Llanvlewin - Llanwnda

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.

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Samuel Lewis, 'Llanvlewin - Llanwnda', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, (London, 1849) pp. 147-157. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp147-157 [accessed 18 May 2024].

Samuel Lewis. "Llanvlewin - Llanwnda", in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, (London, 1849) 147-157. British History Online, accessed May 18, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp147-157.

Lewis, Samuel. "Llanvlewin - Llanwnda", A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, (London, 1849). 147-157. British History Online. Web. 18 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp147-157.

In this section

Llanvlewin (Llan-Flewyn)

LLANVLEWIN (LLAN-FLEWYN), a parish, in the hundred of Tàlybolion, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 6 miles (N. W.) from Llanerchymedd; containing 136 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Flewyn, by whom the building was originally founded, in the early part of the seventh century, is situated in the north-western part of the island, and finely sheltered on the north by a chain of hills, by which it is separated from the parish of Llanvechell. It appears to have been visited, if not permanently inhabited, by the Romans, on their conquest of Anglesey; three golden bracelets, of which two were purchased by Mr. Pennant, and a bulla of the same metal, having been found on a farm within its limits, called Ynys Gwyddel, a few years prior to Mr. Pennant's visiting this part of the principality. In this, and also in the adjoining parish, are numerous vestiges of Saxon and Danish occupation. The surface is boldly undulated, and the soil consequently various; the lands are for the greater part inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation; the scenery is diversified, and from the higher grounds are obtained some interesting views. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llanrhyddlad; the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £136. The church, a plain edifice, is beautifully situated near a small lake, and surrounded with pleasing scenery. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A trifling benefaction was given by William David, at a period unknown, for the use of the poor, who also receive a portion of a small rent-charge from Richard David's charity, in the parish of Llantrisaint.

Llanvrothen (Llan-Frothen)

LLANVROTHEN (LLAN-FROTHEN), a parish, in the union of Festiniog, hundred of Ardudwy, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Tan-y-Bwlch; containing 853 inhabitants. The parish derives its name from the dedication of its church to Brothen, an eminent British saint, who flourished about the end of the sixth century. It is situated between the two estuaries of the Traeth Mawr and Traeth Bâch, and on the high road between Bethgelart and Tan-y-Bwlch; and comprises a tract of about 6000 acres, whereof 200 are arable, 4477 pasture, 1106 mountainous land, and 134 wood, comprehending oak, ash, elm, birch, and beech, but consisting chiefly of oak, which is here, and in most parts of the county, the prevailing timber. The surface is boldly undulated, rising in some parts into mountainous elevations, and the surrounding scenery is strikingly diversified, combining features of romantic aspect and picturesque beauty. In the parish is a romantic valley, situated in the heart of the mountains, and designated Croesawr, a name said to have originated in an exclamation of grief uttered by Helen, the queen of Constantine, whose only son falling into her arms after he had been shot by a poisoned arrow, she cried out, "Oh! croesawr, croesawr i mi," signifying, "alas! to me, ill-fated hour." Various small streams here join the Glâslyn, or, as it is commonly termed, the Traeth Mawr river; and there is a small lake called Cwmvoel.

The soil exhibits several varieties, and comprises argillaceous, calcareous, and siliceous marls, producing chiefly oats, barley, and potatoes, with a small quantity of wheat. Some of the best land is that secured from the sea by an embankment formed at the mouth of the Traeth Mawr, about forty years since; the soil in this part is a rich and fertile clay, and the crops are particularly fine. Large flocks of sheep are pastured on the mountains in the summer, and retire in the winter to the lowlands, supplying a large quantity of wool, which makes a principal part of the disposable stock of the parish. Peat, which constitutes the chief fuel of the inhabitants, is found in abundance in various places. At Bwlch Plwm is a lead-mine, occupying from twelve to twenty hands; and at Pantywrach is a copper-mine, employing from twenty to twenty-five: slate is also known to exist in the parish, and gold is supposed to have been anciently procured. The gentlemen's seats are, Brondanw, Park, and Plâsnewydd: they are very ancient mansions, and the two latter formerly belonged to the Wynne family. The village of Llanvrothen stands about a quarter of a mile from the high road, and there is a hamlet called Carregpenargyfin in the parish.

The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6. 15., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; present gross income, £106. 10.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £99. 10.; and there is a glebe of seven acres, with a house, valued together at £20 per annum. The church is an ancient, commodious, and well-built edifice, measuring sixtysix feet in length and twenty in breadth, and containing 195 sittings, of which 52 are free. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists, the latter of whom support a Sunday school. Evan Thomas, in 1732, bequeathed £20; William Lewis Anwyl left £10; and John Carreg, £20: of these sums £30 were lost, having been lent to a farmer who became insolvent; but the interest of the residue, together with two rent-charges of 5s. and 10s., by Gwen Prichard in 1715, and Mrs. Lloyd in 1784, is distributed among the poor at Christmas. There is also a bequest of £1. 15. per annum, by an unknown benefactor, to be appropriated to the instruction of children.

Llanvrynach (Llan-Frynach)

LLANVRYNACH (LLAN-FRYNACH), a parish, in the hundred of Pencelly, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 3 miles (S. E.) from Brecknock; containing 350 inhabitants, of whom 239 are in the Upper division, and 111 in the Lower division. This parish derives its name from the dedication of its church to Brynach, a celebrated Irish saint, who accompanied Brychan Brycheiniog into Britain, in the fifth century, and presided over some of the monastic institutions founded by that prince. It is a place of great antiquity, and appears to have been occupied at an early period by the Romans, in connexion with their works in the mineral districts of Bryn Oer, through which the course of a Roman vicinal way from Cardiff, or from Caerphilly, has been satisfactorily traced, leading directly to this place. That the district was worked in some remote age is evident from the scoria of ancient smelting-works, especially on a field called Clos y Geveilon, or "the field of the forge;" but that the works belonged to the Romans was not satisfactorily ascertained till the year 1775, when the remains of a Roman bath were discovered, in which a piece of malleable iron was found, four feet long and six inches wide.

