A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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LLOWES, a parish, in the union of Hay, hundred of Painscastle, county of Radnor, South Wales, 3 miles (W.) from Hay; containing 390 inhabitants. This place is situated near the southern extremity of the county, on the bank of the river Wye, by which it is separated from the parish of Llanigon, in Brecknockshire. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanddewi-Vâch, on the east by that of Clyro, and on the south-west and west by that of Glâsbury; comprising by computation about 2500 acres, of which 2000 are inclosed, and consist of pasture and arable land, and the remainder is wood and mountain, the latter greatly predominating. The scenery is pleasingly diversified, in some parts very picturesque; and the higher grounds command interesting views of the adjacent country. The soil is a reddish earth, producing chiefly grain, and grass for hay; and large flocks of sheep and Herefordshire cattle are grazed on the high lands. Travelley, an ancient mansion, and Brynyrhydd, a modern residence, are within the parish; which also contains the village of Llowes and the hamlet of Moity, the former situated on level ground near the Wye, surrounded by mountain scenery. The lower lands are ornamented with trees of oak, elm, &c., and with the windings of the river. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Llanddewi-Vâch annexed, rated in the king's books at £8. 10.; present net income, £132 per annum; patron, the Archdeacon of Brecknock. The church, dedicated to St. Meilig, is an ancient structure, consisting of a nave and chancel, and appears to have undergone extensive alterations and repairs, principally in the later style of English architecture; it is eighty-one feet in length and twenty-four in breadth, and contains about 250 sittings, of which sixty or seventy are free. A day and Sunday National school, established about 1830, is partly supported by subscriptions, and partly by payments from the parents. Susannah Howarth, in 1704, bequeathed a rent-charge of 10s., which was annually distributed in bread among the poor; but no payment has been made on account of this charity for many years.
LLWYDCOED, a hamlet, in the parish of Aberdare, borough and poor-law union of Merthyr-Tydvil, Upper division of the hundred of Miskin, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 3½ miles (S. W.) from Merthyr-Tydvil; containing about 1761 inhabitants. It occupies the upper portion of the parish, in which are some coal and iron works. Hîrwaun common adjoins it on the west, and it is watered both by the Cynon and Dinas streams, the latter of which has its source within its limits. A tramroad, from the termination of the Aberdare canal, proceeds through the hamlet, and communicates with the Hîrwaun works in Brecknockshire: close to this line of conveyance are situated the iron-works of Messrs. Thompson and Co. A large proportion of the workmen engaged at the Hîrwaun furnaces dwell in this hamlet.
LLWYN, with Llan and Llêch, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanrhaiadr-in-Kinmerch, union of Ruthin, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 2½ miles (S.) from Denbigh; containing 623 inhabitants. Formerly this hamlet was separately assessed for the support of the poor, but now a general assessment is made throughout the whole parish.
LLWYNSWCH, in the county of Carmarthen, South Wales.—See Gelludie.
LLYS, a township, in the parish of Llanvechan, union of Llanvyllin, hundred of Pool, county of Montgomery, North Wales; the population is included in the return for the parish. The township is situated near the river Cain.
Llŷsdinam (Llŷs-Dinan, or Llŷs-Dinam)
LLŶSDINAM (LLŶS-DINAN, or LLŶSDINAM), a township, in the parish of LlanavanVawr, union and hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 5½ miles (N. W.) from Builth; containing 252 inhabitants. This township, the name of which signifies "Dinam palace, or court," was anciently the residence of several of the reguli, descendants of Brychan, Prince of Brycheiniog, and appears to have been a place of considerable importance also with respect to trade. In several of the old surveys of the manor of Builth, and in various early presentments, the weavers of "Inam," as this place was then designated, are noticed as a corporate body, and seem to have been assessed, and to have paid their chief-rents to the lord, separately from the inhabitants of the other parts of the manor. A tenement in this part of the parish still retains the name of Pen-llŷs, or "the palace summit," and gave to its proprietors the same designation. Llŷsdinam is said to have once constituted a distinct parish, and to have become annexed to Llanavan-Vawr only on the decay of its own church; in civil matters it still exercises parochial privileges, appointing its own officers, maintaining its own poor, and repairing its own highways. Since the dilapidation of its church it has paid a contribution of one-sixth of the assessments towards the repair of that of Llanavan-Vawr, and one-third towards the church of LlanvihangelBryn-Pabuan, to which the inhabitants usually resort: the latter payment was probably a voluntary contribution in its origin, though it has been established by prescription and rendered compulsory. The township comprises 1366 acres, of which 150 are common or waste land.
