Rufford - Runwick

Pages 711-716

A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.

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Rufford (St. Mary)

RUFFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Ormskirk, hundred of Leyland, N. division of Lancashire, 5½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Ormskirk, on the road to Preston; containing 866 inhabitants. A moiety of this manor appears to have been granted in the reign of Henry I., by Richard Bussel, the second baron of Penwortham, to Richard Fitun or Fitton. John Fitton, his great-grandson, was also lord of half of Rufford; and the grandson of the latter, by a charter without date, gave the moiety of the town to his daughter Matilda, or Maud. This Matilda married Sir William Hesketh; and by the marriage of Sir William's grandson with the heiress of Edmund Fitton, lord of half Rufford, he became sole lord of the manor, which has since been vested in his descendants. Rufford was formerly a chapelry in the parish of Croston, and was made parochial by act of parliament in 1793. It comprises 2996 acres, whereof 1369 are arable, 1214 pasture, 178 woodland, and 129 heath and common: the soil is a vegetable loam, producing abundant crops of excellent potatoes; and though the surface is flat, by the aid of good cultivation it is rendered tolerably interesting. The river Douglas separates the parish from that of Croston; and the Leeds and Liverpool canal, and the Liverpool and Preston railway, pass through. The Old Hall bears date 1662, but from its appearance, it must have been built a century earlier; the banqueting-room is rich in carved oak, and contains a huge screen of massive cut beech. The New Hall, the seat of Sir Thomas George Hesketh, Bart., stands in a large wellwooded park. The living is a rectory not in charge, in the gift of Le Gendre Nicholas Starkie, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £390, and the rector receives £190 out of those of Ulnes-Walton. The church was in existence (as a chapel) five centuries ago, when Sir Robert Hesketh, Knt., was licensed to found a chantry; it was rebuilt in 1735, and is a plain brick building with a cupola: a small gallery and an organ were erected in 1829. On the north side of the family pew of the Heskeths, is a venerable marble slab, on which are represented a knight and his lady, the former being Thomas Hesketh, who died Oct. 1363. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. Sir Thomas Hesketh in 1816 built a school, which is supported by the present baronet.


RUFFORD, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Southwell, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 2 miles (S. S. W.) from Ollerton; containing 363 inhabitants. It extends southward from the vicinity of Ollerton, for more than six miles, along the banks of the Rainworth-water, and consists of 10,221 acres. An abbey for Cistercian monks, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was founded here in 1148, by Gilbert, Earl of Lincoln: at the Dissolution it possessed a revenue of £254. 6. 8. The remains have been incorporated into a spacious mansion, situated in a richly-wooded park of 1400 acres; the large hall was altered to its present state in the reign of Elizabeth. An apartment in which his Majesty George IV. slept on one of his visits to the north, when Prince of Wales, is still called the Prince of Wales's bed-room.

Rufforth (All Saints)

RUFFORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the E. division of Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York, 5 miles (W.) from York, on the road to Wetherby; containing 276 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 2350a. 3r. 27p., whereof three-fourths are arable, and the rest pasture with a little woodland. The surface is generally flat, and the soil of various qualities, some portions being a strong clay, and others of a lighter nature. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and has a net income of £100; the patronage belongs to Mr. and Mrs. Siddall. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1794. The church, which has a small bell turret, was fully repaired in 1832.

Rugby (St. Andrew)

