A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Preston (St. Andrew)
PRESTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Weymouth, liberty of Sutton-Pointz, Dorchester division of Dorset, 2½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Weymouth; containing, with the tything of Sutton-Pointz, 672 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 2609 acres, and is intersected by the road from Weymouth to Wareham. Stone for ordinary purposes is obtained. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 18.; patron, the Prebendary of Preston in the Cathedral of Salisbury: the great tithes have been commuted for £270, and the vicarial for £250; the impropriate glebe comprises 64 acres, and the vicarial 3. The church is very ancient, and had formerly ten pensionary chapels belonging to it. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Preston (All Saints)
PRESTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from Cirencester; containing 220 inhabitants. Some lands here belonged to Reinbald, priest, and chancellor to Edward the Confessor. The parish comprises by measurement 1979 acres, of which about 350 are pasture, and 40 wood: the soil is various, part of it a shallow stone brash, part gravel, but the chief portion a loamy clay. The surface is generally level, and is intersected by the river Churn, on both sides of which are meadows, richly fertilized by the early adoption of the practice of irrigation. Slates, or stone tiles, are found in several places. An estate in the hamlet of Norcot, one mile to the north of the village, forms part of the endowment of St. John's Hospital at Cirencester. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 10. 7½., and has a net income of £338; the patronage and impropriation belong to Miss Master. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1771. The church is in the early English style, and contains some interesting details. A vicarage-house was erected in 1819, by the Rev. Henry Cripps, the incumbent.
PRESTON, a parish, in the union of Newent, Lower division of the hundred of Dudstone and King'sBarton, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3¼ miles (S. W.) from Ledbury; containing 75 inhabitants. The parish is situated in the extreme north-western part of the county, upon a tributary of the river Severn, and in the immediate vicinity of the Gloucester canal, and the road between the towns of Ledbury and Newent. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £7. 6. 8.; net income, £128; patron, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol.
PRESTON, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Hitchin, hundred of Hitchin and Pirton, county of Hertford, 3 miles (S. by W.) from the town of Hitchin; containing 297 inhabitants.
Preston (St. Catherine)
PRESTON (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union and hundred of Faversham, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, ½ a mile (S.) from Faversham, and on the high road from Canterbury to Rochester; containing 935 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1547a. 1r. 32p., of which 1012 acres are arable, 413 pasture, 61 woodland, and the remainder waste. A new village has been erected, and many of the inhabitants are employed in the oyster-fishery. The living is a vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £8. 12. 6.; net income, £324; patron, the Archbishop; appropriators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. The church is principally in the early English style, and consists of two aisles and a chancel, with a small tower at the east end of the south aisle: on the north side of the chancel is a sumptuous altar-tomb of black and white marble, in memory of Roger Boyle and his wife Joan, ancestors of the earls of Cork; and the church contains also some sepulchral brasses of the fifteenth century.
Preston (St. Michael)
PRESTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Eastry, hundred of Preston, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 2 miles (N.) from Wingham; containing 515 inhabitants. The parish is situated upon a tributary of the river Stour, and near the high road between Canterbury and Sandwich. It comprises 1471a. 38p., of which 819 acres are arable, 494 meadow, 57 in orchards, gardens, and homesteads, 27 woodland, 5 hop-grounds, 6 river, and 27 in roads. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 15., net income, £399; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury.
Preston (St. John)
PRESTON (St. John), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster; comprising the borough of Preston, which has a separate jurisdiction; the six townships of Barton, Elston, Fishwick, Haighton, Ribbleton, and Lea with Ashton, Ingol, and Cottam; and the chapelries of Broughton, and Grimsargh with Brockholes; the whole containing, in the year 1841, 53,482 inhabitants, of whom 50,073 were in the borough, 21 miles (S. by E.) from Lancaster, and 217 (N. W. by N.) from London. This place is of as high Saxon antiquity as any town in the county. At the period when Ribchester sank into decay, Preston rose into consequence, and became the principal port of Lancashire; and it is supposed that, having been the abode of ecclesiastics as capital of the district of Amounderness, it obtained the appellation of Priest's town, of which the present name may be a contraction. Though it is difficult to ascertain its precise origin, it was unquestionably a place of considerable importance prior to the Conquest, soon after which it was granted to Tosti, fourth son of Godwin, Earl of Kent. In 1307, the town was burnt, and nearly levelled with the ground, by the Scottish army under Robert Bruce; and in 1333, Edward III. passed through it on his way to Halidown Hill, where he defeated the Scots with the loss of 20,000 men, and took the regent Douglas prisoner. The monarch, in recompense for the assistance he derived from the inhabitants, invested the corporation with several valuable privileges. During the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, the Earl of Derby raised considerable supplies of troops here for the service of the Lancastrian cause.