LLYSIN, a hamlet, in the parish of Carno, union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 10 miles (N. W. by W.) from Newtown; containing 378 inhabitants. The waste lands of this place, as well as others in the contiguous parishes, were inclosed and allotted under an act of parliament obtained in the year 1816, commonly called the Arustley inclosure act.
LLŶSTYNHYNEDD, a hamlet, in the parish of Kîlken, union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales; containing 110 inhabitants.
LLŶSVAEN (LLŶS-FAEN), a parish, in the union of Conway, forming a detached portion of the hundred of Creuddyn, county of Carnarvon, and locally within the shire of Denbigh, in North Wales, 4 miles (W.) from Abergele, on the road to Conway; containing 679 inhabitants. This parish, which is extremely mountainous, comprises 1772 acres. It is bounded on the north by the Irish Sea, and is crossed by the railway and the turnpikeroad from Chester to Holyhead, close to the shore, which has a fine sandy beach. A considerable quantity of limestone is quarried from the rocks here, and shipped at Llandulas bay for Liverpool. The village consists of five houses only. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £12. 0. 5.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The tithes have been commuted for £41. 14. 9. payable to the bishop, £231. 16. 2. payable to the rector, £1. 10. to the parish-clerk here, and £14. 10. 1. to the vicar of Llandrillo-yn-Rhôs: the glebe, belonging to the rector, comprises twenty-one acres, valued at £45 per annum; and there is a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Cynvran, is a spacious edifice, consisting of a nave, chancel, and south aisle. There are one or two places of worship for dissenters; and a school in connexion with the Established Church, carried on here, has been endowed by Miss Crossley, of Dyfryn Dulas, to the amount of £24 a year, to be increased to £30 upon her decease. Of two Sunday schools in the parish, the larger belongs to the Wesleyans; the other is conducted on Church principles, and has an endowment of 5s. annually, arising from a gift of £5 by Sarah Butler, in 1751. Several sums left by different persons, and amounting to £40, were lent to the trustees of the Conway and St. Asaph turnpikeroad, and pay an interest of five per cent.; and an annuity of £2 was purchased, with a bequest of £50 by William Butler, Esq.: the produce of both charities, amounting to £4, is distributed among the poor at Christmas.
Some time ago an elegant gold ring, enamelled, and of good workmanship, weighing about an ounce, and bearing the name ALHSTAN, was found upon a mountain near the church: according to Mr. Pegge, it belonged to a military commander of that name in King Egbert's army, which invaded North Wales in 818. Another gold ring, heavier, and of rough workmanship, was picked up near the same place; and in 1826, a great number of silver coins, principally struck in the reigns of Stephen, Henry I., John, Edward I., and Edward III., and in an excellent state of preservation, were discovered. Upon the apex of the mountain a signal-staff telegraph was erected in 1827, which communicated with Voel-yNant, near Llanasaph, on the east, and Orme's Head on the west, forming part of the line of intercourse between Holyhead and Chester, lately disused.