RUGBY (St. Andrew), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the Rugby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 16½ miles (E. N. E.) from Warwick, and 83 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 4008 inhabitants. At this place, anciently called Rocheberie, afterwards Rokeby, and in the reign of Elizabeth by its present name, is supposed to have been one of those fortresses which Stephen, expecting Matilda's invasion, permitted his nobles to erect upon their estates. The town is pleasantly situated on rising ground, on the south side of the Avon. Within the last few years several new streets have been formed, among which are Elborow-street, New-street, Church-street, and Eldon and Union places; the principal thoroughfares have been flagged, and lighted with gas. The houses are in general well built of brick, and of modern appearance, though occasionally intermixed with some of ancient character, with plastered walls and thatched roofs. Rugby has become important of late as the point of junction of several lines of railway. The London and Birmingham railroad passes a short distance to the north of the town, and the Midland railway unites with it here, being carried over the river Avon by a viaduct of 11 semicircular arches of brick, of 50 feet span. There are railways from Rugby to Stafford and to Stamford; a line to Leamington will probably be opened at the close of 1848, and one to Oxford in 1849. The station here was originally small; but the London and North-Western Company in 1846 obtained an act to build new offices, which will be completed in 1849, and will be among the most extensive in the kingdom. The Oxford canal is in the vicinity of the town. The market, which is well attended, and abundantly supplied with provisions of every kind, is on Saturday. Fourteen fairs are held annually, the greater number of them for cattle; these are on the second Tuesday after Twelfthday, on February 17th, March 31st, the last Monday in April, May 5th (chiefly a pleasure-fair), the second Monday in June, July 7th, the ninth Monday before New Michaelmas-day, on August 21st, the Monday before Michaelmas-day, the Monday preceding October 22nd, on November 22nd (a great horse-fair), the Tuesday before St. Thomas's day, and the Monday after Christmas-day. The powers of the county debt-court of Rugby, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Rugby. The parish comprises by measurement 1560 acres, of which the greater portion is meadow and pasture.

The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 19. 2.; net income, about £600; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Craven. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1773. The church is an ancient structure, partly in the early English style, with a massive square embattled tower, having a turret at the south-east angle; the tower appears to have been erected as a place of security after the demolition of the castle. The roof of the nave is supported on the north side by massive octagonal piers and sharplypointed arches, of which those nearer to the chancel are much more lofty than the others; the building was enlarged on the south, after a design by the late Mr. Rickman, and the windows on that side have been enriched with flowing tracery. The church contains an elegant modern font, executed in Caen stone, and designed in the style of the 14th century; it is octagonal in form, with projecting ogee arched canopied niches, within which are alternately displayed the Evangelistic symbols interspersed with shields bearing various crosses and the sacred monogram I H C. Affixed to the north wall of the church is a chaste mural monument, with a Latin inscription, to the memory of a sister of the late Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A., whose father died, and was buried, at Rugby. A district church in honour of St. Matthew was erected in 1841, at a cost of about £3000, and endowed by individual donations; it is a chaste and handsome structure in the early English style, and consists of a nave and aisles, neatly ceiled: the font is a beautiful piece of workmanship, of hexagonal form. The living is in the gift of Trustees. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans; and a Roman Catholic chapel dedicated to St. Marie, built by Captain Hibbert, and consecrated in Sept. 1847. A charity school was founded in 1707, by Mr. Elborow, who endowed it with a house and 50 acres of land; and adjoining it, and supported out of the same funds, are six almshouses for aged widows. There is also a national school, and various bequests have been made for distribution among the poor. The union of Rugby comprises 40 parishes or places, 31 of which are in the county of Warwick, 8 in that of Northampton, and one in the county of Leicester; the whole containing a population of 20,601.

The Grammar School, which is the distinguishing feature in Rugby, is a noble and magnificent establishment, and has for many years maintained a high degree of reputation. It was founded in the 9th of Elizabeth, by Lawrence Sheriff, of London, a native of Brownsover, in the neighbouring parish of Clifton, who endowed it with a house and some land in that parish, and with about eight acres called the Conduit close, near the Foundling Hospital, London. At this time the income was inconsiderable, and in the year 1780 the rental did not exceed £116 per annum; but from the subsequent improvement of the estate, by the erection of numerous dwelling-houses, and the laying out of several streets, upon the site, the revenue has been augmented to more than £5000 per annum. Belonging to the institution are 21 exhibitions of £60 per annum, tenable for seven years, at either of the universities, to which, by the regulations of the school, boys on the foundation have the preference; also several fellowships, varying in value from £100 to £300 per annum, but not exceeding £1000 per annum in the aggregate amount, which are given at the discretion of the trustees to the head master and ushers who have been ten years in the establishment, or have retired after that period. Boys are eligible to the foundation who live within ten miles of the town, if in Warwickshire, or within five miles, if in any other county. The total number of boys is 450.

