Arbuthnott - Arrochar

A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.

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'Arbuthnott - Arrochar', in A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, (London, 1846) pp. 59-72. British History Online [accessed 19 April 2024]

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ARBUTHNOTT, a parish, in the county of Kincardine, adjoining the town of Bervie, and containing 1015 inhabitants. The name of this place has undergone many changes in its pronunciation and spelling; but, from documents in the possession of the Arbuthnott family, it appears that, previously to the 12th century, it was called Aberbothenothe, which form, about the year 1335, had been changed to Aberbuthnot, and, in 1443, to the mode it now retains. The original term signifies "the confluence of the water below the Baron's house," and is descriptive of the site of the ancient castle and of the present mansion-house, upon the narrow point of a projection overlooking the water of Bervie, which stream is joined by a rapid rivulet, formerly of considerable breadth, about 100 yards distant from the mansion. The parish, in the early history of which the Arbuthnotts have held the most conspicuous place, contains 9423 acres, of which 6200 are in tillage, 250 plantations, and 2223 uncultivated. It is intersected by the road from Stonehaven to Brechin, and is bounded on the north by the river Forthy, which separates it from Glenbervie; and on the south and west, by the water of Bervie, dividing it from the parishes of Bervie, Fordoun, and Lawrencekirk. The surface, which is altogether irregular, being much diversified by hill and dale, rises on every side from the valley of the Bervie water, the windings of which, between steep and richlywooded banks, present, in many parts, interesting and beautiful scenery; the highest land is Bruxiehill, which has an elevation of about 650 feet above the sea. The only stream worthy of notice is the Bervie, which, in summer, is small, and slow in its course, flowing at the rate of about a mile per hour; but, in the rainy seasons, it rises rapidly, the flood being considerably augmented through the medium of the agricultural drains; and embankments, to some extent, have been found necessary, to secure the neighbouring lands against the havoc consequent upon its overflowing.

The soil, towards the southern quarter, is a strong clay, with a cold retentive subsoil, and in the direction of the northern boundary, light and dry; there is also some rough wet pasture and moor, but this kind of land has been greatly ameliorated and recovered by recent drainage: the chief crops are, grain of different kinds, potatoes, turnips, and beet-root. The parish is altogether agricultural, and the cultivation of the soil is carried on with great spirit; the five and seven years' rotation of crops are each followed, but the latter is here thought to succeed the best; and bone-dust, as manure, has been applied with advantage on light soils, where the turnips are eaten off by the sheep. The wood planted consists of Scotch fir, larch, spruce, chesnut, poplar, hazel, and almost every species known in the country; and above twenty different kinds of oak, chiefly American, have been introduced into the nursery, by Lord Arbuthnott, with a view to plantation. Improvements have been vigorously and successfully carried on, chiefly consisting of an extensive and efficient drainage of the lands, the cultivation of much barren soil, and the construction of embankments along the course of the Bervie, for the protection of the fertile haughs through which it runs. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6592. The rocks are mostly coarse sandstone, trap, and what in the country is called scurdy; blocks of gneiss and granite are sometimes seen; on the north bank of the Bervie, pebbles beautifully varied have been found imbedded in trap; and calcareous spar, heavy spar, and veins of manganese also exist. In the deepest part of a small peat-bog called the "Hog's Hole," the skeletons of two red deer were recently found, the antlers of whose horns were seven and eight in number, and some of them measuring eighteen inches in length. Arbuthnott House, the seat of the ancient and noble family of Arbuthnott, is beautifully situated on the Bervie, almost concealed by thriving plantations; it has been greatly improved by the present owner; the grounds are laid out with much taste, and the mansion is approached by a fine avenue of beech-trees, upwards of two centuries old. In the library of his lordship are, the missal used in the parochial church in former times, and the psalter and office belonging to a chapel connected with the church, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary; the penmanship is exceedingly beautiful, and many parts are splendidly illuminated. The castle of Allardyce, also on the bank of the river, and which has been recently repaired, is the property of the ancient family of Allardyce; and the house of Kair is a modern mansion, of neat and elegant appearance.

The ecclesiastical affairs are regulated by the presbytery of Fordoun and synod of Angus and Mearns; the patronage belongs to Viscount Arbuthnott, and the minister's stipend is £225, with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £9. The church, which, though much altered and enlarged, is probably four centuries old, and was, in former times, dedicated to St. Ternan, is situated near the north bank of the river, about three miles distant from the furthest extremity of the parish. An aisle, of finely-hewn ashlar, and elegantly constructed, was added to it, on the south-east, in 1505, by Sir Robert Arbuthnott, who also repaired and improved the west gable, on which was placed a round tower; and this aisle, which is now the burial-place of the family, contains an old full-length statue, of stone, of Hugh de Arbuthnott. There is a parochial school, the master of which has the maximum salary, with house and garden, and about £10 fees; and a savings' bank, established in June, 1822, is in a prosperous condition. The celebrated and learned Alexander Arbuthnott, first Protestant principal of King's College, Aberdeen, was a native of the parish, and some time its minister, to which office he was appointed in 1567; and the wellknown Dr. Arbuthnott, physician to Queen Anne, and one of the triumvirate with Pope and Swift, was born here in 1667. The place gives the title of Viscount to the family of Arbuthnott.


ARCHIESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Knockando, county of Elgin; containing 174 inhabitants. This is the only village in the parish, and is of modern origin, having been commenced about 1760, by Sir Archibald Grant, the great-grandfather of Sir James Grant, of Moneymusk, the present baronet. It is built on the moor of Ballintomb, and consists of a double row of houses, about three-quarters of a mile in length, having a square in the centre, of about half an acre, and some by-lanes. The village suffered severely in 1783, from an accidental fire, but it has latterly recovered from this calamity, and several new houses have been erected very recently. In a preaching station, which accommodates about 200 persons, divine service is performed once a month, by the minister of the parochial church; and a few dissenters belonging to the Associate Synod, also occasionally assemble here. There are schools likewise, which open and close with prayer.


ARDCHATTAN, a parish, in the district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 8 miles (E. N. E.) from Oban; containing 2421 inhabitants, of whom 960 are in the quoad sacra parish of Muckairn. This place is supposed to have derived its name from Catan, who accompanied St. Columba to Scotland, about the year 563; and from its mountainous aspect, of which the term Ardchattan is also descriptive, signifying "the hill" or "promontory of Catan." It obtained, for some time, the appellation of Bal Mhoadan, or " the residence of Moadan," in honour of whom a church was erected in the vicinity, which afterwards became the church of the parish of Kilmodan; and that portion of the parish which is comprehended between the river Awe and Loch Etive, still retains the name of Benderloch, descriptive of a mountainous district between two arms of the sea. The Parish is bounded on the north by the river and loch of Creran; on the south and east, by Loch Etive, and the river and loch of Awe; and on the west by Loch Linnhe; and, exclusively of Muckairn, is about 40 miles in length, and 10 miles in average breadth. The surface is generally mountainous, but diversified with several glens and valleys of considerable extent, some richly embellished with wood, and displaying much romantic scenery; the level lands are intersected with numerous streams, and the hills of more moderate height are crowned with plantations. With the exception of the valley of Glenure and a few other spots, the only arable lands are towards the north and east, beyond which little cultivation is found; lofty mountains, in various directions, rise so abruptly from the sides of the lakes, as to leave little land that can be subjected to the plough.

Of these mountains, the principal is Ben-Cruachan, the highest in the county, having an elevation of 3669 feet above the sea, and rising from a base of more than twenty miles in circumference; the acclivity, towards the vale of Glencoe, is precipitously steep, but from the south, behind Inverawe, the ascent is more gradual, terminating in two conical summits commanding a most unbounded prospect. Ben-Cochail, to the north of it, though little inferior in height, appears much diminished by comparison; and Ben-Starive, still further up the lake, rises from abase of large extent, to an elevation of 2500 feet. The acclivities of the latter, of barren aspect, are deeply furrowed; and in the channels of the streams which descend from it, are found beautiful crystals, little inferior to the cairngorms of the Grampians. Ben-Nan-Aighean, or the "mountain of the heifers," to the south of Ben-Starive, rises to a great height, terminating in a peak of granite; for about, half way up the acclivities it affords Tolerable pasture, and is thence rugged and barren to its summit; rock crystals are found near its base, and in the beds of its numerous streams. Ben-Chaorach, or the "mountain of the sheep," near Ben-Starive, is of inferior height, but affords good pasturage. Ben-Ketlan, to the north of it, is of greater elevation, and presents a finer outline, bounded on the one side of its base by the Alt-Ketlan stream, and by the Alt-Chaorach on the other; it is the most fertile of the mountains. Two most conspicuous mountains called Buachail-Etive, or the "keepers of the Etive," and situated near the termination of the lake of that name, are distinguished by the names Buachail-Mor and Buachail-Beg, from the respective extent of their bases, though neither of them has an elevation of less than 3000 feet. Ben-Veedan, called also Ben-Nambian, or the "mountain of the deer-skins," from the number of deer which are killed there, is separated from Buachail-Beg by the mountain-pass of Larig-Aoilt, a stupendous range scarcely inferior, in elevation, to Ben-Cruachan, and which opens into the vale of Glencoe. Ben-Treelahan, on the west side of Loch Etive, which washes its base for nearly five miles, and Ben-Starive, on the opposite side, greatly contract the breadth of the lake, and, by their rugged aspect, spread over it a romantic gloom hardly surpassed in mountain scenery. In the north-east of the parish, also, are other mountains, of which the principal are, Ben-Aulay, the highest of the range; Ben-Scoullard, Ben-Vreck, Ben-Molurgan, and Ben-Vean.

