A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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CARNGIWCH (CARN-GIWG), a parish, in the union of Pwllheli, hundred of Gaflogion, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 5 miles (N.) from Pwllheli, on the road from Carnarvon; containing 119 inhabitants. This parish, which is supposed to derive its name from the principal mountain in it, called Mynydd Carngiwch, is bounded by the parishes of Llanelhaiarn, Pistill, Llannor, and Llangybi, and contains by admeasurement 1344 statute acres. It lies on the north coast of the promontory of Lleyn. The surface is for the most part mountainous, and the soil is gravelly, with much heathy land; but in the valleys there is some rich soil, and even the sloping sides of the hills yield good crops of oats and potatoes, and, occasionally, small quantities of barley. A tolerable number of horned-cattle and pigs are reared and sold annually, and many sheep are likewise bred. There is a river named Avon Cydrhos, which abounds with trout, and in the season is visited by some salmon; also two brooks crossing the road towards Nevin, one called Frwd Blaena, forming a boundary of the parish towards Pistill, and the other termed Avon Mur-y-Goeden, separating it from Llanelhaiarn. On the summit of Mynydd or Moel Carngiwch is a vast heap of loose stones, generally thought to be a carnedd, but said by popular tradition to have been thrown down by a giantess, who carried them thither in her apron. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Edern: the tithes, payable to the rector of Edern, have been commuted for a rent-charge of £45 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Beuno, and in which divine service is performed every two Sundays out of three, is a small neat edifice, built, with the exception of the east end, in 1828; it is thirtynine feet long and twenty-one broad, and contains one pew erected previously to 1622, with twenty-four sittings or benches.
CARNO, a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 11 miles (W. N. W.) from Newtown; containing 995 inhabitants. In 948, a battle was fought here for the sovereignty of North Wales, between Ievav and Iago, the sons of Edwal Voel, and the sons of Hywel Dda, late King of all Wales, which terminated in favour of the former. In 1077, or, according to some, in 1082, an eminence called Mynydd Carn, from a large carnedd upon it, commemorative of some distinguished warrior of a still more remote period, was the scene of one of the most sanguinary battles ever fought in the principality, between Grufydd ab Cynan, rightful sovereign of North Wales, aided by Rhŷs ab Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales, and Trahaern ab Caradoc, who then usurped the throne. In this battle the latter was defeated and slain, after a sharp and obstinate conflict, with the flower of his army; and Grufydd succeeded to the throne, which he filled for fifty-seven years, dying in 1137: his biography is preserved in the Welsh Archaeology, from which he appears to have been distinguished by strong and decisive powers of mind. The scene of this conflict is by some fixed at Carno, in Brecknockshire, but the event may possibly be confounded with an engagement that took place there, in 728, between Rhodri Molwynog, and Ethelbald, King of Mercia.
The parish is bounded partly on the north and on the north-east by that of Llanlligan, and partly on the north and on the north-west by Llanbrynmair, on the south-east by Llanwnnog, and on the south by Trêveglwys. It comprises nearly 5000 acres, of which 3000 are mountainous, 1700 arable and pasture, and 300 woodland. The soil is a cold wet clay; the farmers depend on cattle and sheep rather than on grain. The scenery is singularly picturesque and romantic, the surface consisting principally of hill and dale, deep ravines and precipitous steeps, through which rapid mountain streams burst in every direction, forming numerous beautiful cascades, and whitening their rocky course with perpetual foam. The hills, some of which are of great elevation, command fine views of the Vale of Carno and the surrounding eminences, and their bases and vicinities are enlivened by the courses of the Avon, Carno, Cleddon, and Llwyd streams. Sir Watkin W. Wynn, Bart., is the principal landed proprietor, and the lord of the manor. The village, which has a neat and interesting appearance, is situated on the road from Newtown to Machynlleth. There is a turbary in the parish, where peat is obtained for the consumption of the adjoining district. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; net income, £95; patron and impropriator, Sir Watkin W. Wynn. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is an unadorned stone edifice, built in 1807, and capable of accommodating 300 persons: the original structure belonged to the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who are said to have had a house near it. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; and several Sunday schools.
