Leadbrook Major - Llanarth

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.

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Samuel Lewis, 'Leadbrook Major - Llanarth', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales( London, 1849), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp473-478 [accessed 14 July 2024].

Samuel Lewis, 'Leadbrook Major - Llanarth', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales( London, 1849), British History Online, accessed July 14, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp473-478.

Samuel Lewis. "Leadbrook Major - Llanarth". A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. (London, 1849), , British History Online. Web. 14 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp473-478.

In this section

Leadbrook Major

LEADBROOK MAJOR, a hamlet, situate in the newly-created ecclesiastical district of St. Mark, parish of Northop, union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 3 miles (N.) from Northop; containing 35 inhabitants. It lies on the estuary of the Dee, and comprises a considerable portion of its sands, which are dry at low water, and may therefore be brought into cultivation at a small expense. The hamlet is supposed to derive its name from the quantity of lead formerly washed out of the brook here.

Leadbrook Minor

LEADBROOK MINOR, a hamlet, situate in the newly-created ecclesiastical district of St. Mark, parish of Northop, union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Northop; containing 63 inhabitants.

Leckwith (Llêchwedd, or Llêchwydd)

LECKWITH (LLÊCHWEDD, or LLÊCHWYDD), a parish, in the union of Cardiff, hundred of Dinas-Powys, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 2½ miles (W. S. W.) from Cardiff; containing 121 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies "the slope of the cliff," is situated on the river Ely, over which is a bridge of two arches. Limestone of good quality is found in great abundance, and large quantities are quarried for building purposes, and also burnt as an article of manure for the supply of the neighbourhood. The village stands on an eminence overlooking the marshes that intervene between it and Cardiff, and from Leckwith Hill are some interesting and extensive views. The inhabitants, from the exhalations rising from the lower grounds, are subject to ague. Leckwith, Llandough, and Cogan form a consolidated discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £8. 8. 4.; patrons, the Stuart family: the tithes of the whole have been commuted for a rent-charge of £240, and the glebe comprises thirty-three acres. The church, which is dedicated to St. James, stands upon a high bank above the marshes, and is remarkable for the simplicity of its style.


LEIGHTON, a township, in the parish of Worthen, incorporation of Forden, Lower division of the hundred of Cawrse, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 2 miles (S. E. by S.) from Welshpool; containing 220 inhabitants. The river Severn is crossed here by a wooden bridge, on the road from Churchstoke to Welshpool; and Offa's Dyke passes nearly in a parallel line with that river through the township. A school for boys and girls, taught together by a mistress, is held in a schoolroom used as an episcopal chapel.

Letterson, Lettardston, or Letterston

LETTERSON, LETTARDSTON, or LETTERSTON, a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 10 miles (N.) from Haverfordwest; containing 498 inhabitants. This place derived its name from the family of Lettard, to whom the parish anciently belonged, and who gave the advowson of the living to the commandery of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem which had been founded at Slebech, in this county. The parish is situated in the north-western part of the county, and intersected by the turnpike-road from Haverfordwest to Fishguard. It comprises 2219 acres, of which 263 are common or waste land. The surrounding scenery is pleasing, and in certain places somewhat picturesque; the distant views embrace an extensive tract of finely diversified and richly cultivated country. In the vicinity are some handsome seats and pleasing villas, and within the parish is Heathfield Lodge. The living is a discharged rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Llanvair-Nant-y-Gove annexed, rated in the king's books at £12. 11. 0½., and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; present net income, £387. The tithes of Letterson have been commuted for a rent-charge of £150, and there is a glebe of twenty-seven acres, valued at £27 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Giles, is not remarkable for any striking architectural features. The rectory-house was lately rebuilt by the incumbent, under the provisions of Gilbert's act of parliament, and is a handsome edifice. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans, a day school, and two Sunday schools. On a common near the road are several tumuli, supposed to be sepulchral.

