An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 3, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part I. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1806.
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Of the City in Queen Mary's Time.
At the death of Edward VI. the Lady Jane Gray, whom King Edward had declared his next successour, by letters patent under the broad seal, was declared Queen, and as such, publickly lodged in the Tower of London, on July the 10th, being four days after the King's death, which was kept private as much as possible, the better to enable the court to provide against the Princess Mary, the King's sister, whom they imagined would contend for her right with them: the Princess being acquainted with her brother's death at her house at Hoveden, and how affairs stood ut court, instead of going directly to London as they expected, retired to her palace at her manor of Kenninghall in Norfolk, from whence she directed a letter to the Lords, dated July the 9th, commanding them to proclaim her Queen in the city of London; (fn. 1) to which they answered, that King Edward had appointed the Lady Jane his successour, whom they intended to obey as Queen; their Lordships imagining that though she put in her claim, she was in no condition to do any thing more. But in this they were much deceived, for the next day they were informed, that many persons of quality were assembled at Kenninghall, to offer their personal service and assistance to the Princess, who cheerfully entertained all comers that favoured her title or religion, the chief of them being gentlemen of Norfolk and Suffolk, as Sir Hen. Jerningham, (fn. 2) Sir Hen. Bedingfield, Sir Will. Drury, Sir John Shelton, Sir John Mordaunt, son to the Lord Mordaunt, Sir Thomas Wharton, son to the Lord Wharton, Mr. John Suliard, Mr. Ric. Freston, Master Serjeant Morgan, Mr. Ric. Heigham of Lincoln's-Inn, the Earl of Bath, the Earl of Sussex, and Mr. Hen. Ratcliff, his son, and many others, with all the forces they could raise; which made the Lords begin to look about them, and guard as well as they could against the designs of the Princess, who on the 12th day of July, sent to Norwich to be proclaimed there; (fn. 3) but the mayor and court absolutely refused it, not (as they told the messenger) because they would not join with her, but because they had as yet received no messenger, as usual, to assure them of the King's death; but the next day having certain tidings of it, they immediately proclaimed her, and raised 100 soldiers, and sent them to meet her at Framlingham castle in Suffolk, (fn. 4) to which she and her adherents had retreated from Kenninghall, that being a place of strength, and so situated, that if her affairs had not succeeded prosperously, she could easily have fled into Flanders, and created more trouble to them there, than she could at home; which the Lords foreseeing, ordered all such ships as lay in the Downs to attend on the Norfolk coast, to intercept her in the way, if she should think of flying to the Emperor's court, and at the same time proposed to send Lady Jane's father with an army against the Princess, but they could not persuade her to permit it: and then the late Earl of Warwick, now Duke of Northumberland, was pitched upon as the properest person for that undertaking, his name being so terrible in these parts ever since his subduing Ket and his rebels, and his person being much valued by the gentlemen and principal citizens, whom he thereby saved from utter ruin; on the 13th day of July, the carts being laden with artillery and provisions, they set out for New-market, and the Duke, accompanied with the Marquis of Northampton, the Lord Grey, and others, mustered their forces at Whitehall, and the next morning being July 14, with a body of 600 horse he set forward for Cambridge, where he assured himself of all obedience, which either the University or town could give him, as being Chancellor of the one, and High-Steward of the other; Sir John Gates, whose fidelity he could depend upon, following him with the rest of his company.
On Monday morning he went with his whole force to St. Edmund's Bury, and there lodged that night, but instead of hearing news of those supplies which were to attend him at Newmarket, he received letters from the Lords of the Council, so full of discomfort, that he marched back to Cambridge, and soon after proclaimed Queen Mary there.
In the mean time, the Princess dispatches letters from Framlingham castle, to the peers of the realm, to require their attendance with what succours they could bring her: upon which, William Lord Windsor, Sir Edw. Hastings, Sir Edw. Peacham, and others, who had raised 4000 men for the Duke of Northumberland, proclaimed her in Buckinghamshire, Sir John Williams in Oxfordshire, &c. (fn. 5)
But what confirmed her good fortune was, that the six men of war which were appointed to hover on the coast of Norfolk to intercept her, if she fled, were by foul weather driven into Yarmouth haven, in which town Sir Hen. Jerningham was very busy in raising men for her, which the captains of the ships perceiving, took boat and returned to their ships, but Jerningham followed them; upon which the sailors and soldiers asked him "what he would have? and whither he would have their captains or no? to which he answered Yea. Marry said they, ye shall have them or we will throw them into the bottom of the sea." (fn. 6) But the captains said forthwith, that they would willingly serve Queen Mary, and so landed their men and ordnance.
