Kirkowan - Kyleakin

A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.

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'Kirkowan - Kyleakin', in A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, (London, 1846) pp. 121-137. British History Online [accessed 20 April 2024]

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KIRKOWAN, a parish, in the county of Wigton; containing, with the hamlet of Kiltersan, 1423 inhabitants, of whom 607 are in the village of Kirkowan, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Newton-Stewart. This place, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Owan, of whose history few particulars are recorded, anciently formed part of the adjacent parish of Kirkinner, from which it appears to have been separated about the time of the Reformation. The parish is bounded on the east by the river Bladenoch, and on the west by the river Tarf; it is about fifteen miles in length, and varies from less than two miles to nearly seven in breadth, comprising 30,580 acres, of which 7000 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is diversified with numerous hills, of which few, however, attain any considerable degree of elevation, and with large tracts of moors, interspersed with patches of arable land of moderate fertility and in a tolerable state of cultivation. The principal rivers are the Bladenoch and the Tarf. The former has its source in Loch Maebearie, in the north, and, flowing in a southern direction, separates the parish from that of Penning-hame: on quitting Kirkowan, it changes its course to the east, and runs into the bay of Wigton. The Tarf, which rises on the southern confines of Ayrshire, bounds the parish for some miles in a beautifully-winding course, and, afterwards altering its direction, intersects the south-eastern portion of the parish, and flows eastward into the Bladenoch near the church. There are several lakes; the most extensive is Loch Maebearie, about a mile and a quarter in length, and half a mile in breadth. Nearly in the centre of the parish, and within a mile of the Tarf, is a continuous chain of three lakes, connected with each other by rivulets, and extending for a mile and a half in length. Salmon, trout, pike, and eels are found in the rivers and lakes, but not in great abundance.

The soil of the arable lands in the north-west district is cold and thin, but in the south-east of richer quality, light and dry, and, under good management, producing excellent crops of grain, chiefly oats and barley. The system of husbandry is much improved; the lands have been drained and inclosed; the farm-buildings are generally substantial and commodious, and most of the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. The hills afford good pasturage for sheep, of which more than 10,000 are reared, principally of the black-faced breed; they are much prized for the fineness of their wool, about 1200 stone being annually sold, producing an income of £900. The cattle are all of the pure Galloway breed, and are usually disposed of when two years old to dealers from Dumfries, whence they are sent southwards, and, after a year's pasture in England, forwarded to the London market, where they are in great estimation. The plantations are in general under careful management and in a thriving state. The substrata are greywacke and clayslate, and large boulder of granite are found in several parts: the granite, which is of good quality, is hewn into blocks for lintels, door-posts, and other purposes in which strength or ornament is required. There is also a quarry of stone, of good quality for building, at no great distance from the village. A vein of slate was some years since discovered on the Culvennan hill, and was for a time in operation; but the quality was not such as to render the working of the quarry desirable, and it has been long discontinued. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5393. Craiglaw House, an ancient mansion finely situated in a well-planted demesne, is the principal seat. The village is on the road to Wigton, and near the river Tarf, on which a mill was erected in 1822, for the manufacture of woollen cloths, affording employment to about seventy persons; the articles made are, blankets, plaidings, flannels, and plain and pilot cloths, for the dyeing and dressing of which the water of the Tarf, from its peculiar softness is well adapted. A post-office has been established under that of Newton-Stewart. There are several handicraft trades carried on for the accommodation of the district, and some shops in the village for the sale of various kinds of merchandize. Four annual fairs were formerly held here. Facility of communication is maintained by the roads to Wigton and Portpatrick, which pass through the parish, and by bridges over the rivers. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Wigton and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £292. 11. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6 per annum; patrons, the Agnew family. The church, erected in 1829, is a neat substantial structure with a tower, and is conveniently situated in the village. A congregation of Seceders assembles for public worship in an old barn which has been fitted up for the purpose. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £30 per annum. There are some remains of the ancient castle of Mindork in the south-western portion of the parish; but nothing of its history is recorded.


KIRKPATRICK-DURHAM, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; containing, with part of the village of Crocketford, 1484 inhabitants, of whom 500 are in the village of Kirkpatrick-Durham, 5½ miles (N. N. E.) from Castle-Douglas. This place derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Patrick: the adjunct, Durham, distinguishing it from other places of the name of Kirkpatrick, arose from the dry and barren nature of the district in which the parish is situated. On account of its secluded position in the interior of the county, it does not appear to have been connected with any events of political importance; and few particulars of its early history are recorded. In various parts are found remains of circular walls and mounds, called moats; but from their general character, they seem to have been intended merely as places of security for cattle during the frequent ravages of the border warfare. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Urr, and is about ten miles in length, from north to south, and nearly four miles in extreme breadth, comprising 20,000 acres, of which 8000 are arable, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface, though not mountainous, rises gradualy towards the north, and is diversified with cragged hills of considerable elevation, mostly covered with heath, and affording pasturage for sheep and cattle; the moors in this part of the parish abound with game of every variety, and are much frequented during the shooting season. In the southern districts the surface is comparatively level, gradually subsiding into gentle declivities, and is better adapted for agricultural purposes. The river Urr has its source in Loch Urr, on the western confines of the county of Dumfries, and, flowing southward through a romantic valley, falls into the Solway Frith about ten miles below the southern extremity of the parish. The salmon-fishery on this river was formerly very considerable; but, from the extensive use of stake-nets near the mouth, and from various other causes, it has within the last few years been greatly injured, and very few salmon are now obtained. Herlings, however, are still found in large numbers. There are a few lakes, one of which abounds with trout; but none of them are of any great extent, or distinguished by any interesting features entitling them to particular notice. Various small burns, also, flow through the lands into the river Urr.

The soil in the lower lands is tolerably good, and, though thin and sandy, is, under proper management, rendered productive, yielding favourable crops of grain: there are, too, some tracts of old pasture which, when brought under cultivation, are luxuriantly fertile. The system of husbandry has been progressively advancing, and is at present quite on a par with what is pursued in the adjacent districts; but the parish, upon the whole, is rather of a pastoral than an agricultural character, and the farmers rely chiefly on the rearing blackcattle and sheep, of which large numbers are annually sent to Dumfries, Castle-Douglas, and Liverpool. There are some small remains of ancient wood on the lands of Kilquhanity and Kirklebride. The plantations, which are tolerably extensive, are chiefly of modern date, and consist of the usual forest and hard-wood trees, largely interspersed with larch and firs to protect them from the severity of the winds; they are generally in a thriving state. The rocks are usually of slaty and stratified composition: the substrata exhibit nothing but limestone, in small veins and of very inferior quality, totally unfit for use; and there are neither mines nor quarries of any kind in operation. The rateable annual value of Kirkpatrick-Durham is £7234. Handsome mansions are scattered throughout the parish, and inhabited by landed proprietors; the principal are, Brooklands, Chipperkyle, Croyes, Doonpark, Durhamhill, Kilquhanity, and Walton Park, all good houses pleasantly situated in grounds tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations.

The village of Kirkpatrick-Durham is above a mile from the Bridge of Urr. An attempt was made some years since to establish the cotton and woollen manufactures on a small scale, and was for a time attended with success; but they have both been discontinued, and there is no manufacture of any kind carried on here at present. Some of the inhabitants are employed in the usual handicraft trades, and there are several good shops for the supply of the district. A post-office, which has a daily delivery, has been established in the village; and a fair is held annually, on the Thursday after the 17th of March (O. S.), chiefly for plants and garden-seeds, but is not much frequented. Races are held at the time of the fair, which were for a while numerously attended, a course having been formed near the village. In the evening a ball used to take place in some assembly-rooms erected for the purpose, and elegantly decorated: this ball attracted considerable numbers of the people in the surrounding districts. Facility of communication is maintained by the road from the village to Castle-Douglas, the great road from Dumfries to Portpatrick, and others which intersect the parish; and by good bridges over the river Urr and its tributaries. About a mile and a half to the south of the village is the pleasingly-rural hamlet called the Bridge of Urr, containing about fifty inhabitants. The village of Crocketford, of which part only is situated within the parish, is described under its own head. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £288. 19. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10. 16. per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1748, and enlarged by the addition of an aisle in 1797, is a plain structure near the southern extremity of the parish, containing 374 sittings. A Free church has been erected. There are two parochial schools in the parish: the master of the principal school, in the village, has a salary of £31. 6., with a house and garden, to which is added the interest of a bequest of £270 for the gratuitous instruction of poor children; and the school fees average about £30 per annum. The master of the other school has a salary of £16. 10., with fees averaging £10. On the lands of Doonpark are some slight remains of an ancient moat, near which were found, a few years since, fragments of old armour; and on the lands of Areeming are the foundations of a church, from which the adjoining farm received the appellation of Kirk-le-Bride. In various parts are the remains of other moats or mounds, of circular form, and apparently constructed for purposes of defence, or as places of security for cattle.


KIRKPATRICK-FLEMING, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Annan; containing, with the hamlet of Newton, and the village of Fairyhall with Hollee, 1692 inhabitants. This parish derives its appellation from the celebrated Irish saint, Patrick; Fleming, the name of the ancient lord of the manor, having been added, to distinguish it from other parishes called Kirkpatrick. On account of its situation near the border, it was formerly the arena of many sanguinary conflicts; and the numerous towers still remaining in the vicinity testify the active warfare to which its position exposed it. The family of the Flemings, who were very conspicuous in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, held certain lands here by the tenure of defending them at all times against the English. Their chief seat and castle was at Red-Hall, where, towards the conclusion of the reign of John Baliol, thirty of their followers were besieged by an English force at the time of one of Edward's incursions into Scotland, and, after bravely defending their post for three days, chose rather to perish in the flames kindled around the castle by the enemy, than to submit to capture. This castle, as well as another at Holm-Head, the property of the Flemings, has entirely disappeared; but a third, at Stone-house, also formerly possessed by the family, and now the property of the Earl of Mansfield, is still partly standing in the neighbourhood.

The old Tower of Woodhouse, said to have been the first house in Scotland to which Robert Bruce came, when fleeing from Edward Longshanks, also remains. It was then possessed by the Irvines, one of whom Bruce took into his service; and after having made him his secretary, he knighted him, and in reward for his fidelity and services, presented him with the lands of the forest of Drum, in the north of Scotland. Near this tower, a little northward, stands the cross of Merkland, an octagonal stone pillar about nine feet high, and elegantly sculptured. The time and occasion of its erection are doubtful; but it is supposed to have been raised to perpetuate the memory of the murder of Maxwell, master-warden of the marches, who was stabbed on this spot by a man of the name of Gas, from the parish of Cummertrees, in revenge for a sentence which Maxwell had passed upon a cousin of his. The particulars are these. Maxwell, just before the murder, had been in pursuit of the Duke of Albany and the Earl of Douglas, who for some time had been exiles in England, but who, making an incursion into their native land in 1483, proceeded to Lochmaben, and plundered the market there, in order to try the disposition of their countrymen towards them. He came up with their forces at Burnswark, from which place an action was fought as far as Kirkconnel, when Douglas was taken prisoner, but the duke contrived to make his escape. Maxwell, having recovered the booty, and obtained a victory, was leisurely pursuing the remnant of the hostile army, and resting from his weariness through marching and fighting, when he fell by the clandestine attack of his malicious foe.