The parish comprises 7127 acres, of which 3500 acres are common or waste land. It is bounded on the south-east by the stream Mehascin, and on the west by the Cynrig; these rivers are crossed by bridges kept in repair by the hundred, and both fall into the Usk, by which the parish is skirted for nearly two miles on the north-east, and over which is a good stone bridge, built in 1773, and kept in repair at the expense of the county. The Brecknock and Abergavenny canal passes through the parish, and is carried over the Usk, near the bridge, by a handsome stone aqueduct of four arches. The village stands near the turnpike-road that proceeds along the left bank of the Usk from Brecon to Abergavenny; and the neighbourhood abounds with finely varied scenery, in which the rivers that flow by the parish, with their bridges, and the distant woods and plantations, form pleasing features. The views from the higher grounds are interesting and extensive, embracing the magnificent range of mountains called the Brecknockshire Beacons, the lowest of which borders on the parish, and the small wood on the estate of Dinas, which has a very beautiful appearance.

The seat Tŷ Mawr is supposed to have been originally built in the reign of Edward II. by Howel Gam, eldest son of Grufydd ab Meredydd, who was lineally descended from Brychan, Prince of Brycheiniog, now Brecknock. It had fallen into neglect, and was for many years in the occupation of a farmer, but has been restored and embellished, in the later style of English architecture; the grounds, though flat, are tastefully disposed, and are enriched with numerous flourishing plantations. Maes-Derwen is a neat modern edifice, situated on a gentle eminence under the majestic chain of the Brecknockshire mountains; it forms a conspicuous object from several parts of the surrounding country, and commands a fine view of a portion of the Vale of Usk, and of the neighbouring heights by which it is inclosed. Tregaer, formerly the seat of the Vaughan family, has been converted into a farmhouse.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £4. 10. 7½.; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £300, and there is a neat glebe-house, with a glebe of three acres. The advowson anciently belonged to the lords of Brecknock, and upon the attainder of Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, became vested in the crown. It was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Dr. William Aubrey, by whose descendant, Sir William Aubrey, it was sold; and from the purchaser it descended to John Waters, Esq., whose only daughter conveyed it by marriage to the family of Tynte: the trustees of the late Rev. C. Clifton are the present patrons. The church, dedicated to St. Brynach, and now in a dilapidated condition, is a very ancient structure, with a massive square tower at the west end; the body consists of a nave and chancel, which are separated by a small gallery, probably the remains of the old rood-loft. The churchyard is one of the largest in the county, but contains only a small number of tombs, of which none are remarkable. A Church school is chiefly supported by the family residing at Maes-Derwen; and there are two Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other held by the Baptists in their place of worship here. Herbert Aubrey, of Clehonger, Esq., by deed, in 1668, gave a rentcharge of £6 on a tenement named Pen-y-Vagwyr, in Peterchurch, county of Hereford, to be annually divided among the poor of the parish at Christmas.

The Roman remains above mentioned as having been discovered in 1775, were situated in a field called Cae'r-maen-bâch, near the village, and were destroyed by the proprietor of the land, in order to avoid the annoyance to which he was subjected by the intense public interest which they excited, and which could be restrained within no bounds. From a drawing made soon after the discovery, and preserved in Mr. Jones' History of Brecknockshire, it appears that there were one warm and two cold baths, about seven feet four inches long, five feet one inch in width, and four feet deep. The tessellated pavement was formed of small blue, white, and red tesseræ, varying in size from half an inch to an inch in diameter, and was supported on dwarf pillars of brick, about three feet and a half high, between which were laid down flues communicating with the warm bath. Many Roman coins, still preserved, have been found here, among which are several of Constantine, and one of Valentinian. Two sympuria were also discovered, one made of copper, and the other of a mixed metal: these instruments, which resemble narrow spoons, are supposed by some antiquaries to have been used for pouring oil on the victims in sacrifices, and by others they are thought to have been used as lachrymatories. No vestiges of military fortification are now visible in the parish; but the names of two tenements, called respectively "Tregaer" and "Caerau," appear to indicate the existence of such works at some period. In a field designated Cae Gwyn was an immense heap of loose stones, under which, on their removal in 1808, was found a cistvaen, formed of four stones, placed on their edges, and supporting a fifth in an horizontal position: human bones were discovered both within and on the lid of the cistvaen, which is supposed to be coeval with the appearance of the Romans in Britain, if not of an earlier date. Brychan Brycheiniog, one of the native reguli, who after the departure of the Romans governed this part of the principality, and gave his name to the district, is supposed to have resided in the parish, and to have founded the church, within the walls of which he is said to have been interred.

The parish has been the birthplace of several individuals highly distinguished for their literary attainments, or by the offices of importance to which their talents raised them. Among these was Dr. William Aubrey, of All Souls' College, Oxford, principal of New Inn Hall, regius professor of civil law, advocate in the court of Arches, member of the council in the Marches of Wales, master in chancery, chancellor to Archbishop Whitgift, and master in ordinary of the court of requests; he died in 1595, and was buried on the south side of the choir of St. Paul's cathedral, London. William Aubrey was chancellor of the diocese of St. David's in 1514; and Thomas of the same family, and also a native of the parish, subsequently held the same office. John Aubrey of Easton Percy, in the county of Wilts, who was a descendant of the family, assisted Dugdale in his compilation of the Monasticon; he was one of the earliest members of the Royal Society, and published several works, among which was a Natural History of Surrey: he died in 1700. John Jones, the intimate friend of Archbishop Laud, was born in the parish, in 1575. He received the earlier part of his education in Merchant Tailors' school, London, whence he proceeded to Merton College, Oxford, of which he became a fellow. He afterwards embraced the Roman Catholic religion, and went into Spain, where he was chosen a brother of the Benedictine monastery of Compostella, upon which occasion he assumed the name of Leander de Sancto Martino. Having taken his degree of doctor of divinity, he removed to Douay, where he was for many years professor of Hebrew in the chapel of Vedrastus, and was subsequently made prior of the Benedictine college of St. Gregory, in that place; he was also appointed vicar-general of the English Benedictines living in Spain, twice president of the Benedictines in England, and titular prior of the Catholic church of Canterbury. Upon the invitation of Archbishop Laud he returned to England, where he died in 1636, and was interred in the chapel of the Capuchins, near Somerset House, in the Strand, London.


LLANVRYNACH, county of Glamorgan, South Wales.—See Penllyne.