Soon after the commencement of the parliamentary war, the town was taken by Sir John Seaton, a majorgeneral in the republican army, but it was almost immediately retaken by James, Earl of Derby; the battle on this latter occasion raged for about an hour, with dubious success, but at length the garrison surrendered, and the earl, apprehending that the place might again fall into the hands of the parliamentarians, demolished the works. In 1644, on the return of Prince Rupert into Lancashire, after the battle of Marston-Moor, the mayor and several of the principal inhabitants became the victims of their adherence to the cause of the parliament. In 1648, a fierce engagement took place near Preston, between the English and Scottish allied forces commanded by the Duke of Hamilton and Sir Marmaduke Langdale, and the parliamentarian troops under Cromwell, in which the former were defeated, and the duke and his officers, who had retired into the town, were compelled to effect their escape by crossing the river Ribble at the ford below Walton Bridge. Throughout the whole of the civil war the town of Preston suffered materially. In 1715, the party in the interest of the Pretender obtained possession of the place, which they endeavoured to fortify against the assault of the king's forces; but being attacked suddenly by General Wills, aided by the subsequent arrival of General Carpenter with a party of dragoons, they were compelled, after an obstinate resistance, to surrender at discretion. The town suffered much also during this contest, a considerable part of it being burnt by the inhabitants, who were in the interest of the king, to aid the movements of the besiegers, and many of the houses of those who assisted the rebels being given up to plunder after the town was taken. The Lords Widdrington, Derwentwater, and Nairn, were sent prisoners to London, where they were condemned and executed; and sixteen of the rebels were hanged on Gallows' Hill, at Preston. The rebels again made their appearance in 1745, and attempted to intrench themselves here; but on the approach of the royal forces under the Duke of Cumberland, they made their escape a few hours before the duke's arrival.
The town is pleasantly situated on an eminence rising from the north bank of the river Ribble, over which are Walton and Penwortham bridges, the former a neat structure of three arches, leading from the London road, erected in 1782; and the latter a handsome bridge of five arches, leading from the Liverpool road, built by act of parliament in 1759. A magnificent viaduct for the North-Union railway also crosses the river. The streets are spacious, and well paved; the houses are neatly and substantially built, and many of them are of large dimensions. Numerous dwelling-houses have lately been built in various parts of the town; new streets have been formed, new mills, factories, and public buildings been erected, and there are at present a number of houses in course of completion. In 1832 a company procured an act of parliament for supplying the town with water; the supply is chiefly collected at Thornley, Dilworth, Alston, and Grimsargh, and at the last place are very large reservoirs whence the water is conducted in stone drains or conduits to another reservoir at Ribbleton, 60 feet above the average level of the town, and then in iron pipes to the houses and mills: the total cost was £45,000. The Preston Gas Company, established in 1815, and incorporated by act of parliament in 1839, was the first projected for lighting any provincial town. The original capital was £2000; in 1846 the capital had been increased to £52,500. The company have a manufacturing station in Glover-street, another in Upper Lawson-street, and a gas-holder station in Walker-street: there are twelve gas-holders at the three stations. The environs, in which are many handsome villas inhabited by opulent families, abound with richly diversified scenery, and the high grounds afford extensive and interesting prospects. Near the town are also several pleasant promenades, the principal being Avenham Walk, belonging to the corporation, by whom it has been recently much enlarged; and the Marsh, along the margin of the river, by which an ancestor of Sir Walter Scott, with his comrades, escaped to Liverpool during the siege of Preston in 1715.
The Library was founded by R. Shepherd, Esq., twice mayor for the borough, who in 1761 endowed it with the interest of £1000 for its augmentation, and with the interest of £200 as a salary to the librarian. The Preston Literary and Philosophical Institution was established in November, 1840, to promote the cultivation of science, the arts, &c., and has since been combined with the Palatine Library. It now possesses a collection exceeding 3000 volumes; the museum is rich in wellpreserved specimens of British birds, and has a fine series of shells, fossils, and minerals, with philosophical apparatus for the illustration of lectures. An elegant building in the Tudor style, from designs by Mr. Welch, was completed in 1846, at a cost of about £4000, for the purposes of this society. There are also a law society; a mechanics' institute, for which a handsome edifice in the Grecian style has been just raised; two principal newsrooms, various book societies, and the Winckley Club. The theatre, a neat and well-arranged building, erected by a proprietary in 1802, is opened occasionally; and assemblies are held in a handsome suite of rooms, built at the expense of the late Earl of Derby.
