Llandanwg - Llanddyvnan

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.

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Samuel Lewis, 'Llandanwg - Llanddyvnan', A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, (London, 1849), pp. 505-511. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp505-511 [accessed 13 June 2024].

Samuel Lewis. "Llandanwg - Llanddyvnan", in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, (London, 1849) 505-511. British History Online, accessed June 13, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp505-511.

Lewis, Samuel. "Llandanwg - Llanddyvnan", A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, (London, 1849). 505-511. British History Online. Web. 13 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/wales/pp505-511.

In this section

Llandanwg (Llan-Danwg)

LLANDANWG (LLAN-DANWG), a parish, in the union of Festiniog, hundred of Ardudwy, county of Merioneth, North Wales; including the small market-town of Harlech, and containing 746 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Artro, at its influx into St. George's Channel, and is about five miles in length and four in breadth; the surface is wild and cheerless, consisting chiefly of rugged rocks and sterile hills, and the surrounding scenery is dreary and uninviting. An act of parliament for inclosing the waste lands was obtained in 1806, under the provisions of which 2630 acres were inclosed, whereof a considerable portion has been brought into cultivation. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Llanbedr annexed, rated in the king's books at £7. 13. 1½.; present net income, £194; patron, the Bishop of Bangor. The church, dedicated to St. Tanwg, is a small edifice, in the early style of English architecture, very inconveniently situated at an extreme corner of the parish, on a small isthmus at the mouth of the river Artro, and so close to the sea that in stormy weather the waves inundate the churchyard. The chancel has a painted roof of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, and there is a curious lych-gate to the churchyard. This church, which is fast falling into ruin, is now used only for funerals: a new parish church has been built at Harlech, which see.

On the mountains in the parish are numerous foundations and remains of the rude dwellings of wood rangers, built for the purpose of accommodating the hunters, and called by the Welsh Cuttiau'r Gwyddelod. From the coast, a few miles to the south of Harlech, a narrow ridge of sand and gravel, called Sarn Badrig, "Patrick's causeway," or Sarn Badrhwyg, "the ship-breaking causeway," extends a distance of twenty-two miles seaward, in a curvilinear direction. The whole of this shoal is dry at low water of spring tides, and is always marked in storms by terrific breakers. According to a tradition of unknown antiquity, the bank anciently defended from the encroachments of the sea an inhabited district called Cantrêv Gwaelod, or "the low-land hundred," which was at last overwhelmed, about the year 500, through the negligence of a drunkard in omitting to close a sluice. Another tradition, of later origin, reports that Sarn Badrig was miraculously formed to facilitate the passage of St. Patrick between South Britain and Ireland.

Llandarog (Llan-Ddarog)

LLANDAROG (LLAN-DDAROG), a parish in the hundred of Iscennen, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 7 miles (E. by S.) from Carmarthen; containing 1047 inhabitants. The village occupies a bleak and unsheltered situation on the turnpike-road from Carmarthen to Swansea, and commands an extensive prospect, embracing on the east a view of Middleton Hall and Nelson's Tower: about half a mile distant, on the road to Llangendeirn, is the residence called Lletherllestry. Through the parish passes a continuous ridge of limestone, which is burnt in considerable quantities into manure for the supply of the neighbourhood. Fairs are held on the Monday after May 20th, and on September 27th. Llandarog until lately constituted a prebend in the collegiate church of Brecknock, rated in the king's books at £10, and in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David's. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £400 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant; net income, £81; patron, the Bishop. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £319, and there is an impropriate glebe of 4a. 1r. 20p., valued at £10. 13. per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Twrog, is a large edifice, appropriately fitted up. There was formerly a chapel of ease in the parish, of which some slight remains still exist, called St. Bernard's; it has been in ruins about two centuries. The Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists have places of worship, in which Sunday schools are held.