The present parish comprehends the old parish of Kirkconnel, which is said to have derived its name from Connel, a saint who flourished at the commencement of the seventh century; and within the burial-ground of Kirkconnel, a part of the ancient church is still standing. The parish is about six miles long and three broad, and contains 11,575 acres. It is bounded on the north and north-west by Middlebie, on the east and north-east by Halfmorton, on the south and south-east by Graitney, and on the west and south-west by Annan and Dornock. The surface consists of a succession of gentle undulations and fertile vales, in the latter of which are cultivated fields inclosed by fine hedge-rows, or ornamented by thriving plantations. The Kirtle, the only river, runs through a romantic vale; the banks are covered with rich clusters of natural wood, and adorned with plantations, gentlemen's seats, and ancient towers. It contains trout, eels, and perch; and after a course of about eighteen miles from its source in the parish of Middlebie, it falls into the Solway to the east of Redkirk, in Graitney.

The soil in some parts is light, resting upon gravel, sand, or rock. In other places it consists of a deep strong earth, of a red cast, and mixed with a considerable proportion of sand; and this description of soil, with slight variations, and lying upon a subsoil, sometimes of clay and sometimes of gravel, is the prevailing kind in the south part. Large portions of the parish are mossy land, varying in depth from six to eighteen inches, and resting upon a bed of clay. The clay found as a subsoil under ridges, peat-mosses, and soft bogs, is generally white, blue, or red. There is also in the parish a portion of the land called Whitestone land, which, though naturally barren, is capable of some degree of improvement. About 8060 acres are cultivated or occasionally in tillage; 2009 are in coarse pasture; 900 are wet moss; and 605 are under wood. Many of the acres now waste are considered capable of profitable cultivation. All kinds of grain and green crops are produced, and of good quality: of the latter, turnips and potatoes are the most abundant, and the grain is principally barley and oats. An immense number of swine are annually fed, and fattened to a great extent upon potatoes. The best method of husbandry is understood and practised. The manures used are farm-dung and lime, which latter is procured from several neighbouring places; and great advances have been made in the draining of morasses, and the conversion of moors into good arable land. The houses, also, have undergone an entire change within the last thirty years, the mud and clay huts covered with thatch having been displaced by neat and convenient buildings of stone and lime, roofed with slate. The rocks in the parish are principally of the sandstone formation, and are found of various colours; but those that prevail most are a dark red and white, which are exceedingly hard and durable, and admit of a fine polish. There is also excellent limestone. The rateable annual value of Kirkpatrick-Fleming is £7032. The mansions in or close to the parish are those of Springkell, the seat of Sir Heron Maxwell, a remarkably elegant building in the Grecian style; Mossknowe, the residence of Col. Graham, of modern date, enriched with fine plantations and gardens; the Tower of Blackethouse; Kirtleton; Langshaw; Wyesbie; the mansion of the Irvings, of Bonshaw; Robgill Tower; Cove; Broatshouse; and some others. The larger number of these mansions are situated on the banks of the river Kirtle, and surrounded with romantic scenery. The population are principally employed in agriculture, the only manufacture being that of cotton, which is carried on by about 150 weavers employed by a house in Carlisle. The road from Carlisle to Glasgow and to Edinburgh, by Moffat, passes for five miles through the middle of the parish, and crosses, in the western corner, a road which runs from Annan to Edinburgh, by Langholm and Selkirk, in a northern direction. Four bridges are thrown over the Kirtle, and there are one or two in other parts: all of these, as well as the roads, are in good repair.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries; patrons, alternately, Sir Heron Maxwell and Colonel Graham. The stipend of the minister is £226, with a good manse, and a glebe of about twenty-four acres, worth £25 a year. The church, a plain edifice, was partly rebuilt about the year 1780, and was thoroughly repaired in 1835; it is capable of accommodating 800 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There are two parochial schools: the master of the Kirkpatrick school receives £25. 13. as a salary, with about £30 fees, and £5 from a bequest by Dr. Graham, of Mossknowe, for instructing eight poor children gratuitously. The master of the Gair school receives the same amount of salary as the other master, with £23 in fees; and both masters have the allowance of house and garden. The usual branches of education are taught, in addition to which, at the Kirkpatrick school, instruction is given in the classics, mathematics, and French. A parochial library and a savings' bank have been established. In the burial-ground of Kirkconnel are still to be seen the tombstones of "Fair Helen" and her favourite lover, Adam Fleming. A rival of Fleming's having unsuccessfully courted Helen, vowed revenge, and soon found an opportunity to attempt his purpose. Seeing the lovers walking together on the banks of the Kirtle, he was about to take the threatened revenge on Fleming; but, being observed by Helen in the midst of the bushes, she rushed to her lover's bosom to rescue him from the danger, and received the fatal wound herself and expired. Fleming immediately dispatched the murderer on the spot, and afterwards went abroad to serve under Spain against the Infidels, in the hope of wearing out the impressions of his love and grief. He soon returned, however, and stretching himself on her grave, expired, and was buried by her side. Upon the tombstone are engraven a sword and a cross, with the inscription, Hic jacet Adam Fleming. The Scotch ballad so well known, describing the murder, is said to have been written in Spain by Fleming himself. Not far from Cove, a piece of gold worth £12 was found about ninety years ago, eighteen inches under ground: on one end, the word Helenus was stamped in Roman capitals. There are three chalybeate springs in the parish, nearly alike in quality, and also one of a strong sulphureous nature, highly celebrated in scrofulous and scorbutic cases, and which Sir Humphrey Davy considered as possessing properties similar to those of the Moffat well. The late eminent physician, James Currie, was born here in the year 1756. He was the author of A Commercial and Political Letter to Mr. Pitt, published under the assumed name of Jasper Wilson, in 1793, and which excited much attention, and passed through several editions. He also published an edition of the Poems of Burns. This is likewise the birthplace of the late Rev. Mr. Stewart, minister of Erskine, so famous for the cure of consumption.


KIRKPATRICK-IRONGRAY, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Dumfries; containing, with the village of Shawhead, 927 inhabitants. This parish derives the adjunct by which it is distinguished from other parishes of the same name in this part of the country, from the lands on which its ancient church was erected. It is bounded on the north by the river Cluden, which separates it from the county of Dumfries; and is about nine miles in length, and from one mile to four miles in breadth, comprising nearly 14,500 acres, of which 7125 are arable, 2114 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and waste. The surface in the eastern portion of the parish is nearly a level plain. Towards the centre the land rises into bold undulations, forming a part of a ridge of hills which intersects the county; the summits are richly wooded, and the acclivities in the highest state of cultivation. Of these hills, the most conspicuous are the Bishop's Forest and Glenbennan, which have an elevation of 1500 feet above the level of the sea, and command extensive and diversified prospects, embracing portions of Nithsdale and Annandale, the Solway Frith, and the hills of Cumberland. The only river strictly belonging to the parish is the Auld, which has its source on the confines of Kirkpatrick-Durham, and, after flowing for some miles through this parish in an eastern course, curves towards the north, and falls into the Cairn, which, afterwards taking the name of the Cluden, forms a boundary of the parish. The Auld water, near its influx into the Cairn, makes a small but picturesque cascade of two falls, the highest of which is twenty feet; and near the lower fall is a romantic bridge of one arch, which, from the noise of the water, has obtained the appellation of the Routing Bridge. The river abounds with trout and par, and, during the season, with grilse.

The soil in some parts is of a light and sandy quality, alternated with gravel, and in others a mixture of clay, with tracts of rich alluvial soil near the shores of the rivers; the crops are, oats, barley, and wheat, with potatoes and turnips, and the various grasses. The system of husbandry is improved; the lands are inclosed, and the fences kept in good order; considerable quantities of waste have been brought under cultivation, and the farm houses and buildings are substantial and commodious. Great attention is paid to the improvement of live stock; the cattle are principally of the Galloway breed, and, instead of being sold as formerly to drovers, are fattened by the farmers at home for the markets, to which they are forwarded by steam-boats. The sheep are of the native breed, partaking of the Galloway kind; the horses, of which many are bred, are of the Clydesdale. Large numbers of pigs are kept till one year old, and sent to the market of Dumfries. The substrata of the parish are, whinstone, of which the rocks are generally composed, slate, freestone, and puddingstone: an attempt was made recently to discover coal, but without success. The rateable annual value of KirkpatrickIrongray is £6206. The Grove is a handsome mansion, recently erected, in the castellated style, with a tower rising from the south entrance; Drumpark is also a handsome residence. The village of Shawhead consists chiefly of a few cottages and a small ale-house: facility of communication is afforded by good roads and bridges. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £231. 6. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, James Oswald, Esq., of Auchencruive. The church, built in 1803, and situated on the bank of the river Cluden, is a neat structure containing 400 sittings, of which fifty are free. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There are two parochial schools, one of which is in the village of Shawhead; the masters have each a salary of £25. 13. 7., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15 each annually. A parochial library has been established, and contains about 200 volumes. The poor have bequests yielding £23 per annum. Helen Walker, whose history is recorded by Walter Scott in his Heart of Mid Lothian, under the name of "Jeanie Deans," was a native of this parish; and a stone to her memory was erected here by the poet.


KIRKPATRICK-JUXTA, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 3¼ miles (S.) from Moffat; containing, with the village of Craigielands, 934 inhabitants. The ancient name of this parish was Kil-patrick, the prefix of which is of the same signification as that of Kirk patrick. The suffix juxta has been added to distinguish the place from several other places of the same name which are more remote from the capital of Scotland. All the Kirkpatricks appear to have received their distinguishing epithets from the celebrated saint, Patrick. This locality was formerly the residence of Randolph, Earl of Murray, regent of Scotland during the minority of David Bruce, and who possessed the old castle of Achincass, in the parish. The well-known family of the Johnstones, of Corehead, also, occupied the tower of Lochhouse.

The parish is irregular in form, but may be considered as of the mean length of six miles, and of about the same breadth. It contains 21,000 acres, and is bounded on the north and east by Wamphray and Moffat parishes, on the north-west and west by Crawford and Closeburn, and on the south by Johnstone parish. The lands of White-holm, in the parish, belong to the shire of Lanark. The general appearance of the district is bleak and hilly: the land on the west consists of the mountain range of Queensberry; and two or three miles to the east of this, is a parallel range, between which and Queensberry lies the pastoral valley of Kinnel Water. Between the second range of hills and the river Annan, washing the eastern boundary of the parish, is a tract of land nearly two miles broad and eight miles long, consisting of hill and valley, and which is chiefly arable, and constitutes the best part of the parish. A small portion of this land, however, is rocky, and some of it peat-moss; another portion has been reclaimed from waste moor. The highest part of the parish is the mountain of Queensberry, the summit of which is 2140 feet above the level of the sea. The Kinnel, Evan, Annan, and Garpel are the streams connected with the parish: the Annan enters from Moffat, and, after a course of about thirty miles, in which it receives several tributary waters, falls into the Solway Frith near the royal burgh of Annan.