Lisvane (Llŷs-Faen)

LISVANE (LLŶS-FAEN), a parish, in the union of Cardiff, hundred of Kibbor, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 5 miles (N. by E.) from Cardiff; containing 207 inhabitants. It is situated on the western bank of the Romney, which here separates the counties of Glamorgan and Monmouth. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the alternate patronage of C. K. Kemeys Tynte, Esq., and the representative of the late Earl of Plymouth, the impropriators; net income, £60. The church is dedicated to St. Denis. Mary Lewis, in 1728, conveyed a moiety of the tithes of the parish, in order that a salary of £5 should be paid out of the rents to a schoolmaster, for instructing the poor children of Lisvane, and a similar sum to a person for teaching those of the adjoining parish of Llanishen; the residue of the profits to be expended in placing them out as apprentices: the tithes, which produce about £70 per annum, are also charged with an annual payment of £10 to the perpetual curate. The same benevolent lady bequeathed two acres of land in the parish of Romney, Monmouth, for the benefit of the poor, the rent of which, with a similar bequest by Moses Thomas, in 1775, of three acres, the whole producing £8 per annum, is distributed at Christmas among those not receiving parochial relief. The children attend a school in the parish of Llanishen. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists, with a Sunday school held in it.


LLAN, with Blaenau, a hamlet, in the parish of Llangendeirn, hundred of Kidwelly, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 5½ miles (S. E.) from Carmarthen; containing 634 inhabitants. The hamlet takes its name from the parochial church being situated within its limits, near the right bank of the Gwendraeth Vâch river, which flows through the lands.


LLAN, with Llêch and Llwyn, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanrhaiadr-in-Kinmerch, union of Ruthin, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 5 miles (N. W.) from Ruthin; the three places containing respectively 159, 343, and 121 inhabitants. Courts leet and baron, with view of frankpledge, are held at Llanrhaiadr, before the steward of the Bishop of Bangor, to whom the manors of Llan and Llêch belong. Each of the three parts of the hamlet forms a separate highway township.

Llanaber (Llan-Aber)

LLANABER (LLAN-ABER), a parish, in the union of Dôlgelley, hundred of Ardudwy, county of Merioneth, North Wales; comprising the sea-port and market-town of Barmouth, and containing 1709 inhabitants. This parish extends for more than nine miles in length and four in breadth; the upper parts are rocky and mountainous. In 1810, an act of parliament was obtained for inclosing the common and waste land in this and the adjoining parishes, under the provisions of which 6588 acres were allotted to Llanaber, and are now nearly all inclosed. From the hills and other elevated grounds fine views are obtained of Cardigan bay, the river Mawddach, and the surrounding country, which is characterized by varied features. The village extends along the coast; and on the sands may be seen, at low water, an ancient stone which at one time served as a footbridge, inscribed with the legend "Hic jacet Calixtus Monedo Regi." Copper and lead ores were formerly found at Buddugre, in the parish; and on its southern side flows the river Mawddach, which is navigable for barges of less than twenty tons' burthen from Barmouth to within two miles of Dôlgelley.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £11. 18. 9., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £280. The church, dedicated to St. Bôdvan, is a spacious structure in the early style of English architecture: the south entrance is under an arch richly ornamented with mouldings. The interior consists of a nave, with north and south aisles, and a chancel; the aisles are each separated from the nave by five finely pointed arches, with massive round piers: there is an ancient font of elegant design, and among the monuments is one to the memory of the Rev. Robert Morgan. A chapel of ease was erected at Barmouth, in the year 1830; and there are places of worship in the town and parish for Wesleyans, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists. Some schools are supported at Barmouth, and in that town and other parts of the parish are altogether eight Sunday schools. Janet Roberts bequeathed £20 to the poor; and the Rev. Mr. Morgan, in 1739, gave a rent-charge on land in the parish of Llangelynin, for the payment of 20s. annually to twenty of the poorest inhabitants who can repeat the Catechism in Welsh, and of 20s. to such children as can read Welsh and repeat the Welsh Catechism. There are also some smaller donations for distribution among the poor.

On the borders of this parish and that of Llanddwywau, near the coast, stands an old family mansion, called Egrin, anciently the residence of a Cymmro of some rank, and which was occupied by friars in the fifteenth century, but has been converted into a farmhouse. The interior is divided into three compartments, formed by pointed arches of Irish oak, which extend from the basement and support the roof; and the whole is of a curious construction. Hêndrêv-Vechan, in the parish, was the residence of four celebrated Welsh bards, namely, William, Richard, John, and Thomas Phillips, who flourished successively in the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. There is an ancient encampment.