The trade, till within the last half century, chiefly consisted of the manufacture and sale of linen-cloth, which, from a petition of the mayor and corporation to parliament, for preventing the exportation of Irish linen to the colonies, and of Scotch linen into Ireland, appear to have been for ages the staple trade of the town and neighbourhood for twenty miles round. The manufacture of cotton goods, however, is now the principal employment of the inhabitants, having been greatly extended by John Horrocks, Esq., to whose enterprise the town is mainly indebted for its prosperity. There are 50 factories, many of them upon a very large scale, and which are all worked by machinery impelled by steam; the raw cotton consumed in a year amounts to 150,000 bales, the whole brought from Liverpool, and of the goods manufactured, the greater portion is sold to the Manchester merchants, and the remainder sent to London or to foreign markets. Three flax-mills are in operation: machine-making is extensively carried on; and besides other branches of labour, there are three considerable iron-foundries, and a large steam-mill for sawing timber. At spring tides, vessels of 150 tons' burthen, or of a draught of twelve feet, can navigate the river to Preston Marsh, where are convenient quays and extensive warehouses for bonding: vessels of larger draught come up only to the out-port of Lytham. By an act of parliament passed in the 46th of George III., commissioners were appointed for bettering the navigation; and buoys have since been placed to mark the navigable channels. The river is now undergoing further improvement, agreeably with an act obtained in 1838 by a company who subscribed a capital of £50,000, since augmented by upwards of £4000; and great advantages are expected from their exertions: the works are under the direction of Messrs. Robert Stevenson and Sons, of Edinburgh. A lighthouse has been erected at the entrance to the Ribble. The river is supposed by Dr. Whitaker to have been formerly navigable to Ribchester; and the discovery in that neighbourhood of anchors, and of the hull of a larger vessel than could now be floated up so high, seems to confirm the opinion. The port of Preston includes Fleetwood, Lytham, Freckleton, and Hesketh: a few ships sail to foreign parts, and a considerable coasting-trade is carried on: upwards of 100 vessels now belong to the port. The number of vessels that entered inwards, in the year ending January 5th, 1846, was 797, of the aggregate burthen of 41,489 tons; and the customs' duties for the same period amounted to £66,949: in the following year, the customs were as much as £83,963. The fishery in the river Ribble is of very ancient establishment; salmon, plaice, eels, and smelts are found in abundance, and of very good quality.
Common and cannel coal were formerly brought for the consumption of the town by the river Douglas, which, by an act of parliament obtained in 1727 was made navigable from the estuary of the Ribble to within three miles of Ormskirk, whence a short line parallel with its course, continuing the navigation to Wigan, was constructed by the proprietors of the Leeds and Liverpool canal, who purchased the right of the Douglas navigation. Since the opening of the North-Union and other railways, this branch of the canal trade to Preston has ceased. A branch railway has been made from the North-Union railway to the Preston quays, and coal for export is now shipped from the quays: coal is still conveyed by the Douglas navigation, for shipment on board out-going vessels at Lytham. A tramway worked by horses, and a short canal, connect the Lancaster canal, at Preston, with the Leeds and Liverpool canal. The North-Union railway, opened November 1st, 1838, proceeds in a southern direction from the town to Parkside, where it joins the Liverpool and Manchester line, a distance of 22¼ miles: the Preston station occupies several acres, in Fishergate. The Lancaster railway, completed in June 1840, quits the North-Union in Dock-street, and is 20¼ miles in length. The Longridge tramway, of a single track, was finished about the same time, and is seven miles long; it is used for the conveyance to the town of stone and other goods from Longridge Fell. There is also a railway from Preston to the towns of Lytham, Blackpool, and Fleetwood-on-Wyre. An act was passed in 1844, authorising the construction of a line to Blackburn; another, in 1846, for a line to Ormskirk and Liverpool; and a third, also in 1846, for a railway from Preston to Clitheroe.
The market-days are Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, the last principally for corn: the market-place is a spacious well-paved area, in the centre of which is an obelisk supporting gas-lights. The corn exchange, erected in 1822, at the expense of the corporation, is a neat building of brick, with a pediment and cornice of stone; the basement story in front is appropriated as a butter and poultry market, and over it is a woollen-cloth hall, for the accommodation of clothiers at the fairs, and occasionally used as an assembly-room. Behind this building is an open quadrangle, surrounded by a colonnade, and used for a corn-market; above the colonnade is a gallery for the sale of small wares during the fairs, and behind the quadrangle are the pork shambles. The cattlemarket is held at the northern extremity of the town, and that for vegetables in Cheapside and the marketplace. The fairs are, one in the week before the first Sunday after Epiphany, which is a great horse-fair; the spring fair, March 27th, which continues for three days; the summer fair, August 26th, which continues for eight days; and the winter fair, November 7th, which continues for five days.