Llandawke (Llan-Dawk)

LLANDAWKE (LLAN-DAWK), a parish, in the Higher division of the hundred of Derllŷs, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 1 mile (W. by N.) from Laugharne; containing 26 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Laugharne to Tenby, and mostly surrounded by the parishes of Laugharne and Llansadwrnen. It comprises by computation about 600 acres, of which 100 are woodland, and of the remainder two-thirds arable and one-third pasture. The surface is rather hilly, and the nature of the soil clay; the chief agricultural produce is wheat and barley, and the wood grown is principally larch and Scotch fir. It consists only of two farms. The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 10., and having the living of Pendine annexed; net income, £88; patron, Col. Powell. The tithes of Llandawke have been commuted for a rent-charge of £55, and there is a glebe of two acres, valued at £5 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Margaret Marlos, is not distinguished by any architectural features of importance; it is a very small building, thirty-three feet in length and seventeen in breadth.

Llanddaniel-Vab (Llan-Ddeiniol-Fab)

LLANDDANIEL-VAB (LLAN-DDEINIOL-FAB), a parish, in the poor-law union of Bangor and Beaumaris, hundred of Menai, county of Anglesey, North Wales, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Bangor; containing 407 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the great Holyhead road, and intersected by the Chester and Holyhead railway, comprises a large tract of land, generally inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Llanidan. The church is dedicated to St. Deiniol Vab, who is said to be a son of Deiniol, or Daniel, the first Bishop of Bangor, and to have founded a church here in the year 616. It is a small edifice of the 16th century, or perhaps earlier, but has been so much altered by successive reparations, that little of its original architectural character now remains. The building consists of a single aisle, measuring forty feet by twenty feet externally; the western doorway is circular-headed, of the later English period, and the western wall is capped by a single bell-gable with an ogee covering. There are two modern windows in the southern wall, and one in the northern; the eastern window is also modern, but traces yet exist of a two-light window of ancient date: the font is circular, and perfectly plain. A monument in the interior commemorates a lady of the Ellis family, 1723. There are places of worship in the parish for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists, with a Sunday school held in each of them. The interest of various charitable benefactions in money amounting in the aggregate to more than £130, is annually distributed among the poor. The principal of these is a bequest of £50, by Mrs. Catherine Roberts, in 1756, the interest to be divided between two decayed housekeepers; this sum was invested by mortgage on the tolls of the turnpike-road between Holyhead and Shrewsbury, and the interest, £2. 10., is distributed as directed. A rent-charge of £1. 11., a bequest or grant by Robert Pritchard, is derived from a farm called Penrhyn Gadva, the property of the Irby family, Lords Boston; a charge of £1. 1., arising from the benefactions of various individuals, is paid by another family. The church lands produce £4. 10. annually.

At Bodlew, in the parish, is a deeply excavated and irregularly elliptical area, forty-three yards in length, and twenty-seven in width across the centre, with an entrance at the smaller end. Near the centre of this inclosure were formerly the remains of an ancient building, called Capel Cadwaladr, supposed to have been erected by the last King of all Britain of that name, as an occasional place of worship; but for what other purpose the area may have been excavated cannot now be ascertained, as there is no record of it extant, nor description of any similar place in the kingdom. It is still called Y Vonwent, and the chapel is said to have been one of the oldest places of Christian worship established in Anglesey. The progress of cultivation has almost obliterated the vestiges of antiquity which existed in the parish; there are still some Celtic remains at Bryn Keli.

Llanddeiniol (Llan-Ddeiniol)

LLANDDEINIOL (LLAN-DDEINIOL), a parish in the union of Aberystwith, Lower division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 7 miles (S. by W.) from Aberystwith; containing 273 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Daniel, is situated on the shore of Cardigan bay, and on the turnpike-road from Aberystwith to Cardigan. From a small tributary of the river Gwyre, it was anciently called Carog, under which appellation it constituted a prebend in the collegiate church of Llandewy-Brevi, rated in the king's books at £4. The scenery is not characterized by any peculiarity of features, but from the higher grounds an extensive view is obtained over the bay of Cardigan and the country adjacent. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty; net income, £66; patrons, alternately, Capt. Vaughan, and R. Price, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £123. 8. 4. The church, which is pleasantly situated on the brow of a hill, has been rebuilt within the last fifteen or twenty years, and is a very neat edifice, consisting of a chancel and nave, with a small tower. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other in the meeting-house. In the parish is a farmhouse, called Mynachtŷ, signifying "monastery," which probably occupies the site of a religious house.