Of the numerous glens interspersed between the mountains, is Glen-Noe, about four miles in length, and one mile in breadth, inclosed on the north side by Ben-Cruachan, and on the south by Ben-Cochail; it is clothed with rich verdure, and watered throughout by a stream, of which the banks, as it approaches the sea, are finely wooded. A house has been built near the opening, for the residence of the farmer who rents it, than which a more delightful summer retreat can scarcely be imagined. Glen-Kinglas is about nine miles in length, and nearly two in breadth, and watered by the river to which it gives name; the north side is rocky and barren, but the south affords excellent pasture. It formerly abounded with timber, which was felled for charcoal, by an iron-smelting company, about a century since; but, with the exception of a few alders on the banks of the river, and some brushwood of little value, it is now destitute of wood. Glen-Ketlan, inclosed on one side by the mountain of that name, is about two miles in length, and watered by the river Etive, which enters it, about three miles from the head of Loch Etive. Glen-Etive commences at the head of the lake of that name, and is more than sixteen miles in length; it was formerly a royal forest, of which the hereditary keeper claims exemption from certain payments. One portion of the glen,with a contiguous tract in the parish of Glenorchy, has been stocked with red deer, by the Marquess of Breadalbane, and another portion of it has been appropriated by Mr. Campbell, of Monzie, to the same purpose. The whole tract is marked throughout by features of sublimity and grandeur, though stripped of the majestic timber with which it was anciently embellished. Glen-Ure, or the "glen of yew-trees," opens from the river Creran, and expands to the south and east, for about three miles; near the river are the dilapidated remains of the ancient mansion of the family of Glenure, and adjacent is the farm of Barnamuch, which has been always famed for the richness of its pastures. The remote extremity of the glen is marked with features of rugged grandeur. Glen-Dindal, or Glen-Dow, about seven miles to the west of Glenure, is three miles in length, and, in the lower part, luxuriantly wooded; it is frequented by numbers of fallow deer, originally introduced about the middle of the last century. Glen-Salloch, the most elevated of the glens, is situated between Loch Etive and Loch Creran, and extends from south to north, for about six miles; it comprehends much variety of scenery, and the views from any point commanding either of the lakes, are romantically picturesque.

The principal lakes are, Loch Etive, and Loch Creran; the former branches from the Linnhe loch, near Dunstaffnage Castle, and extends eastward to Bunawe, after which, taking a northern direction among the mountains, it terminates at Kinloch Etive. It is about twenty-two miles in length, varying from less than a quarter of a mile to more than a mile and a half in breadth, and is from 20 to 100 fathoms in depth. The bay affords safe anchorage to vessels not exceeding 100 tons; and at. Connel Ferry, near the western extremity, the tide rises to a height of 14 feet, forming in the narrow channel, which is not more than 200 yards in width, and obstructed by a ledge of rock, a foaming and apparently terrific rush of water, which the skill of the boatmen has rendered available, to facilitate the passage. There is another ferry across the lake at Bunawe, opposite to which is the small island of Elan-Duirnish, inhabited only by the family of the ferryman, and connected with the mainland, on the opposite shore, by a stone causeway, along which passes a road which afterwards diverges to Inverary and Glenorchy. Loch Creran issues from the Linnhe loch, near the island of Griska, and extends in a north-easterly direction, for about twelve miles, the breadth, on an average, being a mile and a half. It is about 15 fathoms in depth, and the spring tides rise from 15 to 16 feet; the bay, having a clayey bottom, affords good anchorage, and there is a ferry across the loch at Shean, in the narrowest part. It has several barren and uninhabited islets; and the island of Griska, which is well wooded, contains a considerable portion of pasture and arable land, forming a very compact farm.

Among the chief rivers is the Awe, which, issuing from the loch of that name, and flowing between richly-wooded banks, after a course of about four miles, falls into Loch Etive, at Bunawe. The Etive, which has its source near Kings-house, in the parish, flows in a westerly and south-westerly direction, and, gradually expanding in its progress, after a course of nearly sixteen miles, falls into Loch Etive, near its head. The Kinglas has a course of about twelve miles to the south-west, flowing through a channel of rock and granite; its waters are remarkably transparent, and salmon are found in numbers. The Liver, which rises to the south of the Kinglas, flows for about six miles in a westerly direction, and falls into Loch Etive, at Inverliver. The Noe, which waters the glen of that name, has a course of four miles between rugged mountains, and, near its confluence with Loch Etive, forms a romantic cascade. The Creran, which has its source near Ben-Aulay, flows for nearly twelve miles, westerly, and, after passing through the inland lake of Fasnacloich, forms a channel navigable for small boats, and falls into the sea at the head of Loch Creran. The Ure has a course of about seven miles in a northerly direction, and, passing to the west of Glenure House, falls into the river Creran. The Tendal has a westerly course of about six miles, through the glen of that name, and forms several interesting cascades. The Buie, after a course of little more than three miles, and the Dergan, which rises in the heights of Glen-Salloch, both fall into Loch Creran; and the Esragan-More, and the Esragan-Beg, separated by the mountain of Ben-Vean, after a course of about five miles, fall into Loch Etive. The rivers generally, in their course, form numerous cascades, of which many, especially those of the mountainous districts, are incomparably beautiful.

Though generally a pastoral district, there is still a considerable portion of arable land, estimated at about 1700 acres; the soil is chiefly a light loam, requiring much manure, but producing good crops of oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. The farm-houses, with very few exceptions, are of an inferior order, thatched with straw, and ill adapted to the purpose. Great numbers of cattle and sheep are fed in the pastures, and considerable attention is paid to the rearing of stock; the cattle are of the Highland black breed, and on the dairy-farms, the cows are of the Ayrshire breed. The sheep, which were originally of the small white-faced kind, have been almost entirely superseded by the black-faced, and a few of the Cheviot breed have been recently introduced; the number of sheep reared annually is estimated at 32,000. About 2700 acres are woodland and plantations; the coppices are chiefly oak, ash, birch, and mountain-ash; and the plantations consist of ash, beech, elm, sycamore, larch, and Scottish and spruce firs, all of which are in a thriving state. The rateable annual value of Ardchattan and Muckairn is £10,987. Lead-ore has been discovered on the farm of Drimvuick, but not wrought; large boulders of granite are found in abundance, and on the upper shore of Loch Etive, a quarry has been opened by the Marquess of Breadalbane, from which are raised blocks of large size, and of very superior quality. The principal mansions in the parish are, Lochnell House, originally built by Sir Duncan Campbell, and improved, at an expense of £15,000, by General Campbell, his successor; Barcaldine House, recently enlarged, and beautifully situated in a richly-wooded demesne; Ardchattan Priory, a portion of the ancient convent, converted into a private residence; Inverawe House, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Awe, and surrounded with stately timber; and Drimvuick House, a pleasant residence. There is a post-office at Bunawe, about four miles distant from the church; the mail from Fort-William, likewise, passes through a portion of the parish, and facility of communication is afforded by good roads. A fair for cattle and horses, which is also a statute-fair, is held at Shean Ferry twice in the year.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll; the minister's stipend is £283. 3. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum; patron, Archibald Campbell, Esq., of Lochnell. The church, erected in 1836, is a neat structure, situated on the north shore óf Loch Etive, and containing 430 sittings. There is a preaching station at Inverghiusachaw, in Glen-Etive, about 16 miles distant from the church, where a missionary supported by the Royal Bounty preaches once in three weeks. A place of worship in connexion with the Free Church has been recently built. The parochial school is attended by about 50 children; the master has a salary of £29. 16. 7., including the proceeds of a bequest producing £4. 3. 4., with a house and garden, and the school fees average about £11 per annum. There are some remains of Ardchattan Priory, founded in 1231, by Duncan Mc Coull, the supposed ancestor of the lords of Lorn, for monks of the Benedictine order; the house of the prior has been converted into a residence, by Mr. Campbell, the proprietor, and there are traces of the abbey and cloisters, with numerous monumental relics. Some remains also exist of the ancient churches of Bal-Moadan and Kilcolmkill: the Castle of Barcaldine, erected in the 15th century, by Sir Duncan Campbell, on a neck of land between Loch Creran and the bay of Ardmucknish, is rapidly falling into decay. There are remains of Druidical circles, of large columns of granite, and smaller circles of upright stones, on the summits of which are large slabs of granite; also stone coffins, in some of which have been found rude urns, containing human bones; and numerous tumuli, in one of which was an urn, containing calcined bones, and an arrow-head of flint. Many ancient coins have been likewise discovered, including several silver coins of the reign of Edward I., on the reverse of which were the names, London, Cambridge, and Oxford, in good preservation. The site of the old city of Beregonium, supposed to have been the ancient metropolis of Scotland, and concerning which so many conflicting accounts have been written, and so many fabulous legends propagated by tradition, is referred to an eminence between the ferries of Connel and Shean, called Dun Mac Sniachan, on which are the remains of a vitrified fort. The Rev. Colin Campbell, an eminent mathematician and metaphysician, was minister of the parish in 1667.