The Lords being informed of this, and that their tenants refused to serve against Queen Mary, were in great doubt what to do, but at last on the 19th of July, they proclaimed her Queen in London, and dispatched a messenger to Framlingham with 30 horsemen, to inform her of it; and another to Queen Jane, to command her to lay aside her title, which she willingly consented to, so that for a mock-reign of nine days she was not only imprisoned, but in the end suffered death.
Upon this, dissolving her great camp at Framlingham, which then consisted of 14,000 men, she went for London, being met by her sister Elizabeth on the way, with 1000 horse, and entered the city on the 3d of August, taking possession of the Tower, where she was welcomed by the old Duke of Norfolk, and others on their knees, who were prisoners there, though soon after set at liberty by her.
She was crowned Oct. the 1st, which being signified to the city, the mayor ordered that on the "Sondaie next betweene nyne and tenne of the clock in the mornyng all the justices in their skarlett gownes and cloks, and the residue of the aldermen in their skarlett gownes, and the 60 in their lyveries shall mete at Christs church to give praise and thanks to God for the coronacion of the Quenes highness. And bonefyers to be made in the Market-place, Tombland, and over the water att costs of the cittie, and at eche fyer to be sett oon barell of best bere, and oon dosen brede, and six gallons of wyne, to be drunken by the poore." (fn. 7)
And thus chiefly by the means of the Norfolk and Suffolk gentlemen, she regained her crown, in which being perfectly settled, she soon forgot the services that she received from them, as well as the promises she made them in regard to religion; insomuch that being petitioned by them on that behalf, it was churlishly answered, that "Members must obey their head, and not expect to rule it," and to hinder any more such petitions for the future, she caused one Dobbes, a gentleman by Windham side, who had presumed to remind her of her former promise, to stand in the pillory three days together for so doing: (fn. 8) yea so far was she from gratifying those who had assisted her in her trouble, that she persecuted them, and all others of the same persuasion with fire and faggot, and instigated the magistrates to do the same: and accordingly one John Wagstaffe, servant to Mr. George Walden, grocer, was bound over to answer, for saying on the 23d of Nov. last "that Doctor Todenham had lyen in his dene this vij yers, and nowe did preche upon Sondaye last, and for his prechyng had leke to have ben pullyd owt of the pulpyt, and that if he comyth and prechyth so agayn he shal be pullyd down in dede. And Mr. Mayor was like to have ben pulled downe at the tyme of the prechyng; and sayd, yow have masse up nowe, God save it, how long yt shall hold God knowyth. And sayd more, we shuld be led in blyndness styll." (fn. 9)
It appears that Thomas Duke of Norfolk was a great favourite of this city, for on the 14th day of February it was ordered at a court then held that they should send to him at his palace at Kenninghall a present of a hogshead of white-wine, a hogshead of red, two hogsheads of claret, six sugar loaves weighing 60l. and two dozen of wax torches, as a remembrance of their old value for him, and to welcome him home again after his deliverance from his imprisonment in the Tower. And upon some stir here and in the county, the Queen fearful of an insurrection, issued a commission dated the first of May following, directed to the Duke, the Earl of Sussex, the Mayor for the time being, Sir Ric. Southwell, Sir Edmund Windham, Knts. Tho. Gawdy and Rich. Catlyn, Serjeants at Law, Hen. Hobart, Rob. Holdiche, and John Corbet, Esqrs. Aug. Steward, Rob. Rugge, Tho. Codd, Hen. Fuller, and Rich. Davye, Aldermen, commanding them, or any four of them, to inquire and try all rebellions within the city, &c.
