A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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ARVANS (ST.), a parish, in the union and division of Chepstow, partly in the hundred of Raglan, but chiefly in the Upper division of the hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 2¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Chepstow; containing, with the hamlet of Portcasseg, 354 inhabitants. This parish, which is washed on the north-east by the river Wye, and situated on the road from Monmouth to Chepstow, comprises by computation 2840 acres, and abounds in romantic scenery, which, in many situations, is of great diversity. From Piercefield Park, a splendid seat, the views are remarkably magnificent, and embrace numerous reaches of the Wye, the Severn, and a great range of the surrounding country. The mansion, situated on an eminence, in the midst of fine plantations, is a superb elevation of freestone, consisting of a centre and two wings, and much admired for its tasteful architecture: on the spacious staircase are four beautiful pieces of Gobelin tapestry which belonged to Louis XVI., representing subjects in the natural history of Africa. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £53; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Beaufort: about 50 acres of land of indifferent quality, contained in two small farms in other parishes, belong to the curacy. The church is in the early English style, with a square tower. Remains exist of two ancient chapels, dedicated respectively to St. Kingsmark and St. Lawrence: in the park, where is a chalybeate spring, are the remains of an encampment; and there is a small intrenchment in the hamlet of Portcasseg.
ARYHOLME, with Howthorpe, a township, in the parish of Hovingham, union of Malton, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 7¼ miles (W.) from Malton; containing 36 inhabitants.
Asby, Great (St. Peter)
ASBY, GREAT (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and division of East ward, county of Westmorland, 4½ miles (S. by W.) from Appleby; containing, with the townships of Asby-Windewath, Asby-Coatsforth, and Little Asby, 407 inhabitants, of whom 222 are in the first, with the hamlet of Garthern; 129 in the second; and 56 in the third, with the hamlet of Asby-Overgrange. It comprises by computation 6500 acres, and is bounded on the south by the parish of Crosby-Garret and by Orton Fells; the surface is diversified with hills and valleys, and watered by numerous rivulets, near the margin of one of which, in the hollow called Asby Gill, is Plate hole, a remarkable cavern, intersected by a small stream, and which has been explored to an extent of more than 500 yards. The substratum is principally limestone, and on the common belonging to the manor has been lately discovered a very valuable fossil marble. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 13. 4.; patron, Sir F. F. Vane; net income, £205. The church is a very ancient structure with lofty gables, and strengthened by massive buttresses: the parsonagehouse occupies the site of a nunnery, the chapel and prison of which are still partly remaining, the latter being used as a cellar. There was formerly a chapel at Little Asby, dedicated to St. Leonard. A school-house was built in 1688, by George Smith, citizen and merchanttailor of London, to which Dr. Thomas Smith, Bishop of Carlisle (who was born at Whitewall, near the village), gave £100. Near the church is St. Helen's well.
Ascot, Berks.—See Winkfield.
ASCOT, Berks.—See Winkfield.
ASCOTE, CHAPEL, an extra-parochial liberty, in the S. division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 2 miles (N. W. by N.) from Southam; containing 10 inhabitants, and comprising 600 acres.
ASCOTT, a hamlet, in the parish of Wing, union of Leighton-Buzzard, hundred of Cottesloe, county of Buckingham; containing 98 inhabitants.
ASCOTT, a hamlet, in the parish of Great Milton, union and hundred of Thame, county of Oxford, 4½ miles (N.) from Bensington; containing 29 inhabitants.
Ascott-under-Wychwood (Holy Trinity)
ASCOTT-under-Wychwood (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Chadlington, county of Oxford, 5¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Burford; containing 463 inhabitants. The parish is divided into two portions, Earl's-Ascott and AscottRegis; the village is pleasantly situated in a valley on the bank of the river Evenlode, near the border of Wychwood Forest. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Vicar of Shipton. The church is a neat ancient building. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists.