ARDCLACH, a parish, in the county of Nairn, 12 miles (S. S. W.) from Forres; containing 1177 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation in a mountainous and rocky district, of which the Gaelic words are faithfully descriptive. The parish is bounded on the north by the parishes of Auldearn and Nairn, and on the west by the parish of Cawdor, and is nearly 16 miles in extreme length, and 12 miles in extreme breadth. During the wars of the Covenanters, it shared largely in the hostilities of that distracted period; after the battle of Auldearn, in 1645, the lands here of Brodie, of Lethen, were plundered by the forces of the Marquess of Montrose, and in 1649 and 1653, were again desolated, after unsuccessful assaults of Lethen Castle, by the Marquess of Huntly, and the troops under the Earl of Glencairn, respectively. The whole number of acres in the parish is about 40,000, of which nearly 4000 are arable, about 2800 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill-pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface is mountainous, and some of the hills considerable, of which that called the Shaw has a height of 800 feet, and the hill of Lethenbar of 862 feet, above the level of the sea; the lower lands are watered by numerous springs and the river Findhorn, which latter rises in the mountains of Inverness, and flows through the parish, in a north-easterly direction, into the Moray Frith. In its course, it receives many tributary streams descending from the higher lands, of which the principal are, the burns of Torgarrow and Altnarie, which, in their descent, form beautiful cascades; the burns of Drumlochan and Tomnarrach; and the burn of Lethen, or Muckle-Burn, which flows for nearly ten miles through the parish, and falls into the Findhorn near its mouth. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved, under the liberal encouragement given to his tenants by Mr. Brodie, of Lethen, and the rotation plan of husbandry is generally prevalent; the crops are, oats, with other kinds of grain, and various green crops. The soil, in the lower lands, is tolerably fertile, and has been benefited by the use of lime; and the mountainous districts afford pasture for cattle and sheep, of which the former are chiefly of small size, but hardy and adapted to the pastures, and the latter have been much improved by a cross with the Lanarkshire breed. The natural wood is mostly Scotch pine, birch, alder, hazel, mountain-ash, and poplar; and the plantations are principally larch, interspersed with fir; the wood of Dulcie forms an extensive forest of fir, wholly indigenous, and there are also ample and thriving plantations at Glenfairness and Lethen. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2373. The rocks along the course of the river Findhorn, are mainly granite, gneiss, and quartz; the substratum in the western portion of the parish is the old red sandstone, with some of the schistose formation, in which are found impressions of plants, occasionally resting on a layer of conglomerate, with nodules containing imperfect marine fossils, and which, when burnt, produce excellent lime for manure. The moors afford black game and grouse, partridges, snipes, woodcocks, and other birds; and hares and rabbits are found in great number. The lake on the lands of Lethen called Loch Belivat, which covers an area of 27 acres, abounds with trout of three distinct species, weighing, on the average, about two pounds each; and in the centre, is an island, frequented by aquatic fowl of every kind. Salmon are taken in abundance, in the river. Coulmony House, the property of Mr. Brodie, is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated on the river, and Glenfairness House is also a good residence.

The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish, which, till 1773, was united to Edenkillie, in the presbytery of Forres, are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray; the minister's stipend, including an allowance of £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, is £248, with a manse, thoroughly repaired in 1841, and a glebe of 7½ acres, valued at £5 per annum; patron, Mr. Brodie. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, and surrounded with a spacious cemetery, was originally built in 1626, and rebuilt in 1762, and again in 1839, at a cost of £500; it contains 686 sittings, and the service is performed alternately in the English and Gaelic languages. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. The parochial school affords an ample course of instruction; the master has a salary of £36. 7. 3., including an allowance of £2 for a garden, with a good dwelling-house, and the fees average from £10 to £15 per annum. There are also, a female school for reading, knitting, and sewing, which receives £5 per annum from the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; and a school at Fornighty, of which the master has a salary of £15 from the society, and receives £2 from a bequest of Mr. Dunbar, of London. About a mile below the bridge of Dulcie, on the lands of Glenfairness, is an ancient obelisk, on which are rudely sculptured two figures in the Highland costume, supposed to commemorate the fate of a Celtic princess who, eloping with her Danish paramour, was pursued to the hill of Dunearn, on the verge of the river, into which they precipitated themselves, and perished together. On the summit of the hill of Lethenbar is a very perfect Druidical circle; and in the neighbourhood are several tumuli.


ARDEN, a village, in that part of the parish of New Monkland which forms the quoad sacra parish of Clarkston, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 646 inhabitants. It is situated about four miles east of the town of Airdrie, and in the southern portion of the parish.


ARDERSIER, a parish, in the county of Inverness; containing, with the village of Campbelton, and the garrison of Fort-George, 1475 inhabitants, of whom 716 reside within the limits of the village. This place, called, in ancient documents, Ardrosser, is supposed to have derived its name from a bold promontory, towards the western shore, which rises to a height of 200 feet above the level of the sea. A considerable portion of the lands formerly belonged to the diocese of Ross, and, in 1574, was granted, with consent of the dean and chapter, to John Campbell, of Calder, ancestor of the present proprietor, Earl Cawdor, who still pays to the crown an annual sum, as bishop's rent. The Knights Templars had also some lands in the parish, over which they had a jurisdiction of regality; and the last preceptor, Sir James Sandilands, obtained from Mary, Queen of Scots, the erection of his estates into a temporal barony, and, in 1563, was created Lord Torphichen. The parish, which is bounded on the north and west by the Moray Frith, extends for about four miles in length, from north-west to south-east, and is two miles in breadth, comprising 3250 acres, of which 1434 are arable, about 500 in plantations, and the remainder, meadow, pasture, and heath. The surface, with the exception of the high grounds to the west and north, is generally flat, and, towards the coast, low and sandy; the soil, in some parts, is a deep black mould, in others of lighter quality, and in some places a strong clay, alternated with shallow sand. The usual crops of grain, and large quantities of potatoes, are raised; the lands have been partly inclosed, and the modern improvements in husbandry are gradually taking place. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1540. A salmon-fishery is carried on to a moderate extent, on the coast, there being two stations, the rents of which, together, amount to £60 per annum.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray; the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 7., of which part is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, Earl Cawdor. The church, situated in the eastern part of the parish, was built in 1802, and is a neat structure. There are places of worship for Old Seceders and members of the Free Church. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £36. 7. 1¾., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £20 per annum. On the heath near the borders of the adjoining parish of Nairn, is an obelisk supposed to indicate the spot where the Danes were repulsed; and at Achnuallan, were the remains of a Druidical circle, near which a horn, filled with silver coins, was found in 1800; but those remains have been removed for building materials. At Dalyards, the ruins of a building thought to have belonged to the Knights Templars, have disappeared in the progress of agriculture; and on a hill behind Campbelton, is a circular mount 120 yards in diameter at the base, and surrounded, towards the summit, by a rampart of clay and earth; it was called, in the Gaelic, Cromal, now corrupted into "Cromwell's mount," and has been partly destroyed, like many other fortlets. A Roman sword, and the head of a spear; and some axes of flint, supposed to be of Danish origin, have been found in the neighbourhood.


ARDGOWER.—See Ballichulish.