The borough has received numerous charters from successive sovereigns. The first was granted by Henry II., and in 1566, Queen Elizabeth gave a new charter of incorporation, which was confirmed and extended in the 14th and 36th of Charles II., and in the 9th of George IV. The government is now vested in a mayor, twelve aldermen, and thirty-six councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, which made the municipal boundaries co-extensive with those for parliamentary purposes, and divided the borough into six wards, the township of Fishwick being part of one. The town exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd, 26th, 33rd, and 35th of the reign of Edward I., and in the first of Edward II., but intermitted till the reign of Edward VI., since which time it has regularly sent two members. The mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, with others appointed by commission. A court of record is held every third Friday, before the recorder, for the recovery of debts to any amount; petty-sessions take place daily at the town-hall. The Preston Guild, or Guild Mercatoria, is a jubilee celebrated every twentieth year: it commences in the last week of August, and continues a fortnight, under the superintendence of the corporation; various processions of the municipal bodies take place, and balls, concerts, dramatic representations, public banquets, and every species of amusement are provided, attracting an immense concourse from the surrounding districts. The quarter-sessions for the hundred of Amounderness, Blackburn, and Leyland, take place here, by adjournment from Lancaster: the quarter-sessions for the county, the meetings of the deputy-lieutenants, and other county meetings, are held in the town; and from its central situation, the offices of the courts of chancery, common pleas, and other courts of the county palatine of Lancaster, are at Preston. The principal officers of the county are, the vice chancellor, the registrar, the cursitors, the seal-keeper, the clerk of the crown, the clerk of the peace, and the prothonotary of the common pleas. The powers of the county debt-court of Preston, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Preston. The offices of the under-sheriff and treasurer for the county are also here. The town-hall, a neat brick edifice with quoins and cornices of stone, surmounted by a turret and dome, occupies the site of the ancient moot-hall, which fell down in 1780; it contains portraits of George II., Mr. Pulteney, Mr. Stanley, and Mr. Fazakerley. The sessions-house and house of correction form a capacious building, including every requisite accommodation for the county sessions, and the meetings of the county magistrates; the prison has been much improved, and separate cells have been made.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15. 13. 11½.; net income, £665, with a house, built in 1846; patrons, the Trustees of certain estates devised by the benevolent William Hulme, who must present a clergyman educated upon his foundation at Brasenose College, Oxford; impropriators, Sir H. B. Hoghton, Bart., and others. The great tithes of Preston township have been commuted for £124, and the small for £37. The original church was built in the first century after the general establishment of the Christian religion in this country, probably about the year 705; and on the canonization of Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, the edifice was dedicated to that saint: at a later period, it is supposed soon after the Reformation, the Romish saint was discarded, and the church dedicated to St. John. The present body was built about 1770, the tower in 1814, the chancel in 1817, and the choir was renovated in 1823; the style is a mixture of the later Norman and the early English. A handsome organ was presented by the late John Horrocks, Esq., at a cost of 500 guineas; and a beautiful eastern window, by Ballantine, of Edinburgh, has been presented by Thomas German, Esq., mayor of the borough in 1846.
St. George's district church, built in 1723, is a cruciform structure of brick, cased with stone in 1845: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, the Vicar of Preston. The church of the Holy Trinity is a neat stone edifice in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles; it was erected in 1814, at an expense of £9080, of which £4000 were donations, and the remainder was raised by general subscription: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £160; patron, the Vicar. St. Paul's is a handsome structure, in the later English style, with four turrets; it was erected in 1825, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, at a cost of £6063: the living is also a perpetual curacy; patron, the Vicar; net income, £170. St. Peter's, an edifice with a campanile turret, was built from Rickman's designs, in 1826, at an expense of £6638: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the Vicar's gift; net income, £150, with a house. Christ Church was consecrated October 11th, 1836; it is in the pure Norman style, with two turrets, and cost £3000: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £215; patrons, Five Trustees. St. James's was also built in 1836, at a cost of £3000, and is in the early English style, with a campanile turret; a beautiful painted window has been recently presented by John Addison, Esq.: the living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Vicar; income, £200. The church of St. Mary was built in 1837, at a cost of between £4000 and £5000; the appointment of the minister was originally vested in five trustees, who lately resigned the patronage to the Vicar of Preston; the income, about £130, is derived from the legal endowment and from the pews. St. Thomas's, consecrated 27th June, 1839, is in the Norman style, with a spire, and was built by the trustees of Miss Hyndman's Charity, in whom the patronage is vested: the living is a perpetual curacy; income, £100. At Ashton, Barton, Broughton, and Grimsargh, are other incumbencies.