The school premises, taken down and rebuilt in 1808, form a splendid range of building in the Elizabethan style. The principal entrance is under a square gateway tower with octagonal turrets at the angles, through a richly-groined archway, above which is a beautiful oriel window embellished with stained glass; the archway leads into a spacious quadrangle, of which two sides are cloistered. The schoolrooms are lofty, and the great school, as it is called, in which the annual Prize Compositions are recited, is of stately elevation; the room in the gateway tower, over the principal entrance, is appropriated to the library. Through an archway diagonally opposite to the principal entrance, is the approach to the chapel, a detached edifice in the later English style, to which is also an entrance from the public road. The sides of the chapel are strengthened with ornamented buttresses, and relieved by three elegant windows with dripstones resting on corbels with antique heads; the east and west ends are decorated with crocketed pinnacles at the angles, and a cross on the apex of the gable. The interior is fitted up like the choir of a cathedral: the roof, which is flat, and painted to resemble oak, is panelled, and ribbed with diagonal intersections. The east window is embellished with painted glass representing the Offerings of the Magi; in a tablet over the communion-table is a painting after Murillo, of the Saviour bearing his Cross, and four of the side windows are also ornamented with stained glass. At the west end are two canopied seats for the head master and the chaplain, over which is a gallery, with an organ of appropriate design. On the north side near the altar, is a monument of white marble, by Chantrey, erected to the memory of Dr. James, a former head master; and on the south side is a monument by Westmacott, to Doctor Wooll, a subsequent master. At the east end, also, is one recently erected to the memory of the late distinguished Dr. Arnold: it is of Caen stone, and executed with great taste; the figure is recumbent, and exquisitely sculptured. The entrance to the head master's apartments is through a large octagonal turret, forming the hall and staircase, and the whole range of buildings is relieved with turrets at various intervals. From the funds of the institution are supported twelve almshouses, lately refronted in a corresponding style.

At Lawford, one mile west from Rugby, are large quarries of blue lias, covered with a thick bed of gravel, in which elephants' bones, and the remains of other animals, have been found in considerable quantities. On the road to Lawford is a British tumulus; and at Brownsover, one mile north-west of Rugby, is an earthwork, supposed to be a British camp, surrounded by the rivers Swift and Avon. Skeletons, buried in the ancient British manner, with the limbs contracted, have been discovered.

Rugeley (St. Augustine)

RUGELEY (St. Augustine), a market-town and parish, in the union of Lichfield, E. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 9 miles (E. S. E.) from Stafford, and 127 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 3774 inhabitants. This parish includes a portion of Cannock chase, the whole of which, comprising nearly 20,000 acres, still uninclosed, was, together with the manor of Rugeley, granted by Henry VIII. to William, first Lord Paget, ancestor of the Marquess of Anglesey, the present lord of the manor. The town is agreeably situated near the south bank of the river Trent, on the road from Stafford to Lichfield; it is lighted with gas, is remarkably clean, and of respectable appearance. There are several good streets; two of them, called Albion-street and Church-street, have been lately formed, and many of the houses in the latter are of a superior order. The trade is greatly promoted by the proximity of the Grand Trunk canal, which connects the navigation of the rivers Trent and Mersey, and passing northward of the town, between it and the river, communicates with the Brereton collieries, in the parish, by a tramroad, and not far distant is carried over the Trent by a fine aqueduct. The Trent-Valley railway, also, completed in 1847, runs near the town. Here are an iron-foundry, and mills for rolling sheet-iron, also a small manufactory for sugar of lead and verdigris: hats were formerly made to a considerable extent, but this branch of trade has very much declined. The market is on Thursday. Fairs take place on April 15th; June 1st, a very large horse-fair, which continues till the 6th, on which day is also a large cattlefair; October 21st, for cattle, sheep, and horses; and the second Tuesday in December. The powers of the county debt-court of Rugeley, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Lichfield. A court leet is held in October.