Caron-Uwch-Clawdd, or Strata-Florida
CARON-UWCH-CLAWDD, or STRATA-FLORIDA, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Trêgaron, partly in the hundred of Ilar, and partly in the Upper division of the hundred of Penarth, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 6 miles (N. E.) from Trêgaron; containing 819 inhabitants. Near the source of the river Teivy, in the vicinity of this place, a sanguinary battle was fought, in 1042, between Grufydd ab Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales, and Hywel, Prince of South Wales, who, having been previously discomfited by Grufydd, was pursued hither, and, in this second action, was slain, together with a great part of his army. Caron is distinguished as the site of a celebrated abbey for Cistercian monks, erected here in 1164, by Rhŷs, son of Grufydd, the reigning Prince of South Wales, under the name of Strata-Florida, or, as it is called by the Welsh, Ystrad Flur; it was probably raised on the site of a smaller foundation for religious of some order or other, and the endowment then given to it was confirmed by the sons of Rhŷs, in the presence of their army, in the church of Rhaiadr, and subsequently by Henry II. Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Wales, desirous of determining, before his death, the succession to the sovereignty, convened a meeting of all the Welsh chieftains at Strata-Florida, where they renewed their oaths of allegiance, and did homage to Davydd, his son by the English princess, in preference to his elder brother Grufydd. During the early wars between the English and the Welsh, the monastery frequently sustained considerable damage. In the 23rd of Edward I. it was destroyed by fire; but the king gave the abbot permission to rebuild it, and granted the sum of £78 towards defraying the expense. From this period it continued to flourish in the possession of ample endowments, including a large tract of adjacent country, besides lands at a distance; and was the place of interment, as it had previously been, of many of the Welsh sovereigns and nobility, of whom Prince Rhŷs, its founder or refounder, was buried here in 1196. It afforded an asylum for learned men during various succeeding ages, amongst whom was Gutyn Owain, an eminent Welsh poet, herald, and historian, of the fifteenth century, who made this his principal abode, and here probably compiled some of his most elaborate works. Several of the public records of the principality were deposited in this abbey, in common with that of Conway; among the rest was the Chronicle of Caradoc of Llancarvan, which was a collection of the successions and acts of the British princes after Cadwaladr, to the year 1156, by Caradoc, afterwards continued in these monasteries until the year 1270, and forming a complete registry of the most notable occurrences in the island, particularly of those in connexion with the principality. The revenue of the monastery, at the time of the Dissolution, was estimated at £122. 6. 8. A mansion was afterwards erected here by John Stedman, Esq., which, together with the estate, has become the property of the Powell family, by marriage with an heiress of the Stedmans, and is now occupied by a farmer. About two miles distant from the abbey ruins are the remains of an old building named "Yr hên Monachlog," which is thought to have been a cell to the monastery: indeed, according to some writers, the supposed smaller foundation already referred to was at this spot, until absorbed in 1164 in the newlyraised abbey.
The chapelry comprises about 18,000 acres, of which one-seventh part is arable, about 300 acres woodland, and the remainder pasture and waste, chiefly consisting of mountainous land. Its surface is generally of a wild character, and in some parts, especially in the vale of the river Towy, the scenery is very grand. The district is intersected by numerous rivers and brooks, the most considerable being the Towy and the Teivy; and in the vicinity, near the summit of a chain of hills that separates the counties of Cardigan and Brecknock, and surrounded by a dreary tract of moorland, is a cluster of lakes, six in number, the principal of which is Llyn Teivy, where the river Teivy has its source. The soil is various, in the Vale of Teivy being a heavy clay, and in the upper parts of the chapelry of a light and sandy nature; the chief produce comprises wheat, barley, oats, and potatoes. The prevailing kinds of timber are oak, birch, and fir. A lead-mine was lately opened, which employs a few hands. Just beyond the borders of the chapelry is the village of Pont-rhyd-vendigaid, situated on the bank of the Teivy, and celebrated as a fishing station.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; net income, £80; patron, Col. Powell. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £387, and the vicarial, payable to the incumbent of Trêgaron, for one of £120. 7., with a glebe of twentyfour acres, valued at £36 per annum. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small edifice of plain appearance, erected in the year 1815; it measures in the interior fifty-four feet long and twenty-one broad, and the number of sittings is 400, including three pews allotted respectively to the incumbent and two of the landed proprietors.
The buildings of the ancient monastery, which were of considerable extent and magnificence, occupied a somewhat romantic situation, environed on three sides by a lofty chain of barren hills, and overlooking the Vale of the Teivy. The parts remaining are, an arched gateway, of curious Norman architecture, differing greatly from other specimens of that style, and of great beauty; and a portion of the north transept, of lofty elevation. Various sculptured fragments of freestone, some glazed tiles, painted glass, and other relics, indicating the past grandeur of these buildings, have been occasionally dug up; and two seals, one circular, about the size of a crown piece, and bearing the arms of the abbey, and the other elliptical, having a representation of the Madona and Child, have been found within the last half century in the adjacent grounds. The old cemetery was inclosed by a rude stone wall, and is said to have comprised 120 acres of ground, being the exact quantity of the abbey land now tithe-free. Leaden coffins have been frequently dug up in the cemetery, and it contained, according to Leland, thirty-nine yew-trees, though others say twenty-four, under one of which, as tradition reports, Davydd ab Gwilym, the noted bard of this county, was interred.
CARREGHOVA (CAREG-HWVA), a township, in the parish of Llanymynech, union of Llanvyllin, hundred of Chirk, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Oswestry; containing 388 inhabitants. This township comprises 1223 acres, whereof 213 are common or waste land. It is situated between the rivers Tanat and Vyrnwy, which unite here; and forms a detached portion of the county of Denbigh, lying between Shropshire and Montgomeryshire. It is considered rich in mineral strata, which were formerly worked by the Romans, of whom various remains, such as coins, a skeleton of a human figure, &c., have been discovered; but its greatest produce is a species of light-coloured marble, streaked with red and white veins, and easily convertible into lime of superior quality, which is distributed over a considerable district. A branch connecting the Montgomeryshire and Ellesmere canals commences here and proceeds through the township, crossing the river Vyrnwy by an aqueduct; and facility of communication is afforded by the road from Llanymynech to Welshpool. Of the castle which once stood here, on the banks of the Tanat, little remains, except some vestiges of the fosse on the east side. It was captured, in 1162, by Owain Cyveiliog and Owain ab Madoc, two cousins, who retained possession of it about twenty-five years, when it was finally reduced by Cadwallon and Gwenwynwyn, sons of Owain Cyveiliog, after having slain Owain ab Madoc, their father's former colleague. At Gwern-y-Vign, within half a mile of the castle, a battle took place in 1202. The ancient mansion of Carreghova Hall has long since disappeared, and has been succeeded by a modern farmhouse. Offa's Dyke passes near the eastern boundary of the township, which approaches close to the village of Llanymynech; and at the south-western border, overhanging the river Vyrnwy, below where that stream is joined by the Tanat, rises a triangular mound, surrounded by a deep fosse, called Clawdd Côch, or "the red dyke," which Sir Richard Colt Hoare supposes to be the ancient Mediolanum. Some have placed that station at Meivod, ten miles higher up the river; but this site agrees better with the relative distances from Bovium and Rutunium in the Itinerary of Antoninus. The township is separately assessed for its own poor. A bequest of £1 per annum for eight poor maids, or widows, of the township, frequenting the church of Llanymynech, left by an unknown benefactor, is paid by the rector. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £166, and there is a glebe of about ten acres and a half, valued at £23. 15. per annum.