There are places of worship in the town for Independents, Baptists, the Society of Friends, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, Swedenborgians, and Unitarians; also four Roman Catholic chapels. Of these chapels, St. Mary's, in Friargate, was erected about 1760; closed in 1793, on St. Wilfrid's being built; and reopened in 1807, St. Wilfrid's being then too small for the congregation. This latter chapel was enlarged in 1839; and in 1847 a small but highly-decorated chapel in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary was completed, opening into it. The chapel of St. Ignatius, opened in 1836, is in the later English style, and cost about £6000, towards which £1100 were raised in weekly subscriptions by the lower classes: it has a beautiful altar of Burnley stone, containing in front and at the sides statues of Our Saviour and the Twelve Apostles, in elaborate canopied niches; the whole the gift of J. F. Anderton, Esq., of Haighton House. The fourth chapel, St. Augustine's, was opened in 1839. There are likewise several Roman Catholic chapels in the vicinity.
The free grammar school, which is of uncertain foundation, is partly supported from land given by Richard Worthington. The number of scholars becoming greater than the old school-building would contain, the mayor, recorder, several of the aldermen and councillors, and other gentlemen, erected a spacious stone edifice of a collegiate character, comprising large and handsome schoolrooms, studies, and the various apartments requisite for an extensive institution. The course of instruction is such as to fit the scholars for the universities, or professional or commercial life. A blue-coat school was founded in 1701, by Roger Sudell. In the commercial or middle schools, built in 1844 at the sole expense of Richard Newsham, Esq., of Preston, a sound education is imparted to children of the middle classes: the schools are in Knowsley-street, are built of stone, and present a handsome elevation in the Tudor style; they are capable of accommodating 200 boys and 100 girls. A national school, a capacious brick building, was erected in 1814; and national and infants' schools are supported in connexion with nearly all the churches. There are several Roman Catholic schools, a large day school supported by the Wesleyans, and some other schools. On the 24th May, 1847, the first stone was laid of the Roman Catholic schools of St. Joseph, situated on the Maudlands, and comprising a boys', girls', and infants' schools, with a private chapel in connexion with them: it is proposed to build a public chapel at the same place, dedicated to St. Walburgh. A house of recovery from fever and other contagious diseases, was erected in 1829, on an advantageous site on Preston moor; it is a handsome edifice consisting of a centre and two wings. There are numerous benevolent and benefit societies, and various bequests for distribution among the indigent. The poor-law union comprises 29 parishes or places, and contains a population of 77,189. Preston had anciently a convent of Grey friars, on the northwest of the town, founded by Edward, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry III.; and an hospital, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene.
PRESTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Harrow-onthe-Hill, union of Hendon, hundred of Gore, county of Middlesex; containing 105 inhabitants.
PRESTON, a township, in the parish of Ellingham, union of Belford, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland, 8½ miles (N.) from Alnwick; containing 91 inhabitants. Here is a good residence, standing pleasantly upon an eminence about a mile south-east from Ellingham. An ancient lofty tower, near the west end of the Hall, adds greatly to its appearance. The vicarial tithes of the township have been commuted for £31; and the appropriate tithes for £77. 11. 8., payable to the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral.
PRESTON, a township, in the parish and union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland; containing 919 inhabitants. The township reaches to North Shields; the village, which is very pleasant, occupies a fine eminence, and commands an extensive and beautiful prospect. Here are several handsome residences. Some barracks in the township have been converted into dwelling-houses. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £178. In 1821, part of the horns of a deer, of extraordinary size, was found at a considerable depth, in the northeast angle of Blake-Chesters, one of the oblong squares referred to by Camden as connecting a chain of Roman forts running in a direction from Segedunum (Wallsend) to Tynemouth. Sacrifices of wild animals were frequently made in these stations, and there is still a faint tradition of a temple having stood on the western side of the camp: the head of an old spear has also been dug up.
Preston (St. Peter and St. Paul)
PRESTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Uppingham, hundred of Martinsley, county of Rutland, 2 miles (N.) from Uppingham; containing 371 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by the road from Uppingham to Oakham, comprises by measurement 1142 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 17. 6., and in the patronage of the Rev. Samuel Shield, to whom belong three-fourths of the advowson, and of the Rev. William Belgrave and Miss Belgrave, who jointly possess one-fourth; income, £300, derived from 174 acres of land. The church, an ancient edifice, has two Norman arches in the interior, and a handsome stone canopy in the south wall of the chancel. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.
PRESTON, a parish, in the union of Yeovil, hundred of Stone, W. division of Somerset, 1½ mile (W.) from Yeovil; containing 379 inhabitants. It is situated on the Yeovil and Ilminster road; and comprises 834a. 2r. 29p., of which 467 acres are meadow and pasture, 294 arable, 51 in orchards, and 20 waste, roads, &c. The manufacture of kid gloves employs some of the inhabitants. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Yeovil: the church is in the later English style.