LLŶSWEN (LLŶS-WEN), a parish, in the union of Hay, hundred of Tàlgarth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Hay, on the road to Builth; containing 172 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which implies "a fair palace," was anciently one of the residences of the native princes of South Wales. It comprises 1067 acres, whereof thirty-three are common or waste land. The village is situated on the river Wye, which is not navigable here; the neighbourhood is well wooded, and abounds with rich and beautifully picturesque scenery. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £3. 14. 7., and in the patronage of Joseph Bailey, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £96. 4.; and there is a glebe of thirty-seven acres, valued at £88 per annum. The church is a small edifice, close to the bank of the Wye. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other with the Calvinistic body.
Llangoed Castle is situated within the parish; the mansion was erected in 1632, which date, inscribed on a stone over the ancient doorway, is still remaining. The grounds are extensive, and comprehend some of the most attractive scenery in South Wales; and the surrounding eminences, some of which are very lofty, are clothed with stately and valuable timber to their summit. The river Wye, which here separates the counties of Brecknock and Radnor, skirts the demesne for nearly two miles and a half; it is sometimes hurried with impetuosity over its rocky channel, and at other times flows smoothly along its deeper bed, in some places more than forty feet in depth. The banks are richly planted with lofty trees, under which is a beautiful walk, extending through the grounds in a direction parallel with the course of the stream. The view from the church embraces a variety of scenery: to the east and south it extends over a fine tract of country towards Hay, including the village of Glâsbury, and the Black Mountains; to the north-west are seen the hills of Llangoed, ornamented with the finest forest-trees; and on the opposite bank of the Wye are the hills in the parishes of Boughrood and Llanstephan, Radnorshire. In the garden of an ornamental cottage near the church, is a tumulus, opposite to a remarkable horse-shoe bend of the river Wye.
Llŷsworney, or Llŷs-Werni (Lisworney)
LLŶSWORNEY, or LLŶS-WERNI (LISWORNEY), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Cowbridge, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 3 miles (W.) from Cowbridge; containing 175 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated in the fertile Vale of Glamorgan, near the turnpike-road leading from Cowbridge to Bridgend; the land is all inclosed and in a good state of cultivation: the surrounding scenery is pleasingly varied, and in the vicinity are some handsome residences. Little Nash, the seat of Mr. Carne, and Stenbridge, are both extra-parochial: in the former was a private chapel for the accommodation of the family, but divine service has not been performed in it within the memory of the oldest inhabitant. The living of Llŷsworney is a discharged vicarage, annexed to that of Lantwit-Major, rated in the king's books at £4. 7. 3½., and endowed with the great tithes of the parish. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £190, and there is a glebe of about three-quarters of an acre, valued at £1. 10. per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Tudvil, is not remarkable for any architectural details. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. A small village-school is supported, in connexion with the Established Church; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them conducted on Church principles, and the other belonging to the Calvinistic body.—See Nash.
LLŶS-Y-COED, a hamlet, in the parish of Kîlken, union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales; containing 95 inhabitants. Its name implies "the court, or mansion, in the wood," and is supposed to have described its ancient appearance.
LLYS-Y-VRÂN, a parish, in the poor-law union of Narberth, hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 7 miles (N. E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 191 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated nearly in the centre of the county, comprises a small tract of arable and pasture land, the whole, with only a very small exception, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation; the soil is various, but generally productive. The scenery, though not distinguished by any striking peculiarity of feature, is agreeably diversified; and the views over the adjacent country are interesting and extensive. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £3. 0. 5., endowed with £400 royal bounty, and in the patronage of Lord Milford and Col. Scourfield, the former of whom has two turns and the latter one: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £95; and there is a glebe of one acre, valued at £3 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Meilyr, who flourished about the middle of the fifth century, presents no architectural details of importance. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, in which a Sunday school is also held. In 1734, James Philipps left £220 for founding and endowing schools here and at East Walton, but this place has never derived any benefit from the bequest.