Llanallgo (Llan-Allgof)

LLANALLGO (LLAN-ALLGOF), a parish, in the hundred of Twrcelyn, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 7 miles (E. by N.) from Llanerchymedd; containing 384 inhabitants. This parish, which is of considerable antiquity, derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Alltgo, son of Caw-o-Vrydain, by whom the building was originally founded, about the commencement of the seventh century. It is situated on the coast of the Irish Sea, by which it is bounded on the east; and, though of small extent, is rich in mineral treasures, and contains a large proportion of fertile land, which is for the most part inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The great range of limestone strata which stretches from Flintshire through the county of Denbigh, by Great Orme's Head, and is continued under the bay of Beaumaris, and along the northern shore of Anglesey, terminates at Moelvre, in this parish, where are extensive quarries of clouded, or variegated marble, in considerable estimation for the variety and brilliancy of its colours, and the high polish of which it is susceptible. Large quantities of this marble, which is well adapted for mantelpieces and ornamental statuary, are sent off to various parts of Great Britain. In the parish are also some quarries of black and grey marble of good quality, which some time ago afforded materials for the construction of the pier and lighthouse at Holyhead.

The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llaneugrad. The church, dedicated to St. Gallgov, is a small but handsome cruciform structure, containing in the east window of the chancel, which is of elegant design, some fragments of ancient stained glass; it was thoroughly repaired in 1831. Near it is Fynnon Gallgov, or "St. Gallgov's well," the waters of which, strongly impregnated with sulphate of lime, were once held in high veneration for the miraculous cures ascribed to them, and are still regarded as highly beneficial in some chronic diseases. Adjoining the west front of the church is Capel Fynnon, or "the chapel of the well," a small neat edifice, anciently appropriated to the use of the votaries of the saint, to whose influence the miraculous efficacy of the waters was attributed. In the adjoining parish of Llaneugrad are the ruins of an old chapel, formerly belonging to the church of this place, and still called Capel Llugwy, from the name of the farm on which it is situated. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists. A Church school is held; and in the parish of Llaneugrad is a British school, established in the year 1845, but wholly supported by the children's pence. Two Sunday schools are kept, one of them in connexion with the Church, and the other belonging to the Calvinistic body. A benefaction of £3, bequeathed by William Roberts, in 1719, for the benefit of the poor, was lost in the year 1812, through the insolvency of a parochial officer, in whose hands it had been placed.

Llanano (Llan-Anno)

LLANANO (LLAN-ANNO), a parish, partly in the hundred of Knighton, and partly in that of Rhaiadr, union of Knighton, county of Radnor, South Wales, 12½ miles (W.) from Knighton; containing 329 inhabitants. The surface of this parish is uneven, and in some parts even precipitously hilly; the lands are partly inclosed and cultivated, and the soil in the inclosed portions is generally fertile and productive. The total area is 5200 acres, of which 2000 are common or waste. The scenery is for the most part of a soft and pleasing character; and from the higher grounds may be obtained some extensive views over the adjacent country. The turnpike-road from Builth, in Brecknockshire, to Newtown, in the county of Montgomery, passes through the parish a little to the east of the church. The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Llanbadarn-Vynydd annexed, endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; net income, £150; patron, the Chancellor of the Collegiate Church of Brecknock. The church, dedicated to St. Wonno or Anno, is a small edifice, undistinguished by any remarkable architectural features, but beautifully situated on the bank of the river Ithon. There is a place of worship for Anabaptists. Of the Rev. Robert Barlow's charity, in the time of Elizabeth, for the parish of Llanbister, a small portion, amounting to 6s. 8d. per annum, is received about Christmas, and distributed among the poor. On the summit of a rocky eminence rising abruptly from the Ithon, and commanding the entrance of a narrow defile, are the remains of an ancient castle, called "Tŷ yn y Bwlch," probably one of the residences of the ancient chieftains of Maelienydd. In the parish is a mineral spring called Fynnon Newydd, or "the new well," the water of which is sulphureous, and efficacious in the cure of scorbutic and scrofulous diseases.

Llanarmon (Llan-Armon)

LLANARMON (LLAN-ARMON), a parish, in the union of Pwllheli, hundred of Eivionydd, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 4 miless (N. E.) from Pwllheli, on the road to Carnarvon; containing 589 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the north by the parish of Llangybi, on the east by Llanystyndwy, and on the south and west by Abereirch. It comprises by computation 3795 acres, of which 1952 are arable, 1805 meadow and pasture, and about 38 woodland. The soil is in some places moist, and the surface generally level, with some small hills, of which Bryn-y-Gwdyn, Bryn-Rhydd, and Bryn-Caled are the principal; the streams are the Rhŷd-y-Gwistil, the Chwilog, and a few others. There are two corn-mills, each employing a few hands. The village is agreeably situated in a fertile plain, and the neighbourhood partakes of the pleasing scenery which prevails in this part of the county. The living is a rectory not in charge, annexed to the rectory of Llangybi; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £273. 10. The church, dedicated to St. Garmon, is an ancient and a spacious structure in good repair, consisting of a chancel and two aisles, the latter separated by two arches: some additional windows have been inserted, previously to which alteration the church was very dark. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists; a Church school, and three Sunday schools belonging to the dissenters. The Rev. Evan Griffith, in 1724, bequeathed £100, to be put out at interest or expended in the purchase of land; one moiety of the produce is set apart for the benefit of the poor. Mrs. Jones left £20, of which the interest is given to widows.