CASCOB, a parish, in the union of Presteign, partly within the liberties of the borough of New Radnor, county of Radnor, South Wales, and partly in a detached portion of the hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, the latter portion of the parish constituting part of the township of Litton and Cascob, the remainder of which is in the parish of Presteign. The township of Cascob, in Radnorshire, so called because comprehending only a portion of the parish, is however, in consequence of its containing the church and greater part of the parish, commonly called the parish of Cascob. The church is about five miles west-north-west of the town of Presteign, and from the circumstance of the rectoryhouse being in the Herefordshire township of Litton and Cascob, the place has the singular anomaly of the church and rectory-house being, not only in two different counties, but also the one in England and the other in Wales. The population of the parish in 1841 was 172 persons, of whom 127 were returned as inhabitants of the township of Cascob, and 45 for the portion of Litton and Cascob, the whole of the latter township being returned as containing 102 persons.
This parish, called in Domesday Book Cascope, is crossed by a bye-road which is the nearest route from Presteign to Rhaiadr; and is bounded on the north by the parishes of Presteign and Blethva, on the south by Old Radnor, on the east by Presteign, and on the west by Blethva, Llanvihangel-Rhyd-Ithon, and New Radnor. It comprises 3373a. 3r. 10p., the whole of which is by admeasurement, except about 250 acres of uninclosed land that are by computation; 2836a. 17p. are in the county of Radnor, and the remainder in that of Hereford, and of the aggregate number of acres, upwards of one-half is uninclosed mountain land. The soil is in general light, and incumbent on a gravelly and, in some places, rocky subsoil, which lies at but a small depth below the surface. Wheat, barley, oats, peas, turnips, and potatoes form part of the produce, but the crops of hay and the extensive pastures constitute the chief agricultural return. A small stream, called Gawen brook, rises in the parish in two different sources, one in the western part, and the other on the southwest side, the two branches uniting at a distance of about a mile from their respective springs, and forming first the boundary between the parishes of Cascob and Old Radnor, and subsequently that between the township of Cascob and the township of Litton with Cascob: the stream also forms the division between the counties of Hereford and Radnor, until it joins the river Lug, where the isolated part of Herefordshire terminates. The surface of the parish is various, part being composed of a narrow plain, bordered by gentle ascents, and part rising gradually to a considerable elevation, and constituting part of the forest of Radnor.
The township of Cascob comprises the manors of Ackwood and Cwmygerwyn, which were formerly a part of the Marches, and belonged to the crown, being specifically reserved to it in the charter granted to the borough of New Radnor. On the inclosure of waste lands in this township, pursuant to an act passed in the 53rd of George III., ten acres and three roods were assigned to the crown in Ackwood, and ninety acres and two roods at Cwmygerwyn, in lieu of manorial rights. Both these allotments, however, were afterwards alienated, the former to the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, for augmenting the benefice of Stow in Shropshire, and the latter to Richard Price, Esq., who subsequently purchased the royalty thereof, which had been reserved in the first instance. The manor of Litton and Cascob is parcel of that of Stapleton, and belonged to the Harley family, until purchased by—Evelyn, Esq.: the mesne manor is the property of W. E. Richardes, Esq. The freeholders resident in this isolated part of Wigmore hundred, Herefordshire, have, since the passing of the Reform act, voted in the election of the member of parliament for Radnorshire, instead of, as formerly, sharing in the election of the members for county Hereford.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 0. 7½., and endowed with £200 royal bounty, with which a farm of about eleven acres in the parish was purchased; patron, the Bishop of St. David's: the tithes were commuted in 1841 for a rent-charge of £143, and there is a glebe-house, with a glebe of fourteen acres. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, and supposed to have been erected about the fourteenth century, is a small structure, fifty-six feet in length, exclusive of the chancel, and nineteen in breadth; and contains 162 sittings. It consists of a nave, chancel, and a low tower, the last surmounted by a shed, ending in a point, containing two bells. The edifice has two windows, containing each two lancet-headed compartments, divided by a stone mullion: on the south side is a large window having three trefoil-headed compartments, partly ornamented with two stone mullions, and measuring seven feet in height, and six in width. A Sunday school in connexion with the Established Church was commenced in 1840. On an elevated situation in the western part of this parish, bordering on that of New Radnor, is a low mound of dark peat earth, called the Black Mixed; and near the junction of the two brooks, on the south-west side of the western portion of the parish, is the site of an ancient mansion, surrounded by a moat, inclosing a circular area more than one hundred feet in diameter. The present house called "the Moat" is built within the ancient moat, on the north-west side of the area. There is a slight embankment on the edge of the area, which is highest on the western side, probably constructed for defence.