The soil in general is dry, and tolerably fertile; the richest and best cultivated lies in the eastern quarter of the parish. About 7000 acres are in tillage; 230 are in woods or plantations, of Scotch fir, oak, beech, elm, ash, and spruce; and 14,000 are uncultivated, 2000 of which, however, are supposed capable of tillage, or fit for plantations. The cattle are chiefly the black Galloways, without horns; and the sheep consist of the native black-faced, with some Cheviots. The improvements in agriculture in the parish, during the present century, have been considerable. Formerly it was almost entirely destitute of inclosures; but this deficiency has been, to some extent, remedied. Draining, manuring, and the raising of green crops, have each received much attention; and the use of bone-dust manure for turnip land, and the practice of letting sheep eat off the turnip crops, may be stated as two of the most approved usages of modern husbandry adopted here. The farm houses and offices are in a way of progressive improvement throughout the parish, and much attention is paid to the neatness of these buildings, most of which are constructed of stone and lime, and roofed with slate. The improvement also of cattle, and of the breeds of sheep, has received great attention. The rocks in the parish consist of freestone, trap, and greywacke or bluestone, which last is much used for common buildings. The rateable annual value of Kirkpatrick-Juxta is £5557.

The only village is Craigielands, which is of small extent, but consists of neat buildings on a regular plan, raised some few years ago by one of the proprietors, for the accommodation of persons residing on his lands. In its vicinity is Craigielands, a handsome mansion surrounded by a park. The lines of turnpike-road running through the parish are, part of the road from Glasgow to Carlisle, and another, intersecting it at Beattock Inn, from Dumfries to Edinburgh: on both are mail-coaches daily. The roads and bridges are kept in good condition. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries; patron, J. J. Hope Johnstone, Esq. The stipend of the minister is £195, exclusive of the vicarage tithes, which consist of twenty-four lambs, and forty-eight pounds' weight of wool; with a manse, and a glebe of four arable and five meadow acres, worth, with garden, about £10 a year. The church, built in 1799, and thoroughly repaired in 1824, is a plain building, accommodating between 500 and 600 persons. There are two parochial schools, the master of the first of which receives £34 a year as salary; the master of the second school, who labours only during pleasure, receives about £17. Each has also fees, amounting to £15 or £20 a year. Two other schools, upon a smaller scale, are supported entirely by fees; and a library has lately been established. A bequest of £130 was recently vested in the purchase of a house and land, now yielding £6 per annum, appropriated to teaching poor children; and a school, erected from the accumulations of an ancient fund, is chiefly maintained by Mr. Hope Johnstone. The chief antiquity is the ruin of the castle of Achincass, the walls of which are about 150 feet square, twenty feet high, and fifteen feet thick. Traces are still visible of the Roman road leading from the great camp at Burnswark, in the parish of Middlebie, to a small rectangular encampment in this parish called Tatius-Holm. There are also numerous cairns and circular inclosures upon the hills. The parish contains several strong chalybeate springs.


KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Balmerino, district of Cupar, county of fife; containing III inhabitants. This is a small village, or hamlet, lying north of the ruins of the celebrated abbey of Balmerino, which occupy a beautiful situation in the neighbourhood of the Tay, and form the chief object of attraction as respects the antiquities of the parish.


KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Largo, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 1 mile (N. E. by E.) from Largo; containing 395 inhabitants. It lies in the south-eastern part of the parish, on the road from Kilconquhar to Largo; and derives its name from the situation of the parish church within its limits. The population is chiefly agricultural.


KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Kirkmahoe, county of Dumfries; containing 221 inhabitants.


KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Auchter-house, county of Forfar, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Cupar-Angus; containing 134 inhabitants. The village is seated in the centre of the parish, east of the high road from Dundee to Meigle, and on an elevated site about a hundred feet above the level of the sea. From it, on the west, through an opening of the Sidlaw hills, called the Glack of Newtile, is a fine view of part of Strathmore, the district of Stormont, and the Grampians; and on the south and east are seen the Lomond hills, Largo Law, the city and bay of St. Andrew's, the Frith of Tay, and the German Ocean, which last terminates the prospect. The church is situated in the village.


KIRKTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Glenisla, county of Forfar, 8 miles (N. by W.) from Alyth; containing 44 inhabitants. This is a very small place, only distinguished as containing the church. It is in the southern part of the parish, and on the north bank of the Isla, which here flows in a devious course, and in nearly a south-eastern direction, until it joins the river Melgum behind Airlie Castle. The road from Lentrathen to Fergus, in the parish, passes close to the hamlet.


KIRKTON, a village, in the parish of Strathmartine, county of Forfar, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Dundee; containing 96 inhabitants. It is nearly in the centre of the parish, on the road to Dundee, and on the banks of the Dighty water. In the village, as its name imports, is situated the kirk, and also the manse.


KIRKTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Tealing, county of Forfar, 6 miles (N.) from Dundee; containing 48 inhabitants. It lies in the central part of the parish, a short distance eastward of the road from Dundee to Kirriemuir. The church is in the hamlet.

Kirkton of Kinnettles

KIRKTON of KINNETTLES, a hamlet, in the parish of Kinnettles, county of Forfar, 2½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Forfar; containing 49 inhabitants. This place is situated in the south-western part of the parish, a short distance eastward from Douglaston; and is a pleasing hamlet, built in 1813, and having a chain-bridge across the Kerbit rivulet, by which the parish is intersected. Though the population is so small, it comprehends persons in various trades.

Kirkton of Weem

KIRKTON of WEEM, a village, in the parish of Weem, county of Perth, 1 mile (N. W. by W.) from Aberfeldy; containing 50 inhabitants. It is situated in one of the detached portions of the parish, and is separated by the waters of the Tay, over which is Tay bridge, from the town of Aberfeldy. The bridge is a fine building of five arches, and was finished in 1733, under the direction of General Wade, then commander of the forces in Scotland. In the village is a good inn; and the church, in its vicinity, is conveniently situated for a large part of the population of the district.


KIRKTOUN, a village, in the parish of Burntisland, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 251 inhabitants. The village is pleasantly situated, and, from the favourable state of the climate, and the pleasantness of the surrounding district, is much resorted to during the season for sea-bathing, for which this part of the coast is celebrated. It is well supplied with provisions of every kind from the market-town of Kirkcaldy, with which it has facility of intercourse by good turnpike-roads; and there is intercourse with Newhaven and other towns by steam-boats, which regularly sail from the port of Burutisland.


KIRKTOUN, a parish, in the district of Hawick, county of Roxburgh, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Hawick; containing 313 inhabitants. This parish is about eight miles in length, from east to west, and two miles in breadth, from north to south; and is bounded on the north-east by the parish of Hobkirk; on the west, partly by the parish of Cavers, and partly by that of Hawick; and in all other directions, by the parish of Cavers. The surface is undulated, rising in many parts into green hills of moderate elevation and of great variety of form; and is intersected by the river Slitrig, on the western bank of which the ground rises by a gradual and continued acclivity to the boundary of the parish. The scenery is generally pleasing; but the want of wood renders it comparatively barren of picturesque beauty. The soil is mostly fertile, and the pastures rich; the whole number of acres in the parish is estimated at 10,200, comprising arable, pasture, and uncultivated land, with a very small portion in wood and plantations. The system of agriculture is in an improved state; the lands have been well drained, and inclosed partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges, kept in good order; a few farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and the various improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. A quarry of very excellent whinstone has been opened, which provides abundant materials for the roads and for other purposes. Facility of communication with the neighbouring market-towns is afforded by the roads from Hawick to Liddesdale and Newcastle, which pass through the parish; and there are various good roads kept in repair by statute labour. The rateable annual value of Kirktoun is £3599. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The stipend of the incumbent is £174; the manse, with offices, was built in the summer of 1840, and the glebe is valued at £11 per annum. The church is a neat plain edifice, also built in the summer of 1840, but very inconveniently situated. The parochial school is well conducted and well attended; the master has a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15 per annum. About a mile south-west of the church is an encampment, upon rising ground; and still further west, in one or two places, similar vestiges occur. Dr. Leyden, the eminent Orientalist, received the rudiments of his education in the parochial school of this place, his parents residing on the farm of Nether Tofts: his native place was Denholm, in the parish of Cavers.


KIRKTOWN, a village, in the parish of Fenwick, district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Kilmarnock; containing 117 inhabitants. This village is a short distance from that of Fenwick, and is of very small extent, and little better in appearance than a mere hamlet. The greater part of it is built upon the glebe land.

Kirktown of Fordoun

KIRKTOWN of FORDOUN, a hamlet, within the parish of Fordoun, county of Kincardine, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Glenbervie; containing 34 inhabitants. It consists of the manse, the parochial school-house, an inn, and three or four cottages.

Kirktown of New Deer

KIRKTOWN of NEW DEER, a village, within the parish of New Deer, district of Buchan, county of Aberdeen, 6 miles (E. S. E.) from Cuminestown; containing 322 inhabitants. It is situated on the ridge of a hill, upon the high road from Ellon to Newbyth, and consists of a long street of above a hundred houses and cottages, the fields declining to the east and west: the population is almost wholly agricultural. There are a sub-post office, and two or three good inns in the village; and fairs are held in it in April, May, June, October, and November, at all which cattle and horses are exposed for sale. The mail-coach from Banff to Peterhead passes daily, and a stage-coach three times a week from Aberdeen to Ellon. The church stands near the village, where are also the parochial school and a circulating library.


KIRKURD, a parish, in the county of peebles, 6½ miles (N. E.) from Biggar; containing 305 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the situation of its church on an eminence, urd being the Celtic for a height. It appears to have formed part of the lands conferred by James II. upon Sir David Scott, of Buccleuch, ancestor of that ducal family, in recompense of his services during the civil wars with the Douglases, whose defeat at the battle of Arkinholme, in the valley of Esk, was attributed to the important aid given to his sovereign on that occasion. The parish is about five miles and a half in length, from east to west, and from three to four miles in average breadth; and is bounded on the north by the water of the Tarth, which separates it from the parishes of Linton and Newlands; on the east by the parishes of Newlands and Stobo; on the south by Broughton; and on the west by Skirling and Dolphington. The surface is diversified with hill and dale in nearly equal portions. The highest of the hills is Hell's Cleuch, which has an elevation of 2100 feet above the level of the sea, and on the summit of which is a cairn, situated on a point where the parishes of Stobo and Broughton come in contact with this parish; it is called the Pyked Stane, and commands an extensive view, embracing the country beyond the Forth, and the chain of mountains extending from the eastern portion of the county of Fife to the county of Dumbarton, as well as North Berwick, the Eildon hills near Melrose, and the Cheviot hills in the county of Northumberland. The Tarth is the only stream of any importance; but there are several springs of excellent, water, affording an ample supply, and near Castle-Craig a sulphureous spring, which, on being analysed, was found to contain properties similar to those of Harrogate, but inferior in strength. The scenery is generally pleasing, and in many parts enriched with thriving plantations.