Dr. John Evans, an eminent prelate, was a native of this parish. He received his university education at Jesus College, Oxford, and, having entered into holy orders, obtained the rectory of Llanelhairn, in the county of Carnarvon; in 1701 he was consecrated to the bishopric of Bangor, and in 1715 was translated to the bishopric of Meath, in Ireland. He there gave proofs of his intention to uphold the discipline of the Church, which exposed him to much annoyance from Dean Swift, who held preferment in his diocese, and whose letters addressed to the bishop are to be seen in his works. Notwithstanding the severe and caustic reflections of Dean Swift, he is mentioned by other eminent contemporaries in terms of esteem. He died in 1724, and devoted his property, as he had done during his life, to the benefit of the Church. There is a portrait of Bishop Evans at Lambeth Palace, painted in 1707.

Llanarmon (Llan-Armon)

LLANARMON (LLAN-ARMON), a parish, in the union of Ruthin, partly in the hundred of Maelor, county of Flint, but chiefly in that of Yale, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Ruthin; containing 1823 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the roads leading from Wrexham, Mold, and Llangollen to Ruthin, and from Corwen to Chester. It comprises about 14,000 acres, of which two-thirds are arable, subject to the usual rotation of corn, hay, and pasture, and the remainder pasture, strictly so called, and woodland, of which last there are about 1000 acres. The soil is a thin loam, with a substratum of viscous yellow earth, and the general aspect of the surface is bleak and wild, though in some spots, such as about the vicarage and Nant-y-Palme, the scenery is of pleasing and cheerful character. Ash and sycamore grow spontaneously, and larch and other firs thrive well where they have been planted: Wilson Jones, Esq., of Harkheath Park, has much improved the appearance of the country by extensive and flourishing plantations. Bodidris, in the parish, was anciently the seat of the Lloyd family, the founder of which was Ynyr, of Yale, who fought under Llewelyn the Great at the battle of Corwen, and for his deeds of valour on that occasion was rewarded, among other gifts, with the township of Bodidris. This seat, now occupied by a tenant, is inherited by the Hon. Lloyd Mostyn, of Mostyn, in right of his great-grandmother, who married into the family of the Vaughans, the male heirs becoming extinct in her father, Sir Evan Lloyd. The Crown and the Marquess of Westminster are lords of the manor. The village is pleasantly situated on the river Alyn. There are lead-mines in the parish, and some few persons are employed in working limestone. Fairs are held on July 30th and October 19th.

The living comprises a sinecure rectory and a vicarage, both in the patronage of the Bishop of St. Asaph: the rectory is rated in the king's books at £31. 15., and the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £450; the vicarage, which is discharged, is rated at £12. 5. 10., and is of the net value of £282, with a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Germanus, or Garmon, is a large plain edifice, appropriately fitted up; it affords accommodation to about 500 persons, and contains numerous ancient and interesting monuments. Under an arch in the south wall is the recumbent figure of a knight, completely armed, bearing in his right hand a short sword, and on his left arm a shield, with the inscription "Hic jacet Gryfyd ap Llewelyn ap Ynyr." There is a legend respecting this knight, that when he was engaged in sacking a town in the Holy Land, he was wounded in the abdomen, and his bowels protruding, they were seized by a dog, notwithstanding which he continued to fight until he fell from exhaustion, and expired; the circumstance is commemorated by the figure of a dog placed at the feet, with several folds of entrails in his mouth and around him. Within a niche in the outer wall of the church is the figure of a bishop, six feet four inches in height, which is said to represent St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, who, with St. Lupus, came over to this country to oppose the Pelagian heresy, and in an engagement with the Picts and Saxons, at Maes Garmon, near Mold, in the year 420, gained the celebrated victory called by historians Victoria Alleluiatica. In the church are also several handsome monuments to the family of Lloyd, and a fine brazen chandelier, apparently a work of the fourteenth century, which for a long time was preserved in the mansion of Bodidris. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Wesleyans, Independents, and Baptists. In 1746, Mrs. Margaret Vaughan, of Bodidris, and Mr. Robert Jones, brewer, of Fieldlane, Middlesex, conveyed a small farm called Bodlowydd, in the parish of Llandegla, to the churchwardens of this parish, for the endowment of a school in which six boys from each of the two parishes were directed to be educated, on Church principles. The farm now consists of a house, out-buildings, and about twenty-nine acres of land, together with an allotment of eighteen acres gained under the Llanelidan inclosure act, the whole producing £34. 10. per annum. School-houses have been built both at Llanarmon and Llandegla, partly at the expense of the charity; and a sum of £8. 8. per annum is paid from the funds to the master of each school. There are nine Sunday schools in the parish, one of them in connexion with the Established Church.