Castel-Dauyran (Castell Dwyran or Dyram,)
CASTEL-DAUYRAN (CASTELL DWYRAN or DYRAM,) a chapelry, in the parish of Killymaenllwyd, union of Narberth, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Derllŷs, county Carmarthen, and partly in the hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 4½ miles (N. E.) from Narberth; containing 61 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, united to the rectory of Killymaenllwyd. This place is supposed to have taken its name from a castle called Castell Dwy Ran, which anciently stood near the chapel, and which formed part of the possessions held by two sisters; but the castle has long since been demolished, and no vestige of it remains.
CASTELLA (CASTELLAU), a hamlet, in the parish of Llantrissent, union of Cardiff, hundred of Miskin, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 2 miles (N.) from Llantrissent, with which the population is returned. This hamlet contains some coal-works. Here is a neat mansion, anciently the seat of the Trahearne family, the grounds of which, being disposed with great taste, impart an air of cheerfulness and beauty to a scene naturally grand.
CASTELLAN, a chapelry, in the parish of Penrith, union of Newcastle-Emlyn, hundred of Kîlgerran, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Cardigan; containing 141 inhabitants. It forms an extensive portion of the parish, and is situated at the northern foot of the Vrenni-Vawr mountain, the second in height in the county. The chapel is in ruins, but the incumbent of the parish receives an annual payment of a guinea from Lord Milford, the impropriator. There is a small place of worship for Baptists, on the borders of this chapelry and the parish of LlanvihangelPenbedw.
CASTLE-BIGH (CASTLE-BEITH), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 266 inhabitants. The parish occupies some high ground, near the source of a tributary of the Western Cleddau river. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the church is dedicated to St. Michael. On the border of the parish are the remains of a Roman encampment, through which runs the high road separating the parishes of CastleBigh and Ambleston, and which is minutely described in the account of the latter place. There is another encampment near the church, fortified with double ramparts, and occupying about four acres of ground. A house in the parish, called "Poll-Tax Inn," received its name from having been the place where that tax was collected.
CASTLE-CAER-EINION, a parish, partly within the liberties of the borough of Welshpool, partly in the Upper division of the hundred of Cawrse, and partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Mathraval, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 3½ miles (W. S. W.) from Welshpool; containing 805 inhabitants. This place is stated to derive its name from Einion Yrth, tenth son of Cunedda Wledig, King of Cambria, to whom, in the sixth century, it was given by that sovereign, on dividing the country among his twelve sons. On a conical hill, half a mile to the north-east of the village, was Einion's camp, probably called Castell yn Nghaer Einion, or, according to some, Castell, or Caer, Einion, where Madog ab Meredydd, Prince of Powys, built a castle in the year 1151, which was burnt by Owain Cyveiliog in 1166: some of the intrenchments are discernible, but there are no remains of the castle. About the year 1109, Madoc ab Ririd, a lawless chieftain of North Wales, being at enmity with his uncle Iorwerth, the petty sovereign of a surrounding territory, concealed himself among the rocks and woods, with a body of outlawed followers; and having received intelligence that Iorwerth intended on a certain night to sleep at this place, surrounded it at midnight, aided by his ally, Llywarch ab Trahaern; when, the prince and his attendants defending it with great valour, the assailants set fire to it. The inmates then endeavoured to escape, and some of them succeeded in fighting their way through the enemy, whilst others were slain in the attempt, and the rest perished in the fire. Iorwerth himself made a vigorous effort to extricate himself from the weapons of his assailants, but was driven back, and fell a sacrifice to the flames. His brother Cadwgan, having succeeded to his territory, was killed in like manner by his ferocious nephew.
