A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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KILSYTH, a burgh of barony and a parish, in the county of Stirling; containing, with the late quoad sacra parish of Banton, and the village of Auchinmully, 5613 inhabitants, of whom 4106 are in the burgh, 12½ miles (N. E.) from Glasgow. This place was anciently called "Monaebrugh," from the name of the barony which now forms the eastern portion of the parish, and of which alone it for many years consisted till the annexation of the barony of Kilsyth in 1649. Since that period, the whole parish has assumed the appellation of Kilsyth, from the name of that barony, which previously was a portion of the parish of Campsie, and of which the etymology, like that of Monaebrugh, is involved in doubt and obscurity. The lands once formed part of the possessions of the Livingstone family, of whom Sir James Livingstone, in acknowledgment of his services in defending the castle of Kilsyth against Cromwell, was elevated to the peerage by Charles II., in 1661, by the titles of Lord Campsie and Viscount Kilsyth. The estates continued with his descendants till the year 1715, when they became forfeited to the crown on the attainder of William, third viscount Kilsyth, for his participation in the rebellion; and the lands were purchased in 1784, by Sir Archibald Edmonstone, of Duntreath, whose grandson. Sir Archibald Edmonstone, Bart., is now the chief proprietor of the parish. The principal event of historical importance connected with the place is the memorable battle of Kilsyth, in 1645, between the army of the Covenanters, consisting of 6000 infantry and 1000 cavalry, commanded by General Baillie, and the forces of the Marquess of Montrose, consisting of 4400 infantry and 500 cavalry. This sanguinary battle, which occurred near the site now occupied by the reservoir of the Forth and Clyde canal, terminated in the entire defeat of the Covenanters, with the slaughter of nearly the whole of their infantry; while of the forces of the marquess, a very inconsiderable number were slain.
The town is situated on the north road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, and consists of several streets irregularly formed; it is lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, conveyed from a spring in the neighbourhood into public cisterns by earthen pipes. The principal trade is the weaving of cotton by handlooms, in which more than 1300 persons are engaged for the Glasgow merchants; and there are two factories recently established, in which lappets, cloth for umbrellas, and checked ginghams are made, affording occupation to about 130 persons. The manufacture of white and brown paper is also carried on, to a moderate extent, employing from forty to fifty persons; and many of the inhabitants are engaged in mines of ironstone and coal, and in the quarries in the parish. There is no regular market-day, though the town is amply supplied with provisions of every kind: fairs are held on the second Friday in April and the third Friday in November, but they are not much frequented. The post-office, under that of Glasgow, has a daily delivery by a post gig, which also carries one passenger; and facility of communication is afforded by the road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, and by the great canal within a mile to the south of the town. Kilsyth was erected into a burgh of barony by charter of George IV., in 1826; the government is vested in a bailie, dean of guild, and four councillors, elected under the provisions of the act of the 3rd of William IV. There are no incorporated trades possessing exclusive privileges; and the occupation of a tenement of the annual value of £5, on lease, is sufficient to qualify as a burgess, upon paying a fine of five shillings on admission. The magistrates exercise jurisdiction, in criminal matters, only in petty offences; and no regular courts are held.
The parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Carron, and on the south by the river Kelvin, is about seven miles in length and three and a half in average breadth, and comprises 15,000 acres, of which nearly 4000 are arable, 7000 meadow and pasture, and the remainder, with the exception of a few acres of plantations, moorland and waste. The surface is boldly diversified with hill and dale, and is generally of bleak and barren aspect. The Kilsyth hills, which intersect the parish from east to west, and a portion of the Campsie fells, which skirt it on the north-west, are among the most lofty elevations; and some of them attain a height of more than 1200 feet above the level of the sea. From the summit of these hills is an unbounded view, extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the German Sea, and commanding nearly the whole country at a glance. The Meikleben, which unites the Kilsyth range with the Campsie fells, has an elevation of 1500 feet; and the Garrel and Laird's hills, also in the parish, rise to a height of 1300 feet. The chief river is the Carron, which has its source in the adjacent parish of Fintry, flowing eastward into the Forth at Grangemouth; it abounds with trout, and forms in its sinuous course numerous romantic cataracts. The Kelvin has its source within the parish, and, though for some distance from its rise but a small rivulet, has been diverted by Sir Archibald Edmonstone into a wider and deeper channel, and, after flowing under the aqueduct of the Forth and Clyde canal, increases in importance as it advances towards Glasgow. Of the smaller streams that intersect the parish, the principal is the Garrel, which descends from the Garrel hill, and, in its course, within a mile and a half, has a tall of 1000 feet. Its waters, as it approaches the ancient village of Kilsyth, have been partly diverted into the reservoir at Townhead, for the supply of the Forth and Clyde canal; but, after receiving some small tributaries, it flows southward into the Kelvin. The reservoir is of oval form, about seventy-five acres in extent, and occupies a natural hollow of considerable depth, by filling up the entrance to which, to the height of twenty-five feet, the inclosure was formed at a very inconsiderable expense.
The soil in the lower parts of the parish is a rich and deep loam; in the higher parts, light and sandy, but of great fertility; in other parts, gravel alternated with clay, and there are also some large tracts of peatmoss. The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips. The cultivation of potatoes in the open fields is said to have been first practised in this parish by Mr. Graham, of Tamrawer, who, from one peck planted in April, 1762, obtained a produce of 264 pecks in the October following. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved under the encouragement held out by the Farmers' Association for this parish and others adjacent, which meets at the principal inn annually, in June, when a cattle-show takes place, and prizes are awarded to the successful competitors. The farm-buildings have been rendered commodious, and the lands inclosed with fences of thorn, kept in excellent repair; tile-draining has been extensively practised, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. The hill-pastures are well adapted for the feeding of sheep, and the meadows in the vale of Kilsyth are among the most luxuriant in the country. Great attention is paid to the dairy-farms, on which all the cows are of the Ayrshire breed; the chief produce is butter and milk, of which large quantities are sold for the supply of the neighbourhood. The plantations were formerly on a very limited scale, chiefly confined to the demesnes of the principal landholders; but they have lately been extended. They consist of ash, birch, mountain-ash, elm, alder, oak, and sycamore, for which the soil seems well adapted. The substratum is mostly of the coal formation, and ironstone and limestone are found in abundance: the coal, which is of good quality, is wrought for the supply of the adjacent district, and the ironstone by the Carron Company. There are also quarries of limestone, and of freestone of a fine colour, and of good quality for building. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9288.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £271. 6.7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The parish church, erected in 1816, at the western extremity of the town, is an elegant structure in the later English style of architecture, and containing 860 sittings. A church has been built at Banton; and there are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Relief, and Wesleyans. Parochial schools are maintained in the burgh, at ChapelGreen, and at Banton; the master of the first has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees, averaging £60. The master of the Banton school has a salary of £12. 6., with fees amounting to £23; and the master at Chapel-Green a salary of £9, to which are added £22, the proceeds of a bequest by Mr. John Patrick, and fees averaging £30 per annum. At Conney park and Balcastle are remains of Pictish forts, of which the latter is the most entire of all the works of the kind in the kingdom. There are also some of the ruins of Colzium Castle, and of a smaller mansion of the Livingstone family which was burnt by Oliver Cromwell on his route to Stirling. Small remains still exist of the ancient castle of Kilsyth, on an eminence overlooking the town; and in the town is the old mansion of Kilsyth, now inhabited by poor families, but in which are yet preserved the apartments where Prince Charles Edward spent a night. Under the old church was the burying-place of the Livingstone family, of whom William, the third viscount, after his attainder retired to Holland, where Lady Kilsyth and her infant son were killed by the accidental falling in of the roof of the house in which they lived. Their bodies were embalmed, and, being inclosed in a leaden coffin, were sent to Scotland, and interred in the family vault, now in the open churchyard. On examining the coffin in 1796, the remains of both were found in so perfect a state, and even the complexion so fresh, as to present every appearance of natural sleep.
KILTARLITY, a parish, in the county of Inverness, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Beauly; containing 2869 inhabitants. This place, the origin of the name of which is altogether uncertain, and which comprehends the old parish of Convinth, is situated in one of the most beautiful and romantic districts in the Highlands. The parish is separated from the main part of that of Kilmorack by the Beauly river, which, a few miles to the north-east, forms the loch of the same name, the latter communicating with the Moray Frith. It is one of the largest parishes in the country, measuring in length, from the north-eastern to the south-western extremity, about forty-five miles, though the average breadth doth not exceed six miles. The surface is characterized by hills and mountains, and thicklywooded glens and ravines, interspersed with numerous lochs, and some verdant pastures and well-cultivated tracts, rendered more strikingly picturesque in many parts by the course of rapid streams with various cascades. Among the lochs, which are of great number and diversity of appearance, and which abound in pike, trout, char, and other fish, the largest, and those most famed for their scenery, are, Loch Affaric, Loch Naluire, and Loch Beinnemhian. Each of these is about a mile broad, and varies in length from three to seven miles; all are very deep, and embosomed in hills and mountains, shrouded with birch, mountain-ash, and stately firs, the remains of the old Caledonian forest. The three lakes are united by the river Glass, which, rising in Loch Affaric, and proceeding north-easterly through the other two lakes, is in its course along the northwestern boundary of the parish, skirted on each side by lofty hills, and joined at Fasnacoil by the rapid stream of Deaothack. The Deaothack is celebrated for its waterfalls, especially those of Plodda and Easnambroc, and for the splendid firs on its banks, intermixed with birch and oak. At Invercannich, about four miles from Fasnacoil, the Glass is joined by the river Cannich, a large stream; and again, at the distance of a few miles, by the Farrer, after which it takes the name of Beauly. The distance from the last junction to the Beauly Frith is about nine miles; and though the river is only navigable for a mile and a half from the frith, up to the village of Beauly, it is found of great service for transporting timber for exportation. The fishery of the Beauly belongs to Lord Lovat, producing a rent of £1600 per annum.
On the north-eastern side of the parish is a tract of land measuring about nine square miles, which is flat and low; but, with this exception, the surface is hilly and rocky throughout, and intersected with glens and valleys, the principal of which are Glen-Convinth and Strath-Glass. The latter of these was formerly covered with wood, which supplied Cromwell with a large portion of the timber used in the fortifications at Inverness, but of which none now remains except the forest of Cugie, where are firs of immense bulk and stature. The highest hill is supposed to be that of Aonach-Sassan, "English Hill," rising about 2000 feet above the level of the sea. In the south-western part of the parish the rocks are so lofty, rugged, and inaccessible, that they are not only the resort of eagles, falcons, and numerous birds of prey, but furnish lurking-places for large herds of goats, so wild as to bid defiance to capture. The soil is generally thin and light, of a reddish hue, and very hard. It is found intractable for successful husbandry, except on the lower grounds in the northeastern district, which are much more fertile than the higher portion, where, on account of its mossy character, the crops are stunted and sickly, especially in seasons of drought. Agriculture has, however, made considerable progress within the last twenty years. The most approved rotation of cropping has been introduced; and where trenching, liming, and draining have been adopted to a sufficient extent to counteract the natural impediments of the land, the produce is of good quality. The rocks in the parish consist chiefly of gneiss, intersected with veins of granite; and sandstone, with asbestos, rock-crystal, and other varieties, is found in the hills. There are several interesting caves, one of which, called Corriedow, is said to have been a retreat, for some days, of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. Wood was once the only article exported from this locality; and independently of the old Scotch firs, and other noble trees, the memorials of former ages, extensive plantations still exist, and have been recently augmented. These comprise ash, elm, beech, plane, and especially larch, all of which attain a fine growth, and prove a source of considerable emolument to the proprietors. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6160.
The gentlemen's seats are numerous, and in general are so well situated as to command views of the most interesting groups of scenery. Beaufort Castle, the property of Lord Lovat, is a spacious but plain building, standing on the site of the old fortress of Beaufort, or Downie, which, in the time of Alexander I., was besieged by the royal troops. Cromwell, also, seized a castle here, and demolished the citadel; and immediately after the battle of Culloden, the then fortress was burnt to the ground by the Duke of Cumberland's army. Indeed, the present is said to be the twelfth edifice erected on the same site: it is thought to have been built as a residence for the government factor while the estate lay under forfeiture, the proprietor, the aged Lord Lovat, having been executed in 1747 for aiding in the rebellion. The mansion commands extensive and beautiful views, comprehending the Beauly Frith; and the large parks attached are ornamented with fine specimens of ancient trees, and with well laid out pleasure-grounds and gardens. The present proprietor, a Roman Catholic, and the principal heritor in the parish, was raised to the peerage in 1837. Erchless Castle, the seat of "the Chisholm," situated near the confluence of the Farrer and Glass rivers, is a lofty turreted building, erected in the fifteenth century, and still in very good preservation. Attached to it is a splendid park, ornamented with many stately trees, relics of the old Caledonian forest; and in addition to 750 acres of land constantly kept in cultivation, the estate comprehends 1000 acres, planted, within the last thirty years, with larch, elm, beech, oak, Scotch fir, and chesnut. About four miles east of Erchless, on the opposite bank of the Beauly, is the beautiful mansion of Eskadale; and not far off, the house of Aigas, the property of the Chisholm. At a short distance north of Aigas, the river divides and again unites, forming the romantic island of Aigas, covered with oaks and weepingbirches, and on which a mansion of elegant design has been erected by Lord Lovat. A few miles to the southeast of this spot, about a quarter of a mile from the public road, is Belladrum, a modern mansion, splendidly fitted up, and almost shrouded with the foliage of plantations. Attached is a very superior farm-steading. This estate, comprising 2600 acres of hill pasture, 700 acres under tillage, and 1000 under wood, chiefly Scotch fir and larch, formerly belonged to James Fraser, Esq., but has passed by purchase to John Stewart, Esq., of Carnousie, for the sum of £80,000. The other mansions are those of Ballindown, Guisachan, and the house of Struy. The last is the seat of a branch of the clan Fraser, and is situated on the border of the Farrer, a mile from its junction with the Glass, each of which streams, at about the same distance from their confluence, is crossed by an excellent bridge. The parliamentary road from Inverness traverses the parish, from north-east to south-west; the nearest post-office is at the village of Beauly, two miles from the boundary. The produce is sent for sale to Inverness, twelve miles distant. The only "manufacture" is that of timber, large quantities of which are cut down every year, and prepared for sale at three saw-mills, as well as by numerous handsaws.
