-sessions for the western division are held here, as are also petty-sessions on the first and third Saturdays of every month. The powers of the county debt-court of Horsham, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Horsham. The town-hall and sessionshouse form a handsome building with a stone front, enlarged in 1806 by the Duke of Norfolk, for the accommodation of the judges of assize, the Lent assizes being then regularly held here. The county gaol is now only used as a debtors' prison.
The parish comprises by computation nearly 10,000 acres, of which a very considerable portion forms part of the ancient forest of St. Leonard: the soil is in some parts a deep clay, and towards the forest a light sand; the surface is hilly, rising in some parts to a very considerable height. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £25; net income, £651; patron, the Archbishop of Canterbury; impropriator, R. Hurst, Esq. The church is a spacious and venerable structure, in the early English style, with a lofty tower surmounted by a spire; the window of the chancel is of beautiful design, and the interior, which preserves its original character nearly throughout, contains several ancient and interresting monuments. A second church, dedicated to St. Mark, was erected in 1840, on a site given by Thos. Coppard, Esq., who also presented the stone and a sum of £50 towards its erection; it was completed by subscription, aided by a grant of £300 from the Incorporated Society, and £200 from the Chichester Diocesan Society, and is a handsome edifice in the later English style. The living is in the gift of the Vicar. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans; and a Roman Catholic chapel. The free school was founded in 1532, by Richard Collyer, citizen and mercer of London, who endowed it with houses, producing more than £500 per annum; the premises comprise a good schoolroom, and dwellinghouses with gardens for the masters. The union of Horsham consists of ten parishes or places, and contains a population of 13,410: a union-house has been erected a short distance from the town, on the road to Crawley.
Horsington (All Saints)
HORSINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, S. division of the wapentake of Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4¾ miles (W.) from Horncastle; containing 345 inhabitants. The living is a dicharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 11. 3.; net income, £222; patrons, the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for land in 1773. Here is a school with a small endowment.
Horsington (St. John the Baptist)
HORSINGTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Wincanton, hundred of Horethorne, E. division of Somerset, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Wincanton; containing, with the hamlets of South Cheriton and Wilkenthrupp, 915 inhabitants. It is on the road from Wincanton to Blandford, and comprises about 3400 acres: sandstone is quarried for building. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 6. 0½., and in the gift of J. A. Wickham, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £895, and the glebe comprises 78 acres. The church has been enlarged. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.
Horsley (St. Clement)
HORSLEY (St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Belper, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby; containing, with the townships of Horsley-Woodhouse and Kilbourne, 2278 inhabitants, of whom 571 are in the township of Horsley, 6¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Derby. It is situated on the road to Sheffield, and comprises 2650 acres, of which about 97 are woodland; the surface is diversified with hill and dale, and the soil is in general light. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 5. 5.; net income, £220; patron, E. D. Sitwell, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £170, of which £76. 15. are apportioned to Horsley township. The church is a spacious and handsome building, surmounted by an early spire of excellent workmanship; the clerestory windows are large, and give a peculiar airiness and elegance to the structure: over the porch is an ancient crucifix, in a tolerably perfect state of preservation. On the summit of a hill, about a mile from the church, are the ruins of the baronial castle of Horestan, or Horston, said to have been built in the twelfth century; in the time of Elizabeth, the edifice was in the possession of the Stanhope family, and, it is said, was occupied by them.
Horsley (St. Martin)
HORSLEY (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Stroud, hundred of Longtree, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Stroud; containing, with the hamlet of Down-End and a portion of the chapelry of Nailsworth, 3064 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Stroud to Bristol, in a district abounding with finely-varied scenery, and the neighbouring hills are clothed with woods of stately beech. The valleys are very fertile, and watered by numerous streams forming in various parts cascades of picturesque appearance, and in their course giving motion to several mills for the manufacture of superfine broadcloth, in which at least three-fourths of the population are engaged. The petty-sessions for the district of Longtree are held at this place, in rotation with Rodborough and Tetbury; and the house of correction, a commodious building, is situated here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 5½.; patron, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol; impropriator, Col. Kingscote; net income, £150. The church has been lately rebuilt on an enlarged plan, in the later English style, at a cost of more than £3200, and contains 536 free sittings, the Incorporated Society having granted £500 in aid of the expense; the remainder of the sum was supplied by subscription, with £500 by the Gloucester and Bristol Church-building Society. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A national school is endowed with £54 per annum.
HORSLEY, a township, in the parish of Ovingham, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 9¾ miles (W. by N.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 286 inhabitants. This township is chiefly the property of the Duke of Northumberland. The village, distant above a mile north from Ovingham, is built on each side of the Hexham road, and contains several farmholds, and an inn which terminates the first stage from Newcastle. It is situated on a declivity; the river Tyne pursues its course not far to the south, and the Roman wall lies on the north. The tithes have been commuted for £209. There is a place of worship for Independents.
Horsley, East (St. Martin)
HORSLEY, EAST (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Guildford, Second division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey, 2½ miles (S. E.) from Ripley; containing 300 inhabitants. It comprises 1795a. 2r. 37p., of which 600 acres are arable, 565 meadow and pasture, and 630 woodland and waste. The surface of the northern part is flat, and the soil clayey, and of the southern part hilly, and the soil chalky; the higher grounds are crowned with beech-trees of stately growth, and the general scenery is pleasingly varied. The road from Leatherhead to Guildford crosses the parish in the centre. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury, valued in the king's books at £12. 16. 5½.; net income, £257. The church consists of a nave and chancel, with a massive embattled tower and neat southern porch, and has portions in the early English style; it contains an altar-tomb to Francis Cornwallis and his lady, and a brass to the memory of Bishop Bowthe, of Exeter, who died at East Horsley in 1478. Several of the bishops of Exeter appear to have resided here, on some property once belonging to the see. The learned Dr. Mant, Bishop of Down and Connor, was rector of the parish, 1818–20.