About this time, Sir Thomas White, merchant tailor and mayor of London, gave 2000l. to purchase lands of the yearly value of 120l. which he settled for divers uses for some years then to come, and afterwards, these twenty-four cities, companies, and towns, were to receive in Merchant-Tailors Hall in London, on every 24th day of August, between the hours of two and six in the afternoon, the sum of one hundred and four pounds, to be lent unto four young freemen and inhabitants in the several cities, in free love, 25l. apiece, (clothiers always to be preferred,) which said sums they are to have and occupy for 10 years, without paying any interest or loan for the same, upon sureties by them given, that if they decay, die, or dwell out of the city or town, before the ten years are expired, that they shall cause it to be repaid to the mayor, &c. within one month after such time, and at the end of every ten years, the said sums shall be put out to other such young men, from ten years, to ten years for ever, providing that if any place make default in the due putting out of each 100l. the same place shall for ever loose the benefit of this devise: the four pounds overplus of every 100l. being at the pleasure of the mayor and commonalty, for their pains to be taken about the receipts and payments of the said hundred pounds; viz.
And the next year to the city of York, and so forth, to every of the said cities and towns, in the like order as before, and thus to continue for ever. (fn. 10)
In 1554, the walls between Pockthorp and Magdalen-gates being in much decay, the ward was taxed by the aldermen of the same, according to the old ordinances, for the repair thereof. (fn. 11)
In this year was Rob. Gold set in the pillory, and had his ears nailed thereto, for devising "unfitting songes against the Quenes "Majestie," (fn. 12) and Rich. Sotherton, grocer, was bound in 20l. not to utter or sell "any sedycyous bookes, but bryng them to the mayor "&c." The citizens petitioned the Queen for gonnes, for the city; and the Council answered, that they should have four times as many as the Duke of Northumberland took from them after the rebellion
And now was the statute made concerning russels satins, and satins reverses; which for some years past used to be made beyond the seas of Norfolk wool, and then imported, whereby the merchants and inhabitants of Norwich, which formerly were well maintained by the weaving and making of Worsteds, were reduced very much, such worsteds being now little worn, either in this realm or foreign countries, the said satins being universally worn in lieu thereof. To remedy which, Tho. Marsham, mayor of Norwich, John Corbet, Esq. Austen Steward, Rob. Leech, Rob. Rugg, John Ball, and Alex. Mather, aldermen, Thomas Whale, Tho. Peck, Ralph Marsham, Rob. Henrie, John Sutton, Ric. Thompson, citizens and Merchants, have at their great costs, brought in looms and strangers to work with them, by which they have made in the said city, of Norfolk wool, much better russels satins, &c. than are made beyond sea, by which the citizens are like to be relieved, and advanced to their good and former estate, if some good laws were made for the continuance of the making of the said satins, &c. In consideration of which, an act passed, constituting the mayor and forementioned citizens, jointly with John Cook, James Lin, John Cross, Simon Petit, John Marshall, Rob. Leeke, Edm. Barker, and Edm. Selers, eight of the most discreet and worthy men of the mystery of worsted weaving, within the said city, a fellowship of themselves, with power every third day of February to elect four wardens out of their fellows, to continue wardens for one year, who are to be sworn the Monday following their election, before the mayor, diligently to view, search, and see, all the russels satins, satins reverses, and fustians of Naples, made, that year, within the city, and all such as shall be by them deemed to be lawfully, truly, and workmanly wrought, they shall seal with a seal of lead, bearing the arms of the city of Norwich, whereby it may be known to the merchant and buyer of them, that the same are allowed to be truly made.
And the said wardens and fellowship are made a body corporate, and enabled by the act to sue and be sued, and to give, and take, by the name of
The WARDENS and FELLOWSHIP of the mysterie of RUSSELS SATINS, SATINS REVERSES, and FUSTIAN of NORWICH making, within the said CITY of NORWICH, with power to make ordinances, and punish all offenders, &c. as may be seen at large in the said statute. (fn. 13)
In 1555, the day before Michaelmas day, Felix Puttock, Esq. mayor of this city, died, upon which the alderman who was mayor next before him, by the advice of his brethren, and learned council of the city, by virtue of their charter, ordered the mayor's serjeant to warn a general assembly next day, when the sheriffs, aldermen, and common-council went to the house of the deceased mayor, and there received the sword, the hat of maintenance, and the mace, and brought them to the Gild-hall, where Ric. Catlyn, serjeant at law, steward of the city, made a speech, informing them of the cause of their assembly, and what they ought to do in the case, and then the aldermen left the deputy recorder, the common speaker, and the commons together, who elected Tho. Codde and Hen. Bacon: and the justices, sheriffs, and aldermen, chose Tho. Codde mayor for the rest of the year, who was then sworn. (fn. 14)
And at a congregation or assembly held the 13th of Nov. following, an aid, proportionable to the rate of a whole tax, was assessed and levied on the inhabitants of the city, "for the confirmation of the charter of the cittye, (fn. 15) and the perambulacion of the same," which charter bears date the third of April following, at Greenwich, and was confirmed by authority of parliament, in which, the limits and bounds of the city and county thereto belonging are fixed and determined in the following manner, viz.