The parish is in the presbytery of Inverness and synod of Moray, and in the patronage of Professor Scott, of King's College, Aberdeen, to whom Lord Lovat has transferred his right of presentation. The minister's stipend is £239, with a manse, and a glebe of nearly fifty acres, of the annual value of £20. The church, built in 1829, is finely situated in the midst of a cluster of lofty trees, and contains about 800 sittings, all free. A church, also, was erected by the late Chisholm, at Erchless, in connexion with the Establishment, and has 400 sittings; the salary of the minister is paid by the Chisholm. There is a mission at Strath-Glass, comprehending the upper part of this parish and that of Kilmorack; the salary is £80 per annum, £60 of which are from the Royal Bounty, and the remainder raised by subscription. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. A chapel was erected a few years since, by Lord Lovat, on an eminence near the small rural hamlet of Wester Eskadale, about four miles from Erchless, for the accommodation of the Roman Catholic population, which is of considerable extent. There are three parochial schools, which afford instruction in the usual elementary branches; the master of the principal one has a salary of £25. 16., with a house, and about £20 fees. The salary in each of the other schools, which are of recent establishment, is £12. 18., increased by the Chisholm to £25. The mistress of a female school has £15 per annum from the Lovat family, with a neat school-house and accommodations.
KILTEARN, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 5¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Dingwall; containing, with the villages of Drummond and Evanton, 1436 inhabitants. This place derives its name from two Gaelic words, Kiell Tighearn, signifying "the buryingplace of the laird," though the particular circumstance which gave rise to the appellation is unknown. The family of Munro of Fowlis, which, even from ancient times, has been the most conspicuous in the parish, is said to have been founded by Donald Munro, who, among many others, received gifts of land from Malcolm II., for important services rendered in assisting the king in the expulsion of the Danes. When this desirable end was accomplished, Malcolm feued out the country to his friends; and that part between the burgh of Dingwall and the water of Alness was assigned to Donald Munro, from which circumstance it received the name of Ferindonuil, or "Donald's land." A portion of these lands was afterwards erected into a barony, called Fowlis; and the present Sir Hugh Monro, Bart., who is proprietor of about two-thirds of the parish, and lineally descended from the above-named Donald Munro, is the 29th baron.
The parish is situated in about the middle of the county, and extends six miles along the north shore of the Frith of Cromarty, whence it stretches inward twentytwo miles; it is bounded on the north by Contin and Lochbroom parishes, on the east by Alness, and on the west by Dingwall and Fodderty. The whole, except a small tract on the shore, consists of one mass of hills, overspread with heath, or, in some places, planted with firs. The hill of Wyvis rises 3720 feet above the level of the sea, and is never without snow, even in the hottest summer: the forest of Wyvis is held of the king, on the singular condition of paying a snow-ball any day in the year, if required. The valleys between the hills are covered, to a great extent, with coarse grass: in some of them, small lakes have been formed by the mountain streams, diversifying the scenery, and affording good sport to the angler. The principal lake is Loch Glass, near the south end of which is a small island, where the lairds of Fowlis had at one time a summer-house: its waters are discharged into the sea by the Aultgraad, a stream which flows along a remarkably deep and narrow channel, formed in the solid rock by the action of the waters. The only river is the Skiack, which is supplied by mountain streams, and falls into the sea near the church. Several varieties of trout are found in the lochs and streams; and shell-fish, of the smaller kinds, are obtained on the shore.
The soil on the high grounds is moss, and near the Frith chiefly alluvial; it varies in other parts, exhibiting many of the ordinary combinations. About 3000 acres are cultivated, or occasionally in tillage; 600 are undivided common, and the rest natural pasture. There are a considerable number of plantations, comprising all the trees suited to the climate: many tracts were planted about the middle of the last century. All the usual white and green crops are raised; and as the improved system of agriculture has been for some time followed, and much attention is paid to the cultivation of the soil, the produce is equal in quality to any in the country. The sheep are chiefly the native black-faced, but on the low grounds are a number of Cheviots: the cattle are of the Ross-shire and the Argyllshire breeds, the latter of which is much preferred. The principal rock in the parish is sandstone: coal has been discovered, but not in sufficient quantity to defray the expense of working; and a small amount of lead-ore has also been met with. The rateable annual value of Kiltearn is £5106.
The village of Evanton, built within the present century, upon a piece of waste land, is remarkable for the regular and neat appearance of the houses: a fair is held here on the first Tuesday in June, and another on the first Tuesday in December. The hamlet of Drummond is seated on the Skiack. There are several extensive tracts of moss in the heights of the parish, where the inhabitants cut peat in summer to serve for winter fuel. The great parliamentary road runs along the shore, and communicates with the northern parts by means of excellent county roads; it passes over two good bridges, one at the east, and the other at the west, end of the village of Evanton. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dingwall and synod of Ross; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £249, with a commodious manse, and a glebe of nine arable acres, valued at £12 per annum. The church, situated on the coast, was built in 1791, and is a neat edifice, accommodating nearly 700 persons. There is a place of worship in the village of Evanton connected with the United Secession. A parochial school is maintained, in which Latin and Greek, with the usual branches, are taught; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and about £20 fees. The family of Munro is distinguished for the eminent individuals who have belonged to it. Sir Robert Munro, grandfather of the present baronet, when a very young man, served for several years in Flanders under the Duke of Marlborough, and there formed an intimacy with the celebrated Col. Gardiner, whose history and character have become so well known through the memoir written by Dr. Doddridge.
KILVICKEON, county of Argyll.—See Kilfinichen.
KILWINNING, a manufacturing town and parish, in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr; containing, with the villages of Dalgarvan, Doura, and Fergushill, 5251 inhabitants, of whom 2971 are in the town, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Irvine, and 3 (N. E. by E.) from Saltcoats. This place, which is of great antiquity, derives its name from the dedication of its original church to St. Winnin, who came from Ireland in 715, to convert the inhabitants of this part of the country to Christianity. In 1140, a monastery was founded in honour of this saint by Hugh de Moreville, lord high constable of Scotland, for monks of the Tyronensian order, whom he introduced into it from the abbey of Kelso. This monastery, which was amply endowed by the founder, and enriched with large grants of land from several of the Scottish monarchs, continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenues, notwithstanding previous alienations, amounted to £880. 3. 4., exclusive of numerous payments in kind. In 1296, the abbot of Kilwinning swore fealty to Edward I. of England; in 1513, the abbot of the monastery accompanied James IV. to the battle of Flodden Field, where he was killed fighting by the side of his sovereign. Of the other abbots none are distinguished in history, with the exception of Gavin Hamilton, the last, the zealous adherent of Mary, Queen of Scots, whom he attended at the battle of Langside, and for whom he afterwards appeared at York, as one of her commissioners to treat with Elizabeth of England. The site of the monastery, and the lands appertaining to it, were, after the Reformation, granted by the crown to Alexander Cunningham, son of the Earl of Glencairn, who was appointed commendator, and, during his tenure, alienated a portion of the lands. In 1592, the remainder of the lands belonging to the monastery were erected into a temporal lordship, in favour of William Melville, who subsequently transferred the lordship to Hugh, fifth earl of Eglinton, whose descendants are the present proprietors. Of that once stately and venerable structure, which was almost demolished at the Reformation, the gable of the south transept, portions of the walls, with a few of the finelypointed arches, and an ancient gateway, are the only remains. A part of the abbey church, a spacious cruciform structure, was repaired, and appropriated as the parochial church till the year 1775, when it was taken down, and the present church erected on its site. The tower of the abbey church, a square massive structure 103 feet high, and which had been repaired by the Earl of Eglinton in 1789, remained till the year 1814, when it fell from natural decay; and in the year following, a similar tower, of nearly equal dimensions, was erected on the site.
The introduction of freemasonry into Scotland appears to have originated in the building of the monastery of Kilwinning, for which purpose several of those masons and artificers of Rome whom the pope had incorporated for the promotion of ecclesiastical architecture, and invested with peculiar privileges, were brought over from the continent. The architect who superintended the erection of the monastery, the masons who accompanied him, and such of the workmen of the neighbourhood as were qualified to assist them, were formed into a society, of which the architect was elected mastermason. Similar societies were gradually instituted in various parts of the country, subordinate to that of Kilwinning, which, as the oldest of the kind, retained an acknowledged pre-eminence, and of which the master-mason was chosen as grand master over all the others. After his return from England, James I. of Scotland patronized the lodge of Kilwinning, and presided as grand master of the order for some time; subsequently delegating the election of a grand master, generally a man of high rank, to the brethren of the various lodges. James II., however, conferred the office of grand master on William Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, and Baron of Roslin, and made the office hereditary in his family; and his successors, barons of Roslin, held their courts or grand lodges at this place. In 1736, Lord Roslin assembled thirty-two of these lodges at Edinburgh, to whom he resigned all his hereditary rights as grand master; and the grand lodge of Scotland, consisting of representatives from all the other lodges of the kingdom, has since that period been established there.
The town is pleasantly situated on an acclivity, rising gently from the west bank of the river Garnock, and consists of one narrow street nearly a mile in length, from which diverge some lanes, and of some ranges of detached houses. The houses are indifferently built, and of antique appearance, with the exception of a few of modern erection; but the environs abound with a variety of beautiful scenery, in which the pleasure-grounds of Eglinton Castle form a conspicuous and interesting feature. A society for the practice of archery, which has existed in the town since the year 1488, holds annual meetings in July, which are numerously attended by persons from all parts of the country. The chief prize is a silver arrow, which is given by the society to the successful competitor, who becomes captain for the following year, and presides as master of the ceremonies at a ball given on the occasion. The principal trade is the weaving of silk, woollen, and cotton goods, in which about 400 looms are employed; there are three factories for carding and spinning cotton-wool; and an extensive tannery has been established for more than half a century. Many of the inhabitants, also, are engaged in the mines and collieries in the immediate vicinity; and in the town are several shops, well supplied with various articles of merchandise. The post-office has a daily delivery; a branch of the Commercial Bank of Scotland has been opened; and fairs for horses and cattle are held in the town on the 1st of February and the first Wednesday in November. Facility of communication is maintained by excellent roads, which intersect the parish in different directions, and of which eleven miles are turnpike; the Glasgow and Ayr railway, also, passes the western extremity of the town, where it has an intermediate station, and where it meets the branch line to Ardrossan. A branch from the main line to Kilmarnock also runs through the parish, within a mile of the town; and a railroad from the collieries of Doura and Fergushill was some years since laid down, which joins the Ardrossan branch of the Glasgow and Ayr railway about two miles from the harbour.
The parish, which is of very irregular form, is about seven miles in length and five in extreme breadth, and comprises nearly 12,000 acres, of which from 3000 to 4000 are arable, and the remainder woodland, pasture, and moor, the proportions whereof cannot be well ascertained. The surface rises in graceful undulations from the south-east to the north-west, without attaining any great degree of elevation; and is intersected by the beautiful valleys of the Garnock and the Lugton, of which the former is richly cultivated, and the latter thickly wooded. The high lands command an extensive and beautifully-diversified prospect, embracing the vale of Garnock, the woods of Mountgreenan and Eglinton, the towns of Saltcoats, Stevenston, and Irvine, with the bay of Ayr, the rock of Ailsa, the Mull of Cantyre, and the mountains of Arran. The river Garnock, which has its source among the hills of Kilbirnie, flows in a copious stream southward through the parish, and, after passing the town, pursues a remarkably sinuous course towards the south-west, and falls into the sea near the mouth of the Irvine. The Lugton issues from Loch Libo, in Renfrewshire, and, taking a southwestern course, runs through the demesne of Mountgreenan and the pleasure-grounds of Eglinton into the river Garnock, about two miles from its influx into the sea. The Caaf, a small tributary of the Garnock, after forming for a short distance a boundary between this parish and that of Dalry, flows through a narrow wooded dell at Craigh-Head mill, where it forms a beautifully-picturesque cascade. The only lake is that of Ashgrove, about a mile and a half to the north-west of the town, and partly in the parish of Stevenston; it contains pike and perch, but is neither of great extent nor distinguished by any peculiar features. Salmon and salmon-trout are still found in the Garnock, on which the fisheries were formerly lucrative, yielding a considerable rent to the proprietors; but, from stake-fishing at the mouth of the river, and from various other causes, they have been for many years comparatively unproductive.