ASENBY, a township, in the parish of Topcliffe, wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York, 5¾ miles (N.) from Boroughbridge; containing 261 inhabitants. It is situated on the south-western acclivities of Swaledale, and comprises by computation 1131 acres, mostly occupied in farms. A bed of gravel affords excellent material for repairing roads; and a bed of coal-shale shows itself on the eminences of the dale. The tithes have been commuted for £250 payable to the impropriator, £64. 10. to the vicar of Topcliffe, and £20 to the Dean and Chapter of York.
Asgarby (St. Andrew)
ASGARBY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Aswardhurn, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles (E.) from Sleaford; containing, with the hamlet of Boughton, 77 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, united in 1737 to the rectory of Kirby-le-Thorpe, and valued in the king's books at £10. 14. 4½. The church is in the later English style, with a lofty tower surmounted by a fine crocketed spire.
Asgarby (St. Swithin)
ASGARBY (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, W. division of the soke of Bolingbroke, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Bolingbroke; containing 131 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1950 acres, two-thirds of which are pasture, and one-third arable; the soil is a sandy loam. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop of Lincoln; net income, £55, with three acres of glebe. The church is a small plain edifice, built about forty years ago. There are some vestiges of an encampment, probably formed during the civil wars, and near which human skeletons are frequently dug up.
ASH, a hamlet, in the parish of Sutton-on-theHill, union of Burton-Upon-Trent, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Derby; containing 51 inhabitants. It contains 692 acres of strong land; and a neat small village, a mile east from Sutton. The place was the property of the Sleigh family, from whom it came to the Chethams, and subsequently to the Cottons. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £83.
ASH, a hamlet, in the parish of Throwley, union of Oakhampton, hundred of Wonford, Crockernwell and S. divisions of Devon, 7¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Oakhampton. John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, the celebrated general, was born here in 1650.
Ash, county of Durham.—See Esh.
ASH, county of Durham.—See Esh.
Ash (St. Peter and St. Paul)
ASH, (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Dartford, hundred of Axton, Dartford, and Wilmington, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 9 miles (N. E.) from Seven-Oaks; containing 663 inhabitants. It comprises 3022 acres, of which 1780 are arable, 180 meadow, 624 woodland, 244 cinque-foil, 169 hop-ground, and 21 furze and waste; the surface is hilly and well wooded, and the soil in some parts chalky, but chiefly a stiff loam. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 18. 4., and in the gift of the family of Lambard; the tithes have been commuted for £675, and there are 20 acres of glebe. A school is endowed with £20 per annum.
ASH, a hamlet, in the parish and hundred of Martock, union of Yeovil, W. division of Somerset; containing 322 inhabitants. Here is a district church dedicated to the Trinity: the living is in the gift of the Vicar.
Ash (St. Peter)
ASH (St. Peter), a parish, under Gilbert's act, partly in the First division of the hundred of Godley, and partly in the First division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey, 4½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Farnham; containing, with Frimley chapelry and Normandy tything, 2236 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the Basingstoke canal and the SouthWestern railway, and comprises, with Normandy, about 4000 acres, of which 2041 are common or waste; and including Frimley, about 10,015 acres. A species of sandstone, dug out of the common, is used for building; and pebbles are found, susceptible of a bright polish, which are commonly called Bagshot diamonds. The village is long and scattered, and situated in a dreary part of the country: south-eastward of it is Henley Park, which, being on an eminence, forms a beautiful contrast with the wild heath around. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 18. 11½.; net income, £473; patrons, the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College. The church, previously to the dissolution of monasteries, was attached to the abbey of Chertsey. There is a chapel at Frimley. Dr. Young is said to have written a portion of the Night Thoughts at the rectory-house, then the residence of Dr. Harris, who married a sister of the poet, and was incumbent from 1718 to 1759.
Ash-Bocking (All Saints)
ASH-BOCKING (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 6 miles (E. by S.) from NeedhamMarket; comprising by measurement 1398 acres, and containing 321 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £9. 18. 6½.; it is in the patronage of the Crown. The incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £375, and £3 per annum are paid to the rector of Hemingstone; the glebe consists of about 11 acres.