Llanvwrog (Llan-Fwrog)

LLANVWROG (LLAN-FWROG), a parish, in the hundred of Tàlybolion, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 4 miles (N. W.) from Bôdedern; containing 267 inhabitants. It is situated on the shore of the Irish Sea, by which it is bounded on the west and south-west; and contains a considerable tract of inclosed and fertile land: the views from the higher grounds over the adjacent country and the Irish Sea are interesting and extensive. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llanvaethlu: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £275. 3. 1., and there is a glebe of 8a. 2r. 21p., valued at £10 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Mwrog, is a small ancient edifice, in a very dilapidated condition, containing some curious remains of oak carving; over the north entrance is a mutilated inscription, of which only a few of the letters, rudely formed, are remaining. According to tradition, there was once a chapel in a field called Monwent Mwrog, on the farm of Cevn Glâs, in the parish; but not a vestige of it is now to be seen. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, who have also a Sunday school, held in their meeting-house. The produce of two charitable benefactions, amounting to £1. 2. 6. per annum, is distributed among the poor.

Llanvwrog (Llan-Fwrog)

LLANVWROG (LLAN-FWROG), a parish, in the union and hundred of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, ¼ mile (W.) from Ruthin; containing in the whole 1554, but, with the exception of that part in the borough of Ruthin, 333, inhabitants. This parish, of which the hamlet of Street extends into and forms part of the borough of Ruthin, is intersected by the turnpike-road from Shrewsbury, Oswestry, and Llangollen to Denbigh and St. Asaph, and likewise by that from Wrexham to the same places. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanynys, on the south by the parishes of Evenechtyd and Llanvair-Dyfryn-Clwyd, on the east by Llanrhûdd and Ruthin, from which it is separated by the river Clwyd, and on the west by the parish of Clocaenog. It comprises by admeasurement 3068 acres, of which about 2142 are arable, 446 meadow and pasture, and the remainder woodland. The scenery is rich and beautiful, embracing a great variety of surface, numerous little streams tributary to the river Clwyd, well cultivated fields, tracts ornamented with oak, ash, sycamore, elm, and larch, and several superior mansions, with views from the higher grounds in every direction of the most picturesque kind. Llanvwrog forms part of the fertile Vale of Clwyd, one side of which is inclosed by a sweep of high land, traversing the western boundary of the parish, and affording extensive and highly interesting prospects of the Clwydian range of hills beyond its eastern limits; this range runs from north to south, and forms the other boundary of the intermediate valley. Poole Park was at one time the seat of the ancient family of Salusbury, from whom it passed by marriage with the last heiress to Sir Walter Bagot, of Blythfield, in the county of Stafford. The property now belongs to Lord Bagot, who, in 1828, rebuilt the mansion in the Elizabethan style of architecture; it is a handsome edifice, and the pleasure-grounds, which are extensive and finely laid out, comprehend much beautiful and varied scenery.

The soil is not naturally rich, partaking of the nature of the schistus upon which to a great extent it rests, but it is well cultivated, and produces grain of all kinds, potatoes, turnips, hay, &c., of very good quality; the eastern portion of the land that lies in the vale, and on a substratum of limestone, is richer and more fertile. An attempt was made to obtain lead-ore, for which purpose some works were erected at Coedmarchan, but they were not attended with any success. There are a few small limestone quarries, in which about twenty hands are occasionally engaged; and barytes is raised, which is ground for paint in a mill in an adjoining parish: a few men are employed in three tan-yards; and a soda-water manufactory, in considerable repute, affords occupation to about eight or ten persons.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £16. 13. 4.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £455, and the glebe consists of nearly four acres and a half, valued at £7 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Mwrog, is situated in the township of Street, close to the river Clwyd. It is an ancient structure, containing some portions in the later style of English architecture in the eastern part, and having the piers and arches, that divide the body of the church into two equal parts, of much older date: the edifice has a tower and four bells, measures in the interior sixty feet by thirty-six, and will accommodate about 330 persons. There is a place of worship for Baptists; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other belonging to the Baptist denomination. An hospital here, having tenements for four poor men and six poor women, owes its foundation to Lady Jane Bagot, who, by will dated 1695, bequeathed the sum of £1000 to be laid out in the purchase of land for its endowment, and conformably with whose intentions certain lands in Merionethshire on the Bagot estate were by deed, in 1697, assigned to this purpose. The hospital was built in 1708, by Sir Edward Bagot, son of the foundress, who also materially contributed to its erection; and it was further endowed by her daughter, the Countess of Uxbridge, with the sum of £300. It appears by the Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry concerning Charities, presented to parliament, that the £1000, directed by Lady Bagot to be invested in land, were until lately treated by the Bagot family as money lying out at interest in their hands, in ignorance that the land in Merionethshire had ever been set apart for the hospital. The discovery, which, owing to the increased value of the land, considerably augmented the resources of the hospital, was made by the present Lord Bagot, who found the deed of 1697 among his muniments at Blythfield, Staffordshire; and his lordship most liberally agreed to pay over to the uses of the hospital the sum of £1900, and to confirm to it the property in question. The inmates of the almshouses have an allowance of £1 each per month, besides coal and clothing, and there is an annual surplus fund for repairs and various other contingencies. The income of the charity, which has been more than trebled by the restoration, now amounts to £164 per annum.

The Rev. Hugh Pugh made a bequest of 40s. to this parish in 1681, and gifts of the same amount to Llanbedr and the hospital at Ruthin; the land in which these sums were invested yields £18 a year, one-third whereof belongs to Llanvwrog, and is regularly distributed among the poor. Griffith Thomas ap Evan, about the same period, devised a small farm called Llidiart-vawr-lydan to the poor of this and three other parishes, from which this place derives £4 a year. The gifts of other benefactors are secured upon the Wrexham and Denbigh, and Ruthin and Mold trusts, and increase the funds for the poor of the parish to £16. 15. 6. per annum.