LLYWEL, a parish, in the hundred of Devynock, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales; containing 1684 inhabitants; and comprising the townships of Traian-Glâs, Traian-Mawr, and Is-Clydach, in one of which is situated the village of Trêcastle (an ancient ward of the borough of Brecknock), from which the rest of the parishioners obtain their letters. The name of this parish, originally Lle Wyllt, or "the place of Wyllt," appears to be derived from its having been selected as a station for his army by Idio Wyllt, or the Wild, an Irish nephew of Rhŷs ab Tewdwr, to whom (in gratitude for his services in suppressing the rebellion of his turbulent subjects) that prince had granted the lordship of Llywel, comprising all the lands on the east of the river Towy, from Llangadock to Abergwessin. Idio, with a view to strengthen himself against the opposition of the original inhabitants, who submitted to his authority with reluctance, married the daughter of Bleddyn ab Maenarch, Prince of Brycheiniog, and maintained a powerful force upon the heights of Llywel, which were well suited to his purpose. From this station, he could repel any attacks either from Brecknockshire or Carmarthenshire, and he could easily descend at any time into the vales on both sides, for the suppressions of rebellions, the procuring of supplies, or the enforcement of the payment of taxes. To the occupation of these heights by Idio, and the strong position of his army, may be attributed the preservation of the lordship of Llywel from falling into the hands of Bernard Newmarch, upon his conquest of the other parts of the ancient Brycheiniog.
The parish lies in the western part of the county, on the confines of Carmarthenshire, and is skirted by the river Usk. The turnpike-road from Brecknock to Llandovery passes through the village, which is distant about a mile north-north-westward from Trêcastle, and is also intersected by a small rivulet named Nant-y-Gwared: this rivulet here divides into two streams, which run in different directions, one southeastward into the Usk, and the other westward into the Towy. The surface is hilly, in some parts even mountainous; and from the highest elevation in the parish, called Trêcastle Mountain, and situated near its southern confines, descend numerous rivulets, that have worn themselves deep furrows, through which they flow in almost every direction. Of these, such as issue from the north side of the mountain join the river Gwydderig, which, flowing along the narrow vale of Cwm-y-Dwr, circumscribes its base on that side, and, pursuing a course westward, falls into the Towy river. The streams that descend on the south side of the heights are received by the river Usk, which runs along a broader vale than that of Cwm-yDwr, although the level meadow land on each side of the stream seldom exceeds a few yards in breadth: this river continues in an eastern course. The Usk has its rise in a pool termed Llyn-y-Van, between the lofty summits of two adjacent mountains, designated respectively Ban Brycheiniog and Ban Sir Gaer, the Brecknockshire and the Carmarthenshire Beacon, near the spot where this parish unites with that of Llanthoysaint in the county of Carmarthen. A range of hills connected with the Eppynt chain rises to the north of Trêcastle, and is intersected from north to south by two valleys, along one of which flows the river Kilieni, that separates Llywel parish from Llandeilio'r-Van; and along the other the river Clydach, that rises in this parish, and falls into the Usk a little above the bridge on the turnpike-road to Trêcastle, and gives name to the hamlet of Is-Clydach, situated on its south-eastern banks. The sides of the deep narrow dells which in several parts furrow the mountains, meet almost abruptly, and, though partly arable, are in some places clothed with underwood. The bridges in the parish, being generally on the turnpike-road, are kept in repair at the expense of the county. The woollen manufacture is crrried on here upon a limited scale, affording employment to a few of the inhabitants; there are two small factories, in each of which the wool is carded, spun, and woven into coarse cloth and blankets.