Ash, Campsey (St. John The Baptist)
ASH, CAMPSEY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Plomesgate, hundred of Loes, E. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (E.) from Wickham-Market; containing 374 inhabitants. In the reign of Richard I., Theobald de Valoins gave his estate here to his two sisters, that they might build a nunnery in honour of the Virgin Mary; it was of the order of St. Clare, or the Minoresses, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of £182. 9. 5.: a portion of the building still remains. A collegiate chapel, in honour of the Annunciation, was also founded here, by Maud, Countess of Ulster, for a warden and four secular priests, in 1347, seven years after which the establishment was removed to Bruisyard. The parish comprises by measurement 1813 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 5., and in the gift of Thellusson's Trustees: the tithes have been commuted for £430, and there are 9½ acres of glebe.
ASH-GILL, a hamlet, in the township and parish of Coverham, union of Leyburn, wapentake of HangWest, N. riding of York, 1¾ mile (W.) from Middleham. Here is a noted training-ground for horses, the property of the Lister family.
ASH, GREAT, a township, in the parish of Whitchurch, Whitchurch division of the hundred of North Bradford, N. division of Salop, 2¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Whitchurch; containing 204 inhabitants.
ASH, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Whitchurch, Whitchurch division of the hundred of North Bradford, N. division of Salop, 2¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Whitchurch; containing 208 inhabitants. A church, erected by subscription, was consecrated Aug. 31st, 1837: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Rector.
Ash-near-Sandwich (St. Nicholas)
ASH-Near-Sandwich (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Eastry, hundred of Wingham, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 3 miles (E.) from Wingham; containing 2077 inhabitants. This place is by most antiquaries identified with the Rutupium, or Urbs Rutupiæ, of the Romans, one of the earliest stations, if not the first, in the island, and supposed by Camden to have been established by that people for the protection of their haven called Portus Rutupensis, the landing-place of their fleets, and the usual passage into Britain. According to Bede, the station was called by the Saxons Reptaceastre, and subsequently, by Alfred of Beverley, Richeberg, from which its present name Richborough is derived. Of the ancient city every vestige has disappeared, and the site is now covered with cornfields: part of the citadel alone remains, consisting of portions of the walls, about 200 feet in length, varying from ten to thirty feet in height, and about twelve feet thick, forming one of the most interesting relics of Roman antiquity in the kingdom. The parish is intersected by the road from London to Deal, and bounded on the north by the river Stour, over which are two ferries. It comprises 6872a. 1r. 36p., of which 3128 acres are arable, 3258 meadow, 331 orchard and garden, 100 hop ground, 49 wood, and 6 rectorial glebe; the soil is rich and fertile. Pleasure-fairs are held on April 5th, and Oct. 11th. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £147; patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The church is a handsome building in the early and later English styles. A chapel of ease dedicated to the Trinity was erected in 1841, in the early English style, partly by subscription and partly by aid of a grant from the Church Building Society. There are two small places of worship for Wesleyans; and a free school, founded, and endowed with £75 per annum, in 1714, by the Cartwright family.
Ash-Priors (Holy Trinity)
ASH-PRIORS (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Taunton, W. division of the hundred of Kingsbury and of the county of Somerset, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Taunton; comprising by computation 600 acres, and containing 226 inhabitants. The name of this place is a corruption of Esse Prioris, "the property of the prior," which related to a house here, anciently used for a country residence by the prior of Taunton. The church and principal parts of the village are beautifully situated on rising ground, commanding a fine view of Taunton-Dean. There are some quarries of red sandstone, which is of good quality for building, and is also burnt for manure. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of Sir Thomas Buckler Lethbridge, Bart., with a net income of £70: the tithes have been commuted for £110. The church, a neat structure in the later English style, has been enlarged by the addition of a new aisle, and beautified, at the expense of Sir T. B. Lethbridge. Priory House, of which a small portion yet remains, was the residence of the celebrated Admiral Blake.