"From the river Wensome, which river was formerly granted to the city, by the outward part or bank of the river called Trows-Eye, to Trows bridge, and from Trows bridge by the outward bank of the river, including the whole river to Lakenham bridge, and from Lakenham bridge to Harforde, including the river to the outward bank, and from thence by the outward bank of the river to Cringleford bridge, and thence by the outward bank of the river to Heilesden bridge, and from thence to the water of Heilesden old watermilldamme, (fn. 16) and from that water by the high-way leading directly through Heilesden town, by the common lane, leading from the east part of an inclosure called Heylesdon-Wood, and from the north-end of that lane by a certain green way leading directly to a certain parcel of ground, upon which a cross called the White cross formerly stood, it being in the high-way leading from Norwich to Horsham St. Faith's, and thence directly to the north part of an inclosure called Little Mushold, and by the north part of an inclosure now or late in the tenure of John Crykemaye senior, and thence directly to the north part of an inclosure called Wrenne Park, containing two acres, now or late occupied by John Norgate, and thence to the joining of two ways north and east of the said inclosure called Wrenne Park, of which two ways, one leads to Norwich, and the other to Magdalen chapel, and from the said joining of the two ways directly to an inclosure late alderman Nic. Sywhat's, now John Corbet's Esq. called the Saffron Close, leaving the said inclosure on the north part, and so from the said inclosure on a green way leading from Norwich to Thorp, and by that way bending west, to the north end of the common way, leading from the aforesaid highway to the river Wensom, by the manor of Newton, called NewtonHall, and by the same water eastward, including the whole water, to Hardley Cross, and so returning and taking in the whole river Wensom, to the outward bank of Trowse Eye river aforesaid; all which is in the county of the said city, and all within these limits are now incorporated into the city and county thereof, except out of the premises, the whole castle of Norwich, and the shirehous, and all the land and ground within the scite of them both." The corporation of the city have full power to perambulate these bounds yearly, or whenever they please.
The liberties of all persons within the said county, and the several towns, hamlets, and precincts thereof, belonging to the several lords of the several manors and owners of lands, &c. are reserved to them and their heirs, to be enjoyed in as ample a manner as before the making of this charter.
This year, on the 12th of May, Mr. Tho. Rose, preacher, by order of the privy council, was sent from the Tower to the sheriff of Norfolk, to be conveyed to Norwich, and there delivered to the Bishop, who was either to reduce him to recant, or else proceed against him, for now the bloody spirit of persecution began to rage in Suffolk, Norfolk, &c. by means of that cruel persecutor, Dr. Hopton Bishop of Norwich, and Dr. Dunnings, his unmerciful chancellor, both of them men of such wickedblood-thirsty disposition, that they exceeded all bounds of pity and compassion, in tormenting and burning all that they could not influence to embrace their own opinion, as James Abbes, whom they burnt at Bury, Robert Samuel at Ipswich, William Allen at Walsingham, and many others in divers parts of the county: which rigour produced a supplication from certain of the inhabitants of Norfolk and Suffolk, to the commissioners sent down by the Queen and council to enquire into matters of religion, in which they honestly set forth their faith and reasons for not agreeing to the Queen's injunctions, and accepting the mass and service in Latin, &c. (fn. 17)
But this, instead of appeasing these mischiefs, made them rage more furiously than before; for now three suffered in one fire at Bury, and on the 6th of March, came a writ directed to the sheriffs of Norwich, commanding them to burn William Carman, late of Hingham in Norfolk, he being certified by Bishop Hopton to be a contumacious heretick: (fn. 18) and on the 20th of the same month, is this entry in the court book, "Mr. Thomas Sotherton sherief, delyver'd in the courte 4 bookes that were one William Carman's an heretyke lately brent. a Byble, a Testament, and 3 Salters, which remain in the old Counssail House." (fn. 19)
Miserable must those times be, when men suffered as hereticks for having the word of God in that language that they understood.