LLANDDEINIOLEN, county of Carnarvon, North Wales.—See Llandeiniolen.

Llanddervel (Llan-Dderfel)

LLANDDERVEL (LLAN-DDERFEL), a parish, in the union of Bala, chiefly in the hundred of Penllyn, and partly in that of Edeyrnion, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Bala; containing 952 inhabitants. It comprises eight townships, viz.: Crogen, Seleorn, Llan, Dôldrewyn, Cynlas, Nant-y-Friar, Caergeliog, and Llaethcwm; and contains by measurement 5646 acres of inclosed, and by computation 2300 acres of common mountain, land: the soil is generally of a gravelly and loamy nature, and the greater part of the surface hilly and steep. The prospect from the higher grounds is extensive and magnificent, comprehending the ranges of the Arennig and Berwyn mountains, Snowdon, Cader Idris, the Arans, and several other lofty hills, the Vale of Penllyn, Bala lake, and other interesting objects: the pass from the bridge of Llanddervel across the Berwyn mountains, is also characterized by features of striking and romantic beauty. The village is pleasantly situated near the southern road from Bala to Corwen, and on the river Dee, the banks of which, throughout the whole extent of Llanddervel, are beautifully picturesque. The parish is likewise traversed by the northern road between the above-mentioned towns, and is adorned by several gentlemen's seats. Nearly opposite to the church is the bridge, a neat structure of four arches; the Dee vale, abounding with richly varied scenery, begins to contract within a short distance of the bridge, and at Calettwr, where is a beautiful waterfall, terminates in a finely wooded eminence, above which the vast chain of the Arennig mountains bounds the view. The hamlet of Llaethcwm, in this parish, is locally situated in that of Llanvawr. The manufacture of flannel, and the knitting of stockings, afford employment to a portion of the inhabitants; and fairs are annually held on the 17th of August and the 16th of October, principally for cattle and horses.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £13. 12. 11.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £320; there are a glebe valued at £15 per annum, and a glebe-house. The church, situated on a small eminence on the northern side of the Dee, is dedicated to St. Dervel Gadarn, or Dervel the Strong, who lived at the close of the sixth century, and was abbot of the monastery of Bardsey Island. It is an ancient structure in the later English style, consisting of a nave and chancel, separated by a finely carved screen, formerly surmounted by a rood-loft, which has been removed, and part of which now ornaments the front of the gallery at the west end. The old roof of the nave is still perfect, but concealed by a plaster ceiling. Over the screen was anciently a figure of St. Dervel, carved in wood, which was removed to London in 1538, and used as part of the fuel that consumed Friar Forest, who was burned in Smithfield for denying the king's supremacy; and thus was fulfilled a vulgar prophecy, that this wooden image should "set a whole forest on fire." The carved figure of a red stag is still preserved as a relic of the image of the stag, with which it was in some manner conjoined; and a staff curiously carved and gilded, which tradition reports to have also belonged to St. Dervel, is in the possession of the rector. In the east window of the chancel, which is very large and of fine proportions, are some remains of old stained glass. Some improvements have been recently effected at the expense of Lord Dungannon, consisting of the restoration of the screen and the fine porch. In the churchyard are two yew-trees of remarkable growth. There are three places of worship for Independents, and three for Calvinistic Methodists; a day and Sunday school for girls, in connexion with the Church; and six Sunday schools connected with the dissenters. Mr. John Williams, in 1746, bequeathed £60 for the benefit of the poor, among whom the interest, £3, is distributed in small sums, at Christmas.

In the hamlet of Dôldrewyn are several Druidical circles on the higher grounds; and in the vale is a farmhouse, on the bank of the Dee, called Dôlygadva, or "the meadow of the encampment." Near the mountain of Mynyllod are numerous British monuments, called Pen-y-Garth, comprising various stone cells: within the parish, on a hill called Cevn Caereuni, is also a strong military intrenchment, named Y Gaer, or "the fortress;" and in the grounds of Palê are the remains of a Druidical altar and a cistvaen. In making the road through the grounds of Vronheulog, in 1814, a celt and part of another instrument of war were found. On Cevn Caereuni is a lake named Llŷn Caereuni, which is nearly half a mile long, somewhat more than a quarter of a mile broad, and contains an abundance of pike and eels. Edward Jones, an eminent bard, a skilful player on the harp, and author of several poetic compositions in Welsh, was a native of the parish.