The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 2., and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, the appropriators: the great tithes have been commuted for £405; and the vicarial for £315, with a glebe of 8 acres. The present church was erected in 1822, with stone given by the Marquess of Anglesey; it has a tower, and contains 430 free sittings, in consideration of a grant of £800 from the Incorporated Society. Of the old edifice, the tower and chancel remain entire, and the latter is used as a schoolroom; the arches are in ruins. A district church has been built at Brereton. There is a place of worship for Independents, and one for Wesleyans at Glover's-Hill. The free grammar school is said to have been founded in the time of Elizabeth, but the date is not known; the endowment consists of land and houses in the parish, and produces about £320 per annum. The school is free to the sons of inhabitants of the parish, and the average number of free scholars, for some years past, has been about 50; the master is allowed to take 20 boarders, and may also admit 11 day-scholars from the neighbouring parishes, who pay for their education. Bamford's school was established by John Bamford, who by will dated February 11th, 1733, gave £400: this benefaction having been augmented, the income is now £35 per annum. A national school for girls was founded by the Hon. Mrs. Curzon, now Lady de la Zouche; and an almshouse, for four women, by Mrs. Hopkins.

Ruishton (St. George)

RUISHTON (St. George), a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and Taunton-Dean, W. division of Somerset, 2½ miles (E.) from Taunton; containing, with the picturesque hamlet of Henlade, 482 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the navigable river Tone, and comprises by measurement 1020 acres, of which about 23 are roads and waste. The village, which is separated from Henlade by the London road, is in the lower part flat and marshy, but towards the south stands on an acclivity, commanding some interesting views. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £84; patron and incumbent, the Rev. G. E. Peake. The church, situated close to the river, is an elegant structure in the decorated English style, with a tower of three stages; near the altar are the remains of a confessional, and both the exterior and interior of the edifice display beautiful and interesting details.

Ruislip (St. Martin)

RUISLIP (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Uxbridge, hundred of Elthorne, county of Middlesex, 3½ miles (N. E.) from Uxbridge; containing, with the ville of Eastcott, and the hamlet of North Wood, 1413 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12; income, £462; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Windsor: the tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1804. Here was a cell to the abbey of Bec, in Normandy, the revenue of which at the suppression was £18.

Rumbold's-Wyke (St. Rumbald)

RUMBOLD'S-WYKE (St. Rumbald), a parish, in the union of West Hampnett, hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex; containing 324 inhabitants. This is a small parish adjoining Chichester, and includes part of the suburb called Hornett. A branch of the Arundel and Portsmouth canal, to Chichester, passes through its western portion. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £4; net income, £234; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Chichester. The church is a neat building in the later English style.


RUMBRIDGE, a tything, in the parish of Eling, union of New-Forest, hundred of Redbridge, Romsey and S. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 661 inhabitants.

Rumburgh (St. Michael)

RUMBURGH (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Halesworth; containing 435 inhabitants, and comprising about 1370 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the vicarage of South Elmham St. Michael annexed; net income, £130; patron and incumbent, the Rev. L. Atthill; impropriator of Rumburgh, George Durrant, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for £357. The church, an ancient structure with a low massive tower, was the church of a Benedictine monastery dedicated to St. Michael, founded here soon after the Conquest, for monks from St. Bene'tat-Holme, and in the reign of Henry I. given by Allan, Earl of Richmond, to the abbey of St. Mary at York. The monastery was suppressed in 1528, and granted to Cardinal Wolsey towards the endowment of his college at Ipswich; the remains have been converted into a farmhouse. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is partly supported by an appropriation of £10 from the rent of land producing £70 per annum, for the repair of the church, and for charitable uses.

Rumney (St. Augustine)

RUMNEY (St. Augustine), a parish, in the union of Cardiff, hundred of Wentlloog, division of Newport, county of Monmouth, 3 miles (N. E.) from Cardiff; containing 305 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the north by the river Rumney, which separates the counties of Monmouth and Glamorgan, and flows into the Bristol Channel. It comprises about 1900 acres; and abounds with stone, which is quarried for building purposes and for the roads. The river is navigable for small craft, and the road from London to Milford passes through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 10. 7½.; net income, £86; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Bristol. The great tithes have been commuted for £195, and the small for £45: the vicar has a glebe of 3 acres. On an eminence overlooking the river is an ancient encampment surrounded by a fosse inclosing an area of about 40 perches.