The living is a vicarage, rated in the king's books at £9. 10. 5.; present net income, £152; patron, the Bishop of St. David's; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of St. David's. Llywel church, once called Llantrisant, from its dedication to three saints, viz., David, Padarn, and Teilo, is an ancient structure, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a strong tower at the west end, and stands on ground of more lofty elevation than does perhaps any other church in Brecknockshire, except that of Penderin. The interior displays some vestiges of antiquity in the original roof, and the old rood-loft is still remaining. The parish-clerk, or sexton, claims and receives mortuaries on the interment of every person, except paupers, and the residents in Trêcastle, who pay four-pence in lieu of them; which claim was recognised by a terrier signed by the vicar and principal inhabitants of the parish, in 1800, and confirmed by the ecclesiastical court. These mortuaries consist of the best hat, wig, cravat, gloves, girdle, breeches, shoes, and stockings of the deceased, if a male; and if a wife or widow, of the best hood, cap, riband, handkerchief, gloves, and shoes and stockings; for which a composition may be made at the option of the surviving relatives of the deceased. In the hamlet of Is-Clydach is the endowed chapel of Rhŷd-yBriw. There are three places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, and one each for Baptists and Independents. A day school in connexion with the Established Church is held at Trêcastle; and the parish contains nine Sunday schools, two of which, at Llywel and Trêcastle, are conducted on Church principles. It has frequently enjoyed the benefit of one of Mrs. Bevan's circulating schools, and on one occasion, commencing in 1822, for four years successively. John Jeffreys, of London, in 1706, or about that time, bequeathed £5 per annum to the poor of the parish, charged upon the impropriate tithes of Merthyr-Cynog; this has since become a rent-charge on a tenement called Cwmllwyvog, and a meadow named Waunddû, in this parish, and is paid by John Lloyd Vaughan Watkins, Esq., of Pennoyre, near Brecknock, whose ancestor purchased the at property. Roger Jeffreys, of Berthddû, in the parish, in 1714, charged certain lands near Rhŷd-y-Briw, with the annual payment of 20s., to be distributed among the poor of the hamlet of Is-Clydach. The Via Julia Montana, from Caerleon to Carmarthen, passed through the parish from east to west; some vestiges of it were to be seen near Rhŷd-y-Briw about half a century since.
LOUGHOR (LLYCHWYR), a hamlet, in the parish of Llanedy, union of Llanelly, hundred of Carnawllon, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 13 miles (N. N. W.) from Swansea: the population is returned with the parish. The road from Pont-ar-Ddulas to Llandebie passes through the hamlet, and is carried for the greater part along the ridge of a hill, overlooking a valley on each side, the declivities of which are ornamented with thick plantations and inclosures. The Loughor river bounds the hamlet on the east, and separates the parish from Glamorganshire. Anthracite coal of the best quality is found here, and an extensive colliery has been opened, called the "Pontyfynnon," within a quarter of a mile of the Llanelly railway, on which are two locomotive engines of considerable power, plying daily between Llanelly and Cwmamman, and which is joined by a branch from this hamlet across the river Loughor.
Loughor, or Castell-Llychwr
LOUGHOR, or CASTELL-LLYCHWR, a borough and parish, in the poor-law union of Llanelly, hundred of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Swansea, 50 miles (W. by N.) from Cardiff, and 211 (w.) from London; containing 854 inhabitants, of whom 570 reside within the limits of the borough. This place derives its names from its situation on the river Llychwr, or Loughor; the latter name of the town signifying "the fortification on the Llychwr." It is supposed by many to have been the Leucarum of Antoninus; and this opinion is corroborated by the similarity of the names, and the discovery, at various times, of numerous relics, among which may be mentioned a coin of the Emperor Trajan, found in the bed of the river, about 200 yards westward from the town. The supposition is also confirmed by the direction of the Roman Julia Strata, which from the station Nidus, at Neath, passed westward through this town, and near a place in its vicinity still called Câdle, or "the field of battle," where, at some remote period, a conflict is thought to have taken place, of which no particulars have been related. Loughor was anciently designated Trêv Avanc, from the great number of beavers abounding in the neighbouring rivers; Avanc being the old Welsh, or Celtic, name of the beaver. Few historical events in connexion with it are recorded; the castle is said to have been erected by Henry Beaumont, Earl of Warwick, who, in or about the year 1099, entered Gower, and having made himself master of considerable territories, built this fortress and the castles of Swansea, Penrice, and Llanrhidian. In 1150, Meredydd and Rhŷs, sons of Grufydd ab Rhŷs, attacked and laid waste the country of Gower, and made themselves masters of the town and castle of "Aberllychwr," the former of which, according to Warrington, they levelled with the ground, after plundering the inhabitants, and the latter they completely dismantled. In the reign of Edward II. the castle was granted by that monarch to Hugh le Despencer, by whom it is supposed to have been rebuilt; but it seems never to have regained its original importance, nor the town to have entirely recovered from the desolation it had previously suffered.