The soil is light and gravelly, and seems well adapted for the growth of timber. The whole number of acres, according to actual measurement, is 6620, of which 2200 are arable, about the same quantity meadow and pasture land capable of being brought into cultivation, 600 in woods and plantations, and the remainder chiefly sheep-pasture and waste. The crops are, oats, barley, peas, potatoes, and turnips: wheat has been raised in very small quantities, but was not found suited to the soil. The system of husbandry is advanced; the lands are well drained, and irrigation is practised on some of the meadow lands with singular benefit: the farm-buildings are comfortable, though inferior to many others in the neighbourhood; and the various improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. Considerable attention is paid to the management of the dairy, and to live stock: about 2000 sheep are annually pastured, chiefly of the black-faced kind, and 250 black-cattle of the Ayrshire breed are annually reared. The woods and plantations are carefully attended to, and have been much increased of late. The substrata are not various; the prevailing rocks are of the transition class, but there are neither mines nor quarries. In digging for marl, the horns of an elk were discovered in excellent preservation; and in some of the boggy lands, have been dug up quantities of hazel-nuts in a perfectly sound state. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2638. Castle-Craig, the seat of Sir Thomas G. Carmichael, Bart., is a spacious and handsome mansion, erected by Sir John G. Carmichael, and enlarged and embellished by the present proprietor; it is situated in a highly-cultivated and improved demesne, and the gardens and pleasure-grounds are laid out with great taste. Netherurd House, formerly Cairnmuir House, is also a handsome residence, the seat of the White family. The nearest market-towns are Biggar and Peebles, with which, and with other places, the inhabitants have facilities of intercourse by roads kept in excellent repair; and the turnpike-roads from Edinburgh to Dumfries, and from Glasgow to Peebles, pass through the parish.

The ecclestastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Peebles and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; and the patronage is in Sir Thomas Carmichael. The stipend of the incumbent is £158, of which more than a half is a grant from the exchequer; the manse was erected in 1788, and the glebe comprises about nineteen acres, nearly the whole of which is good arable land. The church, built in 1766, and conveniently situated for the population, is a neat and substantial edifice adapted for a congregation of 300 persons; every tenant in the parish has a sitting in it for himself and family. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £26 per annum. Attached to the school is a good library; and until the last few years there was also a parochial library, supported by subscription, in which was a considerable collection of standard works: on its discontinuance the books were divided among the members. In the vicinity of Old Harestanes are some remains of Druidical origin. Near Castle-Craig are the ancient mounts called the Castle and the Law; they are supposed to have been stations for the administration of justice in former times. To the east of them is a circular intrenchment on an eminence, named the Ring; and to the west of them, another fortification, styled the Chesters; both probably military stations. A stone kistvaen, inclosing an urn of clay with human bones, was found in 1754, at Mount-Hill; and at the base of that eminence was discovered, some years afterwards, a stone coffin containing human bones, with several rudely-formed weapons of flint, and a small ring. James Geddes, of Rachan, author of an essay on the Composition and Manner of Writing of the Ancients, and of several other tracts, was born in this parish in 1710; and the enlightened Dugald Stewart resided for some time at Netherurd House.

Kirkwall and St. Ola

KIRKWALL and ST. OLA, a royal burgh, a sea-port, and parish, and formerly the seat of a diocese, in the county of Orkney, of which it is the capital; containing 3599 inhabitants, of whom 2205 are in the burgh, 21 miles (N. by E.) from Huna, and 327 (N.) from Edinburgh. This place, which is situated in the south-eastern portion of the Mainland, is of great antiquity, and from a very early date has been distinguished for its importance. The rural district around the town, called St. Ola, and supposed to have been originally a separate parish, derived its name from the foundation of a church by Olave, the first Christian king of Norway, to whom the Orkney Islands at that time belonged, at a period anterior to the erection of the ancient cathedral. The buildings near its site, which now constitute a portion of what is styled the Old Town, bear evident traces of remote antiquity. The burgh appears to have derived its name, originally "Kirkcovog," now Kirkwall, from the erection of the Cathedral of St Magnus, founded in 1138, by Ronald, Earl of Orkney, in honour of his uncle, Magnus, the preceding earl, who had been assassinated by his relative, Haco, of Norway, in 1110, and canonized after his death: this cathedral, from its splendour and magnificence, was called the Great Kirk, an appellation subsequently appropriated to the town. The see, which had jurisdiction over the whole of the county of Orkney, subsisted under a regular succession of prelates, of whom Robert Reid was the last Roman Catholic bishop, till the abolition of episcopacy in Scotland. Among its earliest endowments were the lands of the parish of St. Ola, which, on the erection of the town into a royal burgh by charter of James III., and the cession of these islands to the Scottish crown, were partly vested in the magistrates and burgesses as a fund for keeping the cathedral of St. Magnus in repair. This ancient church is a stately cruciform structure of red freestone, partly in the Norman, and partly in the early and later English styles of architecture, with a massive central tower, formerly surrounded by a lofty spire, which, being destroyed by lightning in 1671, has been replaced by a low pyramidal roof. The entire length of the cathedral is 226 feet, and the breadth fifty-six. The roof, which is richly groined, is seventy-one feet in height from the floor, and is sustained by a range of fourteen pillars on each side, fifteen feet in circumference, exclusive of four massive columns twenty-four feet in circumference, supporting the central tower, which rises to a height of 133 feet, and contains a fine set of musical chimes, presented by Bishop Maxwell in 1528. The east window, inserted by Bishop Stewart, in the reign of James IV., is of elegant design, thirty-six feet high and twelve feet in width, surmounted by a circular window twelve feet in diameter; in the south transept is a circular window of equal dimensions, and at the west end of the nave a window similar to that of the choir, but inferior in size and embellishment. This venerable pile, from its remote situation, escaped the havoc committed on such structures at the Reformation, and is still entire. It contains numerous finely-sculptured monuments, of which one at the east end, of white marble, was erected to the memory of Haco, King of Norway, who died in the bishop's palace after his return from the disastrous battle of Largs, in 1264, and was interred within the choir: there are also many monuments of Scandinavian chieftains, saints, and warriors, with some of modern date, among which is a tablet to the historian Laing. The Episcopal palace appears to have been of very ancient foundation, probably coeval with that of the cathedral; but by whom it was erected is not known. It was partly rebuilt in the time of Mary, by Bishop Reid, whose initials and armorial bearings are inscribed on several parts of the walls; and on that side of the round tower facing the town is a niche, in which is a rude statue of the prelate. This tower forms at present the only portion of the palace that is in any tolerable state of preservation. The palace was, in 1264, for some time the abode of Haco, King of Norway: and was also the temporary residence of James V., who was entertained by the bishop when, on a progress through his dominions, he visited the Orkney Islands.

Burgh Seal.

The town is situated in the northern portion of a tract of land extending from the bay of Kirkwall, on the north, to Scalpa bay, on the south; and is divided into the Old Town, along the shore of the former, and the New Town, a little to the south, by a small rivulet over which is an ancient bridge of one arch. It consists chiefly of one narrow and irregularly-formed street, about a mile in length, and is lighted with gas by a company of shareholders. The houses in the Old Town are mostly of very antiquated character, built with the end fronting the street, and having steep roofs, and doors and windows of diminutive size; but such of them as are of more modern erection are of handsome appearance. The New Town consists of well-built houses; in front of each is a neat garden, and there are several pleasing villas inhabited by opulent families, and numerous well-stored shops for the supply of the inhabitants with various articles of merchandize from Edinburgh, London, and other markets. There are two subscription libraries, and card and dancing assemblies are held in the rooms at the town-hall. The manufacture of kelp, formerly very extensive, has been greatly reduced; and the principal manufacture at present carried on is that of straw-plat, by females at their own dwellings, for the manufacturers of the district, whose agents are stationed here. The plat is of various degrees of fineness, and is considered as superior to that of foreign production. The manufacture of sail-cloth and ropes is also extensive; and there are two distilleries of whisky, which, besides supplying the neighbourhood, produce considerable quantities for exportation: two branch banks, also, have been established in the town. The trade of the port is mainly in the exportation of kelp, corn, fish, cattle, and wool; and the importation of wood, hemp, iron, tar, groceries, cloth, and coal. The harbour, which is commodiously situated in Kirkwall bay, has been greatly improved under an act of the 9th of George IV., and is under the management of trustees consisting of the provost and six other members of the town-council, three registered owners of ships, and three landed proprietors of the county. A commodious pier has been erected for the despatch of business, at an expense of £1100. In 1843 there were sixty-four vessels registered as belonging to the port, of the aggregate burthen of 4312 tons; and the customs received in the same year amounted to £618. Boat-building, for which there are several yards, is carried on to some extent. There is no regular fishery established here; but cod, ling, haddocks, skate, halibut, and coal-fish are found off the coast in abundance, for the supply of the inhabitants. A fair is held in August, and is plentifully furnished with Manchester, London, and Glasgow goods, and with jewellery, haberdashery, and other wares. A powerful steamer plies weekly between this place and Leith, and numerous smaller boats to the adjacent islands.

Kirkwall was erected into a royal burgh, as already stated, by charter of James III., which recited and confirmed all previous privileges, and was ratified by charters of James V. and of Charles II. of England; there were also granted to the burgesses the burgh and city of Kirkwall, the cathedral church of St. Magnus, and various lands for upholding it in repair. The government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and sixteen councillors, assisted by a townclerk and other officers. The provost and bailies are magistrates, and exercise jurisdiction extending over the whole of the royalty. They hold courts for the adjudication of civil suits, and also for trivial nuisances and petty misdemeanors, the town-clerk acting as assessor; but their decisions in the criminal cases seldom extend beyond the imposition of a small fine, or a confinement of twenty-four hours. There are four incorporated crafts, viz., the shoemakers, tailors, weavers, and hammermen, of one of which every one exercising trade within the burgh must be a member, and in which the fees for admission vary from £3 to £5 for sons of freemen or apprentices, and from £4 to £10 for strangers. The burgh is associated with those of Wick, Cromarty, Dingwall, Dornoch, and Tain, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested in the resident burgesses and £10 householders. The town-hall is a handsome building with a piazza in front, and is three stories in height. The ground-floor contains the prison for the burgh, consisting of several separate cells; the first-floor has a spacious assembly-room, with court-rooms, and the story above it is appropriated to the use of the masonic lodge.