The parish is bounded on the north by Guilsfield, on the north-east by Welshpool, on the south by Berriew, on the south-west by Manavon, and on the west by Llanvair-Caer-Einion; and comprises (by admeasurement) 5984 acres, of which (by computation) 2950 are arable, 2100 meadow and pasture, 634 woodland, and 300 common. The surface consists of hill and dale, much even of the former of which is cultivated; the soil is partly gravelly and partly a clayey loam, and the chief produce wheat and barley: the only streams are the Hydan and Moydog brooks. The gentlemen's seats here are Dôlarddin Hall and Trêvnant Hall. At the former place, the Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., is said to have lodged one night, on his march against King Richard III.; but the old house has been almost wholly taken down, and a modern residence erected in its stead. The village is situated on the road from Berriew to Llanvair, and that from Welshpool to Llanvair also runs through the parish. The high grounds, especially the summit of the Berwydd chain of hills, embrace picturesque views of the adjacent vales and hills. That portion of the parish which is within the liberties of Welshpool consists of the townships of Gaer, Sylvaen, Trêv Helyg, and Trêvnant, and part of that of Castle-Caer-Einion.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £12. 17. 6.; patron, Bishop of St. Asaph: the incumbent's tithes have been exchanged for a rentcharge of £637, with a glebe-house, and a glebe of seventeen acres; and certain tithes belonging to the parish clerk have been commuted for a rent-charge of £7.17. The church, dedicated to St. Garmon, is a neat unadorned edifice of stone, partly rebuilt in 1813 and 1814; its length is about seventy-one feet, and the breadth twenty-four: there are fifty pews, and a considerable number of other sittings. Here are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Independents, and Wesleyan Methodists. A free school is endowed with property arising from a gift of £400 by David Thomas, Esq. in 1797, for the instruction of children whose parents do not rent property of the value of £30 per annum: there are about seventy children in the school, forty of whom are taught by aid of the above endowment, which produces £18 per annum to the master. Another school was established in 1844, by the dissenters of the neighbourhood; and the parish contains six or seven Sunday schools, one of which belongs to the Established Church. The aggregate value of the charities amounts to about £42 per annum, of which £16 are distributed in sums varying from 1s. to 7s.; a sum of £3. 18. is annually expended in bread among poor old persons on alternate Sundays; and the remainder is disposed of in purchasing warm clothing for the most needy and deserving objects. The principal source of this fund was a bequest of £300 by Mrs. Hannah Lloyd in 1692, with which an estate was purchased called the Glyn, in the parish of Manavon, consisting of forty acres, ten of which are arable, and the remainder rough pasture and coppice, the whole now yielding a rent of £32. Of this rent the parish receives £23. 6. 6., the residue being apportioned between Berriew and Forden. About thirty or forty years since, timber was cut on the property, out of the proceeds of which a school-house and barn were erected, and the balance, amounting to £123, was placed out and produces £6. 3. per annum interest. The other charities are, a rent-charge of £2 on an estate called the Golfa, in the parish of Pool, by Thomas Langford, in 1719; a bequest of £100 by Thomas and John Jones, the interest of which is secured by mortgage on lands in the township of Dwyriew; also a similar sum bequeathed by Richard Thomas in 1791, the interest of which is likewise secured by a bond and other deeds as collateral security; and lastly, a bequest of £10 by Francis Evans, the interest of which is received out of the rent of a farm.
CASTLEMARTIN (CASTLE-MARTIN), a parish, in the hundred of Castlemartin, union and county of Pembroke, South Wales, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Pembroke; containing 408 inhabitants. This extensive parish forms a kind of promontory on the sea coast, and is bounded on the north by Freshwater West, which runs into St. George's Channel, on the east by the adjoining parish of Warren, and on the west and south by the Bristol Channel. It includes the small hamlet of Lenny on the western coast, from which a point of land, projecting into the sea, derives its name of Lenny-head. The cliff along the south coast consists of mountain limestone very regularly stratified, and in some places so broken and displaced as to produce a magnificent effect. A few yards from the shore are three stacks rising nearly perpendicularly, which are much frequented during May, June, and July, by the eligug, which deposits its single egg on the bare rock, and covering it with one foot, performs the act of incubation in an erect posture. This bird cannot take wing from land: as soon, therefore, as the young is able to fly, the parent bird throws it into the water, from which it rises with remarkable strength of wing over that element.
The parish is wholly inclosed, and the land is mostly fertile and in a good state of cultivation. The Cors, a tract of land comprising about 300 acres, was brought into cultivation by the late Mr. Mirehouse, of Brownslade, to whom, in 1810, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, adjudged their gold medal for clearing waste moors. The same gentleman surrounded Brownslade with plantations, which, although exposed to the south-west winds, have made considerable progress. His son, the present occupier, spends here as much of his time as his duties of Common-Serjeant of the City of London will allow. The parish abounds with limestone well adapted for masonry: the lime produced from it makes very superior mortar; and fire-bricks of excellent quality are manufactured of clay and gravel, deposited in the hollow of the limestone.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £7. 17. 6., and endowed with £400 royal bounty; patron, Earl Cawdor; income, £315. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is an ancient structure, containing between the nave and north aisle four late-Norman arches, and has undergone a thorough repair within the last thirty years: there is a chapel at Flimston, which has long been disused for sacred purposes. The children generally attend the Earl Cawdor's day school in the parish of Warren, only a small dame-school and a Sunday school being kept here. The castle of the Martins, descendants of Martin de Tours, and from whom the parish and hundred are supposed to derive their name, was in a state of ruin prior to the time of Leland, who says, "Towards this extrem part of Pembrokeshire be the vestigia of Martin Castle." The district contains numerous military works, thrown up during the frequent contests that took place between the Danish pirates who infested this part of the coast, which, from its exposed and defenceless situation, was much subject to their attacks, and the native Welsh, who resolutely repelled their aggressions: one of these may be seen on a farm in the parish, called Bully Bar.
CASTLEWRIGHT, a township, in the parish of Mainstone, incorporation of Forden, Lower division of the hundred of Montgomery, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 5¼ miles (S. E.) from Montgomery; containing 173 inhabitants. It anciently formed part of the manor of Teirtrêv, or "the three townships," which had a chapel attached, whose ruins were lately visible at Pentre; but the manor having been divided, this township was joined to the parish of Mainstone. Its tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £109. The road from Bishop's-Castle to Montgomery passes through the place.