RUMWORTH, a township, in the parish of Deane, union of Bolton, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 1 mile (W. S. W.) from Bolton; containing 1298 inhabitants. The name of the parish, Deane, is obviously derived from the Saxon Den, a valley, and expresses not inaptly the situation of this township, in which are included the village and parochial church of Deane. Rumworth comprises 1300 acres, and is separated from the township of Heaton by the Croal or Middlebrook stream, which passes on the north.


RUNCKTON, a hamlet, in the parish of North Mundham, union of West Hampnett, hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex; containing 98 inhabitants.

Runcorn (St. Bartholomew)

RUNCORN (St. Bartholomew), a sea-port and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester; containing, according to the census of 1841, 12,698 inhabitants, of whom 6951 are in the township of Runcorn, 9 miles (S. W. by W.) from Warrington, 12 (E. S. E.) from Liverpool, and 189 (N. W. by N.) from London. In the year 915, Ethelfleda, sister to King Edward the Elder, and widow of Ethelred, Earl of Mercia, built near the Mersey a town and castle, called Runcofan, some traces of which are still visible at Castle-Rock, by the river side, about 300 yards below the church of Runcorn. The head of the rock once extended much beyond its present limits, jutting a considerable distance into the Mersey, and abruptly contracting the bed of that river: the strait thus formed was called the Gap, a name which the vicinity still bears, though the stream at this point is now about 400 yards broad at high water. The castle commanded the passage from the kingdom of Mercia to that of Northumberland. In 1153, William Fitz-Nigel founded here a monastery of Canons regular; but about the reign of Stephen, the founder's son William, constable of Chester, removed it to Norton, a township in the parish, east of Runcorn.

The Town has much increased within the last few years in magnitude and importance. At the time when the Old Quay and the Duke of Bridgewater's canals (both of which pass through a great portion of the parish) were cut, it was a romantic and secluded village; it is now a town of considerable size, with every indication of becoming much larger. Improvements of every description are taking place in the town and neighbourhood; whole streets of houses have been lately built, others are in the process of building, and more are planned. An act for better lighting the place was passed in 1847. There is a town-hall; and petty-sessions are held. The powers of the county debt-court of Runcorn, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registration-district of Runcorn.

This was made a Port in 1847. The limits of the port commence at Warrington bridge, following the course of the Mersey westward, and including both shores, to Chapel Farm on the Lancashire side, and Eastham church on the Cheshire side, with the shores and waters of the Weaver up to Frodsham bridge. The privilege of bonding goods in general has been extended to the port. New dock, Old dock, the Lower Basin, Old Basin, Francis' dock, and Old Quay docks, have been appointed legal quays; warehouse accommodation has been prepared for the reception of bonded goods, and a yard for bonding timber of all kinds has been completed. There is also storage for merchandise not for bond; and the warehouses being immediately contiguous to the docks, no expense for the cartage of goods to them from the vessels is incurred. The canals already mentioned, which here form a junction with the Mersey, are the great route by water for goods passing between Liverpool and the eastern and southern parts of the kingdom. The position of Runcorn with respect to the manufacturing districts of Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire, the Potteries, and the iron-districts of Wolverhampton, Birmingham, &c., renders the port especially eligible for purposes of traffic; and the coal-fields of Lancashire and salt-works of Cheshire give facilities to ships in procuring cargoes here with the least possible delay, ready and economical communication existing with both the collieries and the salt-works.

In the three quarters of a year ending 5th January, 1848, the trade of the port was as follows. The number of vessels in the foreign trade, inwards, was 18, of the aggregate burthen of 2140 tons; outwards, the same number, of 2328 tons. The coasting-trade vessels subject to coast regulations were: Irish, inwards, 198, of 8950 tons; outwards, 419, of 22,757 tons: English, inwards, 925, of 48,835 tons; outwards, 884, of 40,169 tons. The actual number of vessels that arrived at and sailed from the port, including those not subject to coast regulations, was, inwards, 1853; outwards, 1821. The goods imported and warehoused comprised timber, deals, tea, coffee, and wine. The grain and meal imported from Ireland, were, wheat, 915 quarters; oats, 6768 quarters; and oatmeal, 264 tons: the quantity of salt exported amounted to 75,780 bushels, and of coal to 620 tons. The duty received in the three quarters was £2551. The port is yet in its infancy; but the more its accommodation and convenience are known, the more its traffic may be expected to increase.