In 1699, Mrs. Margaret Meredith devised a plot of land to the poor, consisting of seven acres, and now producing about £8 per annum. The consolidated charities amounted, in 1780, to £130, and were secured on the Denbigh and Wrexham trust, which investment at present yields £6. 10. a year. A small estate in the parish supports a charity founded in 1630, by John Matthews, son of Robert Matthews, late of Llangollen, who then bequeathed the residue of his property to be expended in the purchase of a plot of ground near his birthplace, the produce of which he directed should be appropriated to the education of four of his nearest kindred at school and the university, such boys to be appointed by the vicars of Chirk and Llangollen. About £300 were spent in the purchase of lands in Llanarmon, which are divided into two unequal parts by the river Alyn; one consisting of a house, garden, and out-buildings, and nine parcels of land, containing thirty-three acres and three-quarters; and the other with similar accommodations, but comprising only sixteen acres and three-quarters. The estate, which lets at £36 per annum, was some time ago much improved by the outlay of about £100 in rebuilding or repairing the houses, that expense being principally liquidated by the sale of old materials and some timber.

Throughout the vale in which the village is situated, and on the neighbouring eminences, are numerous tumuli, several of which have been opened at various times, and found to contain sepulchral urns filled with ashes, and human bones, which had resisted the action of the fire, scattered about them in profusion. In 1810, one of the largest was opened, in the township of Gelliguinan, and found to contain a skeleton of a horse and his rider, in a position in which they might have fallen; near the ribs of the horse was found a brass spur, weighing seventeen ounces. In 1827, another was opened, near the village of Llanarmon, in which was discovered an urn of baked clay, with three skulls and various other bones lying within a circular inclosure of stones near it. Within a short distance of the same spot, another of these tumuli was opened in 1831, and near its centre were discovered three urns of coarse clay, the largest of which, able to contain about three quarts, was filled with fine grey ashes: near them were several bones, a copper coin of the Emperor Nero, a fibula of copper, gilt and enamelled, and a plain ring of the same metal. About a mile and a half from the village are two artificial mounts of large dimensions, on the summit of the loftier of which stood the castle of Iâl, built by Owain Gwynedd in 1148, of which not a fragment now remains, except some traces of the rampart and fosse that surrounded it. On the summit of a rocky knoll, near Tommen-y-Rhodwydd, is a spring dedicated to St. Garmon; the water is said neither to increase nor diminish at any time, nor has it any visible inlet or outlet, and superstition attributes to it miraculous properties.

Llanarmon-Dyfryn-Ceriog (Llan-Armon-Dyffryn-Ceiriog)

LLANARMON-DYFRYN-CERIOG (LLAN-ARMON-DYFFRYN-CEIRIOG), a parish, in the union of Corwen, Cynlleth and Môchnant division of the hundred of Chirk, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 9 miles (W. N. W.) from Oswestry; containing 354 inhabitants. This parish is bounded by the parishes of Llansillin, Llanrhaiadr, Llansantfraid-Glynn-Ceriog, and Corwen; and comprises about 10,000 acres, of which 500 are arable, 1090 good meadow and pasture, 139 wood, and 8300 common or inferior land. The upper part of the parish is very hilly, the soil covered with heath, and many thousands of sheep are kept there; the alluvial soil of the lower part is very productive, and all kinds of grain are freely produced. There is scarcely any timber, a few plantations only having been lately made. The river Ceiriog intersects the parish from east to west, and is supplied by the brooks Rhŷdwilym, Cwmeger, and Llawenog. The West family, and Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., are lords of the manor; the former have a seat here called the Tower, and the latter a shooting-lodge on Mynydd Tarw Berwin. Fairs are held on the first Monday after April 11th, on August 13th, and October 19th.