Cathedine (Tîr Y Caeth Adyn)
CATHEDINE (TÎR Y CAETH ADYN), a parish, in the hundred of Talgarth, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 7 miles (E. S. E.) from Brecknock; containing 175 inhabitants. The name of this place signifies, according to Mr. Theophilus Jones, the "land of the wretched captive," it having been assigned by Bernard de Newmarch, on completing the conquest of this portion of the principality, towards the support of Gwrgan, son of Bleddyn the deposed sovereign; whom at the same time he kept in confinement in Brecknock Castle. In a low situation, commanded on almost every side by more elevated ground, anciently stood the splendid castle of Blaenllynvi, the head of the lordship of Welsh Talgarth, and of the borough of Blaenllynvi. Its founder is unknown, and its history is involved in considerable obscurity. From its contiguity to the Llynvi lake, it is thought by some writers to have been the castle called by ancient historians Brecenanmere, which was the residence of Hwgan, sovereign prince of Brycheiniog, and was stormed, in 910, by the heroic Ethelfleda, Countess of Mercia, who had defeated Hwgan himself on the confines of his dominions, and who now carried away his wife and attendants captives into England. There are many forcible objections, however, against the correctness of this opinion. The castle was probably built by one of the lords marcher; it formed part of the possessions of William de Breos, and was forfeited to the crown, on the attainder of that nobleman, in the reign of John, who bestowed it upon his favourite, Peter FitzHerbert, from whom it was wrested by Giles de Breos, at whose death it descended to his brother, Reginald de Breos. Upon Reginald's reconciliation with his father-in-law, it was restored to Fitz-Herbert; and on the death of the last-named nobleman, the king conferred it on Walrond de Teys, from whom it was taken by Peter de Montfort. It afterwards passed into the noble families of de Spencer and Mortimer; and, on the death of Mortimer, the last Earl of March, devolved on his brother-in-law, Richard, Earl of Cambridge, who being implicated in the insurrection of Jack Cade, it again escheated to the crown, and was granted, in the reign of James I., to Sir David Williams, of Gwernyvet. Of this baronial mansion and its lordship, Leland thus writes:—"The Honor of Blaen Lleueni standing in a Valley ys in the Walsche Talegarth, wher is yet the Shape of a veri fair Castel now dekeiyng, and by was a Borow Town now also in Decay. Both longgid to the Earl of March. Though Blaine Lleueni be in the Walsch Talegarth, yet the Tenauntes kepe the Engglisch Tenor." The only remains of this once extensive structure consist of the fragments of an old wall; and of the ancient Blaenllynvi, which was a borough by prescription, enjoying considerable privileges, there is not even a single vestige.
The parish is situated on the road leading from Abergavenny to Crickhowel and Hay, and comprises by a recent admeasurement 1567a. 1r. 8p., of which about 1019 acres are under cultivation, 50 woodland, and the remainder mountainous and common land. The soil is in general a light loam, especially on the higher grounds, where it rests upon a stony subsoil, but in some parts are considerable portions of clay. The land under cultivation, with the exception of about 300 acres of meadow, produces good wheat and oats, with some barley, which latter, however, is a little below the average quality, the soil not being so favourable to its growth: the pastures support excellent sheep and cattle, principally of the Herefordshire breed. The scenery throughout is pleasing and picturesque, and not unfrequently striking and romantic, the elements of the one description being amply supplied in the ornamental woods and tranquil waters, and of the other in the hilly and mountainous eminences, rugged precipices, and foaming cataracts. The lofty elevations in this locality called Cevn Moel, which signifies "bald ridges," form part of the range of the Black mountains, and command fine views of the clumps of oak and ash trees, and the plantations of larch and other firs which here thrive luxuriantly, together with the beautiful Llyn Savaddan, or Llangorse Mere, which is seven miles in circumference, and washes one side of the parish, dividing it from that of Llangasty-Tàlyllyn. A small stream, after enlivening in its course the beautiful scenery through which it flows, falls into the lake called Llynvi. The gentlemen's residences are, Cathedine Hill House, and a mansion recently erected by Major Gwynne Holford, who is lord of the manor and the principal proprietor, being owner of six-sevenths of the land in the parish. Stone of inferior quality is quarried for building; also a kind of stone tile for roofing barns and houses, which, however, is now to a great extent superseded by the ordinary blue slate.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5. 2. 11.; patron, the Rev. Richard Davies: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £159. 10.; and the glebe consists of one acre, valued at £3 per annum. The advowson, together with that of Llanelieu, belonged to the priory of Brecknock until the middle of the thirteenth century, when they were given in exchange to Peter Fitz-Herbert, lord of Blaenllynvi, for the advowsons of Talgarth and Llangorse. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a very plain structure, with neither spire nor tower; it consists of a nave and chancel, measuring together about sixty feet in length, and the pews, which are in bad condition, contain between forty and fifty sittings. On its north side stands a building designated the Old Chapel, now filled with rubbish. A benefaction called James's Charity, amounting to £1. 10. per annum, is received on or about St. Thomas's day from the rector of Llanvrynach, and is distributed in small sums among the poor not receiving parochial aid: it is supposed to be a charge on a field near the church called the Walshes, lately purchased by Admiral Sir Edward Hamilton, Bart., of Trebinshun House.