LLANDDETTY, in the county of Brecknock, South Wales.—See Llanthetty.


LLANDDEW, in the county of Brecknock, South Wales.—See Llanthew.

Llanddewi, or Llandewy

LLANDDEWI, or LLANDEWY, a parish, in the union and hundred of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 14 miles (W. by S.) from Swansea; containing 164 inhabitants. A castle is reported to have anciently stood here, and its reputed site is now occupied by a farmhouse, in which some of the walls of the old building are said to be incorporated: there are, however, no records either of the origin or history of the fortress. The parish is situated in the south-western part of the peninsula that forms the western portion of the county. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £3. 3. 4., and endowed with £800 royal bounty; total net income, £71; patron and impropriator, the Bishop of St. David's. The church, dedicated to St. David, is a small edifice. The parishioners of Knelston perform their various religious duties and ceremonies at this church, their own being in a state of dilapidation; and the vicar receives a small stipend from the chapter of St. David's as a compensation for the additional duty.

Llanddewi-Abergwessin (Llanddewi-Aber-Gwesyn)

LLANDDEWI-ABERGWESSIN (LLANDDEWI-ABER-GWESYN), a parish, in the union and hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 13½ miles (N. N. E.) from Llandovery; containing 143 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises one of the wildest and least cultivated tracts in the county, derives its name from the dedication of its church, and from the little river Gwessin, near the confluence of which with the Irvon the village is situated. Llwynderw, or "the oak grove," is a handsome residence here. Lead-ore has been found, but it is not now worked. The roads are utterly impassable for carriages, and unsafe even for common carts. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Llangammarch; the church is a very rude building, dedicated to St. David.

Llanddewi'r-Cwm (Llan-Ddewi-Y-Cwm)

LLANDDEWI'R-CWM (LLAN-DDEWIY-CWM), a parish, in the union and hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 1¾ mile (S.) from Builth; containing 244 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies "the church of St. David in the vale," is pleasantly situated on the river Dihonw, near its junction with the Wye. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanvair-yn-Mhuallt, on the south by Gwenddwr and Llangynog, on the west by Maesmynys, and on the east by the Wye, which divides it from the two parishes of Llanvaredd and Aberedw, in Radnorshire. It is about two miles and a half in length, and two in breadth, and comprises 3180 acres, of which one-fourth is arable, another fourth pasture, and the remainder common and waste land, wood, and homesteads. The soil is generally clayey, and on the lower grounds very good, and suitable for meadow and the cultivation of all sorts of grain; the substratum consists of a clay slate. The surface, diversified by hill and dale, comprehends many rich scenes, more especially on the banks of the river Dihonw, which flows near the church, and in its course washes the bases of several steep and lofty rocks, partially clothed with wood. In the lower grounds are some beautiful knolls, covered with noble trees, which form picturesque objects on the road to Builth; and within the boundaries are other luxuriant groves, in which the axe has already made, and continues to make, much havoc: the wood chiefly consists of oak, fir, hazel, and underwood. At Hên Allt, in the eastern part of the parish, is a good quarry for flagstones, with which the ground-floors of houses in the district are mostly covered. The village occupies a beautiful eminence, at the foot of which flows the Dihonw, here but a narrow stream: on its banks near the church is some romantic scenery, as also in a deep glen along which runs the small brook called Bwlch. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty; net income, £64; patrons, Mrs. Sarah Price, and V. Pocock, Esq., the impropriators, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £131, and who pay £20 per annum out of the tithes of this parish and that of Builth, under a bequest by William Evans in 1581, to his descendants, who are now tolerably numerous. The church, dedicated to St. David, and situated on the eastern side of the old high road from Builth to Brecknock, having become very dilapidated, an application on the part of the parishioners was made to the landowners to contribute towards the erection of a new edifice, which has been completed. There is neither parsonage-house nor glebe land. A Sunday school is held in connexion with the Established Church. Mrs. Sybil Vaughan, of Aberdihonw, in 1681, bequeathed the rent of a tenement in this parish, called Tîr yr Wyll, now producing £5 per annum, to be distributed annually on All Saints' day among the poor; the sum is given to such as do not receive parochial aid, with the exception of 10s., which she directed should be paid for a sermon. A rent-charge of 12s. was left by Mrs. Anne Prosser, for distribution among the poor; and a similar sum out of Neuadd farm has been lost.