The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £8. 11. 10½.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £220; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe consists of twenty-five acres, valued at £30 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Germanus, is an ancient and a spacious building, but destitute of architectural character, and in a very dilapidated condition: about forty yards to the west of it, and within the cemetery, is a large tumulus, said to be the sepulchre of Germanus, the celebrated Bishop of Auxerre. The erection of a new church has been in contemplation. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists and Wesleyans; a Church school; and four Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Church, and the others belonging to the dissenters. Mr. Thomas Humphreys, in 1731, bequeathed £48, the interest arising from which was annually distributed among the poor, according to the will of the testator, until 1788, when, owing to the wants of the parish, the principal was applied to parochial purposes, the parish officers however continuing to pay £2. 2. yearly as interest for it, until about 1832, when complaints being made that it was paid from the rates, it was thenceforth discontinued, and the bequest was lost. On the summit of a hill within a mile of the village, towards the north-west, is a very extensive circular encampment, defended by a double fosse, with an entrance on the west, near which are some detached masses of stone.

Llanarmon-Mynydd-Mawr (Llan-Armon-Mynydd-Mawr), or Llanarmon-Vâch

LLANARMON-MYNYDD-MAWR (LLAN-ARMON-MYNYDD-MAWR), or LLANARMON-VÂCH, a parish, in the union of Llanvyllin, Cynlleth and Môchnant division of the hundred of Chirk, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 10 miles (W.) from Oswestry; containing 182 inhabitants. This parish comprises an uneven and chiefly elevated tract of 2590 acres, near the southern extremity of the county; about 600 acres are, or till lately were, common or waste. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty; net income, £64; patron, the Vicar of Llanrhaiadr: the tithes have been commuted for £136, of which a sum of £130 is payable to the vicar of Llanrhaiadr, who has also a glebe of ten acres, and £6 to the parish clerk. The church, dedicated to St. Garmon, was formerly a chapel of ease to Llanrhaiadr church, only a mile and a half distant. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, with a Sunday school held in it. By parliamentary returns, it appears that Edward ap Rogers, by will, in 1736, bequeathed a sum of £5, vested in the hands of churchwardens, the interest whereof was to be annually given to the poor; it was formerly paid from the rates, but it has long since been discontinued, and there is no record of any other charity.

Llanarth (Llan-Arth)

LLANARTH (LLAN-ARTH), a parish, in the union of Aberaëron, hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 13 miles (N. W. by W.) from Lampeter; consisting of two divisions, North and South, and containing 2421 inhabitants. The Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., on the second night after his landing at Milford Haven, encamped his forces at Wern Newydd, in this neighbourhood, where he was hospitably entertained by Einon ab Davydd Llwyd, on his route through the country to Bosworth Field. The parish is of considerable extent. It is pleasantly situated on the turnpike-road leading from Cardigan to Aberystwith, and is intersected by the river Llethy, which falls into Cardigan bay at Llanina. The surface is boldly undulated, in some parts mountainous; the lands are partially inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The surrounding scenery is strikingly varied by picturesque dingles and sterile mountains; and from the higher grounds some pleasing and extensive views are obtained over St. George's Channel. Neuadd Llanarth, anciently the seat of the family of Griffiths, is now a spacious modern mansion. Fairs are annually held in the village on January 12th, March 12th, June 17th, September 22nd, and October 27th, for horses, cattle, and merchandise.

The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Llanina annexed, rated in the king's books at £4. 18. 1½.; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £303. 8. 4. payable to the bishop, £151. 14. 2. to the vicar, and £4. 17. 6. to an impropriator. The church, dedicated to St. Vylltyg, is a venerable structure, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a lofty and substantial tower, and is situated on the declivity of a high hill: in the churchyard, a little to the north of the church, is a stone four feet and a half in height, and two feet ten inches in breadth, bearing a rude cross, and having an inscription, which, however, is so much obliterated as to be illegible. There are places of worship for Independents, Calvinistic Methodists, and Wesleyans; a Church day school; and five Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Established Church. In the parish are the remains of an extensive encampment called Castell Moyddyn, but no account of its origin has been preserved; and on the farm of Peny-Voel is another, called Pen-y-Gaer. Of Castell Mabwynion, also in the parish, which was allotted by Prince Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, in his partition of the reconquered territories in South Wales, in 1216, to Rhŷs ab Grufydd, there are not any remains, neither is the exact site of it known. There is a tumulus of earth, called Crûg Gôch, on an extensive common here.