Llanvyllin (Llan-Fyllin)

LLANVYLLIN (LLAN-FYLLIN), a borough, market-town, and parish, and the head of a union, in the Lower division of the hundred of Llanvyllin, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 20 miles (N. N. W.) from Montgomery, 12 (N. W. by N.) from Welshpool, and 183 (N. W. by W.) from London; containing 1955 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Myllin, appears to have been of little or no importance prior to the time of Edward I., during whose reign several privileges and immunities were granted to its inhabitants. In September 1645, Charles I. passed one night here, and on the following day dined at Brithdir, whence he continued his route through Mochnant to Cevnhîrvynydd, and along the tops of the mountains to Chirk Castle. The town is pleasantly situated in a fertile valley, on the road from Shrewsbury to Bala, and is intersected by the small river Abel, which, uniting with the Cain, flows through the parish, and, pursuing its course through the adjoining parish of Llanvechan, falls into the Vyrnwy at Llansantfraid. It has been much improved within the present century, and a neat bridge has been erected over the Abel, which flows along the principal street; but, from its retired situation at a distance from any great thoroughfare, it possesses no commercial importance. The trade is principally in malt, for which there are several kilns; and some tanneries are carried on to a moderate extent. The parish comprises an area of about 8000 acres, of which about three-fifths are pasture, and two-fifths arable, with 200 acres of woodland; the ordinary corn and green crops are produced. All the waste lands have been inclosed by act of parliament; but many hundred acres still remain uncultivated. Between this town and Bôdvach was formerly a large turbary, from which the inhabitants were partly supplied with fuel; but it was converted into fertile meadows, at a considerable expense, by Bell Lloyd, Esq., father of the present Lord Mostyn, and on part of it has been erected a beautiful cottage, called the Vownog. The scenery is pleasingly varied, in many parts highly picturesque, and from the higher grounds are obtained some fine views over the Vale of Cain, and other valleys in the vicinity, eminent for the beauty of their scenery: Bôdvach, the seat of Lord Mostyn, and Llwyn, the property of William Humphreys, Esq., have each extensive plantations. The market, which is well supplied with corn and provisions of every kind, is held on Thursday in a convenient area under the town-hall. Fairs take place annually on the Wednesday next before Easter, on May 24th, June 28th, August 10th, October 5th, and December 8th, for horses, cattle, and wares; and sheep and pigs are exposed for sale on the day preceding each of the fairs, except those of August and December.

The inhabitants received their first charter of incorporation from Llewelyn ab Grufydd ab Gwenwynwyn, in the time of Edward I. This charter was ratified by Edward de Charlton, lord of Powys, in the 6th year of the reign of Henry V.; by Henry Gray, Earl of Tankerfield and Powys, in the 26th of Henry VI.; and by Queen Elizabeth in the 5th of her reign. It invests the burgesses with power to take, imprison, and try thieves and other malefactors, and in the event of their escape, to pursue them in any direction, for a distance not exceeding a league from the town; and any stranger residing within it, and paying scot and lot for one year, could claim his freedom. The charter was extended by Charles II., in the 25th year of his reign, and the government of the borough then became vested in two bailiffs, a high steward, a recorder, and fifteen capital burgesses (including the bailiffs), assisted by a town-clerk, two serjeants-at-mace, and other officers; the burgesses, steward, and recorder to form a common council; and the style of the corporation to be, "the Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Llanvyllin, in the County of Montgomery." The bailiffs are chosen annually, one by the lord of the manor, and the other by the burgesses at large; and both are justices of the peace within the borough, of which the jurisdiction is co-extensive with the parish. The steward, recorder, and town-clerk are appointed by the owner of the Powys lordship; the coroner, by the steward and bailiffs; and the serjeants-at-mace, by the bailiffs alone. The freedom is inherited by the eldest sons only of freemen, on their attaining the age of twentyone, or conferred by gift of the bailiffs and capital burgesses.

Llanvyllin was made to participate, in the 27th of Henry VIII., in the elective franchise, as a contributory borough with Llanidloes, Machynlleth, and Welshpool, in the return of a member for Montgomery, the county town. This privilege was confirmed by a resolution of the House of Commons, in 1680, but was afterwards denied in 1728, by another resolution, which disfranchised these boroughs in consequence of the inhabitants refusing to contribute towards the expenses of the member, namely, 13s. 4d. for each borough. Thus the right of voting was confined exclusively to the burgesses of Montgomery. The resolutions, however, being in opposition to each other, the burgesses, by an act of the 28th of George III., were empowered to assert their right of voting for a member for Montgomery before another committee of the house, and of appealing within twelve calendar months against any future decision. By the act of 1832, for "Amending the Representation of the People," the elective franchise was restored to Llanvyllin, which, with Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Montgomery, Newtown, and Welshpool, unites in sending a member to parliament. The right of voting is vested in every male person of full age, occupying a house or other premises in the borough of the annual value of not less than £10, provided he be capable of registering as the act demands: the number of tenements of this value within the limits, which were extended by the act, and are minutely detailed in the Appendix to this work, including an area of about 500 acres, is about sixty. Llanvyllin is also one of the polling-places in the election of a knight for the shire.

The bailiffs, steward, and recorder, or any two of them, of whom the capital bailiff or steward must be one, are empowered by the charter of King Charles to hold general quarter-sessions of the peace within the borough, in as ample a manner as the justices of the peace in and for the county; but this privilege is not now exercised. Petty-sessions both for the borough and for the hundred are held in the boardroom of the union-workhouse on the first Friday in every month; and courts leet and baron take place twice in the year, within a month of Easter and of Michaelmas; but the court baron does not at present exercise the jurisdiction to which it has a claim in the recovery of debts. The powers of the county debtcourt of Llanvyllin, established in 1847, extend over the whole registration-district of Llanvyllin, except two parishes. This court is held in the town-hall, situated in the principal street, a neat building of brick, containing in the upper story a commodious room, forty-five feet long and twenty wide, and affording underneath a convenient and sheltered area for the market. It was erected in 1789, at a cost of £1500, defrayed by the sale of waste lands under the provisions of an act obtained for that purpose upon the destruction of the old town-hall by fire, in 1775. The town-hall was lately repaired and appropriately fitted up as a court-room for holding the debt-court above noticed: the petty-sessions were formerly held in the building. A lock-up house, consisting of two rooms for the prisoners, and an apartment for the accommodation of the constable, was built in 1829, on ground purchased and presented to the county by the Rev. D. Hughes, rector of the parish, and a most indefatigable magistrate.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £10. 13. 6½.; present net income, £485, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The church, dedicated to St. Myllin, is a neat edifice of brick, erected in the year 1704, upon the site of a more ancient structure, which, having fallen into a dilapidated state, was taken down. The walls of the body of the edifice, as well as of the tower, which is also of brick, and contains a fine peal of six bells, are embattled, and surmounted with pinnacles; a number of neat pews afford accommodation to about 100 persons, and there are free-seats for 160. Here are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. Mrs. Vaughan of Llangedwin, in 1720, bequeathed the sum of £1116. 10. in the lottery funds, to be invested in the purchase of land for the foundation and endowment of charity schools for twenty boys and ten girls of this place, and for twelve boys of the parish of Llanvihangel, who were also to be annually clothed. This sum, after having accumulated to £1220. 10., was laid out in mortgage on several estates in the county of Montgomery, belonging to Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., and produces an income to the charity of above £60 per annum. Mrs. Mary Strangeways, of the parish of Melbury, in Dorsetshire, daughter of Mrs. Vaughan, bequeathed £400, with which a tenement was purchased in Llaethbwlch, now producing a rent of about £60, for the support of the same schools. The total income from these endowments is £124, of which two-thirds are usually paid to the funds of the Llanvyllin charity schools, and one-third to the school at Llanvihangel. Until within the last few years, the schools at Llanvyllin also received the produce of a bequest made in 1713 by Henry Thomas, Esq., who left £100 towards establishing a school, which, from accumulated interest, yielded £8. 10. per annum; but the interest of this endowment is now withheld. Since the year 1820 the schools have been conducted on the National plan; the schoolrooms are situated near the church, and a considerable number of boys and girls are taught. There are several Sunday schools. Edward Lloyd bequeathed a rent-charge of £6, or a portion of land, the produce of which he directed to be distributed in money and bread. Charles Edwards, in 1717, left £50; Lewis Evans gave £20; Mrs. Jones, Holborn, £20; John Morris £10, and a piece of land, producing £1 rent; Evan Price, in 1787, £200; Griffith Morris £5; Anne Wynn £10; and John Griffiths, in 1722, £10: also for the benefit of the poor.