ARDNAMURCHAN, a parish, partly in the county of Argyll, and partly in the county of Inverness; comprising the quoad sacra districts of Aharacle and Strontian, and containing 5581 inhabitants. The present parish of Ardnamurchan, previously to the Reformation, was distributed into three separate parishes, comprehending the five districts of Ardnamurchan, Sunart, Moidart, Arasaig, and South Morir. These districts still remain as distinct portions, and from the first the parish takes its name, signifying "the promontory" or "heights of the great sea." This term was originally applied with great propriety, the district of Ardnamurchan being nearly a peninsular promontory, thrusting itself out from the mainland to a considerable extent, into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The districts of Ardnamurchan and Sunart are in the county of Argyll, and the other three in Inverness-shire; and the whole extent is supposed to comprise 200,000 Scotch acres, of which 87,753 are in the Argyllshire portion. The parish is bounded on the south by Loch Sunart, separating it from that of Morven; on the south-west, by the northern end of the Sound of Mull; on the north, by Loch Morir, and the river flowing thence, which separate it from North Morir, in the parish of Glenelg; and on the north-west and west, by that part of the Atlantic Ocean which reaches to the opposite shores of Skye and the Small Isles. The coast, which is continuously, and remarkably, indented with creeks and bays forming numerous points and headlands, is supposed to embrace a line of several hundreds of miles, and exhibits a bold and rocky appearance. It displays, at some seasons, the foaming cataracts of the neighbouring waters driven landward by the westerly winds, and occasionally rendering inaccessible the several creeks and landing-places. The headland of Ardnamurchan, which is the most westerly part of the mainland of Great Britain, and the most prominent on the line of coast between Cape Wrath and the Mull of Cantyre, was formerly used as a geographical mark, in respect to which the Western Isles were denominated north or south. A creek on its extreme point, the picture of dreariness and desolation, marks the place where the remains of numbers of unfortunate sailors have found a grave, their barks having been dashed to pieces on the adjoining rocks; indeed, the whole coast surrounding the district of Ardnamurchan, is a series of indentations and prominences. Beyond this, the southern part of the parish, the line of coast runs along the Moidart district, on the west and north, and then forms the western limit of Arasaig and South Morir, jagged with many rocky points and headlands, of which the point of Arasaig, the next in importance to Ardnamurchan, is well known to mariners, and is visited by steamers plying from Glasgow to Skye and other parts. The coast here is very rugged, but not abrupt or precipitous; and it has numerous shelving rocks, extending under water to the northern boundary of the parish. A deep and wide bay is formed by the line of shore stretching in an easterly direction from the point of Ardnamurchan to the isthmus of that district, then northward, and afterwards round to the west, reaching to the point of Arasaig; and at the flexure of the northern coast of Ardnamurchan towards Moidart, is Kintra bay, with its fine sands, the latter measuring about two square miles, of nearly circular form, and covered, at high water, by the sea, which enters by a small inlet.

The principal Harbours along the coast are, the bay of Glenmore, on the south of Ardnamurchan, affording good anchorage; that of Kilchoan, a small harbour on the same coast, furnishing the chief point of communication with Tobermory; and, on the north coast of Ardnamurchan, at Ardtoe, a small bay, where inferior craft may find a safe retreat. At the island of Shona, north of Kintra bay, also, and in the opening of Loch Moidart, are several creeks with good anchorage, the resort of boats from the southern highlands, in the season for cod-fishing; and in Loch Sunart are the harbour of Strontian, and the creek of Salin, at which latter a pier has been built. There are likewise several maritime lochs in the parish, which are of considerable extent and importance, and form a distinct feature in the general scenery of the coast. Loch Sunart shoots off from the Sound of Mull, where it is about six miles in breadth, and, in its inland course of about twenty-five miles, runs, with much impetuosity, through the channels formed by the islands of Carna, Resga, and Oransay, six or seven miles from its mouth, and then lies quietly, with the exception of the ebb and flow of the tides, between lofty rocks and precipitous banks overgrown with wood. Loch Moidart is about four miles long, from east to west, and communicates with the open sea by means of a narrow channel on each side of the island of Shona: being surrounded with steep lofty mountains, it is usually unruffled, and its scenery embraces all the striking features of a highland district. The remaining salt-water lochs are those of Loch-nan-Uamh, situated between Moidart and Arasaig; Loch Ainart, a branch of the former; and Loch-na-Reaull, just north of Arasaig point; all of comparatively small extent. In different parts of the coast are caves, some of them very extensive, but none of much note, except one at Baradale, in Arasaig, a damp, rough, dark excavation, where Prince Charles Stuart, after his defeat at Culloden, concealed himself for three days.

The Interior of the parish, consisting of a sweep of land of very rugged character, is crowded with the features, variously combined, of almost every description of wild and romantic scenery, comprising lofty mountain ranges, precipitous rocky elevations, thickly-wooded hills, dells, and ravines, with numberless inland lochs, and several rivers. The Ardnamurchan portion is strongly marked by a range of hills, though of no great elevation, running from the western point, for about twenty-four miles, towards the east, and varying from four miles and a half to seven in breadth. Near the coast, are many farms under good cultivation, within the first ten or twelve miles, but afterwards the pasture becomes coarser. Oak, birch, and hazel are seen covering the rocks, and the lower hills on the south, to Loch Sunart; while, on the north, the district, at its eastern extremity, is occupied by a very extensive moss, girt by the river Shiel; this stream, which flows from Loch Shiel, and one from Loch Morir, being the principal rivers, and both falling into the western ocean. The name of the Sunart district, written, in some ancient records, Swynefort, or Swyniford, is supposed to have been derived from the circumstance of a king of Denmark named Swin, who was driven from his own country for apostatizing from Christianity, having, in the 10th century, landed in a creek here, on the western shore, called, in consequence of that event, Swineard. This tract is a continuation of that of Ardnamurchan, about twenty-five miles long, and ten in average breadth, and, for several miles from its commencement, has the appearance of a mountain ridge. After this the eminences expand, reaching to Loch Sunart on the south, and Loch Shiel on the north and north-west, leaving a large intermediate space, filled up with lofty hills and deep valleys and glens, thrown together in the greatest irregularity and confusion. The most lofty mountains are, Ben-Reisipoll, Scur-Dhoniel, Scour-Choinich, Creach-Bhunn, and, Glaschoiren Hill, reaching respectively 2661 feet, 2730 feet, 2364 feet, 2439 feet, and 1920 feet in height. The district contains two extensive and interesting valleys, of which that of Strontian, near its eastern extremity, opening at Loch Sunart, stretches for about five miles inland. It is ornamented in succession from its entrance with clusters of fine natural oak, flourishing plantations surrounding a tasteful mansion with well laid out grounds, an excellent and well-cultivated farm, with the crofts and tenements of numerous cottagers, the government church near the stream that runs through the valley, and, further on, the pleasing manse. Glenaheurich, a few miles north of the former valley, contains a spacious lake, and affords excellent pasturage for sheep; and besides this, there are other glens of inferior dimensions, bounded with picturesque bills displaying a profusion of verdure and ornamental wood. The district of Moidart takes its name from a compound Gaelic term signifying "the height of sea-spray," and extends about ten or twelve miles in breadth, and twenty-five in length, in a direction parallel with Sunart, along the whole boundary of Loch Shiel. It is bounded on the west and north by the sea, and the continuous range of mountains along the coast on each side, incloses an intermediate and lofty ridge, exhibiting a summit with a magnificent assemblage of crags, rocks, hills, and ravines, rendered more interesting to the curious observer by the almost impossible attempt to find their parallel. There are, however, in this elevated portion, some tolerably good plains, and a valley called Glenaladale, about 300 yards broad, and containing fair arable and pasture land. The districts of Arasaig and South Morir, not separated from each other by any marked features, constitute together a tract twenty-four miles in length, and fifteen broad: a long and very dreary valley named Glenmeuble, stretches along Arasaig for ten miles, with a farm at the eastern end, and a small loch called Brosaig, not very far off. The parish contains numerous fresh-water lakes, many of which abound with trout; the principal of them is Loch Shiel, which separates the county of Argyll from that of Inverness, and is embosomed amid mountains of the most magnificent description, very little known to travellers. At the western extremity of this lake is the beautiful island of Finnan.