ASH, THE, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Stoke-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 3 miles from Hanley. This place occupies elevated ground; the scenery in its vicinity is very pleasing, and embraces extensive views. Coal, ironstone, and quarry-stone are wrought in the hamlet. Ash Hall, and the estate of Ash, are the property of Job Meigh, Esq., a magistrate of the county of Stafford. Washerwall spring here, is the finest in the county.
Ashampstead (St. Clement)
ASHAMPSTEAD (St. Clement), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Moreton, county of Berks, 10 miles (N. W. by W.) from Reading; containing 404 inhabitants. It comprises 1666a. 1r. 32p., of which 1350 acres are in cultivation; there are 70 acres of beech-wood, 250 of coppice, and 100 common. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Basildon; impropriator, R. Hopkins, Esq.
ASHAMPSTEAD, a chapelry, in the parish of Lewknor, union of Wycombe, hundred of Desborough, county of Buckingham, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Great Marlow. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary de More.
Ashbourn (St. Oswald)
ASHBOURN (St. Oswald), a market-town and parish, comprising the townships of Hulland, HullandWard, Hulland-Intacks, Sturston, and Yeldersley, in the hundred of Appletree; the township of Clifton and Compton, in the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch; and the chapelry of Alsop-le-dale and Eaton, the hamlet of Newton-Grange, and the liberty of OffcoteUnderwood, in the hundred of Wirksworth; S. division of the county of Derby; the whole containing 4884 inhabitants, of whom 2246 are in the town, 13½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Derby, and 140 (N. W. by N.) from London. This place, which at the time of the Conquest was held in royal demesne, is in Domesday book called Esseburn. No event of importance occurred until the 17th century, when, in 1644, a battle was fought here between the royalists and the parliamentarians, the former of whom were defeated with considerable loss. Charles I. was at Ashbourn during the battle, and again in 1645, on his march to Doncaster, at the head of 3000 horse, when a skirmish took place, in which the royalists defeated Sir John Gell, the leader of the parliamentarian forces in this part of the country: during his stay the king attended divine service at the church. Charles Edward Stuart, accompanied by the Dukes of Athol and Perth, on their return from Derby in 1745, remained for one night in the town, taking forcible possession of the manor-house, from which they expelled Sir Brooke Boothby and his family. On Sir Brooke's return, he found the names of the officers written in chalk upon the doors of the apartments they had severally occupied: of these inscriptions, which were overlaid with white paint, some are preserved, and the bedroom where the Pretender slept is still shown.
The Town is beautifully situated in a deep vale, near the eastern bank of the river Dove over which there is a bridge of stone: the houses are principally built of red brick, and roofed with slate; the streets are partly paved, and the inhabitants are well supplied with water and with gas. The entrance from London is highly picturesque, commanding a fine view of the beautiful vale on the left, and of Ashbourn Hall, the seat of Sir William Boothby, Bart., on the right: the vicinity abounds with pleasing and richly varied scenery. The reading and news rooms, and the libraries, are respectably supported. The manufacture of cotton and tambour lace is carried on to a considerable extent, and a great quantity of cheese and malt is sent to the metropolis and other towns; but the principal support of the town is derived from its market and numerous fairs. The market is on Saturday: the fairs are held on the first Tuesday in Jan. and on Feb. 13th, for horses and cattle; the second Monday in March, for horses, cattle, and cheese; April 3rd, May 21st, and July 5th, for horses, cattle, and wool; August 16th and Sept. 20th, for horses and cattle; the third Monday in Sept., for horses, cattle, and cheese; and Nov. 29th, for horses. The powers of the county debt-court of Ashbourn, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registration-district of Ashbourn; and courts leet and baron are held annually under the lord of the manor, at which constables and other officers for the town are appointed. A prison was built in 1844.