The poor-law union of which this town is the head, was formed February 15th, 1837, and comprises the following parishes and townships; namely, Llanvyllin, Garth-Beibio, Hîrnant, Llandisilio, Llandrinio, Llanervul, Llangadvan, Llangyniew, Llangynog, Llansantfraid (hundred of Deythur), Llansantfraid (hundred of Pool), Llanvair-Caereinion, Llanvechan, Llanvihangel, Llanwddyn, Meivod, and Pennant, in the shire of Montgomery; Llanrhaiadr-yn-Mochnant, in the counties of Montgomery and Denbigh; and Carreghova, Llancadwaladr, Llanarmon-Mynydd-Mawr, and Llangedwin, in the county of Denbigh. It is under the superintendence of twenty-seven guardians, and contains a population of 20,445. The poor-house stands about half a mile from the town, on the left side of the road to Shrewsbury.

In the hamlet of Bôdyddon, at a place called the "Street," are some remains of a Roman road; and in the same division of the parish are an ancient British encampment, and a well named Fynnon Coedy-Llan, supposed to have been the well of St. Myllin, who is said to have lived near the spot. There are vestiges of several intrenchments in other parts of the parish; also the remains of a house, built in 1599, in which Lord Castlemain, ambassador from James II. to the pope, is said to have been concealed for some time after the Revolution by a family named Price, to whom he fled for an asylum. The altar-piece of the chapel in the house, and an exquisitely carved bookcase, removed from the mansion, are now at Brynaber, near Llanvyllin, to the owner of which the remains above-mentioned belong. Thomas Price, a member of the same family, a man of learning, and fond of antiquarian researches, formed a valuable collection of manuscripts, which is thought to have been deposited in the Vatican Library at Rome. There are several gentlemen's seats within the parish and in its vicinity, among which, in the hamlet of that name, is Bôdvach, a handsome mansion beautifully situated on the banks of the river Cain, and surrounded with thriving plantations; the grounds are tastefully disposed, and present much interesting scenery, commanding a fine view of the church and town of Llanvyllin. Near the town, on the other side, and at the entrance of the well-wooded Vale of Abel, which is watered by the river of that name, stands the splendid residence of Llwyn. At Dôl y Velin Blwm, near Llanvyllin, many tons of lead have been procured from the imperfectly reduced scoria of some ancient British smelting-hearths. The Rev. Thomas Richards, who was appointed rector of the parish, in 1718, by Bishop Wynne, published a folio volume of Latin Hexameters upon the death of Queen Caroline, consort of George I., which he dedicated to Bishop Maddox, clerk-of-thecloset to Her Majesty; he was an elegant scholar, and is said by Dr. Trapp, professor of poetry in the University of Oxford, to have been the best writer of Latin verse since the time of Virgil.

Llanvynydd (Llan-Fynydd)

LLANVYNYDD (LLAN-FYNYDD), a parish, in the union of Llandilo-Vawr, Lower division of the hundred of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 6 miles (N. W.) from Llandilo-Vawr; containing 1358 inhabitants. This parish, which is of very considerable extent, comprising 11,000 acres, is pleasantly situated near the source of the river Sannan; and the river Cothy separates it on the north-west from the parishes of Brechva and Llanmihangel-Rhôsycorn: the lands are for the greater part inclosed and cultivated, and the soil is tolerably fertile. Fairs are held annually in the village on July 5th, August 13th, and November 19th. The place until lately constituted a prebend in the Collegiate Church of Brecknock, rated in the king's books at £18. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and endowed with £384. 14. 5. parliamentary grant; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £365, of which £243. 6. 8., or two-thirds, are payable to the impropriator, and £121. 13. 4., or one-third, to the vicar. The church, dedicated to St. Egwad, is not entitled to architectural notice. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists and Baptists.

A school was endowed in 1738, by the Rev. David Jones, with the sum of £300, to be laid out in the purchase of messuages and lands within the county of Carmarthen, and the rents to be applied "for the better augmentation of the school, and fixing a salary or stipend for the master, for furnishing the poor children with books, and to settle them apprentices to some trade, for keeping the premises and other additional buildings therein to be made from time to time in sufficient repair, and for buying Welsh Bibles for the poor inhabitants of the parish; that the charitable design begun, and hitherto carried on, by the said David Jones, might hereafter be effectually" carried on and continued. These are the words of the trust-deed of the school, which goes on to say that "the sum of £6 shall be paid to the master yearly for ever, for teaching twelve poor children, either boys or girls, or both, from the age of seven." The money thus left was duly invested in land, the proceeds of which amount to £39. 5. per annum; the master receives from this endowment a stipend of £12, and the remainder is applied in apprenticing fees, the purchase of books, and in keeping the buildings in repair: the schoolroom and master's dwelling-house have been of late years rebuilt. There are about forty children on the books, and the master, besides his house and garden, has about £10 a year in school-pence. Several Sunday schools are also held. The poor participate in the rents and profits of a farm, and a few pieces of land, in Llanegwad parish, bequeathed by Maud Watkins, in 1685; the proportion for Llanvynydd being thirteen guineas, which sum, with two teals of barley, principally the gift of David Harry ab Evan, in 1658, is shared among about 120 persons, selected immediately before Christmas. Near the left bank of the Cothy, are the remains of an ancient fortress of considerable extent and elliptical form; and there are several cairns and monumental stones scattered through the parish.

