A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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APPENDIX, No. II.
GLOSSARY; OR, EXPLANATION OF SOME OF THOSE WELSH WORDS WHICH FREQUENTLY OCCUR IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE NAMES OF PLACES (fn. 1).
Ab, Ap, i. e., Mab, a son.
Abad, an abbot.
Aber, the fall of a less water into a greater; as, of a brook into a river, of a river into a lake or sea: the mouth of a river, a haven, a port, or harbour.
Ach, for Merch, a daughter.
Ach, water (obsolete).
Ach, for Uch, or Uwch, upper; above.
Adyn, a miserable person, a poor wretch.
Ael, the eye-brow; also the edge of a place; as, Aely-Bryn, the brow of a hill.
Aëron, the splendid one; the queen of brightness; from Air, brightness, according to Mr. Owen.
Allaw, properly Alaw, from Al, chief or principal, and Aw, water; the Water Lily; perhaps so called from its being the chief ornament of the water.
Am, by, about.
Aml, many, numerous.
Annerch, a salutation, or greeting.
Arth, a he or she bear.
Bâch, little, small; also, a hook, a crook, a tenter.
Bann, high, lofty, tall.
Bardd, a bard.
Bedw, birch-trees: singular, Bedwen.
Bettws, a station, a place of moderate temperature between hill and vale. Some persons say, that every Bettws appertained to a monastery, and that it is derived from the Latin word Abbatis.
Beudy, a cow-house.
Blaen (plural, Blaenau) the end or extremity of a thing, the top, the source of a river: it is also often used for the recesses in mountains, where the valleys terminate: likewise the highland of a country; thus, the mountainous districts of Gwentland is called Blaen-au Gwent.
Bôd, an abode, dwelling, habitation.
Bre, a hill, promontory, or peak.
Brêch, a spot, spotted.
Brith, of divers colours; spotted.
Briw, a wound, a bruise; also, broken, rough.
Bro, a country, a vale, cultivated land.
Bron, the breast, the slope of a hill.
Bryn, a mount, or hill.
Bu, a cow, an ox, cattle.
Bugail, a shepherd or herdsman.
Bychan, little: feminine, Bechan, and, if following a vowel, Fechan.
Byddin, a band or troop, an army.
Bŷrr, probably Pŷr, the plural of Pôr, a now obsolete name for a lord.
Cadarn, strong, powerful.
Câd Nant, the stream, or the glen of the battle.
Cae, a hedge, field, inclosure.
Caer, a city, fortification, camp, inclosure, wall, or mound of defence.
Caeth, a slave, captive, bondman; also as an adjective, strait, narrow, bound, captive.
Cain, white, fair, beautiful.
Canol, the middle.
Cantref, a hundred of a shire; a district consisting originally of a hundred dwellings; from Cant, a hundred, and Trêf, a habitation.
Capel, or Cappel, a chapel.
Carn, a heap of stones; intended in the heathen times as a memorial of the dead: in South Wales, plural Carnau, and in North Wales, Carneddau.
Carog, a brook.
Carreg, a stone: plural, Cerrig.
Carw, a hart, or stag.
Cefn, the back, a promontory, a ridge of a mountain.
Cell, a cell; also a grove.
Celli, a grove, a wood, a coppice of hazel-trees.
Cenn, the skin, the hide of a beast; also the scales of a fish, or serpent.
Cennin, a leek.
Ci, a dog.
Cîl, a retreat; plural, Ciliau, recesses.
Clâs, the cloister of a church.
Clawdd, a trench, bank, fence.
Clegyrog, rocky, or rugged.
Clydogau, sheltered places.
Coed, a wood.
Collwyn, a grove, or coppice of hazel-trees.
Côr, a choir.
Cors, a marsh, a bog.
Craig, a rock.
Crannel, properly Grannell, the name of a river; from Gran, shelving or precipitous
Cregrina, properly Cruginfa, from Crugyn, a small knoll, and Fa, a place.
Croes, or Crwys, a cross.
Crûg, a mount, a barrow, a heap of stones and of earth; and, very often, a fortified mount, such as British encampments; hence Crûg Hywel, in the county of Brecknock.