The soil on the higher grounds, and in the central parts of the parish, is generally a clay of no great depth; on the lands sloping towards the rivers, a richer loam; and in other parts, light and sandy, but of great fertility. The chief crops are oats and potatoes, with a moderate proportion of wheat, and the usual grasses; the system of husbandry has been gradually improving, and a due rotation of crops is invariably observed. Much progress has been made in surface-draining; the lands have been inclosed with hedges of thorn, which are kept in good repair; and the farm-buildings, though of inferior order, are generally adapted to the size of the farms, which vary from fifty to eighty acres. Great attention is paid to the improvement of live stock. The sheep are mostly of the black-faced breed, with some few of the Leicestershire and South-Down kind; the cattle are usually of the Ayrshire, and the horses of the Clydesdale, breed. There are very considerable remains of ancient wood, particularly in Eglinton Park, where many fine specimens of stately timber are found: among these are numerous beeches of venerable growth, of which kind of tree the planting has for some years been discontinued. The plantations, which are very extensive, and in a thriving state, consist of ash, elm, oak, larch, and Scotch fir, and contribute greatly to enrich the scenery. The substrata of the parish are principally of the coal formation, with bands of ironstone, limestone, and sandstone; and clay for making bricks and draining-tiles is also found. The coal, which occurs in several varieties, and of good quality, is wrought at Doura, Fergushill, Redstone, and Eglinton. The mines afford employment to about 250 men; and of the produce, exclusively of what is sold for the supply of the neighbourhood, 50,000 tons are annually sent by the railroad to the harbour of Ardrossan, whence they are shipped for Ireland and the Mediterranean. There are two quarries of limestone, and a quarry of excellent freestone, in constant operation, and which together employ a considerable number of men. The rateable annual value of the parish is £15,261.
Eglinton Castle, the seat of the earls of Eglinton, descendants of Roger de Montgomerie, a near relative of William the Conqueror, whom he accompanied to England, is a splendid castellated mansion, erected about the year 1798, by Hugh, the twelfth earl, and beautifully situated in an extensive park, about a mile to the south-east of the town. The castle occupies a spacious quadrangular area, defended at the angles with circular turrets, and comprehending the ancient keep, a round tower of great strength and lofty dimensions. It contains numerous stately apartments superbly embellished, to which an entrance is afforded from a magnificent circular saloon, thirty-six feet in diameter, rising to the roof, and lighted from an elegant dome. The park, which comprises above 1200 acres, and is well stocked with deer, is tastefully laid out in lawns, parterres, and pleasure-grounds, through which the river Lugton takes its winding course to the Garnock, adding greatly to the beauty of the scenery of the demesne, which is also embellished by more than 400 acres of thriving plantations, diversified with ancient timber of majestic growth. A tournament was celebrated within the grounds, on a truly magnificent scale, by the present earl, in August, 1839, and attracted a large concourse of nobility and gentry from all parts of the United Kingdom and from the continent. The lists were formed in the gently-sloping grounds near the castle, and inclosed an area 650 feet in length and 250 feet in breadth; and a splendid pavilion was erected immediately behind the mansion, 375 feet long and forty-five feet wide, for the accommodation of 2000 persons, who were courteously entertained on the occasion. The Earl of Eglinton presided as lord of the tournament; Lord Saltoun officiated as judge of the lists; the Marquess of Londonderry as king of the tournament; and Lady Seymour, attended by a numerous train of ladies of high rank, and followed by the Irvine archers, appeared as the Queen of Beauty. Among the knights that entered the lists were, the Marquess of Waterford, the Earl of Craven, Viscount Alford, Lord Glenlyon, Lord Cranstoun, the Earl of Cassilis, and Prince Louis Napoleon Buonaparte. The tournament continued for two days; and though more than 80,000 spectators were assembled within the park, which was thrown open indiscriminately to the public, not the slightest damage of any kind occurred. Mountgreenan House is an elegant modern mansion, situated in a well-planted demesne watered by the Lugton; and Monkcastle and Ashgrove are also handsome residences.
The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £266. 12., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14. 10. per annum; patron, the Earl of Eglinton. The church, situated in the centre of the town, is a neat plain structure erected in 1771, and contains 1030 sittings. There are places of worship for the United Secession, Free Church, and Original Seceders. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £20 per annum. Near the village of Doura, a large schoolroom, with a play-ground, and a dwelling-house for a master, has been erected at the sole expense of the Earl of Eglinton; and there are schools in connexion with the collieries.
KINBETTOCK, county of Aberdeen.—See Towie.
KINBUCK, a village, in the parish of Dunblane, county of Perth, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Dunblane; containing 131 inhabitants. It is seated in the centre of the parish, on the road from Dunblane to Auchterarder; and is formed of East and West Kinbuck. The population are partly employed in the woollen manufacture, for which there is a mill in the village.
KINCAIRNIE, a village, in the parish of Caputh, county of Perth, 2 miles (N.) from Caputh; containing 83 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern part of the parish, and south of the road from Cluny to Dunkeld. Kincairnie House, in the vicinity of the village, is the seat of the Murray family.
KINCAPLE, a village, in the parish and district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 2½ miles (W. N. W.) from St. Andrew's; containing 186 inhabitants. It is situated upon the eastern coast, near the mouth of the Eden, in St. Andrew's bay; and on the road from St. Andrew's to Leuchars. The population is chiefly agricultural. In 1834 a minister was appointed to perform divine service, once a month, in each of four villages in the parish, of which this is one.
KINCARDINE, county of Inverness.—See Abernethy.
KINCARDINE, a sea-port town and a burgh of barony, in the parish of Tulliallan, county of Perth, 5 miles (S. E.) from Alloa, and 12 (E. S. E.) from Stirling; containing 2875 inhabitants. The name of this now considerable place was formerly West Pans, from the number of its salt pans, of which, in 1780, there were fifteen, though none exist at present. It is pleasantly seated on the north-east bank of the river Forth; and though irregularly built, and having some narrow streets, it contains several of good breadth, with a number of substantial houses and neat villas, surrounded by gardens. The harbour, which is one of the best for trade on the Forth, and very commodious, is capable of admitting vessels of between three and four hundred tons' burthen; and as many as a hundred of this size may have safe anchorage within it. Shipbuilding, principally of the class of vessels adapted to coasting traffic, is carried on here; and this avocation, together with rope-making, and the manufacture of sailcloth, employs a great part of the population. There are about forty ship-owners in the town, who form a local marine insurance association, and have a considerable capital; and ships belonging to the port, whose aggregate burthen exceeds 9000 tons, visit America, the West Indies, the shores of the Baltic, and St. Petersburgh. In the neighbourhood was once a distillery; and in the town are two good inns, a post-office, a library consisting of more than 1000 volumes, and branches of the Glasgow and Commercial Banks, these last affording great encouragement to enterprise, and accommodation to the surrounding district. The coast-road from Stirling passes through it; a coach runs daily to Glasgow; the river is crossed by a steam-boat ferry; and steamers ply regularly between Stirling and Edinburgh, taking in passengers at the pier, at any state of the tide. The trustees of Lord Keith are the superiors of the town, and they appoint baron-bailies, who act as magistrates. There is an elegant new church; also a place of worship for the United Secession, and schools in which the ordinary branches of education are taught. It was from this barony that the ancient and illustrious family of Bruce took the title of Earl, now conjoined with the earldom of Elgin, the present, and sixth, Earl of Elgin being also eleventh Earl of Kincardine.
KINCARDINE, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 14 miles (W. N. W.) from Tain; containing 2108 inhabitants, of whom 316 are in that part of the parish which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Croich. This place perhaps derives its name, of Celtic origin, signifying "the termination of the heights," from its situation at the extremity of some ranges of lofty hills. It appears to have been, at a very early period, the baronial residence of the chiefs of the clan Ross, and to have been the scene of various hostilities between them and rival clans, of which the most sanguinary was the battle of Tuiteam-Tarbhach, about the year 1397. In 1650, the Marquess of Montrose arrived at Orkney with a force of 1500 men, and, crossing the Pentland Frith, landed at the northern extremity of Caithness, and took possession of the castle of Dunbeath, whence he advanced to Ross-shire. The Earl of Sutherland, his opponent, at first retired before him, but afterwards passed over into Sutherland, to intercept his retreat to the north; and Colonel Strachan advancing to meet Montrose with a force of 230 cavalry and 170 infantry, a battle ensued near the pass of Invercharron, on the borders of this parish, which terminated in the defeat of the Marquess, and the slaughter of nearly the whole of his men. The spot where the battle was fought has been since called "Craigachaoineadh," or the Rock of Lamentation. Montrose, after the engagement, throwing off his embroidered cloak, and changing clothes with a Highland soldier, swam across the Kyle, a sheet of water dividing part of this parish from Sutherland, and effected his escape from the field of slaughter. But, after wandering for several days in Strath-Oikell, and concealing himself in the woods of Assynt, he was at length discovered by Neil Macleod, the proprietor of that place, who had been formerly one of his followers, and to whom, in the hope of finding protection, he made himself known. Macleod, however, being either afraid to conceal him, or tempted by the large reward offered for his apprehension, betrayed Montrose to his pursuers, who sent him, by order of General Leslie, to Skibo Castle, whence he was removed to Braan Castle, and afterwards to Edinburgh, where, after suffering the most barbarous indignities, he was publicly executed, and his head placed on the Tolbooth. There are still some vestiges of the ancient residence of the family of Ross, whose territories were, in the eleventh century, erected by Malcolm Canmore into an earldom, which remained in that family till the death of William, the last earl, without issue male, in 1371, after which the dignity continued to be held by various claimants till the year 1478, when it was finally annexed to the crown. The present representative of the title, and of the chieftainship of the clan, is George Ross, Esq., of Pitcalnie, a descendant from the brother of the Earl William, who died in 1371; and the chief proprietor of the lands in the parish is Sir Charles W. A. Ross, of Balnagown, Bart.
The parish, which is bounded on the north-east mainly by the Frith of Tain, is about thirty-five miles in length, and varies from three to sixteen miles in breadth, comprising an area of nearly 230 square miles, of which but a very small portion is arable. The surface is strikingly diversified with hills of various elevation, and with open valleys and narrow glens; and near the western extremity is the ancient and extensive forest of Balnagown, in which are deer of unusually large size. The most lofty of the hills are, Cairnchuinaig, on the lands of Dibbisdale, in which are found cairngorms of great beauty; and Sithain-a-Charra, in Balnagown forest, in which, though it is at a very considerable distance from the sea, have been discovered shells of different kinds. The principal river is the Oikell, which has its source in the adjoining parish of Assynt, and, after a course of thirty miles, in part of which it forms the northern boundary of the parish, falls into the Kyle Frith; it is navigable for nearly twelve miles. The river Carron intersects the parish from west to east, and joins the Kyle at Bonar-Bridge. There are also numerous lakes, some of which contain trout of excellent quality, especially Loch-a-Chorry, in which are trout weighing six pounds; but none of these lakes are of great extent, or distinguished by any interesting features. The rivers Oikell and Carron abound with salmon; there is likewise a salmon-fishery at Bonar-Bridge, and flounders are taken at ebb-tide. The fisheries are all the property of the Duke of Sutherland.
The soil is exceedingly various. On the arable lands, which are under good cultivation, producing favourable crops, it is tolerably fertile; but the hills and other parts are heathy and barren. The hills afford, however, good pasture for sheep, of which great numbers are reared, and sent mainly to the Falkirk trysts and to Edinburgh: the cattle, which are generally of the Highland black breed, are grazed in large herds on the pastures, and forwarded chiefly to Leith and to London, by the northern steamers. There are some considerable remains of ancient wood; and extensive plantations have been formed on some of the lands, consisting chiefly of oak, birch, and firs, all of which are in a very thriving state. The prevailing rocks are of the granite or the conglomerate kind, alternated with gneiss and whinstone; mica-slate and greywacke are sometimes met with; and at Knockierny, on the confines of the parish of Assynt, white and variegated marbles of the purest quality are found. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5172. Invercarron House, on the north bank of the river Carron; Gladefield House, the property of the Duke of Sutherland; Braelangwell Lodge, belonging to Sir Charles W. A. Ross, beautifully situated on the Carron, which forms a picturesque cascade near the house; and Amat Cottage, the occasional residence of George Ross, Esq., of Pitcalnie, near the confluence of some small rivulets with the Carron, are all handsome residences. The parish is connected with the coast of Sutherland by a substantial and elegant bridge across the Frith at Bonar, erected in 1812, to supersede the dangerous ferry, previously the only means of communication. This important structure, which cost £14,000, consists of three arches: one, on the Sutherland side, is of cast iron, 150 feet in span; and the others, which are of stone, are of fifty and sixty feet respectively. There are no manufactures; but some trade is carried on here in the exportation of grain, wool, oak-bark, and salmon, and in the importation of coal, lime, salt, meal, and other articles for the supply of the district. Many fishing-boats, also, visit the Frith during the season. A good pier of stone was constructed at Bonar some years since, by Mr. Ross, late of the Balnagown Arms inn, at his own expense; and the harbour affords safe shelter and accommodation to vessels not exceeding sixty tons' burthen, which can come up to the bridge. A postoffice at Bonar has a daily delivery: the mail is conveyed from Tain by a post gig, which carries also four passengers. A fair is held annually, generally in the last week of November, but sometimes in the first week of December; it continues for three days, and is numerously attended by dealers from all parts of the adjacent districts. On the first day there is a fine show of Highland cattle; and on the two others, large quantities of dairy and agricultural produce, and various kinds of merchandise, with home-spun webs in abundance, are exposed for sale, and general business to a great extent is transacted.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Tain and synod of Ross. The minister's stipend is £278, with a manse, and a glebe valued at about £15 per annum; patron, John Hay Mackenzie, Esq., of Cromarty. The church is a neat substantial structure, erected in 1799, and containing 650 sittings, all free: in the steeple is a fine-toned bell which was found in a French ship of war of 74 guns, captured in 1775 by Admiral Sir John Lockhart Ross, of Balnagown. A church was erected by parliamentary grant, in 1827, at Croich, a remote pastoral district; and another portion of this extensive parish is under the care of a missionary connected with the Established Church, whose charge also extends over a part of the parish of Criech, in the county of Sutherland, where his station is, at Rosehall. The chapel for the mission, erected by Dunning, Lord Ashburton, and repaired in 1832, contains 300 sittings; and the missionary, who is appointed by the Royal Bounty committee, receives a stipend of £60, to which £5 are added by the Duke of Sutherland. The members of the Free Church have also a place of worship. The parochial school, situated near the church, is attended by about 100 children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu of garden, the fees averaging £20 per annum. A parochial library, consisting chiefly of religious books, is supported by subscription. There are numerous circular forts in the parish, supposed to be of Pictish or Danish origin; but most of them are in a very imperfect state, from the removal of the stones as materials for building. In the churchyard is a stone five feet in length, and about two feet in breadth and thickness; it has been hollowed into two unequal cells, and is elaborately sculptured with various figures, among which are a man on horseback in the act of darting a javelin, an imperial crown, and what appears to be a camel. This relic is supposed to be part of a sarcophagus in which, according to tradition, the remains of a warrior who died here of the wounds he received in battle, were deposited. There are also some remains of Druidical circles in different parts of the parish.