The parish comprises 7043 acres. The Living is a discharged vicarage, with the rectory of Mappleton united, valued in the king's books at £5. 4. 7.; net income, £134; patron, the Bishop of Lichfield. The church, erected in 1240 by Hugh de Patishull, Bishop of Coventry, is a spacious cruciform structure, in the early style of English architecture, with a central tower surmounted by a lofty and richly ornamented octagonal spire: the interior has lately undergone extensive repairs and embellishments. The northern part of the chancel, appropriated as a sepulchral chapel to the Boothby family, contains, among others, an exquisitely sculptured monument by Banks, to the memory of Penelope, only child of Sir Brooke Boothby, who died at the age of five years: this is said to have suggested to Chantrey the design of his celebrated monument in Lichfield cathedral. At Alsop, Clifton, and Parlich are additional churches. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Independents, and others. The free grammar school was founded in 1585, under a charter of Queen Elizabeth, and endowed with estates purchased by the inhabitants, from the proceeds of which, £131. 10. per annum, with a house and garden, are given to the master, and £65. 15., with a house, to the usher. An English school was founded in 1710, and endowed with £10 per annum, by Nicholas Spalden, for the instruction of thirty boys, till they should be fit to enter the grammar school; he also endowed a school for thirty girls under twelve years of age, the mistress of which has £10 per annum. In addition to these, a national school is carried on; a savings' bank was erected in 1843, and there are several almshouses, founded at various periods, and some of them endowed with considerable funds. The poor-law union of Ashbourn comprises 61 parishes and townships, of which 17 are in Staffordshire. In the neighbourhood formerly stood a chapel dedicated to St. Mary, which previously to its being taken down some years ago, was used as a malt-house.
Ashbrittle (St. John the Baptist)
ASHBRITTLE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Wellington, hundred of Milverton, W. division of Somerset, 6¾ miles (W.) from Wellington; containing 540 inhabitants, and comprising 2489a. 2r. 10p., of which 95 acres are common or waste. The parish is situated on the borders of the county of Devon, and includes the tything of Greenham. Fairs are held in Feb. and Oct. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 3. 11½., and in the gift of J. Quick, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £400, and the glebe consists of 80 acres.
Ashburnham (St. James)
ASHBURNHAM (St. James), a parish, in the union of Battle, hundred of Foxearle, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 4½ miles (W. by S.) from Battle; containing 790 inhabitants. The manor, with the exception only of a few years, has been from a time anterior to the Conquest in the continued possession of the noble family of Ashburnham, whose mansion-house here is beautifully situated, and surrounded by a fine park. The parish comprises about 3600 acres; and was once noted for the smelting of iron-ore. The living is a vicarage, with the rectory of Penhurst annexed, valued in the king's books at £8. 13. 4.; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Ashburnham. The great tithes of the parish have been commuted for £260, and the vicarial for £239; the glebe consists of 6 acres. A lectureship was founded in 1631 by R. Bateman, Esq., and others, with an endowment of £40 per annum for two sermons every week; it is in the gift of the coheiresses of the late Sir Hugh Bateman, the last surviving trustee. The church, situated behind Ashburnham House, is a neat cruciform edifice in the decorated English style, with a tower; the south transept contains a gallery for the family, and in the north are handsome monuments to William and John Ashburnham, and their wives: in a glass case lined with red velvet, are preserved the watch of Charles I., and portions of the dress which he wore when he was beheaded. There are several mineral springs in the parish.
Ashburton (St. Andrew)
ASHBURTON (St. Andrew), a borough, markettown, and parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Teignbridge, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 19 miles (S. W.) from Exeter, and 192 (W. by S.) from London, on the road to Plymouth; containing 3841 inhabitants. This town, anciently called Aisbertone, in the time of Edward the Confessor belonged to Brietric, and at the Conquest to Judael de Totnais. It seems by Domesday book to have then been part of the demesne of the crown, being therein described as "Terra Regis." The place was subsequently annexed to the see of Exeter: in 1310, Bishop Stapylton obtained for it a grant of a market and four fairs; and in 1672, another market, chiefly for wool and yarn spun in Cornwall, was procured by Mr. John Ford, which has long been discontinued. It was made a stannary town by charter of Edward III., in 1328, being then noted for the mines of tin and copper which abounded in the neighbourhood. Henry IV., in the third year of his reign, granted a charter, declaring that "the men of the manor of Aisbertone, which is ancient demesne of our Crown," should be free from paying toll throughout the kingdom. It also appears that Ashburton belonged to the crown in the time of Charles I., as that king bestowed the manor upon his son Charles, when he created him Prince of Wales. How it was alienated by the crown is unknown; but in the reign of Charles II. it was the property of Sir Robert Parkhurst, and Lord Sondes, Earl of Feversham, the former of whom sold his moiety to Sir John Stawell, of Parke, in South Bovey, by whose executors it was sold to Roger Tuckfield, Esq., from whom Lord Clinton, the present proprietor of one moiety of the borough, claims. The other moiety was, about the same time, purchased by Richard Duke, Esq., and is now vested in Sir L. V. Palk, Bart. In the parliamentary war, Ashburton, having been previously occupied by the royal troops under Lord Wentworth, was taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax, on his march westward, in January 1646.