The parish, which is about five miles in length, and of nearly equal breadth, is bounded on the north by the bays of Firth and Kirkwall, on the east by Inganess bay and the parish of St. Andrew's, on the south by Scalpa bay, and on the west by the parish of Orphir. The surface is diversified with hills, of which that of Wideford, the only one of any considerable elevation, is about 500 feet above the level of the sea, and covered to its summit with heath. In the rocks on the east of Scalpa bay are some singular excavations, made by the action of the waves, and one of which, about 100 yards in depth, forms a narrow winding passage in the rock, generally twelve feet in height, but in some parts nearly twenty feet, with beautiful stalactites of lime depending from the roof. The soil is various; towards the hills, and in the higher lands, a mixture of cold clay and moss; near the shore, sandy; and in several parts, a rich black loam. The exact area of the parish has not been ascertained, but the probable number of acres of arable land is estimated at 1500; the crops are, oats, barley, bear, potatoes, and turnips, with the various artificial grasses, all of which are cultivated with success. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved, and the rotation plan introduced; considerable progress, also, has taken place in draining and inclosing the lands. There is a large tract of undivided common, affording good pasturage for sheep, the breed of which, as well as that of cattle and horses, has been much improved. A handsome mansion has been erected by the Earl of Zetland; and to the east of the town is Papdale House, the residence of Mr. Laing, and formerly of Mr. Malcolm Laing, author of the History of Scotland, which was wholly written here. There are several gardens where various kinds of fruit are raised with great success, and in some of which grapes are produced in hot-houses; but there is little or no wood, and trees of any considerable size cannot thrive unless in well-sheltered spots. The substratum is principally clayslate, alternated with coarse sandstone, and in some places with veins of limestone, and spar containing small crystals of galena.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkwall, of which this is the seat, and of the synod of Orkney, which also holds its meetings in the parish. The church, being collegiate, has two ministers, who officiate alternately. The minister of the first charge has a stipend of £150. 18., including an allowance of £4. 3. 4. for communion elements; with £30 in lieu of a manse, and a glebe valued at £42: the minister of the second charge has a stipend of £154, including £4. 3. 4. for communion elements: with an allowance of £50 in lieu of manse and glebe: patrons of both, the Corporation and Burgesses. The choir of the cathedral is appropriated as the parish church, and contains 835 sittings. A church dedicated to St. Mary has been recently erected by subscription, at an expense of £1400, of which £200 were granted from the Church Extension fund; it is a neat structure containing 1000 sittings. The patronage is vested in a committee of twenty-five, appointed by the subscribers to its erection. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, United Secession, Original Seceders, and Independents. The grammar school, which is of very early foundation, was originally an appendage of the ancient cathedral establishment, and under the care of the prebendaries; and after the dissolution of that body, the master for some time continued to receive the emoluments of the prebend of St. Peter, which subsequently, with the other revenues of the see, merged in the crown. The present master has a salary of £38, arising partly from a voluntary contribution by the clergy and gentry of Orkney, of 2000 merks vested in the Earl of Zetland, and partly from the proceeds of £500 bequeathed by John Balfour, Esq.: the fees average £50 per annum. The school is attended by about 100 scholars, who are instructed in the Greek and Latin classics, the French and English languages, arithmetic, mathematics, and navigation. The patronage is vested in the council of the burgh, who, in 1820, erected an elegant school-house in lieu of the ancient building, which had become dilapidated. A school is maintained by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, which pays a salary of £15 to the master, who also receives £5 from the Kirk Session; there is likewise a school for females, supported by the ladies resident in the town. Three friendly societies have been established for the relief of widows and orphans and of the indigent sick; and there are two subscription societies. Mr. Meason, of Moredun, in 1810 bequeathed £1000, the interest of which he appropriated towards keeping the cathedral in repair.

There are considerable remains of what is called the King's Castle, and of the ancient palace of the earls of Orkney. At what period and by whom the former was founded, is not distinctly known. From some inscriptions and a mitre on the walls, it is supposed to have been originally built by one of the bishops; but it is with more probability ascribed to Henry Sinclair, first Earl of Orkney, in the fourteenth century. This fortress, of which the walls are of great thickness, was in a tolerably perfect state in the time of Robert Stewart, created Earl of Orkney in 1581, whose son, Patrick, having committed many acts of rebellion, defended it for some time against the king's forces, by whom it was at length taken and demolished. The palace of the earls of Orkney was erected in 1607, by the above-named Patrick Stewart; it was a spacious structure of grey stone, two stories in height, and embellished with projecting towers and oriel windows of elegant design. The grand hall, a magnificent apartment fifty-eight feet long and twenty feet wide, was approached by a triple flight of steps, leading from the principal entrance in the lower story, and was lighted by a range of noble windows. The walls that are still left are in as perfect a state as when first erected; and the remains display much of ancient grandeur, though the buildings were greatly dilapidated by Cromwell's soldiers, who removed the stones for the erection of a fortress on the east side of Kirkwall bay, the mounds and intrenchments of which, raised to protect it from the sea, are yet tolerably entire. Among the eminent characters connected with the parish have been, Sir Robert Strange, a celebrated engraver; Malcolm Laing; and Dr. Traill, professor of medical jurisprudence in the university of Edinburgh, all of whom were natives.


KIRRIEMUIR, a burgh of barony, market-town, and parish, in the county of Forfar; containing, with the village of Northmuir, 7085 inhabitants, of whom 3067 are in the town, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Forfar, and 20 (N. by W.) from Dundee. This place derives its name, which is of disputed origin, most probably from its local appearance and position, which would equally justify its appellation, in the Gaelic signifying "a large hollow," or, as is supposed by some, "a wide district." With the exception of sanguinary conflicts between the chieftains of the several clans, during the feudal times, there are no events of historical importance connected with the place. It was usual in the fourteenth century for the Highlanders beyond the Grampian hills to form themselves into bands under some warlike chieftain, and make depredations in this part of the country; and in 1392, three chiefs commanded by Duncan Stewart, natural son of the Earl of Buchan, came to ravage the district, when a battle took place near the town, in which Sir John Ogilvy, of this place, with many of his retinue, was slain. In 1411, Donald, Lord of the Isles, a firm adherent of the English interest, who acted as an arbitrary and despotic prince, advanced with his followers to Kirriemuir, to prosecute his claim to the earldom of Ross, in which he was opposed by Lord Ogilvy, at that time sheriff of Angus, who mustered his warlike vassals, and, with the assistance of the Earl of Mar, obtained a victory over the invader, whom he defeated with great loss. In 1445, a memorable conflict occurred between the clans of the Ogilvys and the Lindsays, in which it is said not less than 500 of the former were slain on the field of battle. At a subsequent period, a bitter feud arose between the royal burgh of Forfar and this place, originating in some disputed ground, called the Muir Moss, which was claimed by both towns, and where a battle was eventually fought, in which the inhabitants of Kirriemuir had the advantage. Among the families that have been connected with the place is that of Ogilvy, of Airlie, a collateral branch of the Gilchrists, earls of Angus: its ancestor obtained from William the Lion a grant of the barony of Ogilvy, whence he took his name. His descendant, Sir James Ogilvy, was in great favour with James IV., who created him a peer of the realm by the title of Baron Ogilvy, of Airlie; and the seventh lord, in consideration of important services rendered to Charles I. of England, was by that monarch created Earl of Airlie in 1639.

The town is pleasantly situated, partly on a plain and partly on rising ground, and consists of streets irregularly planned, from which numerous others branch off in various directions, with some handsome ranges of houses in the upper part. From the upper part is an extensive and richly-varied prospect over the whole vale of Strathmore, with its towns, castles, churches, seats, plantations, rivers, and lakes, and the other picturesque and romantic features that enliven and characterize its surface. The streets are paved and kept in order by statute labour; the town is well lighted by a company, and the inhabitants are scantily supplied with water. A public library, in which is a large collection of volumes of general literature, is supported by subscription; and there is also a reading and news room, furnished with daily papers and periodical publications. The chief trade carried on here, and that to which the town is indebted for its prosperity, is the manufacture of brown linen, introduced into this part of the country about the middle of the eighteenth century, since which time it has steadily continued to increase, now affording employment to about 3000 persons. The manufacture has maintained itself at this place in rivalry with towns more advantageously situated; and it has attained to such perfection that considerable quantities of yarn are sent here from Montrose and Dundee, to be manufactured for those markets. The average number of pieces made annually exceeds 50,000, containing 6,500,000 yards. The post-office has a daily delivery; and a branch of the British Linen Company's bank has been established in the town. The market, which is abundantly supplied and numerously attended, is on Friday; and fairs are held on the hill at the upper extremity of the town, on the Wednesday after the 24th of July and the Wednesday after the 19th October, for sheep; and, on a smaller scale, in June and December, on the Wednesdays after Glammis fairs. Means of communication are afforded by a good turnpike-road, and by bridges over the Esk and Prosen; and the Dundee railroad passes within four miles of the town. This place was a burgh of royalty at a very remote period, and is subject to a baron, who had formerly unlimited jurisdiction both in civil and criminal cases, but whose power, since the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions, has been greatly diminished. A bailie is appointed by the baron, Lord Douglas; but his jurisdiction is limited in civil cases to pleas not exceeding forty shillings, and in criminal cases to offences punishable by fines not above twenty shillings, or imprisonment not beyond one month. There is a justice-of-peace court held here for the district, including the parishes of Glenisla, Lintrathen, Airlie, Kingoldrum, Cortachy, Tannadice, and Oathlaw; and the peace of the town is preserved by a sufficient number of constables. A trades' hall was some time ago erected by the various friendly societies of the place; the lower part is now let for shops, and the upper part has been recently appropriated as a place of worship for members of the Relief. There is also a small prison for the temporary confinement of vagrants, and offenders against the peace, till brought to trial.

The parish, which is situated to the north of the vale of Strathmore, is divided into two extensive districts by an intervening portion of the parish of Kingoldrum. The northern district is thinly peopled, is nine miles in length, and from two to four in breadth, and comprises 18,000 acres, of which 2000 are arable, interspersed with portions of fine pasture and meadow, 500 woodland and plantations, and 15,500 mountain pasture and waste. The southern district of the parish is five miles in length, and of nearly equal breadth, and comprises about 16,000 acres, of which 11,000 are arable, 2000 woodland and plantations, 2000 moor and pasture, and the remainder roads, water, and waste. The surface in the north is hilly and mountainous, extending on both sides of the river Prosen, and hemmed in by a continued chain of mountains, of which the most conspicuous is the Catlaw, the first in the range of the Grampians, having an elevation of 2264 feet above the level of the sea, and by some writers supposed to be the Mons Grampius of Tacitus. These mountain ridges are indented with numerous small glens and occasional openings; and from many of the steep acclivities descend torrents, which afterwards form tributaries to the Prosen. The surface of the southern division of the parish is nearly level, in some parts gently sloping, and in others varied with gentle inundations; the only heights of any importance being the braes of Inverquharity and the hill of Kirriemuir, which are richly cultivated to their very summit. The principal streams are, the South Esk, the Prosen, the Carity, and the Garie. The South Esk has its source among the mountains in the parish of Clova, and, after receiving many tributary streams in its progress through this parish, runs into the sea at Montrose. The pearl muscle is common in this river, and a pearl-fishery was formerly carried on with success: some years since a considerable number of pearls found here were sold to a jeweller in the town for a considerable sum, one of them being nearly a quarter of an inch in diameter. The Prosen rises in the northern extremity of the parish, and extends through the whole length of the glen to which it gives name. Augmented in its course by the streams of the Lidnathy, Glenloig, Glenlogy, and numerous others issuing from the sides of the mountains, it falls into the South Esk near Inverquharity, not far from the influx, into the same stream, of the Carity, which rises at Balintore, in the parish of Lintrathen. The Garie has its source in the lake of Kinnordy, in this parish, and joins the river Dean near Glammis Castle. Loch Kinnordy, which was formerly extensive, and abounded with perch, pike, and eels, was drained about a century since, by Sir John Ogilvy, for the marl; but the draining having been imperfectly accomplished, it is still a lake, although of inconsiderable size. The stream which issues from it, in dry weather, is scarcely sufficient to turn a mill, though, by the construction of numerous dams to collect the water, it is made to give motion to the machinery of a large number of corn and spinning mills.