Llanvyrnach (Llan-Fyrnach)

LLANVYRNACH (LLAN-FYRNACH), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 8 miles (S. W.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 1049 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, is situated in the north-eastern part of the county, bordering upon Carmarthenshire, and comprises 6000 acres of land, the greater portion inclosed and cultivated. The surrounding scenery, though not characterized by any peculiarity of feature, is generally pleasing, and in some instances picturesque; the soil is inferior in fertility to that of other parts of the county, but is tolerably productive. A large common, connected with Percelly mountain, rises to the west of the village, but an inclosure of land was made in the parish not many years since. On the banks of the river Tâf, and at no great distance from its source, are some extensive lead-mines, which were formerly wrought with great success: but the works have been some time suspended. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor, with a glebe-house: the tithes have been commuted for £251, of which £245 are payable to the rector, and £6 to an impropriator. The church, dedicated to St. Brynach, is not remarkable for any architectural details. There are places of worship for Independents and Baptists; a day school, and four Sunday schools. On the common above the church are four large erect stones, visible at a great distance, marking out, according to tradition, the graves of two chieftains who were slain in a desperate battle, said to have been fought near that spot; and in the immediate vicinity of the church is a large tumulus, which is supposed to have been surmounted by a castle, or fort, to defend the pass. There are several mineral springs within the parish, but their peculiar properties have not been ascertained.

Llanwddyn, or Llanouddyn (Llan-Owddyn)

LLANWDDYN, or LLANOUDDYN (LLAN-OWDDYN), a parish, in the union, and Upper division of the hundred, of Llanvyllin, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 12 miles (W. by N.) from the town of Llanvyllin; containing 593 inhabitants. This place, which was formerly a chapelry, dependent on the adjacent parish of Llanrhaiadr-yn-Mochnant, is said to derive its name from a giant named Wddin, or Owddyn, who was born here; and on the neighbouring hills is a spot called Gwely Wddin, or "the bed of Wddin," where he is supposed to have lived. Other accounts, with more probability, describe Wddin to have been an anchoret, who had a cell among the rocks here, in which he dwelt in seclusion and retirement. It is affirmed, on the authority of an absurd local tradition, that immense treasures are concealed in the parish, and that all attempts to discover them have been frustrated by incessant storms. The path of Wddin, when he went to visit St. Monacella, whose cell was at Pennant Melangel, on the other side of the mountain, five miles distant, is still pointed out, and called by his name.

The parish comprises 19,400 acres, of which 13,600 are common or waste land. The vale in which the village is situated is about five miles in length, and varies from half a mile to a mile in breadth; it is frequently covered with water during the winter months, but, if drained, would be one of the most picturesque and fertile in this part of the principality. The village occupies a pleasant site near the river Owddyn, a tributary of the Vyrnwy, and nearly at the north-western extremity of the county, in a sequestered spot sheltered by mountains on both sides. Within the parish are two slatequarries, one at Gallt Vorgan, near Rhiw Argor, which has been worked for some time; the other at Lluestwen, about two miles south-westward from the village, opened in 1830: the quantity of slates raised is very inconsiderable, and, though the mines are capable of producing a vast amount, must necessarily remain so till better roads are made for conveying the produce to the surrounding districts. Attempts to procure lead-ore have been repeatedly made at Cynon Isâv and other places, but without sufficient success to remunerate the adventurers. Fairs are annually held in the village on May 8th and October 2nd, principally for cattle and horses.

The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £1000 parliamentary grant; net income, £100, with a glebe-house; patron, the Earl of Powis. The tithes have been commuted for £227. 17., of which a sum of £164 is payable to his lordship, £62. 17. to the Dean and Chapter of St. Asaph, and £1 to the parish-clerk. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is an ancient structure that belonged to the Knights Hospitallers: in the churchyard are some remarkably fine yew-trees. There are three places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, and one for Wesleyans, with a Sunday school held in each of them. Mr. David Humphreys, in 1721, bequeathed £30; Ellis Davies, the elder, £15, in 1809; and Ellis Davies, the younger, £10 some years since, to the poor; the interest of which is annually distributed according to the will of the testators. An unknown donor gave £5, to be divided among the psalm-singers of the parish.

Llanwenllwyvo (Llan-Wenllwyfo)

LLANWENLLWYVO (LLAN-WENLLWYFO), a parish, in the hundred of Twrcelyn, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Amlwch; containing 524 inhabitants. It is situated on the coast of the Irish Sea, and partakes much of the general character of dreary sterility by which the mining districts in the immediate vicinity are distinguished, though in some parts the scenery displays features of fertility and even of romantic beauty. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the Parys and Mona copper-mines, in the adjoining parish of Amlwch. Llŷs Dulas, the property of Lord Dinorben, is a spacious mansion standing in extensive grounds, within which the parochial church forms a conspicuous and interesting object. The Traeth Dulas, or Dulas sands, at the mouth of the river Dulas, stretch along a part of the shore here, and form a small bay, while other portions of the coast are bold and precipitous; within a short distance is the island of Ynys Gadarn. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the incumbent of Amlwch; the Bishop of Bangor is proprietor of certain tithes, which have been commuted for a rent-charge of £172. 19., but in half of the parcel called Rhôs-y-Mynach the tithes belong to the rector of Llaneilian. The church, dedicated to St. Gwenllwyvo, is a small neat edifice, appropriately fitted up. There are two places of worship for Baptists, one for Calvinistic Methodists, and one for Wesleyans; with a Sunday school held in each of them. About 1826 John Parry bequeathed a sum of £50, the interest to be divided annually on Christmas-eve among ten poor persons: having been invested on the security of the tolls of the road from Beaumaris to the Holyhead post-road, it now yields an interest of £2. 10., annually distributed among aged women. A small benefaction of £2, by Robert Prichard, in 1705, has been lost.