Cayo, otherwise Cynwyl-Gaio
CAYO, otherwise CYNWYL-GAIO, a parish, in the union of Llandovery, Higher division of the hundred of Cayo, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 8 miles (N. W. by N.) from Llandovery; containing 2108 inhabitants. This place presents the appearance of having been formerly of much greater importance than it is at present: in some ancient writings it is called Caer Gaio, a name evidently implying that it was defended either by a castle or some other military work. From the discovery of numerous relics of Roman antiquity, it was undoubtedly known to the Romans, and was probably occupied by them. According to tradition it not only took its name from a Roman called Caius, but a large town was erected here by that people, the houses of which, being chiefly built of brick, obtained for it the name of Y Drêv gôch yn Neheubarth, or the "Red Town in South Wales." Roman bricks are still frequently dug up in the adjacent fields; and near the summit of an eminence are vestiges of a mill, called Melin Milwyr, or the "Soldier's Mill;" which circumstances, together with numerous antiquities, detailed in the latter part of this article, unite strongly to corroborate the tradition.
The Impropriator's Division of the parish comprises 19,075 acres, of which 2388 are common or waste land; and the Vicar's Division, 6420 acres, of which 863 are common or waste. The rivers Cothy and Twrch unite in the parish, and the road from Llandovery to Lampeter passes through it: the Cothy is an excellent trout stream. The principal seats are, Dôlcothy, the property and residence of John Johnes, Esq., an elegant mansion, finely situated on the banks of the river Cothy, from which it takes its name; and Bryn Nant, a neat mansion, occupying a pleasant situation a little higher up in the vale. Fairs are held on May 30th, August 21st, and October 6th. Pump-Saint, in the parish, is the best fishing-station in this part of Wales, and has an inn. The living is a vicarage, with that of Llansawel annexed, rated in the king's books at £5, and in the patronage of the Crown; present net income, £224, with a glebe-house. The impropriate tithes of Cayo have been commuted for a rent-charge of £400, and the vicarial for one of £142. 10.: there is a glebe of fifty acres, valued at £30 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Cnywyl, is a spacious structure, in the early style of English architecture, with a square embattled tower; and from its capacious dimensions, it has been conjectured that some monastic institution existed here in connection with it. There were anciently chapels of ease at Court-y-Cadno, in the north-eastern part of the parish, at Henllan, at Llandre, and at Pump-Saint, of which no vestiges now exist. In the parish are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Baptists, and Independents. Two day schools have recently been established, and the dissenters support seven Sunday schools. Morgan Price, in 1686, bequeathed a small rent-charge for the relief of the poor.
At a place called Pant-y-Polion formerly stood two monumental stones, which have been removed to Dôlcothy for their preservation. On one was the following inscription, communicated by Mr. Saunders, of Jesus' College, Oxford, to Bishop Gibson, and printed in the additions to Camden's Britannia: —Servator fidei, patriæque semper amator, Hic Paulinus jacet, cultor pientissimus æqui. This memorial is supposed to have been in honour of a warrior, who fell in a great battle at Maes Llan Wrthwl, in the parish, between the Romans and the Britons, and was interred at this place. At Cwmcothy are some remains of ancient mines, now called Gogovau mines, which seem to have been worked by the Romans in search for gold; and in the vicinity are vestiges of a Roman water-course, conducting the water of the river Cothy to the excavations in the hill, in order to wash away the dross, according to the Roman method of separating the ore. It has been a matter of surprise with those who visited the mines, that iron pyrites was the only ore visible, and that large heaps of apparently pure quartz, carefully broken to the size of a common nut, were alone found. The persons, however, engaged in the Geological Survey of Great Britain, when in this part of Wales, discovered a specimen of free gold in the quartz of one of the lodes, and thus corroborated the previous tradition that the mines were worked by the Romans for gold. An account of the mines is given in the first volume of the Memoirs of the Survey, published in 1846. Among the antiquities found in the parish are two beautiful torques of gold, ploughed up on the estate of Mr. Johnes, of Dôlcothy, in whose cabinet they are preserved: to one was attached the figure of a serpent, curiously wrought, and to the other that of a dolphin. In the same cabinet is a beautiful amethyst with a fine intaglio of the goddess Diana, found among some loose gravel which had been raised for repairing the road. In the year 1762, no less than 3000 medals of copper, intrinsically of small value, were discovered, among which were some of Gallienus, Salonina, and of several of the thirty tyrants; and in the neighbourhood of the mines various relics of antiquity are frequently found. On the road to Llandewy-Brevi are the remains of a Roman causeway which passed through the parish to Llanio in Cardiganshire, called Sarn Helen, in honour, according to some writers, of Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, who is represented as a native of Wales: others, however, are of opinion that the name is a contraction of Sarn y Lleng or Lleon, "the road of the legion" by which it was constructed.
But the most extensive and interesting antiquity of Roman origin is the remains of a building discovered in 1831, not far from the Gogovau mineworks, on a farm belonging to Mr. Johnes, within half a mile of his mansion. Upon the removal of a superincumbent layer of earth and rubbish, between two and three feet thick, mixed with which were numerous fragments of brick of different forms, stone and brick pillars appeared covering an area measuring fifteen feet by fourteen, and having on the crowns large flat stones cemented with lime-mortar mixed with brick-dust. Ashes of wood, and burnt stones were scattered among the pillars, one of which latter, supporting a cap-stone, was a brick pipe for the conveyance of water, and many similar ones were found near the place. Adjoining the tiers of pillars, tesselated pavements were discovered, the flooring of which was formed of pieces of brick about an inch square, and of the same thickness, laid in lime and brick-dust mortar, and raised about two feet higher than the ground-work of the pillars, the pieces apparently having been cut by a chisel out of flat bricks or tiles, many of these being found on the spot. Several bricks were also found with the inscription H. MI. and I. W. and other impressions; also fragments of earthenware; sundry vases with inscriptions and figures in basso-relievo, containing bones and ashes; and vessels of hard black-ware, part of a leaden cistern, pieces of iron, and pieces of cement of lime and brick-dust beautifully polished and painted red, all dug from the ruins.