Kincardine In Monteith
KINCARDINE IN MONTEITH, a parish, in the county of Perth, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Doune; containing, with the villages of Kirklane and Woodlane, 2232 inhabitants. This parish, of which the name is of very uncertain etymology, is pleasantly situated in the vale of Monteith, and in the southern part of the county; it is of triangular form, having the east angle washed by the confluence of the rivers Forth and Teith, of which the former bounds the parish on the south, and the latter on the north-east. The parish extends from the east point for nearly ten miles to the south-west, and for about twelve miles to the north-west; but is intersected by a portion of the parish of Kilmadock, three miles in breadth, which reaches from the Teith to the Forth. It comprises by computation 7500 acres, of which 5000, on the shores of the Forth, are mostly rich carse land, and the remainder, on the banks of the Teith, dry-field. The surface towards the Forth is generally level, but rises in gentle undulations, westward of Blair-Drummond, into a ridge, which has an elevation of 300 feet above the level of the sea, and commands a fine view of the Grampian mountains to the north and west; of the Ochils to the east, with the castle of Stirling, the field of Bannockburn, and the hill of Craigforth; and to the south, of the hills of Lennox, extending from the castle of Stirling to Dumbarton. The river Goodie, which has its source in the loch of Monteith, in the parish of Port, intersects this parish in its course towards the Forth; and there are numerous springs, and several small burns in various parts. The carse land includes the moss of Kincardine, which to a considerable extent has been cleared, and also part of Moss Flanders.
The soil, where the moss has been removed, is generally a rich blue clay of great depth and fertility, producing grain of all kinds and good green crops; that of the dry-field is chiefly a light loam, yielding excellent crops of oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, and the various grasses. The farms are of moderate extent, and the system of agriculture in an improved state; the farmbuildings are substantial and commodious, and the lands have been partly inclosed. Considerable attention is paid to live stock; the cattle were formerly of the Highland breed, but on most of the dairy-farms cows of the Ayrshire breed have been introduced. Few sheep are pastured. The horses used for agriculture on the dry-field lands are of a moderate size; but on the carse, which requires a stronger kind, a breed between the hardier of the Perthshire, and the Clydesdale, is preferred. The substratum of the parish is chiefly of the old red sandstone formation; in some parts, of good quality for building, for which purpose it is quarried; but in other parts, of too soft a texture for that use. Veins of calcareous spar, and occasionally barytes, are found in the quarries; but no organic remains, except a few vegetable impressions, have been discovered. The woods and plantations are of oak, ash, beech, elm, birch, and firs, for which the soil appears well adapted; and the plantations, which have been recently much extended, are well managed and in a thriving condition. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,500. Blair-Drummond, the seat of Henry Home Drummond, Esq., M. P., the principal landowner, is a spacious and handsome mansion, erected about the year 1715, by his ancestor, George Drummond, Esq., and to which a wing has been added by the present proprietor. It is situated in a richly-wooded park planted by Lord Kames, who, by marriage with the grand-daughter of George Drummond, succeeded to the estate, which at that time included 1500 acres of Kincardine Moss. Of this moss a considerable portion was recovered by his exertions; and under those of his son and successor, nearly the whole of the remainder was reclaimed. In the house is a collection of portraits by Sir Godfrey Kneller, among which are those of the Lord Chancellor Perth and his brother, the Earl of Melfort, and, in the drawing-room, a portrait of the late Lord Kames in his robes of office as a judge. Ochtertyre, the seat of David Dundas, Esq., M.P. for Sutherlandshire, is beautifully situated on the banks of the Teith. On the lands of Blair-Drummond, and also on those of Ochtertyre, various comfortable cottages have been built by the proprietors, for the accommodation of the families of the persons employed on their estates; and in the district which formed part of the late quoad sacra parish of Norrieston is the village of Thornhill, noticed in the account of Norrieston.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £255. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum; patroness, Lady Willoughby de Eresby. The church, which was greatly dilapidated, was rebuilt in 1814, chiefly through the exertions of Mr. Drummond, who, in addition to the payment of more than two-thirds of the expense of a plainer building, contributed the whole additional charge of the present elegant structure after a design by the late Mr. Crichton, of Edinburgh. It is a cruciform edifice in the later English style, with an embattled tower crowned by minarets, and contains 770 sittings. The parochial school is well conducted, and is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a good house and garden, and the fees average £14 per annum. There are schools, also, at Norrieston; a school in Kincardine Moss, of which the master has a dwelling-house, with an acre of land, the gift of Mr. Drummond; and two others, unendowed. Within the gardens of Blair-Drummond is a tumulus, 92 yards in circumference and fifteen feet in height; and in the pleasure-grounds is one of larger dimensions. Near the east lodge is another, in which were found fragments of urns and human bones; it is surrounded with a circular fosse, called Wallace's trench. In clearing the moss, several remains of antiquity were discovered, among which were a large brass camp kettle, some spear heads, and part of a Roman road, of which seventy yards were clearly defined, crossing the moss of Kincardine from the Forth to the Teith.
KINCARDINE O'NEIL, a parish, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 11 miles (S. by E.) from Alford; containing 1857 inhabitants, of whom 288 are in the village. This place, which is of some antiquity, derives its name from its situation near the termination of a range of hills; and its distinguishing adjunct, O'Neil, from the name of a rivulet which flows round the village. A small hospital for the support of eight aged men was built at an early period, by one of the bishops of Aberdeen, and subsisted till the time of the Reformation, when it was suppressed: no vestiges of the building now remain. The parish, which is bounded on the south by the river Dee, is about seven miles in extreme length, and nearly five miles in breadth, comprising 15,000 acres, of which almost 6000 are arable, 3500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, of which 1500 are capable of improvement, moorland pasture and waste. The surface is divided into three wide valleys by ranges of hills of great extent and various degrees of elevation; and at the eastern boundary is the hill of Fare, which rises to a height of 1800 feet above the level of the sea, forming a well-known landmark to vessels navigating the eastern coast. The hill of Learney, which is a continuation of Fare, abounds with peat, furnishing a plentiful supply of fuel for the inhabitants; and most of the other hills in the parish are either cultivated, or clothed with wood, to their very summits. The river Dee is here seventy yards in width, and, about two miles below the village, is crossed by an elegant bridge of granite, erected in 1812, at a cost of £3500, of which one-half was paid by government, and the other raised by subscription. Salmon are found in the Dee, frequently in great abundance, and are generally taken with the rod, affording excellent sport to the angler; but very few trout are seen in the stream, and even the numbers of salmon have greatly diminished within the last few years. The only other stream of any importance in the parish is the burn of Belty, which rises among the hills at its north-western boundary, and, flowing in a south-eastern direction through the central valley, which it divides into two nearly equal portions, falls into the Dee in the parish of Banchory-Ternan. Though a very inconsiderable stream, it frequently, after rains, swells into an impetuous torrent, and inundates the level valley through which it passes, doing much injury to the crops: in 1829, it carried away two bridges, and greatly damaged three others. Some trout, but of very small size, are found in this river.
The soil along the banks of the Dee is light; in the valley of the Belty, much deeper, and of richer quality, resting on a subsoil of clay; and in the higher parts of the parish, heathy moorland, with large tracts of peatmoss. The crops are, oats, bear, barley, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses; the system of husbandry has for many years been steadily advancing, and is at present in a highly improved state. Large portions of the waste grounds have been reclaimed, and brought under profitable cultivation, both by the proprietors and tenants. The lands have been inclosed with stone fences; substantial and commodious farmbuildings have been erected, many of which are roofed with slate; and on almost every farm, threshing-mills of good construction are found. Great attention is paid to the improvement of the breed of horses, blackcattle, and sheep, and to the management of the dairyfarms; and large quantities of butter of excellent quality, with a moderate proportion of cheese, and eggs and poultry, are sent to the Aberdeen market, whither, also, considerable numbers of fat-cattle are forwarded, to be shipped for London. The plantations, which are of great extent, consist chiefly of larch and Scotch firs, for both of which, especially for the former, the soil is well adapted; oak and ash have recently been tried with success, and birch seems to be indigenous along the banks of the river Dee. The principal substrata are whinstone and sandstone; and there is also abundance of granite of very excellent quality, which occurs in large masses, from some of which have been cut blocks seventeen feet in length. There is, however, neither slate nor limestone in the parish; nor are there quarries of any kind in regular operation. The rateable annual value of Kincardine O'Neil is £7018.
Craigmile, the seat of the principal heritor, a handsome mansion to which additions have been made by the present proprietor, is well situated in a richly-planted demesne. The house of Learney, which was destroyed by an accidental fire some few years since, has been rebuilt in an elegant modern style; and Campfield, Kincardine Lodge, and Stranduff, are also pleasant residences. The village, which is on the turnpike-road from Ballater to Aberdeen, is neatly built; it has a rural aspect, and is frequented during the summer months by invalids for the benefit of their health. An excellent inn has been erected of late years by Mr. Gordon; and a circulating library, containing a well-assorted collection, has been established. There are no manufactures carried on here; but many of the women are employed in knitting stockings for the Aberdeen houses. The post-office has a daily delivery; and the mail passes regularly through the village. Fairs for black-cattle, sheep, and horses, are held in May and September, in the village; and during the winter months, markets for agricultural produce of every kind are held monthly at Tomavern, in the northern district of the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £232. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum; patron, Sir John Forbes, Bart. The church is an ancient structure, of which the date is unknown. The roof was destroyed by fire in 1733, and only the walls, which are built of small stones imbedded in lime, left standing: the edifice was, however, restored immediately, has since been repaired, and is now in good condition, affording accommodation for a congregation of 640 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There are three parochial schools, in the three divisions of the parish; the masters have salaries of £25 each, with a house, and the original master has also a garden. They all partake of the Dick bequest, and the fees average to each about £20 per annum.
KINCARDINESHIRE, or The Mearns, a maritime county, in the east of Scotland, bounded on the north-west by the river Dee and part of Aberdeenshire, on the east and south-east by the German Ocean, and on the south-west by the county of Forfar. It lies between 56° 46' and 57° 7' (N. Lat.) and 2° 1' and 2° 45' (W. Lon.), and is about thirty-two miles in length, and twenty-four in extreme breadth; comprising an area of 380 square miles, or 243,444 acres; 7620 houses, of which 7304 are inhabited; and containing a population of 33,075, of whom 15,829 are males, and 17,246 females. The county is supposed by some to have derived the name Mearns, which is proper only to a particular portion of it, from Mernia, brother of Kenneth II., but, with greater probability, others deduce it from the Vernicones, by whom the district was inhabited in the time of Ptolemy. Few events of historical importance are recorded, though it is conjectured that the battle between the Caledonians under Galgacus and the Romans under Agricola took place here. Prior to the Reformation, the county was included partly within the archdiocese of St. Andrew's, and partly within the dioceses of Aberdeen and Brechin; it is at present chiefly in the synod of Angus and Mearns, and comprises the presbytery of Fordoun, in that synod, and part of the presbyteries of Kincardine O'Neil and Aberdeen, in the synod of Aberdeen. For civil government it is undivided, and for session purposes is associated with the counties of Aberdeen and Banff, in the former of which the courts are held; it contains Stonehaven, which is the county town, and the towns and villages of Bervie, Gourdon, Johnshaven, Laurencekirk, Fettercairn, and Auchinblae. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county returns one member to the imperial parliament. The number of parishes is nineteen.
The surface near the coast is tolerably level, though varying in elevation. The Grampians occupy the central, western, and northern parts of the county; and from their base the land subsides towards the south-east, into what is generally called the Howe of the Mearns, forming a continuation of the vale of Strathmore, and between which and the sea there is a tract of swelling ground. The Howe is a beautiful tract of champaign country, about fifty square miles in extent, richly cultivated, embellished with plantations, and defended from the colder winds by the Grampians, and by the hills of Garvock and Arbuthnott, which are from 500 to 800 feet high. The principal mountains are, the Strath Fenella, detached from the Grampian range by a narrow vale from which it takes its name, and about 1500 feet in height; Cairn-a-Mount, which is 2500 feet; the hill of Fare, 1800 feet; Clachnabane, which has an elevation of 2370 feet, and is crowned with a mass of rock, rising perpendicularly almost one hundred feet above the main surface, and resembling an old fortress; and Mount Battoch, the highest point of the Grampian range in the county, and which has an elevation of 3465 feet. The principal river is the Dee, which has its source in Aberdeenshire, and, after intersecting this county for about eight miles in a course from west to east, forms its northern boundary for fourteen miles, and falls into the sea at Aberdeen. The other rivers are, the North Esk, which rises in the sequestered vale of Glen-Esk, on the confines of Forfarshire, and, after forming the boundary between the Mearns and that county for above ten miles, falls into the sea three miles to the north of Montrose; the Bervie; the Cowie; and several smaller streams. The chief lakes are, Drum, which is partly in the county of Aberdeen, and Loch Leys; each is about three miles in circumference, and the latter has a small artificial island containing the remains of an ancient edifice of which there are no authentic notices.