In this year, wheat sold in the market at 40s. a quarter, malt at 30s. oats at 16s. and barley at 32s.; but next year, wheat fell to 10s. 4d. a quarter, malt to 5s. barley to 4s. 4d. oats to 2s. 4d. and rye to 2s. 8d. (fn. 20) This scarcity was occasioned by the dry summer, which was so extraordinary, that the turf of the ground fired in several places, and burnt fourteen days together. (fn. 21)
In 1557, Mr. Thomas Malby gave 100 pounds towards the purchase of lands, for to redeem the custom paid at the common-stath. (fn. 22)
And now many conspiracies were intended, but were stifled at their beginnings, (fn. 23) and among others, one Clobber or Clebber, who had been formerly a school-master at Diss, with three brothers, whose names were Lincoln, endeavoured to raise an insurrection by gathering the people together at a marriage, to which the Lincolns promised to bring each of them an hundred horsemen; at which time Clobber ordered his servant to watch in a lane nigh the church, where they should meet, and as soon as he saw any horsemen coming, to let him know it immediately. Now it chanced that other men riding about their business, came through the lane at the appointed time, upon which the servant went and told his master his friends were come; and then the said Clobber stood up in the parish church of Yaxley in Suffolk, where the pretended wedding was to have been, and read a traitorous proclamation, which was prepared on purpose; which being ended, seeing his associates were not come, and the number with him too weak, he fled; but Mr. Sherman, the chief man of that town, pursued after him, and took him at Eye, and sent him to Bury gaol; his companions however went up the road towards Ipswich, and endeavoured what they could to raise the people of that part; (fn. 24) upon which the Ipswich people sent to all the chief places for assistance, and the city sent them 30 soldiers; (fn. 25) and soon after they took the three Lincolns and sent them to Bury to their ringleader, with whom, at the following assizes they were hanged, drawn, and quartered, and so the whole stir ended.
The martyrs that suffered in the city were these:
Simon Miller, a merchant of Linn, who was committed to Mr. Fellows, keeper of the Bishop's prison at Norwich, and being condemned by the bishop and chancellor, was burnt July the 13th at the same stake with
Elizabeth Cooper, a pewterer's wife of St. Andrew's parish, who first recanted openly in that church, but being afterwards grieved for it, she came in time of divine service, and desired the congregation not to follow her example; upon which, one Bacon of the same parish urged Mr. Sutterton, the sheriff, to take her into custody; who though unwilling, was obliged by Bacon to go to her house and carry her to prison, and the Chancellor having examined her, she was condemned to be burnt at the same stake with Miller; when she was at the stake, and the fire began to come near her, she shrank a little at it, and cried out Oh! which when Millerheard, he had her be strong and of good cheer, "for (good sister) we shall have good supper," by which she was so strengthened, that she stood still and quiet, as one glad to finish that good work which she had begun. (fn. 26)
Thomas Carman was apprehended at the same time, for pledging him at his burning, (as is most probable,) and soon after suffered.
And now also was John Noyes of Laxfield, shoemaker, imprisoned in the Gild-hall, and being condemned by the Chancellor, was sent to Laxfield, and burnt there Sept. 22. (fn. 29)
Cicely, wife of Edm. Ormes of St. Laurence's parish, worsted-weaver, was burnt at Norwich September 1st, being about 32 years of age, and daughter of Tho. Haund of East-Derham, tailor; she was taken up at the burning of Simon Miller, and Eliz. Cooper, in the Lollard's Pit, out of Bishop-gate, because she then said she would pledge them in the same cup they drank of. Mr. Corbet of Sprowston took her, and sent her to the Chancellor, and he, after he had condemned her, delivered her to Mr. Thomas and Leonard Sutterton, (or Sotherton,) the sheriffs, who carried her prisoner to the Gild-hall, where she remained till Sept. 23, on which day she was burnt in Lollard's Pit, between seven and eight in the morning, the sheriff and about 200 people being present; when she came to the stake she prayed on her knees and rising up, said, "I believe in God the Father, God the Sonne and God the Holy Ghost, three persons and one God: This I do not nor will I recant; but I recant utterlie from the bottom of my hart, the doynges of the Pope of Rome, and all his Popish priests and shavelings, I utterly refuse, and will never have to do with them by God's grace; and good people, I would that you should not think of me, that I beleeve to be saved, in that I offer my self here unto death, for the Lordes cause, but I beleeve to be saved by the death of Christes passion, and this my death is, and shall be, a witness of my faith unto you all here present, good people, as many of you as beleeve as I beleeve, pray for me, &c." After they had kindled the fire she said, "My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit rejoyceth in God my Saviour," and placing her hands across her breast, she kept them so till the sinews of her arms brake asunder, and then they fell, yea so quietly did she suffer, as if she had felt no pain. (fn. 30)
On the 19th of May, 1558, were these three godly martyrs burned in one fire at Norwich, viz.