There are several tumuli in the vicinity, especially near Pont Rhŷd Remus, or "the bridge of Remus' ford." Near the mines is a spring of remarkably cold water, issuing from a rock, and formerly held in great estimation for its efficacy in the cure of rheumatic complaints; and near Bryn Nant and Dôlcothy are two mineral springs, which, according to Mr. Rasp, the mineralogist, contain a far greater proportion of sulphur than those either of Brecknockshire or Radnorshire. At Pump-Saint is a chalybeate spring, held in considerable repute in the neighbourhood. The parish is portioned into four hamlets, named Lower, Maesroyddyn, Cwmtwrch, and Cwmcothy, which maintain their poor jointly, but repair their roads separately.
CEIDIO (RHÔD-GEIDIO), a parish, in the hundred of Menai, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales; comprising part of the market and post town of Llanerchymedd, and containing 316 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Ceidio, an eminent British saint, who flourished in the sixth century, and was the founder of several churches in the principality. It is intersected by the small river Alaw, and is of inconsiderable extent, all consisting of inclosed and cultivated land: the surface is undulated, rising in some parts into eminences affording prospects over the adjacent country. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llantrisaint. The church, a small edifice of rude detail and workmanship, probably of the fifteenth century, was entirely rebuilt in the year 1845, under the direction of the rector, the Rev. Wynne Jones. The expense of the re-edification was very moderate; the ancient foundations were preserved, the same stones were used, and though the present building is a much better one than the former, its style is strictly the same. It stands in a dreary spot near Rhos-ybol. There are some trifling donations and bequests, the produce of which is distributed among the poor; and two poor men from this parish are entitled to participate in the benefits of the almshouses at Beaumaris, founded by David Hughes in 1609.
CEIDIO, a parish in the union of Pwllheli, hundred of Dinllaen, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Pwllheli; containing 138 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the north by the parishes of Edern and Nevin, on the east and south-east by Bodvaen and Llanvihangel-Bâchelleth, and on the south and south-west by Llaniestyn and Llandudwen. The road from Pwllheli to the harbour of Porth-Dinllaen touches its eastern boundary, and there is a narrow sandy road through its centre, with three or four branches from it. The parish comprises between 1300 and 1400 acres, which are almost all under tillage, and produce a larger proportion of grain than any other parish in the county; the soil is altogether sandy, and on the southern and south-eastern boundary runs a turbary for about two miles, on the borders of which is some fine pasture land. The scenery is almost entirely bare of wood, but a view may be obtained here of a mountain in the adjacent parish of Bodvaen on the east, which is called Garn Bodvaen, and is covered with firs, constituting a bold and prominent feature in the surrounding landscape. A rough mountain is also to be seen in the parish of Llaniestyn, called Garn Madryn, on the summit of which is a solitary tree; and a fine prospect of the sea is opened from the centre of the parish. The only waters are a few nameless rivulets; there is no village, nor any gentleman's seat. The whole parish, with the exception of three farms, belongs to Lieut.General Sir Love Parry Jones Parry, of Madryn Park.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £1400 royal bounty, and £600 parliamentary grant; net income, £85; patron and impropriator, Lieut-Gen. Parry. Previously to the above endowments, the minister's stipend was only £5 per annum, which sum was the bequest of Owen Hughes, of Madryn, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £135. The church, dedicated to St. Ceidio, and situated on an eminence, is a small neat building, nine yards in length and six in breadth, and has pews appropriated to every family in the parish, nearly the whole population of which it is capable of accommodating. Close to the churchyard is a small tenement, consisting of a cottage, stable, and four acres of land, let by the vestry at an annual rent of £4, which is exclusively applied to the repairs of the church; the donor is unknown, but the gift is supposed to have proceeded from a member of the family at Cevn Amlwch. A singular custom of dispensing altogether with the appointment of churchwardens prevails in the parish. There is a place of worship for Independents, with a Sunday school held in it.
CEIRCHIOG, a parish, in the hundred of Llyvon, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 4 miles (S. E.) from Bôdedern; containing 162 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road leading from Bangor to Holyhead, and is bounded on the north by Llandrygarn, on the east by Llanbeulan, on the south by Llanvaelog, and on the south and south-west by Llêchylched. It comprises by computation 624 acres, which are nearly all under tillage, the pasture being of small extent and of very inferior quality. The name of the place is said to be descriptive of the produce of the soil, which is well adapted to the culture of oats, great quantities of which are grown in the parish and in the adjacent district. The feoffees of Beaumaris grammar school are the chief landowners, and the Bishop of Bangor is lord of the manor. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llanbeulan: the church, dedicated to the Holy Rood, is situated on an eminence in a large field on the south side of the road, and is a very small ancient structure. A rentcharge of £2. 10. was bequeathed by Sergeant Wynn, for the benefit of the poor, but it has not been paid since 1762, and there is now no trace of it, nor of the produce of a small accumulation that at one period accrued from the charity.