The town is situated about a mile and a half from the river Dart, and consists principally of one street of considerable length: the houses are built of stone, and roofed with slate, which is obtained from quarries in the vicinity. The inhabitants are well supplied with water; the river Yeo, a rapid stream, runs through the town and turns several mills. There is a book society; and card and dancing assemblies, and music meetings, are frequently held in a handsome suite of rooms at the Golden Lion inn. The environs abound with objects of interest, and the scenery on the banks of the river is celebrated for its picturesque and romantic beauty. The manufacture of serge and other woollen goods for the East India Company is carried on to a very great extent in the town and neighbourhood; there are some mills for fulling cloth and for the spinning of yarn, and in addition to the slate-quarries, mines of tin and copper are still worked. An act was passed in 1846, for constructing a railway from the South-Devon railway at Newton-Abbott to Ashburton, 10½ miles long. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held on the first Thursdays in March and June, the first Thursday after the 10th of Aug., and on the 11th of Nov., which last is a great sheep fair. Ashburton is a borough by prescription: a portreeve, bailiff, constables, and subordinate officers are appointed annually at a court leet held by the steward of the borough; but they have no magisterial authority. A stannary court is held occasionally. The borough made two returns to parliament, in the 26th of Edward I. and the 8th of Henry IV., but none subsequently until 1640, when the franchise was restored by the last parliament of Charles I.; and until the passing of the Reform act it continued to return two members. It now returns only one, the elective franchise being in the resident freeholders and the £10 householders of the entire parish; the portreeve is the returning officer.
The parish comprises 5074 acres, of which 584 are common or waste. The living is a vicarage, with the livings of Bickington and Buckland-in-the-Moor annexed, valued in the king's books at £38. 8. 11½.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. The great tithes have been commuted for £390, and the vicarial for £528; the glebe consists of 60 acres. The church, which was formerly collegiate, is a venerable and spacious cruciform structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. There are places of worship for Particular Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. The free grammar school was founded in the 3rd of James I. by William Werring, and endowed with lands, a portion of which had belonged to the dissolved chantry of St. Lawrence, a fine ancient building with a tower and small spire, now appropriated to the use of the school, and for public meetings: the original endowment was augmented by subsequent benefactions; and two scholarships, each of £30 per annum, in Exeter College, Oxford, were founded in favour of boys educated at the school, by the late Mr. Gifford. The free school, in which 180 children are educated, was endowed in 1754, by Lord Middleton, and John Harris, Esq., then representatives of the borough, in gratitude for the liberality of their constituents; and in 1831 an excellent school-house was built, at the expense of £500. Inconsiderable vestiges of a chapel, which belonged to the abbot of Buckfastleigh, are still discernible in the walls of a house occupied by Mr. Parham. John Dunning, Baron Ashburton, the eminent lawyer, was born here, Oct. 18th, 1731; he died Aug. 18th, 1783, and was interred in the church. Dr. Ireland, Dean of Westminster, and Mr. Gifford, editor of the Quarterly Review, were also natives of the place. The title of Baron Ashburton was revived in 1835, in the person of Alexander Baring, Esq., nephew, by marriage of his father's sister, of the celebrated lawyer above noticed.