Horsley, Long (St. Helen)
HORSLEY, LONG (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Rothbury, W. division of Morpeth ward, N. division of Northumberland, 6¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from Morpeth; containing, with the townships of Bigge's Quarter, Freeholders' Quarter, Longshaws, Riddell's Quarter, Stanton, Todburn, Wingates, and WittonShields, 922 inhabitants. The manor was at an early period the property of the Merlays; after them the Greystocks held it; and the Horsleys possessed lands here from an early period, till their heiress married into the family of Widdrington. The parish, which is about seven miles long and five broad, is bounded on the north by the river Coquet; the great sandstone stratum, called the millstone-grit, passes through it. A large portion of the soil is a clay loam, which in the neighbourhood of Horsley and of Linden is very fertile; the other parts vary much in quality, but chiefly consist of a stiff clayey soil, growing wheat and oats. Coal and limestone exist in the parish, and thriving woods decorate considerable portions of the banks of the Font and Coquet; the plantations at Linden are also luxuriant. The Roman road called Cobb's Causeway runs through. The village is of tolerable extent, and partly in each of the three quarters named Bigge's or Linden, Riddell's, and Freeholders', which see. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £336; impropriator, C. W. Bigge, Esq.: there are about 50 acres of glebe. The church was rebuilt in 1783, and is a neat edifice of stone, nearly half a mile from the village; the present communion table and rails were made out of an oak-tree that was found buried in a neighbouring moss a few years since. A strong ancient tower, the property of the Widdrington family, from whom it descended to the Riddells of Helton, near the western extremity of the village, has been converted into a residence for a Roman Catholic priest, and a chapel built close to it. In the parish are several chalybeate springs.
Horsley, West (St. Mary)
HORSLEY, WEST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Guildford, Second division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey, 3 miles (S. E.) from Ripley; containing 671 inhabitants, and comprising 3006a. 34p. "The Place," an extensive mansion belonging to the Westons, appears to have been chiefly built in the time of James I., but it has been much altered since; some parts were in existence prior to the reign of Elizabeth. A collection of valuable portraits, of the date of the 17th century, is still preserved here. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 17. 1.; net income, £317; patron and incumbent, the Rev. H. S. Cerjat: the tithes have been commuted for £305, and the glebe contains 30½ acres. The church, situated on the side of the road from Leatherhead to Guildford, was repewed, and a vestry-room built, in 1810, at the expense of the Rev. Weston Fullerton, the rector, to whose memory there is a neat monument in the chancel, by Bacon. The east window contains some very ancient stained glass; and there are two handsome monuments to the Nicholas family, one of whom, Sir Edward, was secretary of state to Charles I. and II.; and an altar-tomb with an effigy of one of the Berners, a family who resided here about the time of Richard II.: the head of Sir Walter Raleigh was buried here. The tower is exceedingly picturesque, being covered with ivy, and surmounted by a spire. A Sunday school was founded in 1813, and endowed with £600 by the Rev. Weston Fullerton, who also, in 1817, left £3200 three per cent. reduced consols., the interest to be given to three poor men and three poor widows.
HORSLEY-WOODHOUSE, a township, in the parish of Horsley, union of Belper, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 6½ miles (N. N. E.) from Derby; containing 881 inhabitants. It comprises about 622 acres of land, of a strong clayey soil. A part of the population is employed in the manufacture of hosiery, for which there are about 200 stocking-frames. The tithes have been commuted for £37. 10. The Methodists have a place of worship. The Rykneld-street passed through the township, and many traces of it are still visible.
Horstead (All Saints)
HORSTEAD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of St. Faith, hundred of Taverham, E. division of Norfolk, ½ a mile (W.) from Coltishall; containing, with the merged parish of Stanninghall, 625 inhabitants. The village is situated in a picturesque spot, on the south bank of the river Bure, and on the road from Norwich to North Walsham. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10.; net income, £394; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge: the glebe contains 56 acres. Here was an alien priory, a cell to the convent of the Holy Trinity, at Caen, in Normandy; the revenue was appropriated to King's College.
Horsted-Keynes (St. Giles)
HORSTED-KEYNES (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Cuckfield, hundred of Danehill-Horsted, rape of Pevensey. E. division of Sussex, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Cuckfield; containing 812 inhabitants. It comprises 4291a. 2r. 5p., of which 1600 acres are arable, 800 pasture, and 1878 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the gift of T. Austen, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £500, and the glebe contains 66 acres. The church has portions in the early and decorated English styles. Dr. Robert Leighton, Archbishop of Glasgow, was buried in the south chancel. There is a place of worship for Baptists at Danehill. A free school was founded, and endowed with an estate and £400, by E. Lightmaker, in 1708. About a mile from the village is a chalybeate spring, called Holy Well.
HORSTED, LITTLE, a parish, in the union of Uckfield, hundred of Rushmonden, though a considerable portion is locally in that of Loxfield-Dorset, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 2 miles (S.) from Uckfield; containing 278 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from London to Lewes, by way of Uckfield, and comprises by computation 2000 acres, of which 844 are arable, 332 pasture, 229 meadow, and the remainder woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7, and in the gift of the Rev. J. Simpson: the tithes have been commuted for £421, and the glebe contains 22 acres. The church, which is situated on an eminence, is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower.