Andover - Anston

A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.

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, 'Andover - Anston', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, (London, 1848) pp. 58-62. British History Online [accessed 28 May 2024].

. "Andover - Anston", in A Topographical Dictionary of England, (London, 1848) 58-62. British History Online, accessed May 28, 2024,

. "Andover - Anston", A Topographical Dictionary of England, (London, 1848). 58-62. British History Online. Web. 28 May 2024,

In this section

Andover (St. Mary)

ANDOVER (St. Mary), a borough, market-town, and parish, having exclusive jurisdiction, and the head of a union, locally in the hundred of Andover, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 26 miles (N. by W.) from Southampton, and 64 (W. S. W.) from London; comprising the hamlets of Charlton, Hatherden, King's Enham, Little London, Smannell, Wildhern, and Woodhouse, and the chapelry of Foxcote; and containing 5013 inhabitants. Andover, or, according to the charter, seal, and official documents, Andever, is a corruption of the Saxon Andeafara, which signifies the passage of the Ande, denoting the proximity of the town to the small river Ande or Anton. In the church at this place, Anlaf, King of Norway, in 994 received the sacrament of confirmation, under the sponsorship of King Ethelred, promising that he would never more come in a hostile manner to England, which engagement he religiously observed.

Seal and Arms.

The town, which is situated on the border of the Wiltshire downs, and near the edge of an extensive woodland tract forming the north-west portion of the county, is neat, airy, and well built; it consists principally of three long streets, is well paved under an act obtained in 1815, lighted with gas supplied by a company lately formed among the inhabitants, and plentifully supplied with water. The manufacture of silk has, of late, entirely superseded that of shalloons, which was formerly carried on to a great extent; and the construction of a canal from the town, through Stockbridge, to Southampton Water, has materially improved its trade, particularly in corn, malt, and timber, of which last a vast quantity is forwarded from Harewood Forest, for the supply of Portsmouth dockyard. In 1846 an act was passed for the construction of a railway from Basingstoke, by Andover, to Salisbury. The principal market is on Saturday, and there is a smaller one on Wednesday: the fairs are on Mid-Lent Saturday and Old May-day, for horses, cattle, cheese, and leather; on the 16th of November for sheep; and on the following day for horses, hops, cheese, &c. Three miles west of Andover, and within the out-hundred belonging to the town, is Weyhill, where an annual fair is held, which, originating in a revel anciently kept on the Sunday before Michaelmas-day, has gradually become the largest and best attended fair in England. It takes place on October 10th and six following days, by charter of Queen Elizabeth, confirmed by Charles II. The first day is noted for the sale of sheep, of which the number sold has frequently exceeded 170,000; on the second the farmers hire their servants; after which, hops, cheese, horses (particularly cart colts), cloth, &c., are exposed for sale. An additional fair, principally for sheep, was instituted in 1829, and is held on the 1st of August.

The inhabitants appear to have received charters of incorporation from Henry II. and Richard I., but the oldest now in their possession is one bestowed in the 6th of King John's reign: several others were subsequently granted, and that under which the borough was until recently governed, is dated in the 41st of Elizabeth. By the act of the 5th and 6th of Wm. IV. c. 76, the government is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, assisted by a recorder, townclerk, and other officers: the municipal boundaries are co-extensive with those of the parish, which is about twenty-two miles in circumference, and include the parish of Knights-Enham, locally in Andover parish. The borough sent representatives to all the parliaments of Edward I., but made no return after the first of Edward II. till the 27th of Elizabeth, since which period it has continued to send two members: the right of election was formerly vested in the bailiff and corporation, in number about twenty-four, but was extended by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, to the £10 householders; the mayor is the returning officer. Courts of session are held quarterly; courts leet occur at Easter and Michaelmas; and the county magistrates hold a petty-session every Monday for the neighbouring district. The powers of the county debt-court of Andover extend over the registration-districts of Andover and Whitchurch. The town-hall was erected in 1825, at an expense of £7000, towards defraying which each of the then members for the borough, Sir J. W. Pollen, Bart., and T. A. Smith, Esq., presented £1000: it is a handsome and spacious building of stone, surmounted by a cupola; on the ground-floor is the market-house, over which are a council-room for transacting the business of the corporation, and a hall for holding the quartersessions.

The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 4. 3½.; net income, £350; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College. The late church was an ancient building with a Norman doorway at the west end: it having become dilapidated, a new edifice was erected by the late Dr. Goddard, presenting a splendid example of the early English style; the interior is finished in a most chaste and beautiful manner, and the windows of the chancel are filled with coloured glass. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. A grammar school was founded and endowed in 1569, by John Hanson, whose benefaction was subsequently increased by Richard Kemys. In 1719, John Pollen, Esq., one of the representatives of the borough, erected a school-house, and endowed it with £10 per annum, for twenty children; in 1725, James Sambourne bequeathed £1000 for the instruction of twenty-four children of Hatherden. An hospital for eight poor men was founded by John Pollen, Esq.; and six unendowed almshouses for women were built with funds bequeathed by Catherine Hanson, who also gave an acre of ground planted with trees, to be appropriated as a walk for the recreation of the inhabitants. The union of Andover comprises 28 parishes or places in the county of Hants, and 4 in that of Wilts, and contains a population of 16,990. The Roman road from Winchester to Cirencester passed near Andover, and is yet visible in Harewood coppice; and, besides two or three small encampments near the town, there is a large one, about a mile to the south-west, on the summit of Bury hill. Some beautiful specimens of Roman pavement have recently been discovered in the neighbourhood. Andover gives the inferior title of Viscount to the Earl of Suffolk.


ANDWELL, an extra-parochial district, in the union and hundred of Basingstoke, Basingstoke and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4½ miles (E.) from Basingstoke; containing 26 inhabitants. It comprises about 130 acres of land.

Angersleigh (St. Michael)

ANGERSLEIGH (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and TauntonDean, W. division of Somerset, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Taunton; containing 42 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 411 acres, of which the arable and pasture are in nearly equal portions. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 19. 4½., and in the gift of the Rev. Henry Tippets Tucker: the tithes have been commuted for £98, and there are 18 acres of glebe.

Angerton, High

ANGERTON, HIGH, a township, in the parish of Hartburn, union of Morpeth, W. division of Morpeth ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (W.) from Morpeth; containing 75 inhabitants. This place is noticed in the year 1262 as the residence of the Baroness Theophania, widow of Hugh de Bolbeck, who was sheriff of Northumberland, governor of several castles, and held other offices of importance: from the Bolbecks, both High and Low Angerton went in regular descent to the Howards, with whom they continued until within the last few years. The township extends to the village of Hartburn, and comprises 1197 acres of rich loamy soil, whereof 550 are arable, 571 pasture, and the remainder woodland. The vicar receives £125. 9. for the tithes of this place.

Angerton, Low

ANGERTON, LOW, a township, in the parish of Hartburn, union of Morpeth, W. division of Morpeth ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7½ miles (W. by S.) from Morpeth; containing 64 inhabitants. A branch of the Greys, of Howick, resided here in the 17th century, as tenants under the Earl of Carlisle. It comprises 1075 acres, of which 383 are arable, 646 pasture, and 45½ wood: the river Wansbeck runs through, and is bordered by rich pastures. The village stands on a dry ridge of gravelly alluvium, with the Wansbeck on the north, and flat marshy gullies nearly round the other three sides. The tithes have been commuted for £106, payable to the vicar.


ANGLESEY, a newly-erected watering-place, in the parish of Alverstoke, liberty of Alverstoke and Gosport, Fareham and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (W. S. W.) from Gosport. This interesting place occupies an elevated site at a small distance from Stoke's Bay, and nearly opposite to the town of Ryde in the Isle of Wight. The mild temperature of the climate, the beauty and variety of the surrounding scenery, the facilities for sea-bathing, and the goodness of the roads in its vicinity, have united to render it eligible as a watering-place, and it has already obtained a considerable degree of patronage, which is rapidly increasing. The first building erected was Uxbridge House, the seat of Robert Cruicksbank, Esq., the founder of the town; the first stone of which was laid in 1826, by the Earl of Uxbridge, for his father, the Marquess of Anglesey, from whom the place derives its name. The buildings consist of a noble terrace and crescent, and are situated within a spacious area inclosed with iron-railing, and tastefully laid out and ornamented with shrubs and flowers: within the inclosure is a fine elevated terrace-walk, commanding a view of the Isle of Wight, Stoke's Bay, the Mother Bank, and St. Helen's, with the shipping passing between Spithead and Portsmouth harbour. A commodious hotel was built in 1830, and being found too small for the accommodation of the increasing number of visiters, a house in the adjoining crescent was subsequently added to it: there are also reading-rooms and public baths, and a chapel of ease. The bay affords good anchorage for vessels: and a communication is kept up with Portsmouth harbour, the dockyard, and the other naval arsenals in the vicinity, by Haslar lake, a branch of the harbour.


ANGLEZARKE, a township, in the chapelry of Rivington, parish of Bolton, union of Chorley, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Chorley; containing 164 inhabitants. The township comprises 1857 acres; it is mostly mountainous, abounding with game, and is chiefly the property of William Standish Standish, Esq., of Duxbury, who is lord of the manor. At White Coppice is a cotton-mill: several quarries in the township produce a fine hard gritstone, of whitish appearance, in great request for the paving of roads and streets; and grey slate is sometimes obtained in small quantities. The lead-mines here were wrought more than 130 years ago: after being discontinued for some time, they were again opened by Sir Thomas Standish; and about 70 years since, they were wrought a third time, by his son, Sir Francis Standish, who relinquished the works about 1790. In 1823 the Messrs. Thompson, of Wigan, commenced operations anew, but they were unsuccessful, and the works were in consequence abandoned. These mines contain immense quantities of the carbonate of barytes, a mineral whose value was unknown until about the year 1782, when the visit of two Frenchmen to the mines led to the knowledge of its nature and properties: Dr. Withering and Dr. Crawford subsequently drew the attention of all Europe to the newly discovered mineral. The carbonate of barytes found here consists of 22 parts of carbonic acid, and 78 parts of barytes. At Brookhouse Farm, where are powerful springs, was commenced on 7th April, 1847, the construction of works and reservoirs for supplying water to Chorley; and it is proposed to supply the town of Liverpool also with water from this place: the distance to Liverpool is twenty miles, but the great elevation at Anglezarke renders the position chosen most favourable for the purpose.

Angmering, East and West (St. Peter)

ANGMERING, EAST and WEST (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Preston (under Gilbert's act), hundred of Poling, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Arundel; containing 1002 inhabitants. It comprises East and West Angmering and Bargeham, formerly all distinct parishes, which were consolidated in 1573, and now form one parish, containing 4229 acres; 1933 acres are arable, 1895 pasture, and the rest wood. East Angmering had anciently a weekly market, and an annual fair on the 31st of July; but the former has been long discontinued, and the latter has degenerated into a mere pleasure-fair. The living comprises the rectory of West Angmering, with the vicarage of East Angmering consolidated, valued jointly in the king's books at £21. 9. 8.; patrons, the family of Reeks; impropriator of the vicarage, the Rev. J. Usborne. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £26, the rectorial for £290, and the vicarial for £8. 5. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains several monumental tablets to the Gratericke family. A school was founded by William Older, who in 1679 endowed it with a cottage and garden, and 30 acres of land at East Angmering, now producing £90 per annum. On the lands of the church farm on the western borders of the parish, a Roman bath was discovered in 1819.


ANGRAM, a township, in the parish of Long Marston, W. division of Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Tadcaster; containing 78 inhabitants. The road from York to Wetherby passes at a short distance on the north.


ANGRAM-GRANGE, a township, in the parish of Coxwold, union of Easingwould, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 4¾ miles (N.) from Easingwould; comprising 438a. 3r. 24p., and containing 24 inhabitants. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £106, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge.


ANICK, a township, in the parish of St. John Lee, union of Hexham, S. division of Tindale ward and of Northumberland, 1¾ mile (N. E. by E.) from Hexham; containing 146 inhabitants. It comprises 360 acres, of which 270 are arable, and 90 meadow and pasture. About 9 acres are on the south side of the Tyne, and the remainder, including an island of 13 acres of grass land, are on its northern bank, gradually and beautifully sloping to the river, which sometimes overflows the grounds in its vicinity; the soil is various, but rendered productive by manure. The Newcastle and Carlisle railway skirts the township on the south. At Hexham Bridge End is a large brewery. The tithes have been commuted for £75. 13. 4. payable to the impropriators, and £28. 6. 8. to the perpetual curate.


ANICK-GRANGE, a township, in the parish of St. John Lee, union of Hexham, S. division of Tindale ward and of Northumberland, l½ mile (E. N. E.) from Hexham; containing 40 inhabitants. It formerly belonged to the monastery of Hexham.


ANLABY, a township, partly in the parish of Hessle, but chiefly in that of Kirk-Ella, county of the town of Hull, union of Sculcoates, E. riding of York, 3¼ miles (W.) from Hull; containing 423 inhabitants. This place was anciently a possession of a family of the same name, and in 1100 a great part of the estate passed, by intermarriage with its heiress, into the family of Legard. The township comprises about 2020 acres, including the adjacent hamlets of Wolfreton and Tranby, the former of which, consisting of 355 acres, is partly in the township of Kirk-Ella. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.

Anmer (St. Mary)

ANMER (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 11 miles (N. E.) from Lynn; containing 175 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1359 acres, of which 184 are common or waste. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 0. 1., and in the gift of H. Coldham, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £194, and the glebe consists of 70 acres. The church, which is picturesquely situated in the grounds of the Hall, is chiefly in the decorated and later styles, and consists of a nave and chancel, with a chapel on the south side, and an embattled tower. On opening a tumulus a few years ago in the park, a fine Roman urn, containing bones and ashes, was discovered.

Ann, Abbot's.—See Abbot's-Ann.

ANN, ABBOT'S.—See Abbot's-Ann.

Anne (St.), or Briers.—See Owram, South.

ANNE (St.), or Briers.—See Owram, South.

Annesley (All Saints)

ANNESLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Broxtow and of the county of Nottingham, 10 miles (N. N. W.) from Nottingham; containing, with the hamlets of Annesley-Woodhouse and Wandesley, and the extraparochial district of Felly, 315 inhabitants. This parish comprises 3030 acres by measurement; it is intersected by the road from Nottingham to Kirkby-Sutton, and is irregular in its surface, which in many parts rises into mountainous ridges. The soil rests on red sandstone, of which there are some quarries supplying an inferior material used chiefly for walls and small houses. The village is picturesquely situated; several of its inhabitants are engaged in the manufacture of stockings. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £52; patron and impropriator, J. Musters, Esq. The church is ancient, and has a tower with two bells.


ANNFIELD-PLAIN, a colliery village, in the township of Kyo, parish and union of Lanchester, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 11 miles (S. S. W.) from Gateshead. This place has risen into some importance, and its population has increased to 500, in consequence of the opening of a coal-pit, whose produce is conveyed to the shipping by the Pontop and South Shields railway. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists.

Ansley (St. Lawrence)

ANSLEY (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Atherstone, Atherstone division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Atherstone; containing 701 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Nuneaton to Coleshill, and comprises by measurement about 2700 acres of land in equal portions of arable and pasture, with about 37 acres of woodland; the soil is stiff, and very fertile, the surface low and undulated, and the scenery in parts picturesque. Coal exists, but is not worked. The population is partly engaged in the weaving of ribbons. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £116; impropriator, W. S. Dugdale, Esq. The church, which is very ancient, has a fine square tower, and a Norman arch divides the nave from the chancel. A school is supported by subscription. There are some remains of an old castle.

Anslow, or Annesley

ANSLOW, or Annesley, a township, in the parish of Rolleston, union of Burton-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 3¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Burton; containing 278 inhabitants. The manor is now held by the family of Williams. The late Sir John Williams, Knt., one of the judges of the realm, who died in 1846, came into possession in right of his wife, daughter of Davies Davenport, Esq., of Capesthorne, in the county of Chester, whose ancestor purchased it in 1739 from the Mainwarings, of Whitmore, in Staffordshire, to whom it had descended by marriage from the ancient family of Boghay. The township includes the hamlets of Callingwood and Stockdale-Ridding. There was a chapel here before the Reformation; there is now a place of worship for Wesleyans.


ANSTEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Hilton, union of Blandford, hundred of Whiteway, Blandford division of Dorset; containing 200 inhabitants.


ANSTEY, a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Edwinstree, county of Hertford, 4 miles (N. E.) from Buntingford; containing 497 inhabitants. It is situated on the road to Cambridge through Barkway, and comprises 2051a. 3r. 11p. A fair is held on July 15th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 13. 4.; net income, £504; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Christ's College, Cambridge. Corn-rents were assigned to the rector under a private act in 1826, as a commutation in lieu of tithes. The church is a cruciform edifice, with a central tower surmounted by a short spire supported by Saxon arches, and is said to have been built from the ruins of a castle erected by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, soon after the Conquest, traces of which are still visible.

Anstey (St. Mary)

ANSTEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Barrow-upon-Soar, hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Leicester; containing 838 inhabitants. This place, formerly called Hanstigie or Anstige, is situated between the forests of Charnwood and Leicester; and at the dissolution of religious houses belonged to the priory of Ulverscroft, with a reserved rent of 3s. 4d., and a pound of pepper, due to the Lord of Groby. The living is consolidated with the rectory of Thurcaston: the church was rebuilt by the incumbent in 1844, and is now a beautiful edifice, with the old tower; the cost was £4000. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In 1376, certain lands, described as "lying in the fields of Anstey in Wolfdale," were granted by John Lenerych, of Leicester; and in 1490 the "Brereyard" was devised by Thomas Martyn and William Haket, and vested in trustees for the repair of the church, bridges, and causeways of this place.

Anstey (St. James)

ANSTEY (St. James), a parish, in the union of Foleshill, hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 5½ miles (N. E.) from Coventry; containing 224 inhabitants. This place is situated on the road from Coventry to Wolvey heath, and thence to Leicester; it was originally called Heanstige, from the Saxon hean, high, and stige, a path-way. The parish comprises by computation 1000 acres, and, with the exception of about 300 acres, is the property of the Dean and Canons of Windsor; the Oxford canal passes through the village. Anstey Hall, erected 150 years ago, is a noble mansion of brick and stone, the seat of Lieut.-Col. H. W. Adams, C.B. The living is a vicarage, not in charge, with a net income of £63; it is in the patronage of the Crown, and the Dean and Canons are appropriators. The church is said to have been founded in the time of Henry I.

Anstey (St. James)

ANSTEY (St. James), a parish, in the union of Tisbury, hundred of Dunworth, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 5¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Hindon; containing 329 inhabitants. It comprises 1000 acres; the surface is hilly in some parts, and the soil chalky and sandy. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Lord Arundel; net income, £22. Here was a commandery of the Knights Hospitallers, founded by Walter de Tuberville in the reign of John, and the revenue of which at the Dissolution was £81. 8. 5.; its remains have been coverted into a farmhouse. Dr. Richard Zouch, an eminent civilian, and judge of the court of admiralty, in the reign of Charles I., was a native of the place.

Anstey, East (St. Michael)

ANSTEY, EAST (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of South Molton, South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Dulverton; containing 240 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road to Barnstaple, comprises 2392 acres, whereof 805 are common or waste: there are some quarries of stone, worked for building and other purposes. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11; net income, £180; patron, T. S. Jessopp, Esq. The church is a plain neat edifice, with a tower; the churchyard commands an extensive view.


ANSTEY-PASTURES, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Barrow-upon-Soar, hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Leicester; containing 15 inhabitants. This place, which was formerly parcel of the "Ffrith of Leicestre," and of the ancient duchy of Lancaster, was granted in the 27th of Elizabeth to Thomas Martyn and others, on a lease of 31 years, and after the expiration of that term was purchased, in the 4th of James I., from Robert, Earl of Salisbury, lord treasurer of England, by Robert Martyn, of Anstey, whose descendants have a seat here. The liberty comprises 250 acres of land. The sum of £40 per annum, arising from lands allotted under an inclosure act, is applied to the repair of the highways and bridges; and £10, and a further sum from Lord Stamford, are annually distributed in bread and linen among the poor.

Anstey, West (St. Petrock)

ANSTEY, WEST (St. Petrock), a parish, in the union and hundred of South Molton, South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 3½ miles (W.) from Dulverton; containing 279 inhabitants, and comprising 3008 acres, of which 1036 are common or waste. Here are some quarries of stone for building. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 16. 8.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. The great tithes have been commuted for £76. 17., and the vicarial for £112; the glebe consists of 37½ acres. The church is a substantial edifice with a tower, and is in good repair.

Anston, North and South (St. James)

ANSTON, NORTH and SOUTH (St. James), a parish, in the union of Worksop, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 6½ miles (W. N. W.) from Worksop; containing, with the township of Woodsetts, 1102 inhabitants. The parish is on the road from Sheffield to Worksop, and comprises about 4000 acres, of which the surface is varied, and the scenery picturesque. Freestone of good quality and of a beautiful colour is extensively wrought, and from the quarries has been raised stone for the new houses of parliament. The manufacture of malt, starch, and nails, is carried on to a moderate extent. The villages, once called Church Anstan and Chapel Anstan respectively, are pleasantly situated on opposite eminences, between which flows one of the little streams that unite and form the Ryton; they are exceedingly neat and clean, and the rivulet, after leaving their immediate vicinity, passes into a glen, where stands Woodmill. The Chesterfield canal bounds the parish on the north. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Prebendary of Laughton-en-le-Morthen in York Cathedral, with a net income of £84: the tithes for the manor of North Anston were commuted, in 1767, for an allotment of land and a money payment. The church is a neat structure in the later English style, and consists of a nave, aisles, and chancel, with a square tower surmounted by a small spire; it contains some monuments to the Lizour, Beauchamp, and D'Arey families, with a finely sculptured figure of a lady bearing an infant in her arms. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. Between the villages is situated an endowed school.—See Woodsetts.