Preston (St. Mary)
PRESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Cosford, hundred of Babergh, W. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Lavenham; containing 406 inhabitants, and comprising 1900 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 0½., and in the patronage of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, to which society the advowson was given in 1621 by Robert Ryece, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £513, and there are 6 acres of glebe. Mr. Ryece resided in a mansion in the parish, called Preston Place, and was a great preserver of the antiquities of the county; he placed in the windows of the church the arms borne by the principal families of this and the adjoining counties. The rectory-house was rebuilt in 1835.
Preston (St. Peter)
PRESTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Steyning, hundred of Preston, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 1¾ mile (N. N. W.) from Brighton; containing 756 inhabitants. The parish comprises 951 acres, of which 261 are common or waste land. The village is pleasantly situated on the London road, near the entrance to Brighton. Anne of Cleves resided at Preston House, which still contains her portrait, a good original painting; and from this place she retired to a convent at Falmer, about three miles distant, where she died. The London and Brighton and the Lewes and Brighton railways pass through the parish. The viaduct here is the most important on the latter line; it was commenced in May 1845, and occupied ten months: there are 27 arches, the largest of which, crossing the London road, is 50 feet in span; the remaining 26 arches are 30 feet each. In the parish are cavalry barracks, and the water-works for supplying Brighton. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Hove united, valued in the king's books at £20. 2. 11., and in the gift of the Bishop of Chichester. The vicarial tithes of Preston have been commuted for £304, with a glebe of 4½ acres; and £13 are paid to the Ecclesiastical Commission. The church is in the early English style, with a square embattled tower: on the eastern wall were discovered, a few years since, some ancient paintings, ascertained to be of the time of Edward I.
Preston (All Saints)
PRESTON (All Saints), a parish, in the unions of Sculcoates and Skirlaugh, Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York; containing, with the township of Lelley, 1082 inhabitants, of whom 946 are in Preston township, 7 miles (E. by N.) from Hull. An hospital for lepers was founded here early in the reign of John, in honour of the Holy Sepulchre, by John Fitz-Oubern, and placed under the control of a master and certain brethren and sisters. No remains exist; but coins, keys, &c. are occasionally found in digging, and a valuable relic has been lately discovered, with the legend "The seal of Master Simon of the house of the Blessed Virgin Mary." The parish comprises upwards of 4850 acres of land, divided among many proprietors; the village is considerable, and contains some good houses, on the road from Hedon to Bilton. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Sub-Dean of York, valued in the king's books at £12; net income, £81. The church is in the later English style, consisting of a nave, north aisle, and chancel, with a tower of hewn stone, which is the finest part of the edifice; the interior is neat, and has numerous monumental inscriptions. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans. Thomas Holmes, in 1718, endowed a school with £200, which sum was laid out in land, now producing an income of about £30.
Preston-Baggott (All Saints)
PRESTON-BAGGOTT (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Stratford-upon-Avon, Henley division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Henley; containing 238 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 1302 acres, whereof 318 are pasture, 850 arable, and 27 woodland; the surface is undulated, and the soil a mixture of marl, gravel, and clay: the land is all inclosed. The Stratford and Birmingham canal intersects the parish; and a stream runs through it, propelling a flour-mill: here is a wharf. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £4, and in the gift of the Rev. Theodore John Cartwright: the tithes have been commuted for £342, and there are 20 acres of glebe. The church is in the early Norman style.
Preston-Bissett (St. John the Baptist)
PRESTON-BISSETT (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 4½ miles (S. W.) from Buckingham; containing, with Cowley hamlet, 517 inhabitants, of whom 486 are in the township of Preston-Bissett. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 9. 4½.; income, £457; patron, the Duke of Buckingham. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments in the year 1781.
PRESTON-BROCKHURST, a township, partly in the parish of Shawbury, hundred of Pimhill, and partly in the parish of Moreton-Corbet, Whitchurch division of the hundred of North Bradford, union of Wem, N. division of Salop, 3¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Wem; containing 138 inhabitants.
Preston-Capes (St. Peter and St. Paul)
PRESTON-CAPES (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Daventry, hundred of Fawsley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 5¾ miles (S.) from Daventry; containing 354 inhabitants, and comprising 2710a. 35p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 0. 5.; net income, £426; patron, Sir C. Knightley, Bart. Richard Knightley, in 1667, bequeathed a rent-charge of £24 for a charity school. A Cluniac priory here, was eventually transferred to Daventry.
Preston-Deanery (St. Peter and St. Paul)
PRESTON-DEANERY (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Hardingstone, hundred of Wymmersley, S. division of the county of Northampton; 3¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from the town of Northampton; containing 84 inhabitants. It comprises 1452a. 3r. 13p., and is intersected by the road from London to Birmingham. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; patron and impropriator, Langham Christie, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £173. 15. The body of the church is of modern erection, but the steeple is supposed to have been built about the time of Stephen.