The soil is various, but generally light and shallow; only a small portion is fit for superior husbandry, and the remainder is moor and moss, of which latter kind there are several large tracts styled moss-flats, especially adjacent to Loch Shiel. That called the Moss of Kintra covers an area of seven square miles, and, like some of the others, is a quagmire in the middle, of unknown depth, though considerable portions near the margin are capable of improvement. Oats and bear are raised; but potatoes, hay, wool, and the cuttings of wood, make the largest items in the returns of produce. The black-faced sheep are those chiefly kept, and the cattle are the Argyllshire; the pasture lands are in many parts of an excellent kind, and both sheep and cattle are generally of a superior description, and receive much attention. The method of cultivation varies according to the nature of the soil and the locality; the best implements are in use, and shell-sand mixed with kelp, and various deposits from the sea-shore, are extensively employed as manure. Considerable improvements have been made on some estates, within these few years, and the farm-buildings of superior tenants are good, but those of the inferior class of the worst description. The extent of arable land in the Ardnamurchan and Sunart districts is upwards of 5000 acres, about half turned by the plough, and half by the spade; and it is supposed that the quantity throughout the parish might be doubled, with a profitable application of capital, there being, in these two districts alone, more than 12,000 acres of pasture, 3000 or more of moss, and 80,000 of moor, much of which is capable of tillage. An agricultural association, principally connected with Ardnamurchan and Sunart, and some neighbouring places, meets annually at Strontian, under the auspices of which great improvement has taken place in the breed of horses, blackcattle, and sheep. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6894. The rocks, to the distance of eleven or twelve miles eastward from Ardnamurchan point, are of the trap formation, whinstone being most prevalent, and appearing in numerous dykes which intersect each other in all directions; and in some places are found portions of slate, sandstone, and limestone, the last in large masses. Beyond these strata, further eastward, the gneiss, or mica-slate, shows itself, and the rocks become much more abrupt and lofty; a quarry is in operation at Laga, of micaceous rock, of fine quality, abundant in the parish; and at Strontian, excellent granite is raised, at which place, also, lead-mines are open, but not at present worked. Previously to 1722, these mines were let to the Duke of Norfolk and others, and afterwards were held by the York Building Company, and worked to the conclusion of the last war, the proprietor receiving at that time, from £1000 to £1500 per annum for rent, amounting to one-eighth of the produce; they were also let in the year 1836, but the works were shortly discontinued. The wood is of considerable extent throughout the parish, including much oak, valuable for its timber, birch, hazel, alder, and ash, all of natural growth; and the plantations comprise fir, plane, oak, and ash trees. Arasaig House is an elegant modern mansion of polished freestone. The population is chiefly rural, and scattered through the different districts; a few are engaged in salmon-fishing, on the river Shiel, and others in taking herrings on some of the lochs; two decked-vessels belong to the place, one of fifty, and the other of twenty tons. There is a post-office at Strontian, with a daily post; also one at Arasaig, with a delivery three times weekly; and a third at Kilchoan, communicating, by a messenger, with Strontian, twice each week. A road runs from Arasaig, by Glenfinnan, to Fort-William and the Caledonian canal, and another from Strontian to Corran Ferry, by each of which cattle and sheep are driven to the southern markets. The principal communication, however, is by steam-vessels from Glasgow, which touch at the point of Arasaig, and at Tobermory, a sea-port, in the northern extremity of the island of Mull, about five miles south from the harbour of Kilchoan, in Ardnamurchan. A fair is held at Strontian, in May, and another in October, for cattle and sheep; and there is also a cattle and sheep fair at Arasaig.

The parish is in the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll, and is ecclesiastically distributed into five portions, namely, the parish church district, two quoad sacra parishes, a district under the care of a missionary, and another under that of an assistant. The first of these embraces the western portion of the peninsula of Ardnamurchan, and contains a place of worship at Kilchoan, on the south, four or five miles from the point, and one at Kilmorie, on the northern coast, at which the minister officiates alternately. The Kilchoan church, which, on account of its situation, commands the larger attendance, is a superior edifice, built in 1831, and accommodating more than 600 persons; that of Kilmorie, raised by a late incumbent, is a very humble structure, originally built of dry stone, and thatched. The minister has a stipend of about £270, with a manse, and a glebe of 27 acres, valued at £10 or £12 per annum; patron, the Duke of Argyll. The quoad sacra church at Strontian is thirty miles distant from the parish church; that at Aharacle is situated at the west-end of Loch Shiel, 23 miles distant. The mission of Laga comprehends about eleven miles of the coast of Loch Sunart, partly in the parish church district, and partly in that of aharacle; the minister receives £60 per annum from the Royal Bounty, and has built a preaching-house at his own expense. The district of the assistant is by far the largest ecclesiastical division, embracing the principal part of Moidart, and the whole of Arasaig and South Morir, and has a small preaching-house, built partly by subscription, at Polnish, near Inveraylort, and a school-house at Ardnafuaran, in Arasaig: he receives from the parish minister £55. 11. 1., and £32 from the Royal Bounty, with £5 for communion elements. There are five Roman Catholic chapels, with two officiating priests. The parochial school, situated at Kilchoan, affords the ordinary instruction; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 3., with £10 fees, and a house, garden, and two acres of land, the whole valued at £7. The parish contains several vitrified forts; but the chief relic of antiquity is the castle of Mingary, on the southern shore of Ardnamurchan, once the stronghold of Mac Ian, from which James IV., in 1493, granted a charter, and where, two years afterwards, he held his court, to receive the submission of the nobles of the forfeited lordship of the Isles. On the plain, at Glenfinnan, is a tower erected in commemoration of the events of 1745, by Alexander Mc Donald, of Glenaladale, with an inscription by Dr. Donald Mc Lean; the successor to the property, Angus Mc Donald, Esq., has lately much improved it, and crowned the summit with a statue of Prince Charles Stuart.


ARDOCH, lately a quoad sacra parish, comprising the villages of Balhaddie, Buttergask, Greenloaning, and Rottearn, in the parish of Dunblane; the post-village of Braco, in the parish of Muthill; and part of the parish of Blackford, in the county of Perth; the whole containing 1584 inhabitants. This place is about seven miles in length by six in breadth, and is intersected by the high road from Crieff to Dunblane and Stirling; two-thirds of the soil are in tillage or pasture, and the remainder, with the exception of a portion under plantation, is uncultivated. At Rottearn, is a small manufactory for converting potatoes into flour. Fairs are held on the first Wednesday in January, the last Tuesday in April, and the first Tuesday in August, chiefly for cattle. The village, which is small, is prettily situated on the above-mentioned road, about nine miles south-by-west from Crieff. The parish was in the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling; the minister's stipend was £94 with a manse and garden, and a glebe valued at £6 per annum; the heads of families in communion with the Church of Scotland were the patrons. The church, erected by subscription in 1780, is a plain edifice, and contains 555 sittings. The Associate Secession Synod and the Free Church have places of worship; and there is a parochial school. Near the village is the most entire Roman camp that remains in Scotland; it was probably established during the fourth campaign of Agricola, A.D. 48, and is 1060 feet in length and 900 in breadth, and could contain 26,000 men, according to the ordinary distribution of the Roman soldiers in their encampments. There appear to have been seven ditches surrounding it, and it was defended on the west side, by the small river Knaik; the four entries crossing the lines, are still distinctly to be seen.


ARDRISSAIG, a village, in the parish of South Knapdale, county of Argyll; containing about 400 inhabitants. This village, situated at the harbour of Ardrissaig, in Loch Gilp, a branch of Loch Fine, has sprung up since the commencement of the Crinan canal, in 1793, and is of respectable appearance. It is the scene of much bustle and traffic, occasioned by the convenience of its harbour, at the opening of the canal into Loch Gilp, where, exclusive of the business in goods and passengers connected with the canal, it is computed that about 24,000 persons are landed and shipped annually, besides large numbers of sheep and cattle, by the Glasgow steam-vessels, three of which in summer, and one in winter, arrive here daily. In the adjacent harbour is a slip and steam-boat pier, erected in 1837, at an expense of more than £1000; and independently of the boats belonging to the parish, forty or fifty in number, many others, making together above 100, are frequently in the harbour in the fishing season, herrings being taken in Loch Fine, in very large numbers. One of the parochial schools was established here, but is now included in the new parish of Lochgilphead.


ARDROSSAN, a parish, in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr; including the thriving town of Ardrossan, and the greater part of Saltcoats, 74 miles (W. S. W.) from Edinburgh; and containing 4947 inhabitants. This place derives its name, of Celtic origin, from the situation of its ancient baronial castle on a small promontory. Little is known of its earlier history; and of its ancient proprietors, not much further notice occurs than that Sir Fergus de Ardrossan accompanied Edward Bruce, in his expedition into Ireland, in 1316, and was one of the Scottish barons who, in 1320, signed a memorial to the pope, complaining of the aggressions of Edward I. of England. The castle, during the time of Baliol, being occupied by the English, was surprised and taken by William Wallace, who, arriving in the night with a few of his followers, set fire to the few houses situated around the base of the hill on which it stood, and on the garrison going out to extinguish the flames, rushed into the castle, made themselves masters of the gates, and put all the English to the sword, as they unsuspectingly returned. The castle appears to have been inhabited till the time of Cromwell, who is said to have thrown down its walls, and to have not only demolished it, but carried away the materials, for the erection of the fort which he built at Ayr. On the death of the last Baron Ardrossan, without issue male, the estate passed, by marriage with his heiress, to the Montgomerie family, its present proprietors.