About one-third of the land is arable, and in good cultivation; one-eighth capable of being cultivated with advantage, one-twelfth woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough mountain pasture. The soil varies from the most sterile to the most fertile; the district of the Howe of the Mearns is extremely rich, and the system of agriculture in a high state of improvement. Great attention is paid to the rearing of live stock. The number of cattle, which are generally the Angus black, is on an average 25,000, of which 5000 are milch-cows; and the number of sheep is about 24,000, of various breeds, but chiefly the black-faced. There are no minerals of any importance: limestone is quarried in some places, and there is an abundance of granite in the northern, and of red sandstone in the southern, section of the county. Various gems are found in the mountains and in the rocks, of which the principal are the topaz or Cairngorm. The seats are, Arbuthnott House, Dunnottar, Fetteresso, Fettercairn, Crathes, Blackhall, Kirkton Hill, Tilquhilly, Inch Marlo, Thornton, Drumtochty Castle, Durris, Ury, Glenbervie, Muchalls, Mount Cyrus, Inglismaldie, Lauriston, Fasque, Johnston, and others. The manufactures are neither important nor extensive; they are chiefly of canvass and coarse linens, with some trifling branches of the cotton manufacture. At Laurencekirk, the highly-esteemed snuff-boxes of wood are made. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads in various directions, of which some are turnpike; and a road over the Grampian hills has been made, and is kept in good repair. The rateable annual value of real property in the county is £134,341, including £3858 for fisheries. There are numerous remains of antiquity, of which the chief are those of Kincardine Castle, once a royal residence, and of Dunnottar Castle, the ancient seat of the Keiths, earls-marischal of Scotland, romantically situated on the summit of a lofty rock boldly projecting into the sea.
KINCLAVEN, a parish, in the county of Perth, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Blairgowrie; containing 880 inhabitants. This place, of which the name, of Celtic origin, is descriptive of the situation of its church, is bounded on the north by the river Tay, which separates it from Caputh; and on the east and south by the same river, which divides it from the parish of Cargill. It is about five miles in length and two miles in average breadth, comprising an area of ten square miles. The ancient castle, now in ruins, is said to have been built by Malcolm Canmore, and to have been for many centuries an occasional residence of the kings of Scotland, from which several of their charters are dated. During the wars that arose, from the contested succession to the throne, between Bruce and Baliol, the castle was occupied by an English garrison, which, being at an unguarded moment surprised by Sir William Wallace, was taken and dismantled so far as to render it no longer tenable as a place of strength. It is the property of Baroness Keith, who pays to the Duke of Atholl, annually, a small sum as its hereditary constable. The parish comprises about 6400 acres, of which 3900 are arable, 1500 woodland and plantations, 800 moorland pasture, and the remainder moss, water, and waste. The surface is broken by an elevated ridge, extending across the centre of the parish from north-east to southwest, and from which the lands slope in a gentle declivity to the Tay on the north and south. The scenery, enlivened by the windings of the Tay, and enriched with woods and plantations, has a very pleasing appearance. The river Isla, descending from the lower Grampian range, flows through the vale of Strathmore, and falls into the Tay at the eastern extremity of the parish; and there are several small lakes, in which pike, perch, and eels of large size are found.
The soil, though various, is generally fertile, producing good crops of wheat, barley, oats, turnips, and potatoes, of which last great quantities are raised for the London market. The state of agriculture is much improved; the rotation plan of husbandry is in use, and carefully adapted to the different soils. The lands have been well drained; several tracts of moorland have been brought into profitable cultivation, and the various farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and some of them highly ornamental. The cattle are of a mixed breed, and great attention is paid to their improvement; Ayrshire cows, and bulls of the Teeswater breed, have been introduced; and the horses, previously of small size, are now improved by the introduction of the Clydesdale breed. The plantations are chiefly larch and common fir, of which, however, the former are not in a very thriving state; and there are numerous coppices of oak, which are generally felled when they have attained twenty-five years' growth. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4537. There were formerly several small villages, of which at present the sites are only to be distinguished by some of the ancient trees yet standing. The village of Arntully (which see), though much reduced in extent and population, is still remaining. The roads from the ferries at Caputh, Kinclaven, and others over the Tay, intersect the parish, and afford facilities of communication; the post-town is Perth, to which, and also to Dunkeld, a sub-office has been established at Stanley. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £276. 11. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum; patrons, the family of Richardson. The church, inconveniently situated at the eastern extremity of the parish, contains 320 sittings, all of which are free; at the east end is a large monument to the memory of Alexander Campbell, Bishop of Brechin, who is styled "Laird of Kerco, in this parish," and who died in 1608. The church is in a very indifferent state of repair; and it is expected that another will be soon built on a more convenient site. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession. The parochial school is attended by about sixty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a good house and garden, and the fees, &c., average £24 per annum. There is also a school in connexion with the Seceding congregation, supported by subscription.
KINFAUNS, a parish, in the county of Perth, 1½ mile (E. by S.) from Perth; containing 720 inhabitants. This place, of which the name, in the Celtic language, is descriptive of its situation at the head of a narrow valley inclosed with hills, and opening into the Carse of Gowrie, was anciently the seat of the Charteris family, of whom Thomas Charteris de Longueville, a native of France, having killed a nobleman of the court of Philip le Bel in a duel, was compelled to make his escape, and for some time subsisted by piracy on the open seas. Charteris, called, from the colour of his flag, the Red Reaver, was encountered and taken prisoner by Sir William Wallace, on that hero's route to France, where, making intercession with the French monarch, Sir William obtained for his captive a full pardon and the honour of knighthood. Sir Thomas Charteris now became the zealous friend and adherent of Wallace, whom he accompanied to Scotland; and on Wallace being betrayed into the hands of Edward, King of England, he retired to Lochmaben till Bruce asserted his claim to the crown. He was a companion of Bruce at the taking of Perth, in 1313, and, in reward of his services, obtained a grant of the lands of Kinfauns, which remained for many years in the possession of his descendants. The lands passed afterwards to the Carnegies, a branch of the Northesk family, and subsequently to the Blairs, whose sole heiress conveyed them by marriage to John Lord Gray, grandfather of the present Lord Gray, of Kinfauns Castle.
The parish, which forms the western portion of the Carse of Gowrie, is bounded on the south by the river Tay; it is about five miles in length and one mile and a half in average breadth, comprising an area of 4800 acres, of which 2380 are arable, 240 meadow and pasture, and the remainder woodland and plantations. The surface, towards the river, is level, and thence rises, by a gradual and easy ascent, to the base of a ridge of hills which traverses the parish in a line from east to west. Of these hills the highest is the hill of Kinnoull, which is but partly in this parish, and has an elevation of 632 feet above the level of the Tay, presenting to the south an abruptly-precipitous mass of rock, covered for nearly three-fourths of its height with trees, and thence bare to its summit. On the east of this hill, the ground has a gentle declivity; and in a level spot here, at a considerable height above the Tay, is the castle of Kinfauns. Still farther east, the ground again rises abruptly, forming the western acclivity of the hill of Binn, or the Tower Hill, so called from a tower on its summit, built within the last forty years by the late Lord Gray, for an observatory. To the east of this hill the land slopes gradually till it subsides into a deep ravine, on the opposite side of which is another hill, and, farther off, a fourth, the latter commanding from its summit a varied and extensive view of the whole carse, the tower of Dundee, Broughty Castle, and of the course of the Tay from a mile below Perth to its influx into the German Ocean: to the south is a fine view over the vale of Strathearn. Beyond these hills, which are mostly wooded to their summit, rise various others towards the north, in gentle undulations, and gradually subsiding in the vale of Strathmore, of which they form the southern boundary. The Tay, which bounds the parish for more than three miles, is the only river of importance; but three small streamlets, rising among the hills, intersect the parish from north to south. The Tay abounds with salmon and different kinds of trout; pike are numerous, and sturgeon are found occasionally.
The soil is various; near the Tay, a rich loamy clay producing excellent crops of wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses; and for a considerable height on the acclivities of the hills, a light, but deep and fertile, black mould. The system of agriculture is improved; the farms vary from 125 to 300 acres in extent; the farm-buildings are substantial and well arranged, and most of them of modern erection. The lands have been well drained, chiefly with tiles, for the making of which good clay is found; and on the estate of Kinfauns, an embankment has been formed, connecting an island in the river with the main land. The cattle are of a mixed breed, with the exception of cows for the dairy, which are generally the Ayrshire. Sheep are kept only upon one farm; they are of the pure Leicestershire breed, and not more than 300 in number. The plantations are, oak, ash, elm, beech, and Scotch fir, with larch and spruce intermixed; birch and mountain-ash are scarce. In the grounds of the mansions, sycamore, lime, poplar, Spanish and horse chesnut, and silver fir attain a luxuriant growth. The substratum is principally whinstone, of which the hills are all composed; and there are several quarries in operation, producing excellent materials for the roads. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8882.
Kinfauns Castle, seated on an eminence overlooking the Tay, is of modern character, erected between 1819 and 1826, after a design by Smirke: here is preserved the two-handed sword of Sir Thomas Charteris, besides a variety of pictures and a superb library. Seggieden House is finely situated near the margin of the river. Glendoick House is a good mansion, built by Robert Craigie, lord president of the court of session, and grandfather of the present proprietor; and Glencarse House is also a handsome modern mansion. There are no villages, and the largest hamlet contains only twelve families: the turnpike-road from Perth to Dundee passes through the parish. It was proposed to form a railway through this place from Dundee, by Perth, to Crieff, and the ground was surveyed for that purpose; but the proposal has not been carried into effect. The Tay is navigable to Perth for vessels of 200 tons. The salmon-fisheries in the parish produce a rental of £3366, of which about £2200 belong to Lord Gray, £766 to the city of Perth, and £400 to Mr. Hay, of Seggieden; the number of men employed is 104. There is a branch post-office in the parish; steam-boats ply daily in the river between Perth and Dundee; and there are piers at this place for the landing of passengers and goods, at which, also, potatoes and grain are shipped, chiefly for London. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £242. 11.6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, which is well situated, has been built at various times; the nave is very ancient, and the aisles of comparatively modern date. It is in substantial repair, and contains 416 sittings, the whole of which are free. A parochial library was established in 1826, by donations of books from the heritors, and is supported by small quarterly subscriptions. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £13 per annum. There is another school in the parish, attended principally by children from Kinnoull and Kilspindie, supported chiefly by the fees. On the side of the hill of Kinnoull is a cave called the Dragon Hole, the hidingplace of Sir William Wallace; and on the lands of Glendoick is an old house in which Prince Charles Edward passed a night after his defeat at Culloden.
KINGARTH, a parish, in the county of Bute, 8 miles (S. by E.) from Rothesay; containing, with the villages of Kilchattan-Bay, Kerrycroy, and Piperhall, 931 inhabitants. This parish takes its name from the promontory of Garroch Head, forming its extreme point to the south, and called in Gaelic Ceann Garbh, which signifies "stormy head." Very little is known concerning the ancient history of the place; but there are traditions of its having been of considerable importance. Christianity was early introduced here. The name of Saint Catan, or Cathanus, has been transmitted in the appellation of a bay called Kilchattan, "the cell or burial-place of Catan." St. Blane, also, is said to have been born here, and to have been the founder of the original church of Kingarth, of which the ruins, still remaining, are designated by his name, as is a hill ascending from Garroch Head. The parish was anciently the scene, too, of some military conflicts. On the south-west shore is the fort of Dunagoil, "the fortified hill of the Lowlanders," commanding nearly the best landing-place on the whole coast, and having a view of the passage from the western seas by Kilbrannan sound, and of the entrance into the Frith of Clyde from the south. Its origin is not known; but it has frequently been attributed to the Danes. The lands of the district were formerly held by several proprietors called Barons, who are at present represented by only four owners of small portions of ground, the larger part of the parish being the property of the Marquess of Bute.
Kingarth is six and a half miles in length, from north to south, and two and a half in mean breadth, containing 8325 acres. It is situated in the Isle of Bute, and is bounded on the north-west by the loch of Ascog, a part of Loch Fad, and Quien loch, which separate it from the parish of Rothesay; and on the east, south, and south-west by the Frith of Clyde. Its figure is irregular. The shore is indented by several small bays; and the parish is marked by a gradual narrowing from its north-western boundary till it becomes an isthmus a mile and a half in breadth, beyond which is a peninsula two miles in length, terminating in the promontory of Garroch Head. The coast on the east and south is rocky and precipitous; on the south-west it rises more gently. It is marked by the bays of Ascog, Scoulag, and Kilchattan, to the east; and of Scalpsie, Stravanan, and Dunagoil, to the south-west. The frith is eight miles wide between Scoulag bay and the nearest point of Ayrshire at Largs, and nine miles wide between Dunagoil bay and the nearest part of the island of Arran; it is ninety fathoms deep between Garroch Head and Little Cumbray, where its depth is greatest. The land in general is considerably elevated above the level of the sea: the principal hills are Suidhe-Chatain, "the seat of Catan," 520 feet high, and Saint Blane's hill, 486 feet high. The loch of Ascog, Quien loch, and Loch Fad cover respectively seventy-five, sixty-nine, and 170 acres. The climate, though moist, is mild and salubrious.