Llanddewi-Vâch (Llan-Ddewi-Fâch)

LLANDDEWI-VÂCH (LLAN-DDEWI-FÂCH), a parish, in the union of Hay, hundred of Painscastle, county of Radnor, South Wales, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Hay; containing 130 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies "the lesser church of St. David," comprises by computation 1500 acres of inclosed and 300 of common land. It is skirted on the north and west by the small river Bâchwy, by which it is separated from the parish of Llanbedr-Painscastle. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Llowes: the tithes are appropriate. The church, dedicated to St. David, is situated close to a wood called Allt Ddewi.

Llanddoget (Llan-Ddoged)

LLANDDOGET (LLAN-DDOGED), a parish, in the union of Llanrwst, hundred of Isdulas, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 1 mile (N. by E.) from Llanrwst; containing 222 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the north by Eglwys-Bâch, on the south by Llanrwst, and on the west by the river Conway; and comprises by measurement an area of 758 acres, in about equal portions of arable and pasture, with a few small plantations. It is pleasantly situated on a gradual slope facing the west, and reaching to the Conway; and the views from particular points, embracing Llanrwst and the fertile Vale of Llanrwst, the river, the Carnarvonshire mountains, and Bala hills, are very beautiful: the timber is principally oak and ash, with a few plantations of fir, and the common hedge-trees. There is a quarry of the bastard granite with which the houses of Llanrwst and those in the parish and district are generally built; but it is not worked. The two principal houses are, Plâs Madoc, the residence of William Lloyd Jones, Esq., to whom one half of the parish belongs, and Belmont, that of Miss Elizabeth Kenrick, who owns nearly all the other moiety; both mansions are of modern appearance, and very elegant, and each commands a fine prospect of the vale and the surrounding country. Courts leet and baron are annually held in April, by the steward of the Bishop of Bangor. The village consists of a few small cottages, on the road leading from Llanrwst to Denbigh and Abergele.

The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5. 13. 1½., and endowed with £400 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £174; and the glebe consists of fourteen acres and a quarter, valued at £28 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Dogvan, and rebuilt in 1839, is a plain but neat and commodious edifice; the former structure is said to have been erected subsequently to the Reformation, at the expense of one of the proprietors of the adjoining manor of Maenan. In the church are some good monuments, among which is one to Sir Thomas Kyffin, attorney-general in the reigns of Queen Anne, George I., and George II., who died on the 20th of June, 1745; and on the floor are some slabs to different members of the Wynne family, of Maenan Abbey. The parsonage-house was built in a neat style in 1812. The only charity of which the Parliamentary Commissioners found a record in this parish was the interest of £3. 12., the gift of David Hughes, but at what period made is unknown.

Llanddona (Llan-Ddona)

LLANDDONA (LLAN-DDONA), a parish, in the union of Bangor and Beaumaris, hundred of Tyndaethwy, county of Anglesey, North Wales, 3½ miles (N. W.) from Beaumaris; containing 506 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Dona, who flourished in the seventh or eighth century; and is situated in the eastern part of the Isle of Anglesey, upon a peninsular projection which separates the bay of Beaumaris from the Irish Sea. It comprises a moderate portion of inclosed arable and pasture land in a good state of cultivation, and an extensive common, which, from the rocky nature of the soil, affords but indifferent pasturage. The surrounding scenery, though not distinguished by any peculiarity of features, is pleasing; and the numerous farmhouses scattered over the parish give it an air of cheerfulness not generally found in this part of the principality. Cremlyn Mynach, or Uchâv, an old house now tenanted by a farmer, appears, from a square-headed window of two lights, pointed, but not foliated, to have been a gentleman's residence in the sixteenth century; but this is the only trace of its former importance now remaining. A considerable herringfishery is carried on during the season at Red Wharf bay.