The parish is situated on the western confines of the county, and is bounded on the west by the river Loughor, which separates it from the county of Carmarthen, and discharges itself into the Bristol Channel: this river is fordable for two hours before, and two hours after, low water. Loughor is bounded on the north by Llandeilo parish, on the south by Llanrhidian, on the east by Llangyvelach, and on the south-east by Swansea; and comprises by admeasurement 3029 acres, of which 1029, consisting of 283 arable and 746 pasture, are within the limits of the borough, and of the remaining 2000 acres, 700 are arable and 1300 meadow. The surface is undulated, and the chief produce wheat and oats. Though of very small extent, and mostly of rather mean appearance, the town contains a few genteel residences, one of which, called the Sanctuary, is supposed to have been anciently part of the manor of Millwood, or St. John, near Swansea, and the property of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. The river Loughor flows on the northern side of the town, whilst the Llyw, which falls into the former a short distance southsouth-westward from the church, runs on the southern; and as the tide regularly flows and ebbs in these rivers twice in every twenty-four hours, the air is rendered salubrious, and the situation of the town is consequently deemed remarkably healthy. An act of parliament was obtained some fifteen or twenty years since for erecting a bridge over the Loughor, and for constructing a turnpike-road from the town to Carmarthen, which improvements have greatly contributed to its prosperity. The South Wales railway, also, now in progress, will pass by the town, and cross the river by a bridge, just below the present bridge.
The whole parish, which is divided into two parts, called respectively the Parish and the Borough, abounds with mineral wealth; and several veins of excellent coal, of considerable thickness, extend entirely through it, in a direction from east to west, and have been worked to a depth of from twenty to forty fathoms. Chemical works were formerly carried on, and there was a manufactory for zinc: on the western bank of the river, in Carmarthenshire, immediately opposite the town, are the Spytty copper-works, which, after having for some time been wholly discontinued, were lately re-opened, and are now in active and increasing operation. In the year 1846 an act was passed authorizing the construction of a railway from the Coalbrook collieries, near Loughor, to Swansea; the name of the line to be, Cameron's Coalbrook Steam-coal and Swansea and Loughor Railway. The river, from the bridge to its mouth, a distance of twelve miles, is called Burry River. It is navigable at high tides for vessels of 200 tons' burthen; and during spring tides there are from eleven to fourteen feet of water in the wharfs here, productive of great advantage to the trade of the place, which is principally carried on with Ireland, the coasts of Devon and Cornwall, France, &c. There is no market; but fairs for the sale of live-stock are annually held on the first Monday in June, and October 10th.
The government of the town, which is a borough by prescription, under the style or title of "The Portreeve, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the borough of Loughor," is vested in a steward, portreeve, recorder, twelve aldermen, and an unlimited number of burgesses, assisted by two serjeants-at-mace, a layer-keeper, an ale-taster, and two haywards. The steward and recorder are appointed by the Duke of Beaufort, lord of the borough. The portreeve is annually chosen from among the aldermen at Michaelmas, and, having qualified at the quarter-sessions for the county, may act as a magistrate within the borough; the serjeants-at-mace, layer-keeper, &c., are elected at a court leet, and sworn in before the recorder, and the portreeve going out of office. Loughor was one of the contributory boroughs which, with Cardiff, returned a member to parliament; the right of voting was in the aldermen and burgesses at large, in number 212, of whom forty-five were resident in the borough. By the act of 1832, for "Amending the Representation of the People," it has been included in the newly-formed district composed of the boroughs of Swansea, Aberavon, Kenvig, Loughor, and Neath, to send a representative to parliament. The elective franchise is now vested in the old resident burgesses, if duly registered according to the provisions of the act, and in every male person of full age occupying, either as owner, or as tenant under the same landlord, a house or other premises in the borough of the annual value of at least £10, provided he be capable of registering as the act demands. The number of tenements of this value within the limits of the borough, which were not altered by the act, is thirty-five.