The soil is very various. In the northern division of the parish, it is sometimes of a gravelly nature: on the acclivities of the mountains, particularly those of gentler elevation, of a richer alluvial quality; and in other parts, especially towards the mountain summits, a deep moss, which in many places has been partially drained. The soil in the southern division is for a considerable extent sandy and gravelly: on the sloping grounds, where there is frequently an accumulation of alluvial deposit, it is richer, intermixed with black and brown loams of great fertility; in the lower tracts it is thin and dry; in some places mossy, and in others deep and fertile. The crops comprise oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips: the system of agriculture is in a very advanced state; the lands have been well drained, and inclosed partly with dykes of stone and partly with hedges of thorn, which are kept in good order. Irrigation has been practised with success on lands requiring that process; and all the more recent improvements in agricultural implements have been generally adopted. The natural woods in the parish, of which the eastern portion formed part of the ancient forest of Plater, are now inconsiderable; they consist chiefly of birch, alder, hazel, blackthorn, and willow. Around the castle of Inverquharity are some ancient chesnut and ash trees; and in other parts, some beeches of stately growth. The plantations are Scotch fir, with a few larch, and various kinds of forest-trees; they are well managed, and in a flourishing condition. The principal substrata are, the old red sandstone, alternated with red schistose and trap rock; slate; and limestone. A dyke of serpentine occurs on the farm of Balloch, and in Glenprosen are rocks of primitive formation, containing mica-schist, hornblende-slate, and gneiss, in which last are found beautiful specimens of rock-crystal and garnets. The slate, which is of grey colour, and contains some vegetable impressions, is of good quality for roofing; and the limestone is quarried, and burnt into lime in rudely-constructed kilns. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,591. Kinnordy is a handsome mansion pleasantly situated; the gardens contain many rare and valuable plants, and in the house is a museum of natural curiosities and antiquities. Balnaboth, Logie, Ballandarg, and Shielhill, are the other gentlemen's seats worthy of being mentioned.

The parish is in the presbytery of Forfar and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of Lord Douglas; the minister's stipend is £246. 4. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £11 per annum. The church, a neat plain edifice, was erected in 1787, and is adapted for a congregation of 1240 persons. There is also a church at South Kirriemuir, to which a district was till lately annexed, with a population of 2691; it contains 1021 sittings. A missionary, who has an income from the Royal Bounty, officiates alternately at Clova and Glenprosen; and there are in the town and parish an episcopal chapel, and places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Original Constitutional Synod, the United Secession, and the Relief Church. The parochial school affords a very liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with £128 fees, a good house, and an allowance of £2. 2. 9½., in lieu of garden-ground. John Webster, Esq., in 1829, bequeathed £8000 to Charles Lyell, Esq., the minister of the parish, and others, in trust for the erection and endowment of a school; a handsome house containing five spacious schoolrooms has been erected, and teachers have been appointed by the trustees. Mr. Henry, of Kensington, near London, a native of this place, bequeathed £1400 to the ministers and elders, in trust for the education of children, to which purpose the interest of £1200 was to be appropriated, that of the remainder being directed to be paid to the parochial schoolmaster for keeping the accounts. Fifty boys are taught in the parochial school from this fund, with preference of admission to those of the name of Henry; and their fees are paid out of the funds for four years. A savings' bank, and some friendly societies established in the town, long tended to diminish the number of applications for parochial relief.

There are within the limits of the parish several erect stones of large dimensions, none of which, however, have any inscription; and near the hill of Kirriemuir were lately two rocking-stones, within a short distance of each other, one of whinstone, and the other of Lintrathen porphyry. The parish also contains some caves, the most remarkable of which is one called Weems Hole, on the summit of the hill of Mearns. It is of artificial construction, built with stones, and covered with flags of rough stone six feet in width; it is about seventy yards in length, and has the entrance to the south. When first explored, a great number of human bones were found in it, with some querns and other relics of antiquity. There is a similar cave at Auchlishie, called the Weems Park, in which, when opened, were found a currach and several querns. In the bed of the loch of Kinnordy was found, in 1820, a canoe, of which one extremity was scarcely hidden under the surface. There are also various mutilated remains of ancient buildings, supposed to be the ruins of some of the earliest religious establishments after the introduction of Christianity into Britain. Many eminent persons have been connected with the parish. Of a branch of the Ogilvy family, resident at Inverquharity, was Alexander, second son of Sir John Ogilvy; he joined the Marquess of Montrose at the battle of Philiphaugh, in which he was taken prisoner, and for his loyalty he was executed at Glasgow in 1646. Captain Ogilvy, son of Sir David, attended James II. at the battle of the Boyne, and was afterwards killed in an engagement on the Rhine; he was one of a hundred gentlemen who volunteered to attend that monarch in his exile. David Kinloch, a descendant of the very ancient family of Kinloch, of Logie, was born in 1560, and educated as a physician, in which profession he acquired a high preeminence. He travelled much in foreign countries, and was incarcerated in the dungeon of the inquisition in Spain, from which, however, he was liberated in recompense for having performed an extraordinary cure upon the inquisitor-general, after he had been given over by his own physicians. Afterwards, he became physician to James VI., and wrote several poems in elegant Latin. A portrait of him is preserved at the family seat at Logie. In a bed of marl in this parish was found the skeleton of a stag of large dimensions; it was discovered in an upright position, the tips of the horns reaching nearly to the surface of the marl, and the feet resting upon the bottom at a depth of nearly six feet. The horns had nine branches, and when dried weighed nearly eighteen pounds. Above the marl in this part of the parish is a deep layer of peat, in which the skeleton of other stags, though of very inferior size, have been frequently found.


KIRTLE, lately a quoad sacra parish, formed out of the parishes of Annan, Dornock, and Middlebie, in the county of Dumfries, 2½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Ecclesfechan; and containing above 1000 inhabitants. This district derives its name from the river Kirtle, by which it is bordered on the east. It is about four miles in length and two in breadth, and comprises tillage and pasture land in nearly equal portions, with considerable mosses, which, however, feed cattle and sheep; and some plantations in the vicinity of the river. Much of the land is of poor soil, but capable of improvement from good culture. The geological features of the district are not remarkable: red sandstone of excellent quality prevails, and is much used for building and for gravestones. and two quarries are in operation. There are also two celebrated lime-works, from which the lime supplies the country around, and is even sent to Moffat, a distance of twenty miles. The scenery along the banks of the stream is diversified and beautiful, and towards Annan, the ground attains a considerable elevation, but is in no part mountainous. Throughout the whole of its course here, the Kirtle is studded on both banks with handsome mansions, among which are, Springkell, the seat of Sir J. Heron Maxwell, Bart.; Kirtleton, the seat of the Murrays; and Blackethouse, that of the Smith family, the grounds around them, and others, adding much to the beauty of their respective localities. The village of Eaglesfield, in the district, has its name from the late proprietor of Blackethouse, Eaglesfield Smith, Esq.; and is large and populous, having at present between 450 and 500 inhabitants, many of whom are employed as weavers for the Carlisle manufacturers. Means of communication are afforded by the high road between Glasgow and Carlisle, which runs through the middle of the district, and by other roads. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries, and the patronage is in the male communicants with one or two members of the presbytery. The church, situated in the north-eastern extremity of Annan parish, is a plain building of red sandstone, erected about 1840, by voluntary contributions, aided by the Commissioners of the Church Extension fund; it contains 600 sittings. There are two schools, one at Eaglesfield, the other at Breconbeds; the master of each receives a salary of £10, with the fees: they afford instruction each to about 100 children. In the district is a remarkable old tower, vulgarly reputed to be haunted by (Scotticè) a bogle, called the "Bogle of the Blackethouse."


KIRTLEBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Middlebie, county of Dumfries; containing 83 inhabitants. It has its name from a bridge over the Kirtle river, and is one of three villages in the parish which have arisen within the last thirty-five years.


KITTERSAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Kirkowan, county of Wigton, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Kirkowan; containing 31 inhabitants.


KITTOCH-SIDE, a village, in the parish of East Kilbride, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 1¼ mile (S. E.) from Carmunnock. It lies in the northern part of the parish, on the road from Carmunnock to Kilbride, and near the banks of the Kittoch, whence its name. Upon two hills in its neighbourhood are the remains of ancient fortifications, respectively called Castle Hill and Rough Hill.

Knapdale, North

KNAPDALE, NORTH, a parish, in the district of Islay, county of Argyll, 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Lochgilphead; containing 2170 inhabitants. This place, of which the name, in the Celtic language, is accurately descriptive of the surface of the land, diversified with hill and dale, was in 1734 created a separate parish, as was also South Knapdale. The two districts previously formed one parish, called Kilvic-O-Charmaig after Mac-O-Charmaig, an Irish saint who, from his solitary retirement on a small island off the coast, founded several chapels in the neighbourhood. This part of the country was alternately subject, for a long period, to the aggressions of the Irish and the Danes, against whose invasions the inhabitants were continually on their guard; and on the approach of an enemy, a series of watch towers along the coast were instantly lighted up as a signal for the assembling of the military force of the district. The lords of the Isles exercised an independent sovereignty over their vassals here till, in the reign of Bruce, they were ultimately compelled to acknowledge the royal authority. The parish is bounded on the north by Loch Crinan and the canal of that name, and on the south and west by the sound of Jura; it is about thirteen and a half miles in length, and nearly six miles in breadth. The exact number of acres has not been ascertained; there are, however, 3400 acres arable, 22,126 meadow and pasture, 1925 in natural wood, and about 250 under plantation. The surface is beautifully diversified with hills and valleys, and in some parts with gentle undulations and gradual slopes. The principal hills are, Cruachlusach, which has an elevation of 2004 feet above the level of the sea, and Dunardary, Duntaynish, Ervary, and Arichonan, of which the lowest rises to the height of 1200 feet; they all command from their summits interesting and extensive prospects, but from Cruachlusach the view is unbounded and strikingly grand. There are not less than twenty inland lakes scattered over the surface; the largest is about a mile and a quarter in length, and nearly one-third of a mile in breadth, and all abound with trout. Several streams, likewise, intersect the parish; the most considerable is the Kilmichael, which has its source in the moor of that name, near the foot of Mount Cruachlusach, and, after a winding course, in which it forms a picturesque cascade, falls into the sea about 300 yards below the bridge of Kilmichael-Inverlussay. The streams of Dunrostan and Auchnamara are of less importance. The coast is deeply indented on the west by the inlet of Loch Swein, which is from about two to three miles broad, and intersects the parish for nearly ten miles in a north-eastern direction, almost dividing it into two distinct parts. The extent of coast, including the shores of Loch Swein, is almost fifty miles: the rocks in the north rise precipitously to a height of 300 feet; in some parts the coast is bounded by low ledges of rocks, and in others by a level sandy beach.