The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty; net income, £87; patron, Lord Boston. The church is situated on the shore of Red Wharf bay, in a sequestered nook overhung by high hills; and, though of small dimensions, comprises a nave, chancel, transepts, and a chapel on the southern side of the nave; thus including some parts which are usually to be found only in more important churches. Its internal condition was wretched in the extreme until the year 1846, when it was put into a state of creditable repair by the exertions of the Rev. Dr. Owen, the rural dean of the district. The southern chapel, or aisle, belongs to the Bulkeley family, and runs nearly the whole length of the nave, communicating both with it and the southern transept. The style of the church is later English, with a few insertions of a more recent date: in the outer wall of the nave, on the northern side, is a stone with a zigzag or chevron pattern on it, being a relic of a much older building, replaced in the fifteenth century by the present one. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, and two Sunday schools are held. Several small donations were left by different benefactors to the poor, amounting in the whole to £14, with a portion of which a few cottages were built for the poor, but the churchwardens having entered into a lawsuit to recover £3. 10. in bad hands, the cottages were sold to pay the expenses. The only charity now available is one of £2. 4. received from John Williams's trust in the parish of Llaneugrad, which is distributed among the poor on St. Thomas's day.


LLANDDULAS, in the county of Denbigh, North Wales.—See Newchurch.


LLANDDWYN, in the county of Anglesey, North Wales.—See Newborough.

Llanddwywau (Llan-Ddwywe)

LLANDDWYWAU (LLAN-DDWYWE), a parish, in the union of Dôlgelley, hundred of Ardudwy, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Barmouth, on the road to Harlech; comprising the townships of Is-y-Graig and Uwch-y-Graig, and containing 386 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the shore of the great bay of Cardigan. The district including and immediately surrounding it, is called Ardudwy, from which the hundred takes its name; and abounds with Druidical remains, and other relics of British antiquity. The mountains in the neighbourhood are of rugged and precipitous character, forming a natural bulwark for the defence of this part of the country, into which the entrance is by a narrow defile of difficult access, which might be secured by a very small body of men against thousands of assailing foes. The narrowest part of this rocky pass is called Drws Ardudwy, "the doorway to Ardudwy;" and the road through it consists in part of frequent flights of numerous steps cut in the rock, of hazardous ascent, and in some places descends precipitous declivities of frightful aspect and slippery passage, over which, in many parts, impend huge masses of rock, menacing the traveller's progress almost at every step. From the encampments and fortifications, of which there are extensive remains on various parts of the neighbouring mountains, it is evident that this pass has been regarded as one of the most important posts in this part of the principality; and from the vast numbers of tumuli, carneddau, cist-vaens, and other monuments of deceased warriors, it is more than probable that these mountains have been the scene of many conflicts in the earlier periods of British history.

In the parish are three small lakes, Irddin, Dulyn, and Bodlyn; and a canal has been formed from it, nearly parallel with, and at only a short distance from, the coast, to the creek near Llandanwg old church, into which it conveys the waters of two streams. Within the limits of the parish, also, stands the mansion of Corsygedol, the ancient seat of the Vaughans, and now the property of the Hon. E. Mostyn Lloyd Mostyn. A long avenue of stately trees leads to the house, which is deeply embowered in extensive woods, exhibiting in a very striking manner the influence of the strong westerly winds to which they are exposed, and by which the tops of the trees are shorn to one uniform level; the boughs are also so intricately interwoven as to form a close and almost impenetrable curtain. In the grounds are four silverfir trees, the largest in North Wales, which are much admired for the beauty of their growth. The waste lands of the parish, including more than 4580 acres, of which one-half is at present uncultivated, were inclosed by act of parliament in 1810. The village is pleasantly situated on the shore of Cardigan bay: webs are manufactured to a small extent. Fairs are held on April 18th, August 12th, and November 9th.