The Bridgewater canal is 82 feet above the level of the river, with which it communicates by a series of locks. The Old Quay canal is of a much lower level, and joins the Mersey by the aid of a single lock only. The river is navigable to Runcorn by vessels of 350 tons: the class usually seen here are coasters, varying from 20 to 180 tons. Steamers ply daily with the tide between Runcorn and Liverpool, one or more, according to the season, being engaged in the conveyance of passengers, and others in towing vessels: in connexion with the steamers for passengers, and also independently of them at fixed periods of the day, are canal boats to and from Manchester that travel at the rate of ten miles an hour. There is also a ferry across the river, on the other side of which commences the Runcorn-Gap and St. Helen's railway. An act was passed in 1846 for a railway from the Huyton station of the Liverpool and Manchester railway, to run across the Mersey, past Runcorn, to Aston-by-Sutton, there to join the Liverpool and Birmingham railway. The line is to be 12 miles in length, with a branch of nearly a mile at Runcorn; and, when constructed, will form part of the most direct route between Liverpool and London.

Runcorn Hill, or the Beetle, as it is provincially termed, and its environs, present an almost inexhaustible supply of stone; and from the quarries opened there and in other parts of the parish, considerable quantities of stone are sent by water to Chester, Liverpool, and Manchester. At Runcorn are also extensive soap and chemical works, in connexion with which are two circular brick chimneys, surmounted by capitals of hewn stone, and forming columns of great beauty. There are several large ship-building establishments by the side of the river; two foundries; and a chain-factory.

The parish includes the chapelries of Aston-by-Sutton, Daresbury, Halton, and Thelwall; and the townships of Acton-Grange, Aston-Grange, Clifton, Hatton, Keckwick, Moore, Newton-by-Daresbury, Norton, Prestonon-the-Hill, Stockham, Sutton, Walton Inferior and Superior, and Weston. In Runcorn township are 819 acres of land. The Living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 2.; net income, £320; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford, who, and the vicar, are appropriators. The church was originally founded by Edward, son of Alfred the Great. It belonged to the convent of Norton, and after the Dissolution the appropriation and advowson were given by Henry VIII. to Christ-Church College: the present church was erected in 1847-8. A district church, Trinity, was built a few years ago, by subscription, and endowed by John and Thomas Johnson, Esqrs., who hold the patronage. At Aston-by-Sutton, Daresbury, Halton, Thelwall, and Weston Point, are other incumbencies; and the town contains places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, and Primitive and Independent Methodists; a Welsh chapel, and a Roman Catholic chapel. The poor-law union of Runcorn comprises 37 parishes or places, and contains a population of 23,000.

Runcton, North (All Saints)

RUNCTON, NORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Lynn; containing, with the hamlet of Hardwick, 289 inhabitants. It comprises 1416 acres, of which 700 are arable, 610 meadow and pasture, 20 woodland, and 86 common; the surface is undulated, and the scenery pleasingly diversified. The Hall, the seat of D. Gurney, Esq., F.S.A., is a handsome mansion. The living is a rectory, with the living of Setchey, valued in the king's books at £8. 10., and in the gift of Mr. Gurney; the tithes have been commuted for £623, and the glebe comprises 26 acres. The church was nearly destroyed by the fall of the tower in 1701, and after being for many years in ruins, was rebuilt by subscription, aided by grants from the Incorporated and Diocesan Societies, and reopened in 1839; it is a neat edifice in the Grecian style, with a cupola.