The soil near the coast is light and sandy; in other places, a gravelly loam; towards the south-west, a rich friable mould of great fertility; and in other parts, an unproductive moss. The system of agriculture is improving; but the principal attention of the farmers is paid to the rearing of live stock. The chief crops are oats and potatoes; the lands have been improved by draining and the use of lime, and the arable farms are inclosed with stone dykes. The cattle are all of the pure West Highland breed, and in respect of size and quality are not surpassed by any in the country; the sheep are generally of the black-faced breed. The dairy-farms are well managed, and the produce abundant. The ancient woods consist of oak, ash, mountain-ash, willow, birch, alder, hazel, and holly; and the plantations, which are in a thriving condition, are oak, ash, larch, spruce, Scotch and silver fir, elm, and beech. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5891. The villages are, Bellanoch, in which is a post-office under that of Lochgilphead, with three deliveries weekly, and Tayvallich. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads: that from Lochgilphead to Keills passes for fifteen miles through the parish, and a branch of it leads to the church of Kilmichael. A road from Inverlussay to Loch Swein is in progress, which, when completed, will greatly promote the intercourse with the eastern portion of the parish. There are five vessels, of thirty tons each, belonging to this place, employed in trading to Greenock, Liverpool, and the Irish coast; and steam-boats from Glasgow to Inverness pass daily during the summer along the Crinan canal.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Inverary and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £164. 6. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £22 per annum; patron, the Crown. There are two churches, in which the minister officiates alternately. The church of Kilmichael-Inverlussay is a neat structure, erected in 1819, and contains 432 sittings; the church of Tayvallich, on the opposite shore of Loch Swein, distant from Kilmichael three miles by sea and ten by land, was erected in 1827, and contains 700 sittings. There are three parochial schools, of which the masters have each a salary of £17, and fees averaging £10 annually; the whole afford instruction to about 240 children. At Keills, in the south-western extremity of the parish, are the ruins of an ancient chapel of Mac-O-Charmaig's, near which is an old cross; and on Drimnacreige are those of another religious house. Not far from the site of a chapel at Kilmahunaig, of which only the cemetery remains, is a conical mound, 120 yards in circumference at the base, and thirty feet in height, called Dun-Donald, where the lords of the Isles held their courts for dispensing justice. There are also numerous remains of fortresses, of which one, called Dun-a-Bheallich, on a hill near the church of Tayvallich, appears to have been raised to defend the pass from the bay of Carsaig to that of Tayvallich. On a rock close to the sea are the ruins of Castle-Swein, commanding the entrance of that loch, and of which the foundation is by tradition ascribed to Swein, Prince of Denmark; the remains consist of roofless walls 105 feet in length, seven feet in thickness, and thirty-five feet in height. A portion called Macmillan's tower seems to be of more recent date than the rest.

Knapdale, South

KNAPDALE, SOUTH, a parish, in the district and county of Argyll, 13 miles (N. by W.) from Tarbert; containing, with a portion of the quoad sacra district of Lochgilphead, 2223 inhabitants. The Gaelic term that gives name to this place consists of the two words knap, a hill, and daill, a plain, field, or dale, and is descriptive of the general appearance of the surface, which is marked by numerous hills and dales. The parish was formed at the same time as that of North Knapdale, in 1734. It is bounded on the east by Loch Fine, and on the west by the sound of Jura, a large arm of the Atlantic Ocean; and is computed to be about twenty miles in length, and in one part half that breadth, comprising chiefly tracts appropriated as sheep-walks and to the pasturage of black-cattle, the soil and climate being alike unfriendly to extensive agricultural operations. The parish approximates in form to a peninsula. On the south-east is a small loch, a branch of Loch Fine, called East Loch Tarbert, and having only the narrow isthmus of Tarbert between it and West Loch Tarbert, which latter borders the parish also on the south-east, and joins the Atlantic at the southern extremity of South Knapdale. The parish is washed on the west, as already stated, by the sound of Jura, its coast extending northward to Loch Chaolis-port, or Killisport, an arm of the sound, running into the land in a north-eastern direction for five or six miles; and thus the parish is almost encompassed by water, rendering it a peninsula, of which Loch Fine is the eastern boundary. The shore of the sound is marked by several bays.

The north-western coast of Loch Killisport is much indented, and abrupt and rocky; but the south-eastern shore is gradual in its ascent. Both sides are richly ornamented with copse wood; and excellent anchorage is found in several of its bays, for vessels seeking refuge from the swell of the south-west and other gales. The shelter is especially good within Ellanfada, at the head of the loch, where the north winds are broken by the hills rising in that direction in the form of an amphitheatre. The islands of Ellanfada, Ellan-na-Muick, and Lea-Ellan, with others, are situated in the loch; and off the point of Knap, at the extremity of its north-western shore, is a dangerous rock called Bow-Knap, the summit of which is seen only at low water during spring tides. Near the north-west coast, also, is Ellan-na-Leek; besides which there are the islands of Ellan-More, Ellan-na-Gamhna, and Core-Ellan, all celebrated for the excellent beef and mutton produced on their pastures. The waters of the loch afford abundance of fish, comprising salmon, trout, whiting, ling, seethe, haddock, skate, halibut, turbot, flounders, and occasionally the John-Dory. Herrings formerly visited it, and large numbers were caught; but they are now seldom seen here in any quantity. Loch Fine is their chief resort in this part of the country; and between forty and fifty boats belonging to the parish are engaged in the fishery there during the season, each, in a prosperous time, making about £70.

The interior of the parish is hilly and mountainous. The highest range is that of Sliabh-Ghaoil, stretching from Inverneill to Barnellan, a distance of twelve miles, and the summits of which command beautifully-diversified and extensive prospects, comprehending the Ayrshire coast, Bute, the Cumbray isles, and the serrated peaks of Arran, with Cantyre and Ireland, the isles of Rathlin, Scarba, Mull, and Jura, and many other interesting objects, both near and far. The heights also embrace a view of the Kyles of Bute, the mouth of the Clyde, the sound of Kilbrannan, the channel towards Ireland, West Loch Tarbert, the sound of Jura, Loch Fine, and other waters. Parallel with Sliabh-Ghaoil run subordinate ranges, with intermediate valleys traversed by numerous streams, of which those named Ormsary and Loch-head are celebrated for their fine trout. Salmon-trout, also, of good quality, are found in the different inland lakes, four or five in number. Some portions of the parish are subject to tillage; the farms are of small size, and the usual crops are, oats, bear, barley, peas, beans, turnips, clover, and rye-grass, with potatoes, the last raised in considerable quantities, and exported. The average rent of land, however, does not exceed one shilling per acre, in consequence of the very large proportion of moor pasture. On some of the best farms, the tenements and offices have been recently much improved; and on one estate a threshing-mill, worked by water, and at present the only one in the parish, has been erected. The sheep are all of the black-faced kind; and the black-cattle, many of which are of superior quality, and have obtained prizes at the cattle-shows in the district, are the West Highland. The wood, which is partly natural and partly planted, and of considerable extent, comprises oak, ash, birch, hazel, and holly, larch, spruce-fir, ash, beech, plane and willow: some of the plantations are of recent growth, and very flourishing. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5777. The mansion of Ormsary, one of the principal seats, is a beautiful residence, with a fine garden and shrubbery, from which plantations are intended to be continued in clumps to the north, and in belts to the shore on the south, for the shelter of this agreeable locality. The parish also contains the mansions of Inverneill, Erines, Drimdrissaig, and Achindarroch, the last situated on the bank of the Crinan canal, and surrounded with ornamental grounds; and a spacious mansion has been built at Barmore.

An excellent road runs from Daill, the north-eastern extremity of the parish, to Barnellan, in the south, and for about twelve miles is called the Sliabh-Ghaoil road, on account of its route along the eastern base of the hilly range of that name. It was constructed with much labour and difficulty, under the superintendence, and by the persevering exertions, of Sheriff Campbell, and has proved of eminent service to this parish, as well as to several others, offering the only inland means of communication between the peninsula of Cantyre and the other parts of Argyllshire. The Crinan canal, begun in 1793, by a company, under an act of parliament obtained for that purpose, commences at the loch and village from which it takes its name, in the parish of Kilmartin, and, after a south-eastern course of nine miles, falls into the Loch Gilp branch of Loch Fine, in the north of this parish. It is a convenient and safe channel for vessels plying between the West Highlands and the Clyde: by it the dangerous course round the Mull of Cantyre is avoided; and it has been found highly beneficial to the coasting and fishing trade, for whose use it was chiefly designed. At its opening into Loch Gilp, a village has been formed since the commencement of the canal; it is called Ardrissaig, and contains about 400 people, who are chiefly supported by the herring-fishery: 100 boats are frequently in the harbour during the season of the fishery; and there is also much traffic by means of the Glasgow steamers, three of which in summer, and one in winter, arrive at the port daily, for the conveyance of goods and cattle, and passengers. The northern parts of the parish chiefly use Lochgilphead, a large village in the parish of Kilmichael-Glassary, as their post-town, and the southern district the village of Tarbert. To the latter place the mail-bag was formerly sent from Lochgilphead daily, upon its arrival from Inverary; but it is now despatched by steam from Ardrissaig, a change productive of some inconvenience. The village of Tarbert, situated partly in the parish, affords means to those residing in the south for the disposal of their produce; those in the north generally resort to Lochgilphead.

The parish is in the presbytery of Inverary and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £159, with a manse, and a glebe of fourteen acres, valued at £10 per annum. There are two churches, the one situated at Achoish, and the other at Inverneill, both built about the year 1775, and repaired a few years since; they are seated respectively for 212 and 300 persons. The incumbent formerly officiated at these churches alternately; but, since the erection of a church at Lochgilphead in 1828, and the annexation of Ardrissaig, and some parts adjacent, to the district of that church, he has performed public worship at Inverneill every third Sabbath only. There are four parochial schools, affording instruction in English and Gaelic reading, and the other branches of a plain education; and at two of the schools instruction is given in Latin, geography, and navigation. The masters each receive a salary of £12. 12., but no allowance is made to any of them for dwelling-house or ground; their fees amount respectively to £20, £8, £12, and £7. There is also an Assembly's school, the master of which is indebted for a house and some ground, and for the school-house, to the munificence of Mrs. Campbell, of Ormsary. The remains of three ancient chapels are still visible, one of which, in Ellan-More, was built by Mac-O-Charmaig; it is arched over, and in good preservation; and in the recess of the wall is a stone coffin, with the figure of a man cut on the lid. The same saint founded the church of Kilvic-O-Charmaig, the mother church of the two Knapdales, and, after many acts of devotion, was buried in his own island, where his tomb is yet to be seen. At Cove is a chapel in ruins, built, according to tradition, by St. Columba, before he took his departure for Iona to found his seminary there; the altar and fount remain in good order, and the former exhibits a well-sculptured cross. Near the Point of Knap is a rock on which was engraved, in Celtic characters, now no longer visible, the charter of the Mc Millans, declaring their right to the lands of South Knapdale, nearly the whole of which they possessed, and retained against the violent attempts of the Mc Neils, a powerful clan in North Knapdale, to wrest the property from them, until the year 1775, when it came by purchase to the Campbell family, who now hold it.


KNIGHTSWOOD, a village, in the parish of New Kilpatrick, county of Dumbarton, 1¾ mile (S. by E.) from New Kilpatrick; containing 178 inhabitants. It is situated in the south part of the parish, a short distance from the river Kelvin, which here flows on the east. At Netherton, in its neighbourhood, is a valuable freestone quarry, of which the stone is of a cream colour, easily cut when fresh from the quarry, but hardening considerably by exposure. At one period it was largely exported to Ireland and the West Indies; and it is still wrought in vast quantities, affording employment to between sixty and seventy persons.