The soil in general is light and gravelly, though in some places loam and clay are to be found. About 3936 acres are occasionally under tillage; 3071 are moor and pasture; and 940 acres are under wood, both natural and planted, the latter consisting of spruce, larch, Scotch fir, oak, and other hard-woods. All kinds of grain, and the usual green crops, are grown. The cattle are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, to the rearing of which great attention has been recently paid: the sheep, also, are tolerably numerous. The modern system of husbandry is followed, and the improvements in every department have been rapidly advancing for the last ten or twelve years: most of the farm-houses have been rebuilt, and the grounds inclosed chiefly with thorn-hedges. The prevailing rock is the old red sandstone, with conglomerate, and numerous veins and beds of trap: coal exists, but is not wrought, and some limeworks are in operation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3954. The mansion-house of Mountstuart, built by James, second earl of Bute, in 1718, is surrounded by beautiful and extensive plantations, and is particularly famed for its choice flower-garden. On the east coast stands Ascog House, with several ornamental villas recently erected. In the year 1703, the first earl of Bute obtained a charter from the crown for the erection of a burgh of regality, to be named Mountstuart, with the privilege of holding a weekly market, exercising handicraft trades, and having three annual fairs. The provisions of this charter, however, were never carried into effect, the thriving burgh of Rothesay, with which the parish chiefly communicates, superseding the necessity. The roads are in good order, and the bridges sufficient for general convenience. There is a wharf at Kilchattan-Bay, and another at Scoulag bay, adapted for small craft. The shipping belonging to the parish does not exceed fifty tons; but craft of considerable burthen from other parts frequent the ports for the purposes of importation and exportation. The fisheries are productive.
The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll; patron, the Marquess of Bute. The stipend is £197, with a good manse and offices, and a glebe of nearly eleven acres, worth about £12 per annum. The church was built in 1826, and contains 600 sittings, all of which are free. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and Greek, with the usual branches; the master has the legal accommodations, with the minimum salary, and £24 fees. The antiquities of the parish consist of two barrows or tumuli, a Druidical circle, the fort of Dunagoil, and the ruin of the church of St. Blane, who flourished about the close of the tenth century. The last stands on an artificial elevation, which is inclosed by a wall of massive stones piled one over another, 500 feet in circumference, the whole of the space having mason-work underneath at a distance of two feet from the surface. A considerable portion of the walls of the church still remains, and displays architecture of great antiquity. This parish confers the titles of Viscount Kingarth and Baron Mountstuart upon the Marquess of Bute.
KING-EDWARD, a parish, in the district of Turriff, county of Aberdeen, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Banff; containing, with the village of Newbyth, 2492 inhabitants. This place, originally Kin-Edart, of which the present name is an obvious corruption, is of some antiquity, and appears to have formed part of the possessions of the family of the Cumyns, earls of Buchan. There are still some remains of their baronial residence, now called King-Edward Castle, situated on a rocky eminence to the south-east of the church, and also of Eden Castle and others; but nothing which can throw any light upon the early history of these fortresses has been recorded. The parish, which is bounded on the west by the river Doveran, is about eleven miles in length, and varies from two to five miles in breadth, comprising 17,500 acres, of which nearly 9500 are arable, 1800 woodland and plantations, and the remainder pasture and meadow, with large portions of moss and waste. The surface is boldly undulated, rising in some parts into considerable elevation, and in others subsiding into low valleys; but there are no hills, properly so called, which attain any remarkable height. The principal river is the Doveran, which for some miles forms the boundary of the parish, and falls into the sea at Banff; it abounds with salmon of excellent quality, and the fisheries produce a good rental to their proprietor. A copious stream called King-Edward burn, of which the chief source is in the parish of Gamrie, intersects this parish from east to west, and flows into the Doveran about a mile to the west of the church.
The soil is very various. The higher grounds are in general mossy, resting on a bed of clay or gravel; in the low grounds, and especially along the banks of the Doveran, the soil is principally alluvial, and very fertile; in other parts is a black loam, resting on beds of rock or gravel. The chief crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses; very little wheat is raised. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved; and a due rotation of crops is observed, according to the nature of the soil. Trenchploughing and surface-draining have been for some years in practice, by which the lands have been rendered much more productive; the fields have been inclosed; and the fences, partly of stone and partly of thorn, are kept in good repair. The farm-buildings, also, have been made more comfortable and commodious; and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been generally adopted. The cattle are of the Aberdeenshire or Buchan breed, with a few of the Teeswater, and some of the short-horned breed from Yorkshire, recently introduced; the sheep are of the Highland and Leicestershire breeds, and great attention is paid to them. The plantations consist of Scotch fir, interspersed with spruce fir, larch, ash, beech, oak, plane, and chesnut; they are of considerable extent, and in a thriving state. The principal substrata are, red sandstone, greywacke, and clayslate; and iron-ore is supposed to exist. The greywacke and the red sandstone are both quarried; and the latter, which is found in the eastern parts, is in extensive operation. The rateable annual value of KingEdward is £6103. The mansions are, Montcoffer House, the property of the Earl of Fife, a handsome modern building, beautifully situated near his lordship's park of Duff, which is partly in this parish; Eden House and Byth House, also modern mansions, finely situated; and Craigston Castle, a venerable ancient structure, seated in grounds tastefully embellished. The village of Newbyth, which is separately described, is at the southeastern extremity of the parish. Facility of communication is maintained by excellent roads, of which the turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Banff intersects the western portion of the parish; and by bridges over the various streams, kept in good repair.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £204. 7. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, a plain structure built in 1621, contains 550 sittings. A chapel of ease in connexion with the Established Church has been erected in the village of Newbyth; it is a neat structure containing 400 sittings. There is a place of worship in the parish for Independents. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £10 per annum: he has also a portion of the Dick bequest. With the exception of the ruins of King-Edward Castle, there are no relies of antiquity of any historical importance. In a semicircular arch on the north wall of the church, is a monument inscribed to the memory of his mother by John Urquhart, tutor of Cromarty in 1599; and in the Craigston aisle of the church, are monuments to the same John Urquhart and others of the Urquhart family. The distinguished characters connected with KingEdward have been, Dr. William Guild, minister of the parish, and afterwards principal of King's College, Aberdeen, and the founder of an hospital in that city for the incorporated trades; Sir Thomas Urquhart, author of the Jewel, who, jointly with Dr. Guild, presented a service of communion plate to the church; and Sir Whitelaw Ainslie, author of Materia Indica.
KINGHORN, a royal burgh and a parish, in the district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; containing, with the village of West Bridge, and the island of Inch-Keith, 2935 inhabitants, of whom 1389 are in the burgh, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Kirkcaldy, and 9 (N.) from Edinburgh. This place, at a very early period, was one of the residences of the Scottish kings; and till within the last few years, there were to be traced the remains of an ancient castle, situated on rising ground near the town, and commanding a view of the whole of the Frith of Forth. This castle, of which the portion lately existing was called Glammis Tower, was probably selected as a temporary residence for the diversion of hunting in the extensive forest which lay immediately behind it; and the town is fancifully said to have derived its name from the frequent soundings of the horn during the royal sports of the chase; the true derivation being from the Gaelic terms Kean or Kin, a "chief or headland," and Gorn, "green." The date of the foundation of the town cannot be precisely ascertained, though, if not at an earlier period the abode of fishermen, whom its advantageous situation might have attracted to settle on the coast, it would naturally have arisen from the proximity of the castle. Whatever its origin, it appears to have attained such a degree of importance in the reign of David I. as induced that monarch to confer upon it the privileges of a royal burgh. This grant was confirmed by Alexander III., who, some time afterwards, returning to Kinghorn Castle from a hunting excursion late in the evening, by a road winding along some precipitous cliffs, was thrown, with his horse, about half a mile to the west of the town, and killed on the spot, on the 16th of March, 1285. A cross was erected at the place where the king fell, and remained till the reign of James II.; but no vestiges of it can now be traced. The castle of Glammis, with the lordship of Kinghorn, was granted by Robert II., as a marriage portion with his daughter, Janet, to Sir John Lyon, whose successors were invested by James VI. with the title of earls of Kinghorn, which in the reign of Charles II. was merged in that of the earls of Strathmore.
The town is situated on the shore of the Frith of Forth, directly opposite to the port of Leith, and on the great road from Edinburgh to Dundee; it is built on the slope of some gently rising ground which, towards the north-west, attains a considerable elevation. The principal street has lately been much improved, and many of the houses have been rebuilt in better style; but the inferior streets have a very indifferent appearance. There are two public libraries, supported by subscription; but the reading-rooms, supplied with the leading journals, have just been discontinued. The chief trade carried on here is the spinning of flax, for which there are three extensive mills; the machinery is partly impelled by steam, and partly by water-power, the latter derived from the loch of Kinghorn, about half a mile from the town. In these mills 470 persons are employed, of whom more than 300 are females. There is also a bleachfield, in which about seventy persons are generally engaged; and a considerable number of the inhabitants are occupied in hand-loom weaving. A harbour which, from its situation near the church, was called the Kirk harbour, is now in a ruinous condition; but it is in contemplation to restore it, for which an estimate of the expense has been made, amounting to from £20,000 to £30,000. At present, it gives accommodation only to a few fishing-boats; but a considerable traffic is maintained by another harbour, Pettycur, half a mile west of the town, and which is one of the principal ferries between Fife and Mid Lothian. The quay at Pettycur affords convenient opportunities of landing passengers, goods, and cattle, when the state of the tide will permit vessels to approach. The harbour and anchorage dues produce to the town a revenue of about £180 per annum.
The burgh was formerly governed by a provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and a council comprising thirteen merchants, sailors, and brewers, and the deacons of the five trades. The magistrates held their various courts, and exercised, both in civil and criminal cases, all the jurisdiction of a royal burgh. The incorporated trades consisted of the hammermen, weavers, shoemakers, tailors, and bakers, all possessing exclusive privileges. This state of things continued, with little alteration, till the year 1841, when, on the day fixed for the election of the corporation officers, a quorum of the council could not be mustered, and the burgh was consequently disfranchised. Application, under these circumstances, was made to the court of session; but nothing could be done beyond the appointment of three resident managers to preside over the affairs, without being invested with any judicial authority; and the peace of the town is now under the superintendence of the county police. The town-hall, to which a gaol is attached, is a handsome building in the Elizabethan style, standing in the centre of the town, and erected in 1826, at an expense of about £2400, under the direction of Mr. Hamilton, of Edinburgh, who designed the new High School, and other edifices in that city. The postoffice has a good delivery; and facility of communication with Edinburgh is maintained by the ferry, and with the neighbouring towns by roads, kept in excellent order. Four public coaches pass daily, as well as the mail, between Edinburgh and Dundee. The burgh is associated with those of Kirkcaldy, Dysart, and Burntisland, in returning a member to the imperial parliament.
The parish is about four miles in length and three and a half in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 5440 acres, of which 4800 are arable, 250 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is beautifully varied, rising in some places gradually, and in others more abruptly, from the frith; and is intersected with narrow straths, watered by small rivulets, and stretching from the shore to the hill of Glassmount, which has an elevation of 601 feet above the level of the sea. To the north-west of this hill, the surface undulates gently, and with occasional tracts of table-land. The coast is bold, and in some parts precipitous. Near Burntisland, to the west, is the projecting cliff memorable for the death of Alexander III., whence, towards the harbour of Pettycur, the shore is a level sand, terminating in a rock of columnar basalt, forming the headland of Kinghorn ness. From this the bay of Kinghorn curves towards the north, terminating in the Kirkcraig, a mass of rock near the church, projecting for a considerable way into the sea, and constituting a natural breakwater to the Kirk harbour. The low lands are watered by numerous copious springs, issuing from the declivities of the higher grounds, and to the west is the loch of Kinghorn, covering about twenty acres, and affording an abundant supply of water for the town, to which it is conveyed by pipes.
The soil along the shore, for a considerable distance, is a deep black loam of great fertility; towards the hills, of lighter quality; and still further in the direction of the north-west, more variable, and inclining to clay. The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, turnips, and potatoes. The system of agriculture is in an advanced state; the lands have been well drained and inclosed; the farm-buildings are generally substantial and well arranged, and the various recent improvements in agricultural implements have been adopted. The cattle, of which few are reared in the parish, are of the Fifeshire and short-horned breeds; great numbers are annually bought, and fattened for the markets, in which they sell at from £20 to £30 per head. A considerable number of sheep are also pastured, chiefly of the half Cheviot breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7410.