Llanwenog (Llan-Wenog)

LLANWENOG (LLAN-WENOG), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Upper division of the hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 5¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Lampeter; containing 1578 inhabitants. This parish is distinguished as the scene of a memorable battle fought in 981, between the Danes under their famous leader Godfrid, and the native Welsh under Eineon ab Owain, in which the former were totally defeated; or, according to Sir S. R. Meyrick, between Eineon and his countryman Hywel ab Ievan. A square intrenchment in a field called Cae'r Vaes, or "the field of battle," on the farm of Tŷ Cam, is still pointed out as a spot where the engagement took place. The parish is situated on the road from Lampeter to Cardigan, and bounded on the north by Llanwnnen, on the south by Llandyssil, and on the east by the river Teivy, which separates it from the county of Brecknock. It comprises by computation 9000 acres of arable and pasture land, the greater portion inclosed and in a good state of cultivation, producing chiefly oats and barley. The scenery, though not characterized by any extraordinary features, is in general pleasing, and is enlivened by the small stream Cledlyn, which runs through the middle of the parish, and by several good residences. Llanvaughan, a handsome, though deserted, mansion, now the property of the nieces of the late Admiral Thomas, who erected it in 1786, is beautifully situated in grounds laid out with great taste, and abounding with a rich variety of ornamental scenery. The admiral was a native of the parish, and a member of the family of Lloyd, of Castell Hywel. High Mead, another seat, is delightfully situated on an eminence above the river Teivy, commanding an extensive prospect of the surrounding country on both sides of the vale, which here expands into considerable breadth. The house is completely sheltered from the north winds by a range of lofty hills, the summits and acclivities of which are planted with woods of luxuriant foliage, containing fir, ash, sycamore, and oak trees, that add much to the beauty of the scenery. A fair is held on January 14th.

This place constituted a prebend in the ancient Collegiate Church of Llandewy-Brevi, rated in the king's books at £17. 12. 11. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with £600 parliamentary grant; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The parish is divided into two parts, called respectively the Freehold-land and the Grange: the Grange portion of the tithes is divided into three lots, of which one belongs to Major Evans, of High Mead, and the other two are added to the Freehold-land portion; and the Freehold tithes, including this addition, are apportioned in three equal shares to the High Mead and Crosswood estates, and the vicar. The whole tithes have been commuted for £412. 6. payable to the impropriators, and £147. 14. to the incumbent. The church, dedicated to St. Gwynog, is an ancient structure, with a massive tower sixtysix feet high, and contains 600 sittings, nearly the whole of which are free: over the western door of the tower is a stone with armorial bearings and an inscription, supposed to be in Saxon letters, which cannot be deciphered. There were formerly one or two chapels of ease to the mother church; no chapel is now standing, but according to tradition one was situated between Llanvaughan and the farm of Dolwolf, called Capel Santesau, "the saintesses' chapel." The dissenters have some places of worship in the parish; and two Sunday schools are held, both of them by the Independents, to whom one of the meeting-houses belongs.

Among the remains of antiquity is a monumental stone, with an inscription in rude characters, which Sir S. R. Meyrick reads "Trenacatus hic jacet filius Maglagni;" this stone was dug up beyond the village of Rhuddlan, on a farm called Crug-y-wheel, and is now a gate-post leading into the garden of Llanvaughan. Two tumuli situated near the river Teivy, are supposed to have been originally thrown up and crowned with forts, to defend the passage of the river; and there is a barrow named Crûg-yr-Udon, on Bwlchmawr farm, which, on being opened, was found to contain a coffin of glazed earth, in which were human bones placed in an upright position. There was also not long since another relic of antiquity, called Carn Philip Gwyddyl, "the cairn or barrow of Philip the Irishman," a curious bank of earth, six yards in length and four feet high, resembling in form the rude sketch of a prostrate human figure, without the head, and with the arm stretched out. It was situated in a field not far from the church, and is reported by tradition to have marked the burial-place of a freebooter, who lived in the tower of the church, and who, on leaping from it when closely pursued, broke his leg and was captured. There is another barrow on the farm of Bryn-yrHogvaen, called Crûg-y-Pendwll, meaning "a heap in which a hole is made to throw heads in." Some earthen pots were dug up a short time since, full of human bones, which looked black, as if they had been half burned. The Rev. David Lloyd, a poet of minor celebrity, was interred at Llanwenog, but no monument has been erected to his memory.

Llanwinio (Llan-Wyno)

LLANWINIO (LLAN-WYNO), a parish, comprising the Eastern and Western divisions, in the Lower division of the hundred of Derllŷs, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 13 miles (W. N. W.) from Carmarthen; containing 1035 inhabitants, of whom 422 are in the Eastern, and 613 in the Western, division. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, lies near the western extremity of the county, on the border of Pembrokeshire, and comprises a large tract of land, the greater portion inclosed and cultivated. It is watered by the small river called Avon Gynin. The country is diversified, and the distant views comprehend some fine combinations of mountain scenery and luxuriant pasture lands in the vicinity; the soil is fertile, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture, and in tending flocks of sheep. The village is pleasantly situated. An annual fair for sheep is held on the 12th of November. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £400 royal bounty and £1600 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of Mr. Howel, to whom the impropriation belongs; net income £83. The church, dedicated to St. Gwyno, stands near the right bank of the Avon Gynin river. There are places of worship for Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, and Independents; and four Sunday schools, belonging to the dissenters.

Llanwnda (Llan-Wyndaf)

LLANWNDA (LLAN-WYNDAF), a parish, in the hundred of Uwchgorvai, union and county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Carnarvon; containing 1586 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from the dedication of its church to St. Gwyndav, who flourished during the sixth century. The parish is situated on the turnpike-road from Carnarvon to Pwllheli, and is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanbeblig, on the south by that of Llandwrog, on the east by that of Bettws-Garmon, and on the west by the sea. It comprises 8000 acres, about one-fourth of which is arable, and the rest a dreary, mountainous tract of rocky ground, covered only by a very thin layer of earth. The lower portion has a loamy soil, producing oats, barley, and a little wheat, and is ornamented with the windings of the river Gorvai, which separates the parish from Llanbeblig, and with sprinklings in various places of oak, ash, and alder trees. Slate of excellent quality is found among the mountains, and very considerable quarries have been opened; but from the difficulty of conveying the produce to any shipping-place, they are not wrought to their full extent. Large quantities of copper-ore have also been discovered, but so mixed with iron as to require great labour and expense in separating it, for which reason the works are not carried on to any advantage. The tramroad from Llanllyvni to Carnarvon passes near the south side of the churchyard, but does not appear to have been made available for the exportation of the mineral produce of the parish, by the construction of any collateral communication with the quarries or the mines. The village is small, and chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the quarries and in agriculture.