PRESTON, EAST, a parish, in the hundred of Poling, rape of Arundel, W. division of the county of Sussex, 3½ miles (E.) from Littlehampton; containing 270 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the English Channel, and comprises 459 acres, chiefly arable land; the soil is a rich loam, and the surface level. The living is a vicarage not in charge, united to that of Ferring: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £40, with a glebe of 9½ acres; and £210 are paid to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The church is in the early English style, with later additions, and has a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, serving as a landmark at sea. George Oliver, Esq., in 1840 erected a school, which he endowed with £5 per annum.
Preston, Great and Little
PRESTON, GREAT and LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Kippax, Lower division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 8 miles (E. S. E.) from Leeds; containing 467 inhabitants. The township consists of rather more than 1000 acres, and there are some collieries in the immediate vicinity. The manor is the property of the family of Lowther, whose ancient seat, Preston Hall, has been converted into a workhouse for the poor of a union under Gilbert's act, which comprises 41 parishes and townships.
Preston-Gubbals (St. Martin)
PRESTON-GUBBALS (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Atcham, liberties of the town of Shrewsbury, N. division of Salop, 4¾ miles (N.) from Shrewsbury; containing, with the township of Merrington, 388 inhabitants, of whom 200 are in Preston-Gubbals township. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the family of Jones: the tithes have been commuted for £167.
PRESTON-LE-SKERNE, a township, in the parish of Aycliffe, union of Sedgefield, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 7 miles (N. by E.) from Darlington; containing 131 inhabitants. The township comprises 2610 acres of arable, meadow, and pasture land, of which the soil is poor. The De la Poles, earls of Suffolk, had some lands with free warren here. The main line of the Clarence railway passes through the township, and the village is on the road from Aycliffe to Mordon. The tithes have been commuted for £174. 5., whereof £70 are payable to the vicar.
Preston, Long (St. Mary)
PRESTON, LONG (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Settle, wapentake of Staincliffe West, W. riding of York, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Settle, and 12 (W. N. W.) from Skipton; containing, with the townships of West Halton, Hellifield, and Wigglesworth, 1568 inhabitants, of whom 708 are in the township of Long Preston. This parish is situated on the river Ribble, and comprises 13,214a. 1r. 12½p., of which 3533a. 2r. 5p. are in the township. The surface is diversified, and the soil in some places is fertile, but in the hilly parts cold and unproductive; the lands are chiefly meadow and pasture. The substrata are argillaceous limestone, clayslate, freestone, and grit; the limestone occurs chiefly in thin beds, and contains various fossils, some of which are scarcely referable to any distinct class. The village is on the east bank of the river, and is well built; the inhabitants are partly employed in weaving calico for the manufacturers in the neighbouring towns. An act was passed in 1846 for a railway from Skipton, by Long Preston, to Lancaster; and another act was obtained in the same year, for a line hence to Clitheroe and Blackburn. Fairs for cattle and pigs are held on the 1st of March and 4th of September. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 18. 11½.; net income, £240, with an excellent parsonage-house, built in 1842; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford. The great tithes of Long Preston township have been commuted for £13, and the small for £54: the Dean and Chapter have 124 acres of glebe. The church is an ancient structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyan Methodists. The free school was founded in 1835, and endowed by the late John Hartley, Esq., of Settle, and Mary his niece, from a bequest by the late Miss Hall, of Long Preston, with land producing about £140 per annum, of which one-third is appropriated to the apprenticing of children. An hospital for ten aged persons was founded in 1613, by James Knowles, who also built a chapel adjoining it for their use, in which he endowed a readership with £5 per annum; the endowment, out of which £5 are assigned to the repair of the church, is now sufficient to allow each of the inmates £10 per annum, and there is every prospect of its increase. John Smith, in 1732, bequeathed two cottages and 8½ acres of land, producing £37 per annum, for distribution among the poor of the parish.
PRESTON-ON-THE-HILL, a township, in the parish and union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Frodsham; containing 607 inhabitants. The township comprises 1100 acres, of a clay soil. The Trent and Mersey canal here forms a junction with the Duke of Bridgewater's canal; and at Preston-Brook is a station of the Liverpool and Birmingham railway, which passes through a tunnel, and also under the canal, which is sustained by a double arch, a line of rails running through each division. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
PRESTON-PATRICK, a chapelry, in the parish of Burton-in-Kendal, union and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Kirkby-Lonsdale; containing 484 inhabitants, and comprising 3575a. 1r. 16p. of land. The river Belo is here crossed by the Lancaster canal. Challen or Chanon Hall stands on the site of an abbey which existed here for a short time, but was ultimately removed to Shap. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £67. 14. and a house; patrons, the Owners of land and tenements charged with the payment of the minister's salary. The tithes were commuted for land in 1814. The chapel, dedicated to St. Patrick, is a neat building, situated on the acclivity of a hill rising from the eastern bank of the Belo. A school, founded in 1780, is endowed with land now producing £9. 9. per annum, for which 10 children are taught.