Cû, lovely or pleasant.
Cwm, a dale, or valley, anglicé, coombe.
Cŷd, with; together with; a junction.
Cylch, a circle, or, applied to a place, a circuit. Cylch Ynad signifies, the judge of a circuit. In the Welsh laws it means a yearly custom of provisions, or other things paid to the king's officers by those who held lands under him; in the Extent of Anglesey the terms Cylch Rhaglawn and Cylch Rhaglawd occur, which seemingly implied a court leet.
Cymmer, the meeting of two or more rivers, the confluence of rivers.
Dê, for Dehau, the south.
Dihewid, the will, affection, devotion.
Dinas, a city, a fortified hill or mount: the most ancient British fortifications are called Din or Dinas; thus, Dinas Emrys, in the county of Carnarvon, and many others.
Dir, certain, sure; and, in composition, vehemently.
Discoed, properly Is Coed, beneath the wood.
Diserth, a desert.
Dû, black, dark.
Dwfr, or Dŵr, water; plural, Dyfroedd.
Dyffryn, i. e., Dyfr Hynt, the course of the waters.
Dylwyf, fire-wood, fuel: in allusion to water, it may be a corruption of Dylif, an overflowing or flood.
Eglwys, a church.
Ener, native, natural.
Erch, a dun or dark colour, horrible, terrible.
Esgob, a bishop.
Fâ, at the end of the name of a hill or mountain, or of any other word, the same as Fan or Man, a place.
Fair, for Mair, Mary.
Felfrey, probably a corruption of Foel-Fre, or FoelFron, the bald or naked hill: a hill in the county of Monmouth is called Mil-fre, which has the same meaning.
Fendigaid, for Bendigaid, blessed.
Ffîn, a boundary, a limit.
Ffordd, a way, a passage.
Ffrangc, an aviary; also a Frenchman, or Gaul.
Ffynnon, a fountain, or spring; a well.
Figen or Fign, i. e., Migen or Mign, mire, a mossy mountain, a bog.
Fro, i. e., Bro (which see).
Gallt, the side of a hill, or any steep ascent; a woody cliff.
Garth, a mountain or hill, a promontory or cape.
Gâst, a bitch.
Genau, the mouth, a pass between hills.
Glàn, the bank of a river, sea-shore; also a hill.
Glâs, blue, grey; also green, verdant.
Glyn, a glen, a valley.
Gôf, a smith.
Gogo, i. e., Gweddio, to pray.
Graban, in South Wales signifies the corn marigold; also a vineyard, according to Mr. Owen.
Grwyney, i. e., Grŵn Wy, the hoarsely murmuring water.
Gusse, probably a corruption of Cwysau, furrows.
Gwaelod, a bottom: plural, Gwaelodion; dregs or lees.
Gwald, a hem, a skirt, a border.
Gwâr, mild, gentle.
Gwastadedd, a plain.
Gwili, the name of a river in the county of Carmarthen; from Gwill, swift.
Gwrth, against, opposite, by, or close to.
Gwyn, white, fair, clear: feminine, Gwen.
Gwyryddon, chaste persons; plural of Gwyrydd, chastity.
Gyll, i. e., Cyll, the plural of Collen, a hazel-tree.
Hâfod, a summer dwelling; from Hâf, summer, and Bôd, a dwelling.
Helygen, a willow or sallow tree.
Hên, old, ancient.
Hynt, a journey, a way, a course.
Ieuan, or Evan, John.
Is, lower, inferior, nether.
Le, or Lle, a place.
Llan, a church, an inclosure.
Llannerch, a glade.
Llawr, the ground, the floor of a building, the earth.
Llêch, a slate, any broad flat stone.
Llechwedd, the side of a hill, a steep ascent or descent, a cliff.
Lleng, a legion.
Llethyr, a steep ascent or descent, a cliff, the side of a hill.
Llwyd, grey, hoary, brown.
Llwydog, of a grey colour.
Llwyn, a wood, or grove.
Llyn, a lake, a pool.
Llŷr, the sea, water.
Llŷs, a palace, a hall or court wherein judges sit.