Runcton, South (St. Andrew)

RUNCTON, SOUTH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Downham, hundred of Clackclose, W. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Downham; containing 144 inhabitants. It is on the road to Lynn, and comprises 831a. 3r. 24p., of which 593 acres are arable, 181 meadow and pasture, and 25 woodland. The living is a rectory, with the livings of Holme, Thorpland, and Wallington annexed, valued in the king's books at £12, and in the gift of the Representatives of the late R. Peel, Esq.: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for £246. 13., and the glebe comprises 13½ acres. The church, a handsome structure in the Norman style, was restored in 1839, at an expense of £700, towards which the Incorporated Society granted £170.

Runhall (All Saints)

RUNHALL (All Saints), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Forehoe, E. division of Norfolk, 5¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Wymondham; containing 248 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by a stream tributary to the Yare; and comprises 848 acres, of which the principal portion is arable, and the remainder, with the exception of 45 acres of woodland and 74 open common, is meadow and pasture. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £6. 18. 1½.; net income, £65; patron and impropriator, Lord Wodehouse, whose tithes have been commuted for £80. The church is in the early and later styles, and consists of a nave, with a circular tower; the chancel is in ruins.

Runham (St. Peter and St. Paul)

RUNHAM (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the East and West Flegg incorporation, hundred of East Flegg, E. division of Norfolk, 6¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Yarmouth; containing 290 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1715a. 1r. 18p., of which 1060 acres are marsh; the navigable river Bure bounds it on the south, and the Vauxhall gardens, near Yarmouth bridge, are within its limits. A market, and a fair on the vigil and festival of St. Peter ad Vincula, were granted by King John to Robert de Evermere, for the village of Runham. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely. The great tithes have been commuted for £223. 16., and the vicarial for £145. 5., besides a rent-charge of £32. 4. payable to the vicar of Gorleston; the glebe comprises 24 acres. The church is chiefly in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower. Some poor persons are supplied with coal from a sum of £30, the rental of land awarded under an inclosure act in the 42nd of George III.


RUNNINGTON, a parish, in the union of Wellington, hundred of Milverton, W. division of Somerset, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Wellington; containing 107 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Tone, and the Taunton and Tiverton canal passes near its boundary. It comprises 323 acres, and the substratum contains good limestone, which is quarried for burning into lime. A few persons are employed in the woollen manufacture. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 1. 5½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £84, and the glebe comprises 16 acres. The church is ancient.


RUNSELL, a hamlet, in the parish of Danbury, union and hundred of Chelmsford, though locally in that of Dengie, S. division of Essex, 1 mile (E.) from Danbury; containing 313 inhabitants.


RUNSTON, an ancient parish, in the union of Chepstow, division and hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 3¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Chepstow. The church has been demolished. For parochial purposes the place is connected with St. Pierre, and for ecclesiastical purposes with Mathern, to the vicar of which the tithes are payable.

Runton (Holy Trinity)

RUNTON (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 2½ miles (W. by N.) from Cromer; containing 424 inhabitants. The parish lies on the coast, and comprises 1253a. 3r. 5p., of which 934 acres are arable, 28 meadow and pasture, 129 plantation, and 45 common. There are two villages, East and West Runton, the former situated on a green, sheltered in the rear by an amphitheatre of hills, but open to the beach, where a fishery is carried on, in which 4 large and 10 small boats are employed. The living is a discharged rectory, united to the livings of Felbrigg, Metton, and Aylmerton, and valued in the king's books at £10: the tithes have been commuted for £240, and the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the early and later English styles, with a square embattled tower; in the chancel is a piscina of elegant design. A school is supported; and £30 per annum, arising from bequests, are distributed to the poor.

Runwell (St. Mary)

RUNWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 1 mile (N. by E.) from Wickford; containing 324 inhabitants. It is situated on the navigable river Crouch, and comprises about 1790 acres, of which 1533 are arable, 217 meadow and pasture, and 40 woodland; the soil is principally a deep loam, and the surface is partly hilly, commanding fine views. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13, and in the patronage of the Knox family: the tithes have been commuted for £550, and the glebe consists of 20 acres. The church, a neat edifice of brick, with a square embattled tower of stone surmounted by a shingled spire, contains some ancient monuments and brasses.


RUNWICK, a tything, in the parish and hundred of Farnham, W. division of the county of Surrey; containing 305 inhabitants.