The living consists of both a rectory and a vicarage. The rectory, which is a sinecure, is annexed to the headship of Jesus' College, Oxford: the vicarage, which is discharged, and to which the perpetual curacy of Llanvagdalen is annexed, is endowed with £400 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Bangor; total net income of the vicar, less than £200. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £370 payable to the principal of Jesus' College, and £90 to the vicar. The church is an ancient structure, measuring in the interior fiftyone feet by seventeen, and containing accommodation for between 300 and 400 persons. The chancel is lighted by three lancet-shaped windows, and the edifice displays some good specimens of architecture; there are also some monuments of the Baron-Hill family. Here are places of worship for Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A National school was maintained for a long period at the sole expense of the curate, but it has been discontinued. A small school-house was built many years since, on the north side of the church, and some bequests were made for teaching children, but they have been lost. There are three Sunday schools, two of them appertaining to the Independents, and the other to the Calvinistic body. Mrs. Ellen Williams, in 1714, left £200 for the augmentation of the vicar's stipend, and £100, the interest of which she directed to be distributed among the poor annually. The Rev. Lewis Jones, in 1692, bequeathed £100, directing a moiety of the interest to be divided among twelve aged men or women, and a rent-charge of £3, to be divided among twelve natives of the parish, or, in default of such, among inhabitants of seven years' standing.

Near the farm of Bôdaden, some slight traces of a Roman road are still discernible, pointing to the ancient Segontium near Carnarvon. There are likewise some remains of two British fortifications, called respectively Yr Hên Castell and Dinas Gorvan or Gorvai, the latter probably deriving its name from its position on the river Gorvai. Of the former, but very slight vestiges are discernible; and the latter, which is situated near Pont Newydd, has been so much damaged by the action of the rapid stream of the Gorvai, during times of flood, against its base, that the upper part has fallen, and only a portion of the foundations can now be distinguished. The Rev. Mr. Farringdon, who employed a considerable portion of his time in antiquarian pursuits, was for some years vicar of the parish.

Llanwnda (Llan-Wyndaf)

LLANWNDA (LLAN-WYNDAF), a parish, in the poor-law union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2½ miles (N. W.) from the town of Fishguard; containing 1045 inhabitants. This place appears to be of remote antiquity, and the adjoining district is supposed to have been a favourite resort of the Druids. That it was a principal station for the solemnization of their rites is plainly indicated by the number of Druidical remains that are scattered over the parish and throughout the vicinity, and also from various adjacent spots, which still retain the names "Llan Druidion," "Fynnon Druidion," and others of similar import and origin. Near Fynnon Druidion were found five instruments of flint, considered to have been used in flaying the victims devoted to sacrifice; and in the vale below is a circular earthwork, marked out by a solitary erect stone, probably thrown up to defend the pass of a small stream by which it is skirted, and perhaps also to protect the avenue to the consecrated region. According to tradition, an ancient town called Trêv Culhwch existed here at a very early period, of which evidence is frequently obtained in the foundations of old buildings that still obstruct the plough, in various parts of the farm on which it is thought to have been situated.

About the year 1076, Trehaern ab Caradoc, Prince of North Wales, led his forces into South Wales, for the purpose of subjecting this country to his dominion, and at Pwllgwttic was boldly encountered by Rhŷs ab Owain, the reigning prince, with all the forces he could levy. Here, after a long and sanguinary conflict, Rhŷs was at length defeated, with the loss of most of his army; and being himself closely pursued by the victor, he was at length taken prisoner with his brother Howel, and both were put to death by Trehaern in revenge for the murder of Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, which they had previously committed. No other events of importance are recorded in connexion with the parish. The French effected a landing on this part of the coast in the year 1797, but after plundering the inhabitants for some time, the soldiers becoming insubordinate through excess, their commander found it necessary to make an unconditional surrender to the local forces brought against him by Lord Cawdor. The spot where the troops encamped on landing is still called "The French Encampment."

The parish is situated in the north-western part of the county, and bounded on the north by St. George's Channel, and on the east by Fishguard bay, forming a promontory with a bold and precipitous shore, and indented by several small bays, the soundings within half a mile of the coast being from seven to twenty fathoms. The scenery is diversified with features of romantic grandeur; and the views from the higher grounds embrace extensive prospects over the Channel, and the adjacent country, which abounds with objects of interest. Off the north-western coast, in Carregonnen bay, are two small islets of a similar name. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £3. 5. 2½., and endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £220; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of St. David's. The church, dedicated to St. Gwyndav, is not distinguished by any architectural features of importance. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists; a day school in connexion with the Established Church; and three Sunday schools, one of which is conducted on Church principles. William Hugh, in 1778, bequeathed £20 to the poor not receiving parochial relief; but the sum is supposed to have been expended in the payment of £2 annually among them, without creating any endowment permanently.

A strong chain of well-connected forts, extending in a direction from east to west throughout the whole length of the parish, is said to be of British origin: that on Garn Vawr rock comprises an extensive area, inclosed by strong ramparts of uncemented stones, on the most accessible parts, flanked with portions of the rock which project in the form of natural bastions. On the summit of the hill above Goodwick pier is a rocking-stone, weighing about five tons, and so nicely poised as to yield to the slightest pressure. A little beyond it are three remarkable cromlechs in a right line, of which two have been overturned, but one still preserves its original position. Another cromlech stands on the ledge of rock just above the village; the table stone is thirteen feet in its greatest length, more than nine feet and a half in its greatest width, and of an average thickness of two feet. To the west of the site of Trêv Culhwch are the majestic remains of several other cromlechs, one of which, more perfect than the rest, has a table stone fifteen feet long, eight feet wide, and two feet and a half in thickness. On opening a cairn, in 1826, for the purpose of widening a road near the sea, in the parish, a brass instrument was discovered, about nine inches long, with a circular ring at one end, and a flat triangle at the other, and pierced with two round holes in the neck that connected these together: no satisfactory conjecture has been offered as to the use to which it was applied. Near Trêv Asser, in the parish, is a tumulus surrounded with a moat, which, on being opened some time since, was found to contain fragments of urns, and other indications of its having been a place of sepulture. Trêv Asser is said to have been the birthplace of Asser, the friend and biographer of Alfred the Great. The celebrated Giraldus Cambrensis, who attended Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, while preaching the crusades throughout the principality, and who is known for his literary works and numerous ecclesiastical appointments, was for some time incumbent of the parish.