PRESTON-QUARTER, a township, in the parish of St. Bees, union of Whitehaven, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, on the south side of the town of Whitehaven; containing 4547 inhabitants. Here are very extensive collieries, the produce of which is shipped at Whitehaven.
PRESTON-RICHARD, a township, in the parish of Heversham, union and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Kirkby-Lonsdale; containing 355 inhabitants. The Kendal canal passes through the township, and on its banks are several coke-ovens, and a large coal-wharf. At Birkrigg is a burial-ground, formerly belonging to the Society of Friends, but now disused. At End-Moor an antique hammer-head of stone was found in 1770.
Preston, Tarrant, in the hundred of Badbury, county of Dorset.—See Crawford, Tarrant.
PRESTON, TARRANT, in the hundred of Badbury, county of Dorset.—See Crawford, Tarrant.
PRESTON-under-Scar, a township, in the parish of Wensley, union of Leyburn, wapentake of HangWest, N. riding of York, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Middleham; containing 313 inhabitants. The township comprises 2274 acres, of which 15 are waste land; it extends northward in high moors, in which coal and lead-ore are found. The village lies about three miles to the west of Leyburn, and is pleasantly situated under lofty scars at the western end of a picturesque and romantic ridge ornamented with foliage. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Preston-upon-Stour (St. Mary Magdalene)
PRESTON-upon-Stour (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Stratford-upon-Avon, Upper division of the hundred of Deerhurst, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (S.) from Stratford; containing 394 inhabitants. The parish is pleasantly situated on the small river Stour, and comprises by measurement 1709 acres; the soil is chiefly clay and marl, but in some parts consists of gravel and sand. The village lies near the London and Birmingham road; and the railway from Stratford to Moreton-in-the-Marsh runs at the distance of half a mile. Alscote Park, with its tastefully-disposed grounds, adds greatly to the beauty of the scenery. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 4.; net income, £55; patron and impropriator, J. R. West, Esq. The church is of pointed architecture, with an embattled tower; the chancel is very elegant, and there are four beautifully painted windows.
PRESTON-upon-Tees, a township, in the parish and union of Stockton, S. W. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 2 miles (S. S. W.) from Stockton; containing 111 inhabitants. Various families have held land here. Among the earliest were the Prestons, who took their name from the place, and who are mentioned in the 13th century, since which period lands have belonged to the families of Eden, Seton, Sayer, Wyvill, Fowler, and others. The township comprises by computation 640 acres, and is bounded on the south by the navigable river Tees, and intersected by the Stockton and Darlington railway. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £135, and the vicarial for £14. 17.
Preston-upon-the-Wild-Moors (St. Lawrence)
PRESTON-upon-the-Wild-Moors (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Wellington, Wellington division of the hundred of South Bradford, N. division of Salop, 3½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Wellington; containing 247 inhabitants. It comprises 882a. 3r. 26p., in equal portions of arable and pasture. The village is on the margin of what must anciently have been a very extensive morass, but the land is now well drained. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3; net income, £198; patrons, the Trustees of Preston Hospital, for two turns, and St. John Charlton, Esq., (to whom a moiety of the rectorial tithes belongs) for one turn. The church is a very plain edifice, erected about a century since. A noble hospital for widows, and for the instruction of twenty girls, was erected and endowed in the early part of the last century, under the will of Lady Catherine Herbert, who in 1716 bequeathed £6000 for that purpose. Her brother, also, Lord Torrington, in 1718 devised an estate in Preston towards its support, and £1000 towards its erection; and the funds were still further augmented by the Earl of Montrath, who in 1802 bequeathed £4000 for the increase of the widow's pensions. The present revenue is £1589 per annum. The building originally formed three sides of a square, with a hall in the centre, used as a chapel and school; but in 1827 wings were erected, so as to afford accommodation for eight more widows.
Preston-upon-Wye (St. Lawrence)
PRESTON-upon-Wye (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Weobley, hundred of Webtree, county of Hereford, 9½ miles (W. by N.) from Hereford; containing 260 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 1300 acres, and stretches along the right bank of the river Wye. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Blackmere united, valued in the king's books at £3. 16. 9.; net income, £250; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford.
Preston-Wynne (Holy Trinity)
PRESTON-WYNNE (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the hundred of Broxash, union and county of Hereford, 6½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Hereford; containing 169 inhabitants. It is watered by a branch of the Lugg, and consists of 863 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Withington.