Mâb, a child, a boy, a son.
Madoc, or Madog, good, righteous.
Maen, a stone.
Maenor, a manor.
Maes, a field.
Mall, bad, rotten, quaggy.
Manachlog, a monastery or abbey.
Mawr, great, large.
Melin, a mill.
Merthyr, a martyr.
Moel, bald, crop-eared, wanting horns; also a lofty hill without any wood growing upon it.
Mond, i. e., Monad, an isolated situation.
Mynach, Monach, or Manach, a monk.
Mynydd, a mountain.
Mynys, probably Am Ynys, about the rising ground.
Nant, a brook, a river; a ravine, glen, or hollow formed by water.
Nawdd, refuge, sanctuary.
Newydd, new, fresh.
Onnen, an ash-tree: plural Onn, and Ynn, ash-trees.
Or, a border, the edge, the coast.
Pâb, the pope.
Pant, a hollow or sinking in the ground, a valley.
Pawl, a pole, a pale, a stake; also the proper name, Paul.
Pebyll, tents, pavilions; the plural from Pabell.
Pen, a head, the summit, a cape or promontory.
Penbedw, the head of the birch grove; from Pen, a head, and Bedwen, a birch-tree: plural, Bedw, birch-trees.
Penial, capital, chief.
Pentre, a village.
Plwyf, people, the common people anciently; but it now signifies a parish.
Pont, a bridge.
Porth, a gate, a door, a haven; also, aid, succour, assistance.
Prŷsg, a copse, an underwood.
Pump-Saint, five saints.
Pwll, a pool, a ditch, a pit.
Rhaiadr, a cataract.
Rhiain, a maiden, a virgin.
Rhiw, an ascent, the side of a hill.
Rhodwydd, an open course.
Rhôs, a mountain meadow, a moist large plain, a marsh.
Rhûdd, red, ruddy.
Rhŷd, a ford.
Rhŷdd, free, at liberty: Bôd Rhŷdd, the freehold.
Rhŷn, a mountain, hill, or promontory: in the plural, Rhynion.
Sarn, a causeway, a pavement.
'Spyddyd, i. e., Ysbyddad, hospitality.
'Steni, probably a corruption of Ystany; from Ystan, spreading, and Wy, water.
Swydd, a lordship, an office, service with respect to tenure, a jurisdiction, a shire.
Tàl, the head, the front.
Tàl Sarn, the head or front of the causeway.
Tarren, a rock.
Telyn, a harp.
Tîr, the earth, land, territory.
Traws, across, cross-wise.
Trêf, and Tre, a house or home, a township, a village.
Troed, a foot, the foot of a hill.
Tŵr, a tower.
Tŷ, a house.
Uch, Uwch, upper, higher, above.
Uchâf, Uwchaf, highest, supreme.
Waun, i. e., Gwaun, a meadow, downs.
Wedd, i. e., Gwedd, an aspect.
Wen, i. e., Gwen, white, fair, clear; the feminine of Gwyn.
Wern, i. e., Gwern, alder-trees; also a moist situation: singular, Gwernen, an alder-tree.
Wrach, i. e., Gwrach, an old woman, a hag.
Wrth, i. e., Gwrth, by, near to.
Wrtyd, properly Wrth y Rhŷd, opposite, or near to, the ford.
Wy, an ancient but now obsolete word, signifying water.
Wŷch, i. e., Gwŷch, cheerful, neat, brave.
Wyl, a flow, or gushing out.
Wyllt, i. e., Gwyllt, wild, untamed, savage.
Y, of, or, on the; the.
Ych, i. e., Uwch, upper, higher, above.
Ych, an ox.
Yfed, to drink; moist, damp.
Ym, in, or by.
Yn, in, at.
Ynys, an island, rising ground.
Ysceifiog, the hunting-ground.
Ysgwyd, a shield, a buckler.
Ysgwydd, a shoulder.
Yspytty, an hospital, an almshouse.
Ystrad, a vale, a street, or paved way.
Ystum, a situation, figure, a bending.
Ywen, a yew-tree: plural, Yw.
END OF THE GLOSSARY.