The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llanenddwyn. The church is dedicated to St. Dwywan, son of Hywel ab Emyr Llydaw, and brother of Dervel Gadarn, or Dervel the Strong, who flourished about the sixth century. It is an ancient structure, in the early style of English architecture, and has on the north-east a sepulchral chapel, separated from the aisle by a screen, and belonging to the proprietors of Corsygedol: the walls are ornamented with several monuments to the memory of the Vaughans, the former possessors of that estate, who were descendants of Osborn Fitz-Gerald, called by the Welsh Osborn Wyddel, or the Irishman, who came into Wales in the time of Llewelyn the Great, by whom he was much esteemed. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. Miss Ellen Humphreys, daughter of the Rev. E. Humphreys, rector of this place, bequeathed, in 1801, a sum of money for the instruction of children of Llanddwywau and Llanenddwyn, the produce of which is appropriated towards the maintenance of a school in the latter parish. The Rev. Mr. Jones left £100 to the minister and churchwardens in trust for the benefit of the poor; Mrs. Jane Wynne, in 1725, assigned a sum for the same purpose; and there are other charitable donations, the interest of which and of the two gifts above named, with a small bequest by David Griffith for bread, is distributed among the poor.

Near Llyn Irddin are several Druidical remains, now very much diminished by the removal of the stones composing them, to furnish materials for the walls of inclosures. The principal of these was a circle of loose stones, about fifty-six feet in diameter, the area included within which was divided into four nearly equal parts by upright columns placed in pairs. About thirty yards from this was a similar one of smaller dimensions; and about half a mile to the south, on one side of a hill, are two carneddau of vast size, a cromlech, a maen-hîr, or columnar stone, and a cist-vaen: the larger of the carneddau is fiftyfive feet long and twelve high. On the summit of a hill to the west of these is the strong post called Castell Dinas Corddin, surrounded by a deep intrenchment, and having an advanced work on one side of it. On the summit of another hill is Castell Craig-y-Dinas, surrounded by a vast rampart of stones, through which is an oblique entrance with a facing of stone on each side, and defended by two other ramparts of stone. These fortifications appear to have been erected to defend the above-noticed pass through the mountains, for which purpose they are judiciously placed on the summit and declivities of a hill commanding the entrance. Upon the summit of two smaller eminences, near each other, are two large carneddau, within one of which are the remains of a cist-vaen. Near a tenement called Bryn-yVoel are the remains of a cromlech, sixteen feet four inches in length, and seven feet four inches broad, of which the upper stone is twenty inches in thickness: there is another in a field near Corsygedol.

Llanddyvnan (Llan-Ddyfnan)

LLANDDYVNAN (LLAN-DDYFNAN), a parish, in the hundred of Tyndaethwy, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Beaumaris; containing 718 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the turnpike-road from Beaumaris to Llanerchymedd and Amlwch, and, with the exception of a small part, is inclosed and well cultivated: it formerly contained an extensive common, which was inclosed some time ago, and several houses erected upon it. The scenery is pleasingly diversified, and enriched with wood, and in the neighbourhood are obtained some good prospects. The adjacent seat of Plâs Llanddyvnan is a spacious and handsome mansion, beautifully situated, and environed with extensive woods, in which is some of the most valuable timber in Anglesey. The parish abounds with limestone of very excellent quality, of which large quantities are shipped to Ireland, and also to Liverpool, for various purposes. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of LlanvairMathavarneithâv annexed, rated in the king's books at £38. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Bishop of Bangor. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for a rent-charge of £157. 18. The church is dedicated to St. Dyvnan, who flourished in the fifth century, and is said to have been buried within the building itself. It is for the most part of later English character, and appears to have been originally of much greater extent: in digging in the churchyard, foundations of ancient buildings have at various times been discovered, at a considerable distance from the site of the present edifice. Some repairs were effected in 1846 and 1847. There are places of worship for dissenters, and a Sunday school connected with the Calvinistic Methodists. An unknown benefactor gave £28 for the use of the poor, which sum was expended in the erection of three small houses on the common about half a century ago: on the inclosure of the common under an act in 1812, the allotment on which the houses were situated was assigned to the proprietor of the contiguous estate of Plâs Gwyn, when they were pulled down, and in lieu an allotment of about six acres was transferred to the parish.

Not far distant from the church of Llanddyvnan are some remains of a well-constructed Roman road, fourteen feet wide, running in a west-north-western direction towards Holyhead; it is supposed to have been a continuation of that leading from the shore in the parish of Penmon, and may be traced at intervals entirely across this parish, and again near Plâs Tregaian, in that adjoining. There is also a large maen hîr in the parish, near the church.