Will. Seaman, husbandman of Mendlesham in Suffolk.
Tho. Carman aforesaid, and
Tho. Hudson of Aylesham, glover, who was committed by Commissary Berry, vicar of Aylesham, a most bloody persecutor, who was so severe with his parishioners, that he made 200 of them creep on their knees to the cross on Whitsunday, besides other punishments, for suspicion only of favouring the reformed religion, as practised in good King Edward the Sixth's days. (fn. 31)
On the 10th day of July, Rich. Yeoman, who had been late curate to that learned martyr Dr. Rowland Taylor, rector of Hadley in Suffolk, a devout old minister of 70 years, after many persecutions, was taken and brought to Norwich prison, and being condemned by Dunnings, was degraded, and then not only burnt, but miserably tormented in the fire.
To these I may add
Thomas Rose, though he died not at the stake, yet forasmuch as his sufferings in King Henry the Eighth's reign, and Queen Mary's, were worse than death, may deserve a place among the martyrs here. (fn. 32) He was a Devonshire man, born at Exmouth, and being brought out of his country by Mr. Fabian, parson of Polsted in Suffolk, by his interest was made curate of Hadley, where first coming to the knowledge of the Gospel, he inveighed against purgatory, praying to saints and images; insomuch that his hearers began to contrive how to deface and destroy these last, and four of them burnt the rood at DoverCourt; for which three of them were hanged in chains, and Mr. Rose being accused before the council as privy to it, was committed to prison at the Bishop of Lincoln's house, where he was kept in the stocks so long, with his feet so high, and lying on his back on the ground, that his feet became without sense, and he fell so sick, that the gaoler pitying his case, because he cried out often for extreme pain, went to the Bishop, and told him he would not keep him to die under his hands; whereupon he was allowed more liberty; and after some time, was freed from prison by the Lord Chancellor Audley, but being again sought for by the Duke of Norfolk, for preaching against auricular confession, transubstantiation, &c. he fled into Germany, and there he continued to the death of King Henry. When Edward VI. was crowned, he returned, and was made minister of West-Ham, which he held till he was deprived in Queen Mary's reign of his living, and had been also of his life, if his friends in London had not concealed him. In that city he abode preaching some months, but was at length apprehended with 35 more, and being carried to the Bishop of Winchester, Dr. Stephen Gardiner, was committed to the Clink: two days after his commitment, the Bishop called him before him, and Mr. Rose said to him, that he marvelled that he should be thus troubled for preaching what was established by the word of God, the laws of the land, and his own book De verâ Obedientiâ; which last words a little angered the Bishop, yet when he was only accused of praying, that God would either turn Queen Mary's heart, or take her out of the world, and getting his maid with child, of both which he fully cleared himself; the Bishop sent him to the Tower, and a little after to his own diocesan, the Bishop of Norwich, Dr. Hoplon, to be examined by him concerning his faith, anno 1553.