The freedom is inherited by all the sons of a freeman, and may be acquired by seven years' apprenticeship to a resident freeman, by marriage with a freeman's daughter, or by gift, in which latter case it is conferred by a jury of twenty-four burgesses, chosen indiscriminately from the burgesses at large, and of whom the portreeve for the preceding year is always the foreman. The freemen exercised a right of common on the waste lands of the borough; but in 1833 an act of parliament was passed for inclosing those grounds, amounting to about 600 acres; under the provisions of which, after setting apart a sufficient portion of the property to be sold to defray the expenses of the act, one-fourteenth part in value of the waste was to be allotted to the lord of the borough, and the remainder to the portreeve, aldermen, and burgesses; the right of the lord to the mines, being reserved to him. The corporation are empowered by prescriptive right, recognised by statutes of the 34th and 35th of Henry VIII., to hold a court of record, every third Monday, for the recovery of debts to any amount; but this privilege does not appear to have been exercised within the last sixty years, nor is there evidence of any process to hold to bail having ever issued from the court. A court baron was formerly held monthly, before the portreeve, recorder, and a jury of six burgesses, for the recovery of debts to any amount within the limits of the borough.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £9. 10. 5., and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £210; and there is a glebe of eight acres, with a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, and situated within the limits of the borough, occupies the summit of an eminence commanding an extensive prospect over the surrounding country; it is a small modern structure, of neat appearance, and contains about 300 sittings, which, though appropriated to the different estates, are all free, except those in the chancel. At a place called Groft-yCapel was formerly a chapel of ease, as the name and ancient maps indicate; but nothing is now visible, beyond an undulated form of the ground, beneath which probably the foundations are concealed. There is a small place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. A day school is held, in connexion with the Established Church; and the parish has three Sunday schools, one of them conducted on Church principles, and the others belonging to the Calvinistic Methodists, and Independents. No charitable trusts have ever been confided to the corporate body, and the only one in the out-parish was one of £10, supposed to have been the gift of William John, the interest of which used to be distributed among the poor till the sum was expended many years ago on the repairs of the roads, since which no interest has been paid.
Of the ancient castle there are yet some remains, consisting principally of a square tower, thought to have been the keep, and still in a tolerable state of preservation; it occupies the summit of an artificial mount, which is considered to have been originally thrown up by the Romans, and is surrounded by a double intrenchment. The remains of an old watercourse, also conjectured to be of Roman construction, by which water for the supply of the garrison was conveyed from the small river Llyw, are likewise plainly discernible. Traces of the Julia Strata may be seen upon the Carmarthenshire hills on the western side of the river Loughor, pointing directly to this place; and within the grounds of the rectory is preserved a large stone rudely wrought, which may have been a Roman milliary, though by others it is supposed to have belonged to the sanctuary of the Knights of St. John before alluded to. In the vicinity of Câdle, and near the boundary of the parish, are two small square encampments of Roman origin, on a common designated Mynydd Carn Gôch. The ancient town, which was destroyed by the sons of Grufydd ab Rhŷs, is said to have occupied an eminence to the south-east of the castle; and the site still retains the name of the Borough: at a short distance to the south, on the marsh, stood the old church, the site of which is still called Story Mihangel. The strata in the coal districts in the parish furnish specimens of fossilized vegetable remains, including fern, acorns, leaves of various trees, pine and oak timber, &c., which substances have been found in that state at a depth varying from seventy to eighty feet below the surface. A celebrated performer on the violin, named Hugh, who is reported to have composed many of the most popular airs in the "Beggar's Opera," was a native of this place.