The town is beautifully situated on the shore of the Frith of Clyde, and owes its rise to the fostering patronage of the late Earl of Eglinton, by whom it was originally built, and by whom the harbour to which it owes its importance was originally constructed, chiefly at his own expense. It consists of various spacious and regularly-formed streets, intersecting each other at right angles, and containing houses uniformly and handsomely built, and is much frequented, during the season; the town is lighted, and has a good supply of water. Lodging-houses have been built, for the reception of the company who resort hither for bathing, and a spacious hotel has been erected, containing ten public rooms, and a proportionate number of sleeping rooms, with hot and cold baths. The public baths, for which a handsome building has been erected, were originally established, on the tontine principle, by the late Earl of Eglinton, after whose decease they were suspended for a time, till, in 1833, they were purchased by the present proprietor, by whom the buildings have been enlarged, and put into a state of complete repair. The baths are of marble, with convenient dressing-rooms attached to each; they are under excellent management, and hot, cold, shower, and vapour baths are prepared on the shortest notice. Connected with the establishment, are numerous lodging-rooms, which are fully occupied during the season; there is also a bath gratuitously appropriated to the use of the poor. In the immediate neighbourhood of the town are several villas, pleasantly situated, commanding good views of the Frith; and around the margin of the bay, a crescent has been laid out, forming a splendid addition to the appearance of the town. The pavilion, the marine villa of the Earl of Eglinton, is an elegant seat, occasionally the residence of his lordship; there are many agreeable walks in the environs, and between this and Saltcoats, is a fine sandy beach, about three-quarters of a mile in length, which is a favourite promenade. There are about sixty looms in the town, employed in the weaving of shawls and heavier articles, and lighter articles of silk and cotton, and in Saltcoats nearly 450; many of the females are also engaged in working muslin. Fairs are held in July, and on the fourth Thursday in November, for cattle and various kinds of merchandise; facility of communication is afforded by excellent roads to all the neighbouring towns.

The harbour, according to the primary plan, as projected by the late Earl of Eglinton, will very shortly be one of the finest harbours of Scotland. In the original undertaking, his lordship was joined by several gentlemen of the county, and others, who became shareholders; but the sums expended on the works having greatly exceeded the amount of the subscriptions, the subsequent expense was borne solely by Lord Eglinton, who spent little less than £100,000 in the prosecution of the undertaking. After his decease, however, the works were suspended, and the harbour remained in an unfinished state till 1844, when the works were resumed, and the construction of docks was proceeded with, in the most spirited manner, by the present earl. The harbour is easy of access, and screened from adverse winds, and, during rough weather, is frequently crowded with vessels which run in for safety; it has from twelve to twenty feet depth of water. The exports are, iron and coal, and general goods from Glasgow; and the imports, timber from America, corn, cattle and provisions from Ireland, and goods from the manufacturing districts of England. Many vessels in the coal trade, both from Irvine and Saltcoats, put in here, to complete their cargoes; the number of vessels which arrived at the quay in 1837, was 1963, of the aggregate burthen of 108,549 tons, and the number of men, 10,110. Ship-building is pursued on a considerable scale. Fishing is carried on to a moderate extent; salmon are taken in the Frith, by the bag-net, and forwarded to the Glasgow, Paisley, and Kilmarnock markets; few white-fish are taken, but several boats are employed in the herring-fishery, and some few in the cod and ling fishery, on the coast of Barra. In the formation of the harbour, it was the hope of Lord Eglinton, to render it the chief harbour of Glasgow, as, from the favourable nature of its position, it might supersede entirely the circuitous navigation of the river Clyde; and in this view, in order to unite Ardrossan with that town, he commenced the formation of a canal, which, during his lifetime, was completed merely from Glasgow to Johnstone, in the county of Renfrew. In 1827, an act was obtained for laying down a railway from the harbour, to join the canal at Johnstone, which was, however, effected only for about six miles, to Kilwinning, from which a branch of about four miles extended to the Eglinton collieries; this part of the work was completed in 1832, and in 1840, an act was passed, separating the management of the railroad from that of the canal, and incorporating the proprietors, with a capital of £80,000. At Kilwinning, the Ardrossan railway joins the Glasgow and Ayr line. Steam-boats sail four times a week to Fleetwood in Lancashire, and furnish the most rapid means of communication between this part of Scotland and the manufacturing districts of England; there are also steamers to Belfast, Londonderry, Glasgow, and other places.

The parish is bounded on the south and south-west by the Frith of Clyde, and comprises about 5520 Scottish acres, of which 1250 are arable, 2350 meadow and pasture, 1800 hilly pasture, and about 150 woodland and plantations. The surface is agreeably diversified with tracts of level land, and gentle undulations rising into hills of different elevation, which increase in height towards the coast; the highest of them is called Knock-Georgan, and is 700 feet above the sea, commanding a rich prospect. Of the others, only one has an elevation of 400 feet; several of them are ornamented with clumps of trees, and add much to the beauty of the scenery. The shore is generally level, and indented with bays of various dimensions, of which that of Ardrossan is very picturesque; it is about three-quarters of a mile in length, and to the north of it, is another fine bay, of larger size; the coast here becomes rocky and irregular, and ridges of shelving rocks extend for a considerable length. Nearly opposite the harbour, and about a mile from the shore, is Horse Isle, containing about twelve acres, on which a beacon tower was erected by the late Earl of Eglinton, for the benefit of vessels approaching the harbour, and which it has been in contemplation to convert into a light-house. The chief rivulets are, the Stanley and Monfode burns, which descend from the higher lands, and, after flowing through the parish, fall into the Frith; and the Munnock or Caddel burn, a more copious stream, which intersects the upper part of the parish, and falls into the river Caaf, which separates it from the parish of Dalry. The soil, towards the coast, is light and sandy, and in the higher grounds a tenacious clay, occasionally intermixed with loam; it has been rendered generally fertile by long cultivation, and a judicious use of seaweed and lime for manure. The principal crops are, oats, wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is in a very advanced state; the lands are well drained and inclosed, and great improvements have been made, and much unprofitable land reclaimed, under the auspices of the Agricultural Society, which holds its meetings here in November. Great attention is paid to the management of the dairies; and about 10,000 stone of cheese, of good quality, are annually produced, which supply the neighbouring markets. The cows are generally of the Cunninghame or Ayrshire breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,775. The substrata are, limestone, freestone, and coal; the last was formerly wrought in the northern part of the parish, and in the vicinity of Saltcoats, but the workings have been, for some time, discontinued. There are three limestone quarries in the upper part of the parish; the freestone is found both of a red and white colour, and there is an extensive quarry of the former, close to the town of Ardrossan, from which was raised the stone for building the town and forming the quay. Near the town are also various kinds of whinstone, of which whole rocks have been blasted with gunpowder, and used in the formation of the breakwater. There are several strata of ironstone near the public baths, varying from two inches to nearly five feet in thickness, but, from their situation, the working of them has not been thought likely to repay the expense; a variety of fossil shells is found in several parts, and it is generally supposed that the sea has considerably receded from this part of the coast.

The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £261. 1.3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Earl of Eglinton. The old church, which was situated on the Castle-hill, at Ardrossan, was destroyed by a storm, in 1691, and another erected on a site about half a mile further from the coast; and this church, also, being so much shaken by a storm, in 1773, as to be considered unsafe, was taken down, and the present church built, in the town of Saltcoats, in 1774; it is a substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 840 persons. A Gaelic church has likewise been erected in Saltcoats, for the accommodation of the numerous Highland families resident there, at an expense of £1000, and is a neat edifice, for 750 persons; another church was built in 1844, at Ardrossan. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession. The parochial school, situated in the town of Saltcoats, is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., and £25 from fees, with a house and garden. Of the ancient castle of Ardrossan, some small fragments only are remaining; on the lands of Monfode, are the remains of a baronial castle, much dilapidated, formerly the residence of a family of that name. On Knock-Georgan, are the remains of a Danish camp; and on one of the other hills in the parish, is an artificial mound, of rectangular form, sixteen yards long, nine yards wide, and the same in height, with sloping banks, concerning which nothing authentic is recorded. Dr. Robert Simpson, professor of mathematics in the university of Glasgow, was a heritor of this parish, where he was accustomed to reside during the vacations, on his estate of Knockewart.


ARGYLLSHIRE, a maritime county, in the south-west of Scotland, bounded on the north by Invernessshire; on the east, by the counties of Inverness, Perth, and Dumbarton; and on the south and west, by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between 55° 21' and 57° (N. lat.), and 4° 15' and 7° 10' (W. long.), and is about 115 miles in extreme length, and about 55 miles in average breadth, comprising an area, including the various islands connected with it, of about 3800 square miles, of which, what may be considered as the continent, contains about 2735 square miles, or 1,750,400 acres. There are 19,207 houses, of which 18,552 are inhabited; and a population of 97,371, of whom 47,795 are males, and 49,576 females. The county appears to have been occupied, at an early period, chiefly by the Scots, who, emigrating from the Irish coasts, settled in the peninsula of Cantyre, and, after the subjugation of the Picts, and the union of the two kingdoms under Kenneth Mc Alpine, became identified with the general population of the country. In the legends of romance, this part of Scotland is celebrated as the principal scene of the exploits of the heroes of the race of Fingal, and as the birthplace of the bard Ossian, whose poems are still the subject of deeply-interesting research among the learned. Ossian is said to have been born in the valley of Glencoe; and the county, which abounds with numerous localities connected with the achievements of his heroes, still retains, in a very high degree, that spirit of feudal vassalage for which it was, for ages, pre-eminently remarkable. The family of Campbell, long distinguished as the principal of that extensive and powerful clan, and ancestors of the dukes of Argyll, for many generations possessed an absolute and sovereign authority over their vassals, who, on all occasions, rallied round the standard of their chieftain, with all the fidelity of kindred attachment, and tendered the most arduous services with implicit submission to his controul.