Being arrived at Norwich, the Bishop having caused him to be brought before him in his palace, after some questions, charged him with preaching most damnable and devilish doctrine, to which he said, Not so, my Lord; the doctrine I preached was both true, sincere, and holy, grounded upon the word of God, and set forth by the authority of two kings, and consent of the nobility and clergy of this realm; and since the law hath been altered I have kept silence, and so ye do me wrong to charge me with that of which I am free. The Bishop then said, that the whole nation had of late been out of the right way, but all now had submitted themselves, and acknowledged the faith, and so ought he, if he would be accounted an Englishman, and a member of the church of England, which he saying he desired to be, the Bishop asked him what he thought of ear confession? Is it not a necessary ecclesiastical law? Rose answered, In some cases it may be permitted, and in some not, because it had not its original from God's blessed word; but yet, if a man troubled in conscience resort to a learned and discreet man, it may be permitted, but to bind a man once a year to confess his sins in the ears of a priest, is not of God, nor can be proved by his word. Then the Chancellor said, You have preached, that the natural and substantial body of Christ is not in the sacrament of the altar; what say you to that? To which he answered, I have verily so preached, and believe it the only truth. But doth not the Scripture say, This is my body? And can any thing (says the Bishop) be plainer? Rose replied, Nothing indeed can be plainer, and so are these words of Christ, I am the door of the sheep, I am the vine, &c. and yet Christ is naturally none of these, they are all figurative expressions.
After this, the Bishop sent two of his chaplains to him, and he asking them, whether Christ's body was not in heaven at God's right hand, and should set there till the day of judgment? they answered Yea, whereupon he asked them, What body of his did they hold to be in the sacrament? They said, An invisible body, not to be seen, or occupy place, made there by the omnipotency of God's word; which he disallowed, yet owned Christ to be present in the right use and distribution of the Lord's supper, to be a spiritual nourishment to all worthy receivers of it. After this, the Bishop going his visitation, committed the care of Mr. Rose to Sir Will. Woodhouse, who let him escape to London, from whence he fled beyond sea, and staid there till Queen Elizabeth came to the throne, and then returned.
This Sir Will. Woodhouse, Sir Tho Woodhouse, Mr. George Heydon, the sheriffs of Norwich, and many other worthy persons, were forced by Chancellor Dunnings to attend his bloody condemnations, (fn. 33) though they were men of a far different spirit, yea to such a degree of pride and cruelty was he arrived, being countenanced and forwarded by his master, Bishop Hopton, that the best men in the county durst not refuse obeying his wicked commands, which occasioned the persecution to get that height it did in these parts, though it extended to many other places, with as much violence as the learned Bishop Jewel describes it; "You have (says he) imprisoned your bretheren, (speaking to the Papists) you have stript them naked, you have scourged them with rods, you have burnt their hands and arms with flaming torches, you have famished them, you have drowned them, you have summoned them being dead to appear before you out of their graves, you have ripped up their buried carcases, burnt them, and thrown them out upon the dunghill, you took a poor babe falling from its mother's womb, and in a most cruel and barbarous manner, threw it into the fire." Yea so great was the fury of these persecutors under pretence of religion, (but vain must that religion be which pretends to justify its propagation by fire and torment,) that by these several means the martyrs of this kingdom amounted to 277 persons of all ages and sexes. (fn. 34) "But more particularly there are said to have perished in the flames, 5 bishops, 21 divines, 8 gentlemen, 84 artificers, 100 husbandmen, servants, and labourers, 26 wives, 20 widows, 9 virgins, 2 boys, and 2 infants, the one springing out of its mother's womb as she was at the stake, and most unmercifully flung it into the fire at the very birth; 64 more in these furious times, were presented for their faith, whereof 7 were whipped, 16 perished in prison, 12 buried in the dunghills, and many more lay in captivity condemned, but were delivered by the opportune death" of this unmerciful Queen, who by the mercy of God, died on the 7th of Nov. 1558, after she had reigned five years four months and 11 days, and lived forty-two years, nine months and six days.
This year was a great sickness throughout the realm, ten aldermen died in this city, and corn and other provisions were very dear.
Berstreet-gates were repaired, and the walls adjoining, to the cost of 43l. and upwards.
And in October this year died Tho. Codde, who was mayor in Ket's rebellion, and was buried in the church of St. Peter per Mountergate, under the account of which more will occur concerning him.
Mayors And Sheriffs.
Burgesses In Parliament.
1 Mar. Parl. at Westm. Tho. Gawdy and Rich. Catlyn, serjeants at law.
1 at Oxford. Henry Ward, John Ball.
1 & 2 P. & M. Westm. John Corbet, Alex. Mather.
2 & 3 Ditto. John Aldrich, Tho. Gray, they received their wages for 79 days attendance at 4s. a day.
4 & 5 Ditto. Tho. Gawdy, senior, Esq. Tho. Sotherton, Esq.