LOVESTON, a parish, in the union and hundred of Narberth, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Narberth; containing 170 inhabitants. This parish is situated in the south-eastern part of the county, and intersected by the turnpike-road leading from Pembroke to Carmarthen. It comprises a moderate extent of arable and pasture land, the whole inclosed and cultivated; the soil is fertile and productive. The substratum is partly stone-coal of good quality, but it is not at present worked; only a small quantity of culm being raised, sufficient for the immediate supply of the inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £4. 5. 5., and endowed with £600 royal bounty; present net income, £109; patron, Earl Cawdor. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £90; and there is a glebe of two acres, valued at £5 per annum.
LUDCHURCH, a parish, in the union and hundred of Narberth, county of Pembroke, in South Wales, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Narberth; containing 220 inhabitants. This parish lies in the south-eastern part of the county, about two miles eastward from the road between Narberth and Tenby. Its surface is uneven, and the soil of various kinds: the lands are but partially inclosed and cultivated. The substratum is limestone of very superior quality, which is worked upon an extensive scale: the stone is susceptible of a beautiful polish, and many slabs raised from the quarries have been manufactured into elegant mantel-pieces, and used for other ornamental purposes; it is also burnt for manure, there being no fewer than six kilns for this purpose in constant operation, for the supply of the more northern parts of the county. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £3. 14. 4½., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £84; and there is a glebe of ten acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Elidyr, is a neat and well-built edifice, situated in a bleak part of the parish, on a limestone rock, which has been quarried all round, leaving the sacred fabric many feet above the level of the adjacent surface. A meeting-house was built a few years ago by the Baptists and Independents conjointly.
LYGAN-Y-LLAN (HELYGEN-LLAN), a hamlet, in the parish of Halkin, union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 3 miles (S. E. by S.) from Holywell; containing 689 inhabitants. This hamlet, in which the parochial church is situated, derives its name from a saint called Lugan, of whom very little is known, but whose name occurs in the Welsh calendar. Lead-mines abound, in which many of the inhabitants are employed; and the late Sir George Wynne is stated to have cleared £300,000 from a single mine, discovered under a tenement in the hamlet.—See Halkin.
LYGAN-Y-WERN (HELYGEN-Y-WERN), a hamlet, in the parish of Halkin, union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 2 miles (S. E. by S.) from Holywell; containing 576 inhabitants. It is situated on the road between Halkin and Holywell, and includes some lead-mines, in the working of which the inhabitants of the hamlet are chiefly employed.
Lythan's St. (St. Lythian)
LYTHAN'S, ST. (ST. LYTHIAN), a parish, in the union of Cardiff, hundred of Dinas-Powys, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Cardiff; containing 110 inhabitants. It is situated on elevated ground, overlooking both sides of the Vale of Glamorgan, about a mile south of the turnpike-road leading from Cardiff to Cowbridge. From the common is obtained one of the most extensive, luxuriant, and diversified prospects in South Wales. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the great tithes, rated in the king's books at £6. 1. 3.; present net income, £199, with a glebe-house; patron, the Archdeacon of Llandaf. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £140, and the glebe contains forty-one acres, valued at £40 per annum. A day school in the parish is partly supported by Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Pryce, of Dyfryn House in the vicinity, who succeeded to the estate on the death of the late Hon. Mrs. Grey. The sum of £10 was bequeathed by Mr. Thomas Williams, for the benefit of the poor. There is a cromlech on a farm belonging to the Dyfryn estate; it is near the road-side, about half a mile west of the church, on the approach to Dyfryn village.—See Nicholas', St.