Prior to the Reformation, the county was, for centuries, the seat of a diocese, of which the bishop resided on the island of Lismore, between the main land and the isle of Mull, where the cathedral church was situated; and the jurisdiction extended over all the adjacent islands, including those of Bute and Arran. Since that period, it has constituted the chief part of the synod of Argyll, comprising the presbyteries of Inverary, Dunoon, Cantyre, Islay and Jura, Lorn, and Mull, and about fifty parishes. For civil purposes, the county is divided into the districts of Argyll, Cowal, Islay, Cantyre, Lorn, and Mull; and is under the jurisdiction of a sheriff-depute, by whom three sheriffs-substitute are appointed, who reside, respectively, at Inverary, which is the county town, at Campbelltown, and Tobermory. The courts of assize and general quarter-sessions are held at Inverary; and courts for the recovery of small debts, are held, four times in the year, at Oban, Lochgilphead, Dunoon, and Bowmore; and twice in the year, at Strontian. The royal burghs are Inverary and Campbelltown; and in addition to the others above noticed, the county contains the small town of Ballichulish, and some inconsiderable hamlets. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county returns one member to the imperial parliament.

The surface is generally wild and mountainous, especially towards the north, where it borders on the Grampian range; and even along the coasts, of which there is an extent of more than 600 miles, and where the land is lowest, there are numerous hills of very considerable elevation. The most mountainous parts of the county are, however, interspersed with pleasing and fertile tracts of valley, watered by streams, on the banks of which are some productive arable lands; and the slopes of the hills, in many places, afford good pasture. Of the numerous Islands which are included within the limits of the county, the principal are, Mull, Jura, Islay, Coll, Tiree, Colonsay, Lismore, and Oronsay, with smaller islands, all of which are noticed under their respective heads. The coasts are deeply indented with arms of the sea, forming Sounds between the mainland and the several islands, and some of which penetrate deeply into the land, constituting salt-water lakes of considerable extent. Of these, the principal are, the Sound of Mull, between the island of that name and the mainland; the Sound of Jura, separating that island from the continent; the Sound of Islay, between the isles of Jura and Islay, and the Frith of Clyde, separating the peninsula of Cantyre and the district of Cowal, from the islands of Arran and Bute. The most prominent Mountains are, the Cruachan, rising from the north-eastern extremity of Loch Awe, to the height of 3390 feet; the Cruachlussa, in the district of Knapdale, attaining an elevation of 3000 feet; Benreisipoll, in Ardnamurchan, 2661 feet in height; Buchael-Etive, near Loch-Etive, towards the north, rising 2537 feet above the sea; the Paps of Jura, in the isle of Jura, 2476 feet in height; and Beininturk, in Cantyre, which has an elevation of 2170 feet.

Among the salt-water lakes is Loch Fine, which is of very great depth, nearly 60 miles in length, and varying from two to three miles in breadth, and on the shore of which is situated the town of Inverary. Loch Linnhe lies between the districts of Morven and Lorn, and is the source of most of the inland lakes which form the Caledonian canal; the scenery on both its shores is strikingly romantic, and the borders are thickly interspersed with the remains of ancient fortresses, and enlivened with numerous handsome residences. Loch Long extends from the Frith of Clyde, for nearly 22 miles, into the land, separating the county from that of Dumbarton, from the north-west of which branches off the Loch Goil, crowned on its precipitous banks with the ruins of Castle Carrick, a royal residence, of which the Duke of Argyll is hereditary keeper. Of the principal inland lakes, one is Loch Awe, the most extensive in the county, about 28 miles in length, and from one to two miles in breadth; it abounds with salmon, eels, and trout, and from it issues a stream called the Awe, which flows into the loch Etive, at Bunawe ferry. Loch Etire, a lake of much smaller extent, communicates with Loch Awe by the river Awe, and, on the west, with the Sound of Mull, from which it forms an inlet, nearly opposite the island of Lismore; on the north shore, are the ruins of the ancient priory of Ardchattan. There are several smaller lakes, but none of sufficient importance to require particular notice; also numerous streams intersecting the lands in various places, few of which, however, have been rendered navigable.

The quantity of land which is arable and in cultivation, is little more than 100,000 acres; about 30,000 acres are in woodland and plantations, and the remainder, nearly 1,300,000 acres, with the exception of about 25,000 in inland lakes and rivers, is principally heath, and hill and mountain pasture. The soil of the arable land is extremely various: along the coasts, it is generally a light gravelly loam, resting upon a clayey bottom, and differing in fertility in different places; on the lower grounds, in some parts, is a mixture of clayey loam; in others, a kind of black mossy earth; and on the slopes of the hills, a light gravelly soil. The system of agriculture is moderately improved, and the rotation plan of husbandry is growing into use; the chief crops are, oats, bear, and potatoes, with peas and beans, and various green crops; the cultivation of turnips has been extensively introduced. Wheat of excellent quality has been raised, but, though the soil, in many parts, is favourable to its growth, very little attention is paid to its culture; flax, for domestic use, is raised in considerable quantities. The cattle are principally of the black West Highland breed, and, being in much demand, on account of the superior beef they afford, are reared to a great extent throughout the county, especially in the islands, though sheep form the principal article of trade. The sheep-farms are, in general, very extensive, and the stock is principally of the Linton or black-faced breed, though gradually giving place to the Cheviot breed, which has been lately introduced, and found equally well adapted to the pastures, and more profitable. The rateable annual value of the county is £261,920.

The chief Substrata are, limestone, which is very abundant, and freestone of various kinds and colours, of which some fine specimens are found in Cantyre, and also in Glenorchy. Slate is abundant in the neighbourhood of Easdale, and is also wrought in the district of Appin; near Inverary, is a kind of granite which is susceptible of a high polish, resembling spotted marble; and there are quarries of marble in Lorn, on the estate of Lochiel, and in the island of Tiree, which last is of very beautiful quality. Coal is found near Campbelltown, and is wrought for the supply of that district; and there are indications of coal in Morven, and in the isle of Mull. Lead-ore has been wrought at Strontian, and found in other places; a copper-mine has been opened in the parish of Kilmalie, and there are, in the mountains, numerous vestiges of ancient iron-works, though no ore of sufficient quality to remunerate the expense of working it, is now found. The greater portion of the county was anciently covered with Woods, of which there are at present but very small remains, though the deficiency has been partly supplied by modern plantations, especially on the lands of the Duke of Argyll. The soil and climate are well adapted to the growth of timber of every kind; the most flourishing at present are, oak, beech, elm, plane, birch, ash, chesnut, larch, and Scotch, spruce, and silver firs; and within the last few years plantations have been gradually increasing. The principal manufacture is that of wool, which has been made into carpets, under the auspices of the Duke of Argyll; but it is limited to a very small extent. The spinning of flax is carried on, solely for domestic use; there are several distilleries, tanneries, and some bleachfields; and the herring-fishery in Loch Fine is on an extensive scale. Facility of intercourse has been obtained by the formation of roads in various directions, and canals; and from the inlets from the sea, every advantage of steam navigation is obtained. There are numerous remains of ancient castles, forts, Danish encampments, monasteries, and other religious houses, cairns, tumuli, Druidical remains, vitrified forts, many Fingalian relics, and other monuments of antiquity, all of which are noticed in the articles on the several localities where they occur. The county confers the title of Duke on the celebrated family of Campbell, who were created Earls of Argyll in 1457, advanced to the Marquessate in 1641, and made Dukes in 1701, and who also bear several dignities named after different divisions of the county.


ARINANGOUR, a village, in the island of COLL, parish of Tiree and Coll, county of Argyll; containing about 170 inhabitants. This place, situated about the middle of the island of Coll, contains the only harbour of any note in that portion of the parish; it has a pier, and is considered a safe retreat for shipping, but has the disadvantage of a rocky entrance.


ARMADALE, a village, in the parish of Bathgate, county of Linlithgow, 2 miles (W.) from Bathgate; containing 121 inhabitants. This place derives its name from an estate in the vicinity, which once belonged to a senator in the college of justice whose title was Lord Armadale. The road from Linlithgow to Whitburn runs through the village, and it is also situated on the road between Edinburgh and Glasgow, from which cities it is nearly equidistant; the population is employed in agriculture, and in the mines and quarries of the neighbourhood.