The whole parish lies within the coal basin of the Forth; but the coalfields are so disturbed by the trap rocks bursting through them, and overlaying them, that, with the exception of a few acres on which the town stands, and about a hundred acres near Auchtertool village, the substratum appears to be formed of trap. Indeed, the soil, which is remarkable for fertility, seems as if entirely composed of the decayed portions of this species of rock. The bearing of the stratified rocks, where they are least disarranged, is northward; and the coal-bed is the lowermost one of the coalfield which stretches from this parish eastward to Largo. Carboniferous or mountain limestone is obtained at Invertiel; it lies immediately under the coal strata, and has been extensively quarried for many years, both for building and agricultural porposes. Coal was formerly wrought; but the works have been discontinued. There are two annual fairs, and a weekly market is held on Thursdays, under a charter; the former are for cattle, horses, &c., and the latter for butter, cheese, and other country produce; but both are very ill attended, and for the last thirty years have been falling into disuse. Abden, the property of R. Stocks, Esq., is an ancient mansion originally belonging to the Bishops of St. Andrew's; and in the charters granting the lands to the predecessors of the present proprietor, is a distinct reservation that the king, in crossing the ferry to Kinghorn, should have lodging and hospitality in the house of Abden. The building is a plain structure on the north of the town, commanding a fine view over the Frith. Balmuto, the seat of John Boswell, Esq., in whose family it has been for more than four centuries, is an ancient mansion consisting of a square tower to which repeated modern additions have been made; it is finely situated in a demesne richly planted, and the gardens and pleasure-grounds are laid out with exquisite taste. Grangehill is also one of the chief mansions in the parish.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £245. 19. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £19 per annum; patron, the Earl of Strathmore. The parish church, which is near the old harbour, was rebuilt in 1774; it is a very plain structure, and contains 700 sittings. A church has recently been built on the eastern boundary of the parish, bordering upon Abbotshall, to which a quoad sacra district was until lately annexed, including portions of each of the two parishes. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and the United Secession. Until 1830 there was no parochial school. In that year, Mr. Barclay, the town-clerk, applied to the burgh and the heritors to found a school; and he built premises for it, on an acre of waste ground, at his own risk. They have since repaid him, by subscriptions and donations, above £500 of his expenditure, £800; and they give the minimum salary to the master, who also receives £50 a year from the fund of the late Mr. Philp, for teaching fifty children, and £10 annually for teaching a Sunday school. A wide range of instruction is provided, in the usual branches, together with French, Latin, and Greek; and an infant school and a drawing school are maintained, by subscription, within the building. There is also an apartment appropriated to an extensive geological collection, and a small collection of other objects in natural history, and to a library consisting of about 800 volumes on historical and scientific subjects. In the grounds around the school-house is a shrubbery, where are arranged in regular order more than 250 plants; and the portion allotted to play-ground contains gymnastic apparatus. In the village of Invertiel is a good school, where the elementary branches are taught, and of which the master has a house, and the fees. The late Robert Philp, Esq., of Edenshead, left his property for the endowment of schools. One-eighth of the fund it produces is apportioned for the instruction and clothing of fifty children, now educated at the parochial school; and the residue is given to the children, on leaving school, in such portions as the managers of the fund deem proper. The Rev. Henry James, late minister of the parish, left £300 to aid in supporting a scholar for four years in his philosophical studies at the united college of St. Salvador and St. Leonard, in the university of St. Andrew's; it yields £15 per annum, and the appointment is vested in the Kirk Session of Kinghorn, the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and the town-council of the burgh. An old chapel called St. Leonard's, of exquisite Saxon architecture, in which the courts were once held, having been struck by lightning, and being likely to fall, was removed by order of the Supreme Court, to make way for the present town-hall. William Kirkaldy, of Grange, who flourished in the reign of Mary; and Patie Birnie, a famous comic character, musician, and song-writer, immortalized by Allan Ramsay in his poems, were natives of this place.
KINGLASSIE, a parish, in the district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; containing 1155 inhabitants, of whom 421 are in the village of Kinglassie, 7 miles (N. W.) from Kirkcaldy. The name of this place is supposed to have been derived from a Gaelic term signifying marshy or grey land, from the ancient appearance of the surface; and near the village there is still some portion of land which retains that character. The parish is about five miles in length, and varies from one to three miles and a half in breadth, comprising a very irregular area of 7260 acres, of which 6250 are arable and in good cultivation, 450 woodland and plantations, and 300 pasture and waste. The surface is uneven, rising into several steep ridges, and in some places forming gentle acclivities interspersed with hills. The river Leven, which issues from the loch of that name, washes the northern part of the parish; and the river Lochty flows through the village, and receives the streamlet called the Sauchie in its immediate vicinity. The Orr, which rises in the parish of Ballingry, intersects the southern portion of this parish, and, together with the Lochty, falls into the Leven at a short distance from its eastern extremity. The soil is various, consisting of loam, clay, and gravel, which in parts are found in combination; the greater portion is a stiff clay, and in some places are tracts of moss and sand. The principal crops are, oats, barley, and wheat, with potatoes, turnips, and the usual green crops: flax, the cultivation of which was for some years discontinued, is also raised in considerable quantities. The system of husbandry is very much advanced; iron ploughs are in general use, and the most recent improvements in agricultural implements have been adopted. Draining has been extensively practised; and much waste land has been reclaimed, and brought into cultivation, under the auspices of an agricultural association consisting of practical farmers and the principal landed proprietors, who hold an annual meeting in the village in August. Attached to most of the farms are threshing-mills; three are put in motion by water, and one by a steam-engine of seven-horse power. Great attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, which are of the pure Fifeshire breed; the number of calves annually reared is about 300. The plantations consist chiefly of larch, ash, spruce, and Scotch fir; and in one, are some fine specimens of oak and beech: they are generally well managed. The substratum is mostly whinstone; and limestone, coal, and ironstone are found in several places. Coal was formerly wrought, but for some years the working of it has been discontinued; limestone has also been worked, and some quarries of freestone have been opened, and are at present in operation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7457. Inchdairnie is an ancient mansion to which a handsome addition has been made within the last thirty years.
The village is inhabited chiefly by weavers, and persons employed in the different trades requisite for the supply of the parish; the number of looms is twentyfour. There is a public ale and porter brewery, which is carried on extensively; and fairs, chiefly for cattle, horses, and shoes, are held on the third Wednesday in May, O. S., and the Thursday before Michaelmas-day, O. S. Facility of communication with Kirkcaldy and the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads, of which one, from Kirkcaldy to Cupar, traverses the eastern portion of the parish, giving also means of intercourse between Edinburgh and Dundee. The parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, and patronage of Lord Rothes; the minister's stipend is £223. 4. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum. The church, an ancient edifice, was, with the exception of the eastern gable and part of the side walls, rebuilt in 1773, and within the last twenty years has been repaired, and adapted for a congregation of 346 persons. The parochial school affords education to about 100 pupils: the master has a salary of £34, with £30 fees, and a good house and garden; also six bolls of oats annually, the gift of an old proprietor. There is in the village a female school, in which knitting and sewing are taught on very moderate terms; and on the southern boundary of the parish is a school erected by Mr. Ferguson, of Raith, who gives the master a salary, with a house and garden rent-free. A Sabbath school is maintained in the village; and a parochial subscription library has been established. The poor possess land situated in the parish of Abernethy, in the county of Perth, and producing a rental of £100 per annum, but subject to a considerable drawback for the payment of improvements previously made on the estate. On the farm of Dogtown is a pillar of hewn stone, sculptured with some allegorical devices, which are much mutilated. It is by some supposed to have been erected by the Danes, to commemorate the fall of some of their chieftains in their hostile irruption into the county in the reign of Constantine II., and by others to have been raised by the Scots as a memorial of their having defeated and repulsed the Danes, who had encamped on the shores of the river Leven. The height in this parish called Goats Milk Hill is thought to have been one of the chain of Danish forts which were thrown up between Fifeness and Stirling, and during the occupation of which, a mill was built on the bank of the river Leven, which is still called Mill-Danes. Some workmen recently employed in deepening the bed of that river discovered a Roman sword and battle-axe, and several heads of iron spears; and on reopening a well on a farm in the parish, which had been closed for several centuries, an antique dagger, with a handle of wood inlaid with brass, was found.
KINGOLDRUM, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Kirriemuir; containing 440 inhabitants. The name of this place is compounded of three Gaelic words signifying "the head of the burn of the drums, or low hills." The lands were bestowed upon the abbey of Aberbrothock by a charter of William the Lion, which grant was confirmed by Alexander III., and afterwards by Robert Bruce; and Alexander also issued a proclamation prohibiting every one from cutting wood, destroying game, or hunting, without consent of the abbots, in the forest of Kingoldrum. Of this description of land, however, no traces now remain. The parish, which is of very irregular figure, stretches along the base of the Grampian mountains, and is situated in the district called the Braes of Angus. It is about seven miles in length, and between two and three in breadth, comprising 12,800 acres, of which nearly 4000 are under tillage, 1500 in natural wood and in plantations, and the remainder waste, consisting of moor, moss, bog, and pasture. The surface is everywhere undulated, and marked principally by three ranges of low hills, the intervening spaces being occupied by considerable tracts of level ground. Much of the scenery is interesting; and from the summit of Catlaw, the highest hill, elevated 2264 feet above the level of the sea, extensive and beautiful prospects may be obtained. These embrace the German Ocean from Montrose round to the Frith of Forth, part of the coast of Fife, the Bell-rock lighthouse, Berwick law, some of the highest mountains in the Western Highlands, and, on the north, the loftiest eminences of the Grampians. The streams of Prosen, Carrity, and Melgum, all abounding in trout, enliven the lands in different directions; and the last, in its course through a deep, narrow, and winding channel, forms a series of beautiful waterfalls, called the Loups of Kenny. The burn of Crombie, after passing the village, falls into the Melgum; and in several places are copious springs, some of them supplying abundance of excellent water.
The soil is, to a great extent, alluvial and deep, but in some parts very thin. It rests frequently on a subsoil intermixed with the debris of the red sandstone rocks; in some places it is sandy, and in others moorish, loamy, or clayey. Husbandry has much improved within these few years; the farms are generally cultivated under the six-shift course; considerable portions of waste land have been reclaimed, and furrow-draining has been practised with great advantage. From 1200 to 1500 sheep are kept, chiefly the black-faced; and the cattle, which are the black Angus, are excellent. The geological features of the parish are highly interesting, and afford a large field of observation to the scientific enquirer. The rocks lie chiefly in parallel ridges, each containing a distinct formation, and comprise conglomerate, sandstone, trap, and a dyke of serpentine. A great variety of other beds, and boulders of rocks, are to be met with, embracing almost every species; and quarries of sandstone are in operation. Peat-mosses are common; and marl, procured from the loch of Kinnordy, partly in this parish, has been used by the farmers with great benefit. The plantations are principally larch and Scotch fir, all in a thriving condition, with the exception of some of the larches, which, after a growth of twenty or thirty years, rapidly decay. The mansion-house of Baldovie, pleasantly situated in the midst of fertile lands, derives considerable interest from its ornamental wood. That of Pearsie, also, from some points breaking suddenly on the view, has around it fine clusters of natural birch, oak, and alder. The rateable annual value of Kingoldrum is £3695.
The population of the parish, which is almost entirely agricultural, has been gradually diminishing during the present century, mainly through the abolition of small farms and of the croft system. Indeed, about fifty cottages, besides several small hamlets, have wholly disappeared, the only collection of houses now entitled to the appellation of village being in the neighbourhood of the church. Peat and wood at present constitute the chief fuel; but Scotch and English coal, obtained from the Newtyle, Glammis, and Forfar railway depôts, about six miles distant, is coming much into use. The public road from Kirriemuir to Glenisla and Glenshee passes through the parish. The inhabitants dispose of their produce partly at Kirriemuir, the nearest market-town, and partly at Forfar, Dundee, and some of the places in the vicinity: many cattle fattened here are sent to London, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. The parish is in the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown. The minister's stipend is £159, with a manse, and a glebe of four acres of excellent land, and twelve of grass land. The church is a small neat edifice, erected in 1840, and accommodating 240 persons with sittings. The living was originally a parsonage belonging to the abbey of Arbroath; but, after the erection of that abbacy into a temporal lordship, the payment of the minister devolved on the titular of the tithes; and by the "decreet of provisions" dated in the year 1635, a considerable part of the stipend was charged upon abbey lands in the neighbourhood of Arbroath, from which it continues to be payable. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £28, including the value of six and a half bolls of oats, and receives £16 fees. There is a circulating library of religious books. Upon the top of the Catlaw hill is a large cairn of stones; but the chief relic of antiquity in the parish is the ruin of the castle of Balfour, built by Cardinal Beaton, and which has long been dismantled. On taking down the old church, among numerous stones with curious devices, two were found wrought into the building, marked with finely-carved crosses and hieroglyphics.
KINGOODIE, a village, in the parish of Longforgan, county of Perth, 1½ mile (E. by S.) from Longforgan; containing 263 inhabitants. This village, which is on the banks of the river Tay, is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the extensive quarries of freestone situated here, and which have been in operation for five or six centuries. The stone of these quarries is of a blueish colour, and exceedingly compact and durable, though consequently difficult to work; it is susceptible of a very high polish. The tower of Dundee, which was built towards the close of the twelfth century, and at present exhibits no symptoms of decay, and Castle-Huntly, built in the fifteenth century, were both erected with stone from these quarries. Considerable quantities of it are raised for various buildings in the vicinity, and for exportation to Aberdeen, Perth, and Dundee, where it has been used in the construction of docks, piers, and other works. The rock in some parts is more than seventy feet in depth; and immensely large blocks are obtained entire, some of which are more than ten tons in weight. The lessees of the quarries have constructed a small harbour here for the boats employed, of which there are two of thirty and one of fifty tons' burthen, the former confined chiefly to the navigation of the river, and the latter occupied in the conveyance of the stone to more distant ports. At this small port, lime and coal are landed from Sunderland, for the supply of the neighbourhood; and grain and potatoes are shipped for the London market. Facility of intercourse is maintained with the other parts of the parish by good roads, kept in repair by statute labour; and from the high road by the coast to Aberdeen, a line branches off at Longforgan to the quarries of this place.