KNOCK, or Uii, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Stornoway, island of Lewis, county of Ross and Cromarty, 5 miles (E.) from the town of Stornoway; containing 1637 inhabitants. This district, which is called also Eye, is connected with the main part of the parish of Stornoway by a narrow isthmus, and is bounded on the west by Broad bay, and on the east and south by the channel of the Minch, which separates it from the main land of the county. It comprises about 12,000 acres, and was erected into a quoad sacra district on the building of a church by parliamentary grant within the last few years. In all its statistical details it is identified with Stornoway; it comprises only a few rural hamlets, of which the inhabitants are engaged in the fisheries common to that parish. The church, a neat structure, contains about 800 sittings, and the minister has a stipend of £120, with a manse and glebe; patron, the Crown. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There are also two schools supported by the Gaelic Society of Edinburgh. In the cemetery of the old church of Uii, of which there are considerable remains, it is traditionally recorded that not less than sixteen of the Mc Leods, the ancient lords of Lewis, were interred.


KNOCKANDO, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 14 miles (S.) from Elgin; containing, with the village of Archiestown, 1676 inhabitants. Knockando derives its name from two Gaelic words signifying "the black hill," or "hill with the black head." It has the ancient parish of Elchies united to it, but no distinct record of union is preserved: both parishes were vicarages, the former depending on the parson of Inveraven, and the latter on the parson of Boterie. This is considered a Highland parish, though the provincial Scotch, with a mixture of English, has entirely superseded the Gaelic language, which is spoken in the neighbouring parishes. A place here, called Campbell's Cairns, is thought by some to derive its name from a battle fought between the Campbells and some other clan, in which the former were defeated. Others, however, think the name arose from Cossack Dhu, an ancient freebooter, who is said to have concealed his plunder among the cairns. The most important event of modern times connected with the district is the terrible flood which occurred in 1829, and produced appalling desolation to fields, houses, mills, and every description of property within the range of its fury, and the details of which have now become interwoven with the history of Moray.

The parish is of an irregular figure, stretching along the bank of the river Spey, extending between sixteen and seventeen miles in length, and varying from two to six in breadth. It is bounded on the north by Dallas and Birnie parishes; on the south by the Spey, which separates it from Inveraven and Aberlour, in the shire of Banff; on the east by Rothes; and on the west by the parishes of Cromdale and Edinkillie. The surface is considerably diversified by a succession of hills and glens, with several level haughs near the river; and there is an eminence towards the west, called James Roy's Cairn, supposed to be the highest ground in Morayshire. In the moorlands are two lakes called Benshalgs and Loch Coulalt; but the larger does not exceed a mile in circumference. A number of burns, also, water the parish, in all of which trout are found, and which, in a rainy season, overflow their banks, and rush forward with great impetuosity: in the celebrated flood of 1829, they came down with tremendous force from the hills, swollen to the size of rivers, and carrying every thing before them to the Spey. The Spey is the most rapid river, as well as one of the principal rivers, in Scotland; and many rafts of timber are sent down its stream from the forests of Rothiemurchus and Abernethy.

The soil varies very considerably, running through the different kinds of land, black gravelly mould, heavy clay, and moss; resting in some parts upon clay, and in others upon gravel. The alluvial deposits consist of clay, bog-iron ore, peat, fullers'-earth, and marl; and oak and fir roots, and whole trees, have been found imbedded in the several large mosses. Independently of the estate of Knockando, which comprehends about a third part of the whole parish, 2034 acres are in tillage or pasture, 7986 are uncultivated, and 680 under plantation. All kinds of grain and green crops are grown; but agriculture is generally backward, and modern practices have been only partially adopted; very few lands are inclosed, and the farm-buildings are usually of an inferior kind. Improvements are, indeed, advancing on the grounds of some of the larger proprietors; but the smallness of the farms, and the limited use of manure, with the want of capital, operate to prevent the extension of these improvements throughout the parish. The rocks are all of the primitive formation, and consist of granite, felspar, mica, sandstone, and rock-crystal. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3857.

The mansions are those of Easter Elchies, built in the year 1700, by the father of the late Lord Elchies; the house of Knockando, built in 1732, now partly in ruins, but capable of repair, and beautifully situated near the banks of the Spey; and Wester Elchies, a building of more modern date, in the castellated style, belonging to the Grant family. The scenery around these seats, particularly Knockando, is exceedingly picturesque and beautiful. The only village is Archiestown; it is three-quarters of a mile in length, and consists of a double row of houses, with a square in the centre of about half an acre. There are four meal-mills, a waulk-mill, a carding-mill, and some saw and threshing mills: at the waulk and carding mills, wool is dyed and manufactured into plaiding and broad cloth, blankets and carpets. Weaving and spinning are also carried on in the parish; and there are two distilleries, which have a very high character. On the Spey is a salmon-fishery, and trout-angling is practised to a great extent on that river and all the burns. Roads to Elgin and Forres run through the parish, and are in good order; but the other roads are in general in a deplorable state. The bridge of Craigellachie affords a transit over the Spey; and there are numerous ferries; as well as wooden bridges across the burns. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Aberlour and synod of Moray; patron, the Earl of Seafield. The stipend of the minister is £158, of which a small portion is received from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe of about fourteen acres, valued at £13 per annum. The church, built in 1757, and repaired in 1832, is a small plain edifice, though remarkably neat within; it contains 477 sittings, and is conveniently situated for the population. The Independents have a place of worship. There are two parochial schools, each of the masters of which has a salary of £25. 13., with a share of the Dick bequest, and about £8 or £10 fees: instruction is given in Latin, the mathematics, and the usual branches of education. Three other schools are supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; two of them are taught by females. In the parish are several mineral springs occasionally used for medicinal purposes. There are two ancient caves, one of which is designated the Cave of Hairnish An Tuim, supposed to be James Grant, nephew of the well-known Carron: the other is called Bane's Hole, from Donald Bane, the robber, who is said to have been shot and buried in the neighbourhood. Lord Elchies, already mentioned, a distinguished judge, was born in Easter Elchies; and the Messrs. Grant, of Manchester, who have established one of the most extensive mercantile concerns in England, are also natives of the parish.


KNOCKBAIN, or Kilmuir Wester and Suddy, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Inverness; containing, with the villages of Charlestown and Munlochy, 2565 inhabitants. Previously to the union of the counties of Ross and Cromarty, this parish was locally in the county of Ross only. The name Kilmuir is Gaelic, implying "a church dedicated to Mary;" and Suddy signifies "a good place for a settlement." The two districts, once separate parishes, were united in 1756, when they received the name of Knockbain, by which they have since been called, but which was originally applied only to a cold and desolate moor, whereon the church and manse are built. Little is known concerning the ancient history of the parish; but the remains of many cairns on the field of Blair-na-coi are said to be the memorials of a sanguinary conflict which took place near the spot, in the thirteenth century, between the famous Mc Donalds and the people of Inverness. The length of the parish is between six and seven miles, and its breadth between five and six; it is bounded on the south by the Moray Frith, and on the north-west by the parish of Killearnan. The climate is tolerably healthy. The soil is generally good, but differs greatly throughout, consisting of the several varieties of sandy loam, clay loam, moor earth, moss, gravel, and alluvial deposits. The number of acres on the estates of four of the five heritors in the parish is, 3458 arable land, 3496 plantation, and 3323 pasture or uncultivated: the number of acres on the estate of Suddy is not precisely known. Large quantities of wheat and barley are raised, and the farmers grow also oats, peas, turnips, and potatoes. The woods consist of Scotch fir, larch, and one very large and recent plantation of oak, for which the planter received a premium from the Highland Society. The estate of Drumderfit contains the most important farm in the parish: this farm has been for some centuries in possession of the same family, who have brought it to a high state of cultivation by the large sums from time to time expended upon it. At Allangrange, Suddy, Muirends, Munlochy, and Wester Kessock, considerable quantities of waste land have been recovered. The farms generally have been portioned into the most suitable dimensions; good houses and fences have been raised, and the most recent improvements in husbandry skilfully applied. On some lands, particularly those of Wester Kessock, great encouragement has been given by granting long leases. The subsoil of the parish is clayey, in many parts tenacious, and sometimes covered with a thin stratum of iron-ore, mixed with gravel and sandstone: the rocks are of the old sandstone formation. The rateable annual value of Knockbain is £6772.

There are two villages, one named Munlochy, the other Charlestown; the latter is opposite the northern entrance of the Caledonian canal, and both are built on the estate of Sir Colin Mc Kenzie, Bart., of Kilcoy. A considerable trade has been carried on for several years with Newcastle and Hull, by the exportation of fir-props, in exchange for which lime and coal are received. A post-office is established, and the roads are in good repair: that from Dingwall to Kessock-Ferry passes through the western part of the parish, and the roads from Kessock to Fortrose and Invergordon, and from Fortrose to Beauly, run through the centre of it. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Chanonry and synod of Ross. The stipend of the minister is £205, with a manse, a glebe of the annual value of £22, and a composition of £1 yearly in lieu of the privilege of cutting peat: the patronage belongs to the Crown, and the family of Mc Kenzie, of Cromarty. The church is an ancient structure: when repaired about thirty years ago, it was sufficiently enlarged to admit 250 additional hearers, and at present it accommodates nearly 800 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is an episcopal chapel. The parochial schoolmaster has the maximum salary, with a house, and about £13 fees. There is another school, supported by the General Assembly's committee, and called Principal Baird's school, the master of which has a salary of £25, and the fees. In each of these schools the ordinary branches of education are taught, and some of the Latin authors. Major-General Mc Kenzie, who was M.P. for Sutherland, and who fell while supporting one of the wings of the British army at Talavera, was born here: a monument has been raised to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, London.


KNOCKSHOGGLE-HOLM, a village, in the parish of Coylton, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from Ayr; containing 102 inhabitants. It is situated in the north-western part of the parish, a short distance west of the road from Coylton to Tarbolton, and consists of a group of cottages, chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in agriculture.


KYLEAKIN, a village, in the parish of Strath, Isle of Skye, county of Inverness, 8½ miles (E.) from Broadford; containing 231 inhabitants. The name is partly a corruption of Haco, the place being called Kyleakin, or Haco's-Kyle, in commemoration of events connected with King Haco's Norwegian expedition in 1263. The extremities of the strait between this part of Skye and the main land are styled Kyle Rhea, or the King's Kyle; and here is a ferry about a third of a mile in breadth. Lord Macdonald intended to erect a sea-port town at this place; in 1811 the plans were prepared, and on the 14th of September the foundation stone was laid with great pomp and ceremony; but the design was a failure, as the houses to be erected, of which a few compose the present village, were on too expensive a scale for the resources of the people generally, and no person of wealth or enterprise could be found to settle on the spot. It is now merely a fishing-village. There is a good line of road from the Sconcer road to Kyleakin, and thence through the district of Lochalsh to Strome Ferry, whereby the Lochcarron road is made to form a more convenient means of communication between Skye and the north-east coast of Scotland.