ARNGASK, a parish, in the counties of Fife, Kinross, and Perth, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Kinross; containing, with the villages of Damhead and Duncrivie, 750 inhabitants. This parish constitutes a portion of the Ochil hills, and is situated around the junction of the counties of Perth, Fife, and Kinross, at Damhead. It is nearly of a circular figure, and extends in length four miles from east to west, and about three from north to south, comprising 6116 acres, of which 4590 are arable, 1291 uncultivated, and the remainder plantations, formed chiefly within the last thirty years. The surface is in general hilly, consisting of numerous undulations and smooth round eminences varying from 600 to 800 feet in height above the level of the sea. Some are picturesque and well-wooded, and among the many points commanding extensive and interesting views, that of Cairn-Geddes, a part of the lands of Fordel, is especially worthy of notice, as affording a diversified and magnificent prospect, embracing the Frith of Tay, the Carse of Gowrie, the Sidlaw hills, the upper portion of Strathearn, and a large section of the Grampians. The Farg, a fine trout-stream much frequented by anglers, rising near the western boundary, separates the parish, for more than a mile, from that of Forgandenny, and divides, in its onward course till it reaches Damhead, the counties of Perth and Kinross, after which it runs between the counties of Perth and Fife, till it departs from this locality, in about the centre of the celebrated and romantic glen to which it gives its name.

The uncultivated part of the lands contains large tracts of a moorish or heathy soil; but the soil which prevails in other portions is mostly a good black loamy earth, partially formed from the decomposition of the trap or whinstone rocks, and, though light and shallow in some places, is generally rich, and produces abundant crops, consisting of the ordinary sorts of grain, including wheat, and peas, potatoes, turnips, and grass for hay. In consequence of the introduction of bone manure, turnip husbandry has, within these few years, been greatly extended, the root being eaten off the ground by the sheep, to the decided advantage of the soil. The parish contains four mills for grinding corn, and twenty-two for threshing, twenty of which are worked by horses, one by steam, and the other by water. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4394, of which £1909 are for the Fife portion, £1344 for the Kinross portion, and £1141 for that in Perthshire. Duncrivie is pleasantly situated at the southern extremity of the parish; and Damhead lies in the vale through which passes the great north road from Edinburgh to Aberdeen, and has a post-office, established in 1838, in connexion with Kinross on the south, and Bridge of Earn on the north. About eight hand-looms are in operation, and there is a saw-mill, worked by water. Cattle-fairs are held at Damhead on the last Tuesday in April (O. S.), the first Thursday in August, and the first Tuesday in October; there is also a cattlemarket, held from time immemorial, at Lustielaw on the third Tuesday in May (O. S.). The parish is in the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the joint patronage of Mrs. Wardlaw and Robert Low, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £178. 19. 10., with a manse and offices, built in 1829, and a glebe valued at £9. 13. 4. per annum. The church, pleasantly and conveniently situated, is a plain substantial edifice, built in 1806, and contained, previously to 1821, 240 sittings, at which period 140 additional sittings were obtained, by the erection of galleries. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and Greek, in addition to the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, including allowance for garden, besides £26 fees.


ARNPRIOR, a hamlet, in the parish of Kippen, county of Perth; containing 96 inhabitants. It is situated to the south of the river Forth, and had anciently a castle, of which the remains may be traced.


ARNTULLY, county of Perth.—See Airntully.


ARNYFOUL, a hamlet, in the parish of Glammis, county of Forfar; containing 73 inhabitants.


ARRAN, an island, in the county of Bute; comprising the parishes of Kilbride and Kilmory, and containing 6241 inhabitants. This island, called Glotta Astuarium by the Romans, is situated in the Frith of Clyde, between the coast of Ayrshire, which is on the east, distant about thirteen miles, and Cantyre, in Argyllshire, lying to the west, and distant about six miles. It is of an oval form, indented by bays, and thirty miles in length, and fifteen in its greatest breadth; the surface throughout is rugged and mountainous, and intersected with mossy glens, whence streams, flowing from the heights, make their course to the sea. There are several safe and commodious harbours, of which that of Lamlash, on the east side, will afford good anchorage to several hundred vessels; and the Cock of Arran, on the northern extremity, is a well-known landmark. The higher parts of the island are rocky and sterile, and generally covered with fern and heath, but in the valleys, and in the vicinity of the lakes, which are five in number, the soil is moderately fertile, though not well cultivated. Coal and limestone are said to exist; freestone, ironstone, and marble are abundant, and jasper has been found on Goat-Fell, a hill above 3000 feet in height. There are several cairns, and some remains of Druidical edifices, many ruins of ancient fortresses, and some natural caves, remarkable for their great extent; and various places exhibit marks of volcanic fire. Arran is the property of the Duke of Hamilton, and gives the title of Earl to his grace, who has an ancient seat here, called Brodick Castle.—See Kilbride, and Kilmory.


ARROCHAR, a parish, in the county of Dumbarton, 22 miles (N. N. W.) from Dumbarton, and 22 (E. S. E.) from Inverary; containing 580 inhabitants. The name of this place, which, at different times, has been variously spelt, is derived from a Gaelic term signifying "high," or "hilly," in reference to the nature of the ground. The parish is remarkable for the magnificence of its scenery, and is much resorted to by tourists on account of the peculiar and numerous attractions which it presents, as well as from the excellence of the inns, the good order of the roads, and other advantages. It was disjoined from the parish of Luss in 1658; it is about 15 miles long, and 3 broad, and contains 31,000 acres, including two farms named Ardleish and Doune, which lie on the east side of Loch Lomond, and occupy the north-eastern extremity of the parish, almost separated from the main portion by the lake. The parish is bounded on the north by the parish of Strathfillan, in Perthshire; on the south, by the water of Douglas, and part of Luss; on the east, by Loch Lomond; and on the west, by Loch Long, and part of Argyllshire. The Surface is altogether hilly and mountainous, and has a line of coast bounding Loch Lomond, of about 14 miles, and a coast of three miles extending along Loch Long; on the Lomond side, the shore is flat and sandy, and diversified by numerous bays and headlands. The mountain of Ben-Vorlich, clothed with rich pasture, is the most elevated in the parish, rising 3000 feet above the sea; and this spot is frequented by white hares, ptarmigan, and various wild fowls. There are some beautiful cascades, and four rivers, none of which are of large extent; viz., the Falloch, the Inveruglass, the Douglas, and the Linnhe, the three first of which run into Loch Lomond, and the last into Loch Long. Loch Lomond, which is 24 miles long, in some parts 7 broad, and varies in depth from 60 to 100 fathoms, abounds with bold and romantic scenery, and is considered the finest sheet of water throughout the country; it contains salmon, trout, pike, perch, eels, and powans, generally called fresh-water herrings. Loch Long is about 21 miles in length, and 1½ or 2 in breadth, and its depth is from 10 to 20 fathoms; the fish found in it are, halibut, soles, flounders, whitings, skate, lythe, sethe, cod, salmon, trout, herrings, &c. Its banks, in some parts, exhibit fine picturesque breaks, especially at the opening of Loch Goil, and towards its head, the scenery is equal to any part of Lomond. The Soil, except in some districts, is thin and poor, and only about 300 or 400 acres are arable; a considerable number of acres are under wood, and on the shores of Loch Lomond, are large plantations of oak, which are annually thinned; the remaining land consists of indifferent pasture. The sheep are the black-faced, and the cattle comprise both the native breed and those introduced from Argyllshire; some waste, to the extent of about 50 acres, has been reclaimed within these few years, but the inclosures and farm-buildings generally are in an indifferent state. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3096. The rocks consist, for the most part, of mica slate; in some parts, are traces of iron-ore, and there are two whinstone quarries near the whinstone dyke between Lochs Lomond and Long.

The parish contains two small villages, in addition to which, within the last few years, a considerable number of houses have been erected, for sea-bathing visiters; and among the inns is one which ranks as one of the most commodious and excellent in Scotland, and which was, before being converted to its present use, the mansion of the chief of the Macfarlane clan. During the summer months, a coach runs daily from Inverary to Tarbet, in the morning, and returns in the afternoon; and vehicles of every description may be obtained at the inns of Tarbet and Arrochar, whither visiters come from all parts, to view the scenery in the neighbourhood of the lakes. Steam-boats run on Lochs Lomond and Long, from May till October; another plies between Arrochar and Glasgow; and ships with coal and lime from Glasgow and Ireland, frequently come to the head of Loch Long, whence, also, wool is often sent to the market at Liverpool. A herring-fishery is carried on in Loch Long, with considerable profit, during the months of June and July, the boats employed advancing successively to Loch Fine and the neighbourhood of Campbelltown, where they fish to the end of the season; each boat contains about three men, and produces, in the season, from £30 to £60. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage belongs to Sir James Colquhoun, Bart., and the minister's stipend is £241, with a glebe worth £13 a year, and a manse, erected in 1837. The church, situated in a corner of the parish, was built in 1733, and is in indifferent repair, and of insufficient size, containing only 300 sittings. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. There is a parochial school, in which the ordinary branches of education are taught, and of which the master has the maximum salary of £34. 4., with £8 fees, and a house; and another school, privately endowed, affords instruction in the classics, mathematics, and the other usual subjects, by a master who receives £25 from the resident proprietor of land, and about £15 or £20 fees.