KINGSBARNS, a parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife; containing 968 inhabitants, of whom 529 are in the village, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Crail, and 6 (S. E. by E.) from St. Andrew's. This place derived its name from its having been appropriated as a granary by the kings of Scotland, to whom it belonged, as part of their private estate, during their residence at Falkland; and near the village are vestiges of an ancient building, said to have been, a castle, though in all probability its strength and fortifications were intended only for the protection and security of the grain deposited there for the use of the royal household. The remains of this building, situated on the beach, and consisting only of the foundations, were removed by the tenant a few years since, and from their small extent, showed no indications of the edifice having ever been occupied either as a royal or baronial residence. The parish is situated on the coast, between the friths of Forth and Tay, and is bounded on the east by the German Ocean; it is nearly equal in length and breadth, and comprises about 3860 acres, of which 3650 are arable, 199 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rocky land along the shore. The surface, though sloping gradually from the sea, is tolerably even, attaining no considerable degree of elevation; the shore is low, and interspersed with rocks, which form somewhat of a barrier against the encroachment of the waves, which make considerable inroads. The soil in the lower portion of the parish, towards the sea, is rather light and sandy, and farther inland a deep black loam, in some parts inclining to clay; both, under proper management, are rendered fertile and productive. The rotation system of husbandry is prevalent; the crops are, barley, oats, wheat, and potatoes, with beans and the usual green crops. The prevailing breed of cattle is the Fifeshire; the Teeswater breed was introduced by the late Earl of Kellie, but it has not been found so well adapted to the land, or so profitable to the farmer. About 150 head of cattle are on the average annually fattened for the market; sheep are kept only for home use. The woods are chiefly forest trees; but the plantations, mostly around the houses of the resident gentry, consist only of shrubberies and evergreens. The farm houses and offices are substantially built, and conveniently arranged; and considerable improvements have been made in draining and fencing the lands. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7849.
The substratum is generally limestone and freestone, interspersed in parts with boulders of granite. Coal appears to have been worked formerly in some places; and at present, where it occasionally crops up, it is quarried by some of the poor; but from the quantity of water to be drained off, it would require a considerable effort and an extensive capital to render the coal-beds available to the supply of the parish. Lime is burnt on the lands of Cambo, for the use of the tenants; but no regular quarries have been opened, though both the quantity and quality of the limestone would amply remunerate the expense of working it on a more extensive scale. Ironstone is found near the shore, and a few persons are employed in procuring it by digging; what is thus obtained is usually shipped to Newcastle, and exchanged for coal. The gentlemen's seats are Cambo and Pitmilly, both ancient mansions of handsome appearance. The village has been greatly improved within the last few years; the streets have been levelled, and many of the old houses have been taken down, and replaced by others of larger dimensions, with neat flower-gardens in the front. The appearance is lively and cheerful; and the village has become a pleasant place of residence. Many of the inhabitants are engaged in weaving with hand-looms at their own dwellings; the general articles manufactured are, linens for domestic use, dowlas, and Osnaburgs. About twenty looms are constantly employed, and on an average 50,000 yards of these fabrics are produced annually. A subscription library has been for some time established in the village; a savings' bank has also been opened. There are fairs in July and October, but little business is transacted except the sale of pedlery. The parish is in the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife, and patronage of the Earl of Glasgow; the minister's stipend is £251. 18., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church is a neat structure in the later English style, thoroughly repaired in 1811. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with £30 fees, and a dwelling-house and garden. There is also a Sabbath evening school. In levelling the coast, several stone coffins containing human bones were found; and in one instance, some of the bones had the appearance of having been burnt.
KINGSTON, lately a quoad sacra parish, consisting of part of the parish of Govan, in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, but chiefly of part of the parish of Gorbals, in the suburbs of the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark; the whole containing 2882 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the south bank of the river Clyde, and to the west of Tradeston, to which it forms an appendage, consists of several well-formed streets; the houses are handsomely built, generally three or four stories in height, and attached to them are spacious courts and garden-grounds. The town is pleasantly situated, commanding a fine view of the Clyde, and of the port of Broomielaw, on the opposite bank of the river. The population are chiefly employed in the various manufactures connected with the city of Glasgow and vicinity; and there are several shops for the supply of the inhabitants with various articles of merchandise. The Glasgow and Paisley canal, and the Glasgow, Greenock, and Ayr railway skirt the parish on the north for nearly a mile. The late quoad sacra parish was separated in 1839, by act of the General Assembly. The church was erected at an expense of £3000, raised by subscription, chiefly by the friends of the Rev. James Gibson, the minister, as a public testimony of their esteem; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a light and well-proportioned spire 120 feet in height, and contains more than 1000 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship.
KINGSTON-PORT, a village, in the parish of Speymouth, county of Elgin, 4½ miles (N. by W.) from Fochabers; containing 396 inhabitants. This village is seated at the mouth of the Spey, and, with the exception of a few houses, has been built within the last forty years. The original dwellings were mostly of wood, and were erected for the accommodation of the workmen of Messrs. Dodsworth and Osbourne, timbermerchants and ship-builders, by whom the place was named Kingston-Port, after Kingston-upon-Hull, in the county of York. These gentlemen, having purchased the forest of Glenmore from the Duke of Gordon, about the year 1784, commenced building numerous vessels here, several of them of the burthen of 500, 600, and 700 tons; and various other builders, following their example, have since launched as many as 150 vessels at this place, of from thirty to 200 tons each. The trade in timber has latterly very much declined, the forest having been exhausted about thirty years ago; but the commerce of the port is still considerable. In a recent year 200 vessels sailed hence, of which onefourth were loaded with grain, chiefly wheat and oats, for the southern parts of Scotland and for England; and in the same year were imported forty cargoes of Scotch coal, and twenty of English coal from Sunderland. The harbour suffered very severely from the memorable flood on the 4th of August, 1829; and as the channel is shifted by the occasional heavy action of the sea, and the gravelly nature of the soil renders it impracticable to obtain a secure foundation for a pier, the improvement of the port is difficult. The village of Garmouth closely adjoins Kingston.
KINGUSSIE, a parish, in the Mainland district of the county of Inverness, ½ a mile (E. by N.) from Pitmain; containing, with part of the late quoad sacra parish of Insh, the villages of Kingussie and Newtonmore, and the hamlet of Ralia, 2047 inhabitants, of whom 460 are in the village of Kingussie. This place, which is of remote antiquity, derives its name, in the Celtic language Ceannghiubhsaiche, from the situation of its ancient church at the head of a wood of firs, of which that term is significant. The whole of the lordship of Badenoch, in the centre of which this parish lies, originally belonged to the Cumyns, earls of Badenoch and Buchan, of whom John, the first lord of Badenoch, laid claim to the throne of Scotland on the death of Alexander III. in 1285. As superior baron of the kingdom, he was summoned by Edward I. of England to attend him in his wars in Gascony. Upon his death, he was succeeded by his son, John, who, after a continued struggle to maintain the independence of his country, in which he obtained a victory over the English at Roslin, was compelled, subsequently to the battle of Stirling, to yield to the superior power of Edward. At the succession of Bruce to the crown of Scotland in 1306, the lord of Badenoch became a victim to the resentment of that king; and the lordship was included among the lands which Bruce erected into the earldom of Moray in 1314, and bestowed upon his nephew, Randolph. The earldom continued in the possession of that family till the year 1371, about which time it became the property of the Stuarts, of whom Robert, the first Stuart who ascended the throne of Scotland, conferred it on his son, Alexander, in whose favour he revived the title of lord of Badenoch. Alexander, who, from the ferocity of his character, was styled the Wolf of Badenoch, resided chiefly in the castle of Ruthven, in this parish, the ancient seat of the Cumyns, a strong fortress situated on the banks of the river Spey. Here, in perfect security, and presuming upon his connexion with the crown, he exercised despotic tyranny over his vassals, and spread terror and dismay throughout the adjacent districts. Upon his death, about the year 1394, the lordship descended to his son, who was the last of the family of the Stuarts connected with the earldom of Moray, which subsequently passed to the first earl of Huntly, upon whom the lordship of Badenoch was conferred by James II., in reward of his services at the battle of Brechin in 1452. The site of the castle of Ruthven, the seat of the lords of Badenoch, was occupied by barracks erected soon after the rebellion in 1715, to keep the inhabitants in check; and in 1745, the garrison stationed here, with the exception of a serjeant and twelve privates who were left for the protection of the buildings, accompanied Sir John Cope on his march to the battle of Prestonpans. During their absence the barracks were defended by this small party against a body of 200 insurgents; and in the following year, they sustained a violent assault for three days from 300 of the rebels, under Gordon, of Glenbucket, to whom the force surrendered on terms of honourable capitulation. The barracks were soon afterwards burnt by the insurgents, and are now a heap of ruins.
The parish, which is bounded on the south by the Grampian hills, is about twenty-one miles in length, from east to west, and nearly eighteen miles in breadth; but, from the extreme irregularity of its form, and the great inequality of the surface, it has been found impossible to ascertain its superficial extent with any degree of accuracy. The surface is strikingly varied, and even the lowest grounds have an elevation of 850 feet above the level of the sea. In the northern portion, the mountains of Monadhliadh stretch for a considerable distance along the boundary; and from their base the lands gradually subside into an extensive vale, beyond which they as gradually ascend towards the Grampians on the south. The principal river is the Spey, which has its source in a small lake of that name in the parish of Laggan, and, winding in an easterly course through the open and fertile valley previously noticed, for more than seven miles, flows into Loch Insh at the eastern extremity of the parish, whence, taking a more northerly direction, it falls into the Moray Frith at Garmouth. The river Truim, which forms part of the western boundary of the parish, has its source in the forest of Drumuachter, near the Grampians, and, flowing northward through the parish, joins the Spey not far from Laggan. The Tromie, which separates this parish from that of Insh, on the east, rises to the south of the parish, and, running northward through the glen to which it gives name, falls into the Spey near Old Milton. The Calder, which has its source in the mountains to the north, and the Gynag, which issues from a small lake of that name, both take a southern course, and flow into the Spey. There are also numerous lakes; but few exceed a mile and a half in length and three-quarters of a mile in width. In Loch Gynag is a small island, on which may still be traced the vestiges of what is supposed to have been a castle: nothing, however, of its history is recorded. About six miles of Loch Ericht are likewise within the boundaries of the parish; but the shores are altogether destitute of beauty or variety, with the exception of a small portion near the southern extremity of the parish, where the banks are rather steep, and in some parts fringed with trees. Salmon, and char for some weeks in October, are found in the Spey; and trout and pike in the smaller rivers and lakes. The forest of Gaick, though almost destitute of wood, abounds with numerous herds of deer, and is much frequented by sportsmen.
The soil in the meadows, and along the banks of the Spey and its tributaries, is deep and fertile. The valley through which the Spey flows is especially rich, and in good cultivation, constituting almost the only arable land in the parish, the hills and uplands being generally heathy, adapted only for pasture, and portioned out in sheep-walks. The chief crops are oats and barley, with other kinds of grain; but not more grain is raised than is sufficient for the supply of the parish. The system of husbandry is improved, and a due rotation of crops is regularly observed; considerable portions of waste land have been reclaimed by draining and embanking, and the farm-buildings of the larger holders are substantial and commodious. The sheep reared are of the black-faced breed, with a few of the Cheviot on the lower lands; the cattle, with the exception of some of the Ayrshire on the dairy-farms, are all of the common Highland breed, to the improvement of which the greatest attention is paid. Though formerly the face of the country was covered with wood, and a very extensive forest of fir reached almost to the village, there are but small remains of ancient timber. The plantations, which are chiefly of recent growth, consist of fir and larch, interspersed with mountain-ash and oak, for which the soil is well adapted; and alder, hazel, and birch appear to be indigenous, especially the last, with which the rising grounds on the south bank of the Spey are extensively covered. The prevailing rocks throughout the parish are, quartz, felspar, and micaslate: there are neither mines nor quarries in operation. Specimens of silver and lead ore have been found in the river Gynag, but in very small quantity; and some years since, silver-ore was discovered at no great distance from the village, the working of which has, however, long been discontinued. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4626. Belleville House, pleasantly situated to the east of the village, near Loch Insh, and formerly the residence of Macpherson, translator of the poems of Ossian, is in the parish of Alvie.
The village of Kingussie is on the north bank of the river Spey; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood, and there are several shops amply stored with various kinds of merchandise. A public library is supported by subscription, and has a collection of about 300 volumes on history and general literature. The post-office has a delivery each day in the week, both from the north and south parts of the kingdom; and facility of communication is maintained by good roads, of which the great Highland road from Perth to Inverness passes for sixteen miles through the parish; and by bridges over the various rivers, kept in excellent repair. Fairs, chiefly for cattle and for hiring servants, are held in the village, on the last Tuesday in May, the Friday in the week after the Falkirk tryst in September, and the Friday before the Falkirk tryst in October; and markets for cattle and for general business are held monthly, on Tuesday, from April to November. A building was erected in the village in 1806, which contains a neat court-room for the meetings of the magistrates for the district, and a small prison for the temporary confinement of offenders till their commitment to the county gaol. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £269. 18., with an allowance of £50 in lieu of a manse; and the glebe, which has been greatly improved by the present incumbent, is valued at £50 per annum: patron, the Duke of Richmond. The church, which is situated on a wooded eminence in the village, was built in 1792, and contains 900 sittings: being in a state of dilapidation, it was very fully repaired a few years ago. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a good house, and an allowance in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £20. There are some slight remains of Druidical circles, and vestiges of a Roman camp: in clearing the ground near the latter, a Roman urn containing burnt ashes, and a tripod, were found a few years since, and both are carefully preserved. There are also vestiges of an ancient building said to have been a priory, and a monastery once existed in the parish; but little of the history of either is known.