An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 6. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1807.
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The Church of St. Andrew at Buxton was a rectory appendant to the manor till Hubert de Rhye, lord of the town, (fn. 1) gave the advowson of it to the Master of the order of Semplingham, and two parts of the tithes of his own demeans to the monks of Norwich, by the approbation of John de Grey Bishop there, who confirmed the advowson to the house of Gilbertines at Sempringham in Lincolnshire, and the portion of tithes to his own monks; and thus it continued till his successour, Thomas de Blumvyle, in 1232, with the consent of the Norwich monks, appropriated it to the canons and nuns of Semplingham, to hold to their proper use for ever, assigning to Richard de Kirkely, the last rector, and first vicar, a vicarage which was thus settled, that the vicar for ever should have all the altarage, all the house and glebe land, and all the small tithes of the hall, and also the 3d garb of all the corn belonging to the hall-land (or demeans of Hubert de Ria, the Norwich monks having the other 2 garbs) and the whole great and small tithes of the Croft of Hervy de Leun, containing 20 acres, and the tithe hay of the whole town; the Bishops were always to nominate the vicar, and the convent agreed to present all such as should be nominated by the Bishops, or else they might collate them on their refusal; the convent was to repair the chancel, and the vicar to bear all other charges; the instrument of appropriation bears date at the palace of Elmham; and now the rectory was valued at 22 marks, and the vicarage at 26s. 8d. it paid no Peter-pence; synodals 13d. ob.; procurations 5s.; the vicarage stands in the King's Books at 5l. 13s. 9d. and being sworn of the clear yearly value of 30l. it is capable of augmentation. These
of Buxton, were nominated by the Bishops of Norwich to the convent of Sempringham, the priors of which house presented them.
1232, Richard de Kirkebi, or Kirby, the last rector, and the first vicar.
1288, John de Norwich.
1301, John de Folkingham; he resigned in
1328, to Gilbert Turpyn of Folkingham, who resigned it to John Turpyn in 1331, and he in
1333, to Robert Loval in exchange for Berton-bendish St. Mary. In
1356, Henry Peyrecourt had it, and changed it in 1373 for East Tudenham with
William Wolwyne. In
1385, Roger Attewell had it, and resigned in
1385, to John Gobet of Stonham. In
1392, Simon Frankeleym, or Frankling, was instituted, who resigned in 1399, and
Thomas Hetteshorn. succeeded him, who in the same year resigned to
Ralf Hoddys, son of Ralf of Tunstede; after whom
Richard Bolour or Bulwer had it, who resigned in
1420, to Nicholas Stokke, who the same year resigned it, and went to Blundeston, and then to Aylesham.
Robert Everard succeeded him, and in
1422, John Smith of Plumstede had it, and after him
James Abbes; (fn. 2) he resigned 1455, and was succeeded by
John Gresham, otherwise called Sir John Pyketoo or Picto, priest, a man of good family and fortunes, of eminent charity, and a great benefactor to this church and parish, who in his lifetime settled great part of their present townlands on his parish for ever; the north isle was much beautified, if not totally rebuilt by him, and in one of its windows, his effigies still remains perfect in his priest's habit, a shaven crown, the wafer on his breast, his hands elevated, kneeling on a cushion, and the church behind him, and this on a scroll over his head
Orate pro anima Johannis Pycto Vicarii Jhesu Xpe per
He died in 1498, (fn. 3) his will being proved the 16th of June in that year, and was buried in the chancel, right in the midst, before the steps of the high altar; but now there remains no memorial for him there; he was sudceeded by
Robert Northern, (fn. 4) who lies buried in the chancel, under a stone having the cup and wafer thereon, and this inscription,
Orate pro anima Domini Roberti Northern quondam Uicarii istius Ecclesie qui obiit rro die Maii Anno Domini. M. vc viii cuius anime propicietur Deus Amen.
1508, Thomas Wake, who in 1513, resigned to
William Percy, and he in
1531 to Sir William Norton, who was the last vicar presented by the priors of Sempringham.
Vicars since the Dissolution.
1564, Ralf Marham, deacon, was instituted on the resignation of Roger Paule, Norton's successour, being presented by Ela Stubbe, widow. In 1567 Marham was married at Topcroft to Joan Allen, and was succeeded, on his resignation in
1613, by Thomas Jermyn, A. B. who was presented and collated by John Jeggon Bishop of Norwich, to whom the presentation belonged in full right, to him and his heirs; he held it united to Belagh. This Bishop owned the impropriation, and consequently the perpetual presentation, but the nomination was in him as Bishop of Norwich, 1621, when Jermyn resigned, Robert Jegon, Esq. then a minor, presented
John Pestell, at the nomination of Bishop Jeggon, at whose death in 1636 a caveat was entered for the interest of Robert Jegon, Esq. in Buxton vicarage, but was recalled the next day.
1637, 26 March, William Shepherd was nominated by the Bishop of Norwich, to Robert Jeggon, Esq. or any other patron. (Lib. Inst. 23, fo. 181.)
1637, 30 March, William Shepherd, A. M. was nominated by Matthew Bishop of Norwich, to the King, as undoubted patron of the vicarage for this turn, as guardian to the estate of Robert Jegon, a minor, and was instituted April 12. (ibid; fo. 181, 6) He resigned to Mr. Neve about 1642, (fn. 5) and about
1651, James Taylor got possession, who was deprived at the Restoration, and in
1662, Henry Lucy, A. M. was presented by Robert Jegon, Esq. and is the first presentation without the Bishop's nomination apparent; (fn. 6) he held it united to Oxnead; on his death in
1669, John Doughty, A. M. was presented by Arthur Jegon of York, Esq.; and in
1671, John Gottgh, vicar.
1679, Peter Coppin, A. B. by Anne Jegon, widow; on Coppin's cession in
1681, Benjamin Griffin, A. B. was presented by the said Anne, on whose seat in the church is this carved on the wainscot;
Mortis in Horâ animæ meæ parcat Deus, me vivo Dixi Amen. Sic exuviarum memor hæc posuit Benjaminus Griffin Vicarius, Ætatis 33 Martij 18, 1688, natus Felminham eodem die 1655.
On his gravestone in the south isle is this,
Here lyeth the Body of Benjamin Griffin Vicar of Buxton who died May the 8th, 1691 Aged 37,
John son of Benjamin and Mary Griffin, died 1686, an infant.
He left a wife and three children in mean circumstances, one of which, named Benjamin, was afterwards bound apprentice to a plumber and glazier in Norwich, but being of a brisk genius and active spirit, he commenced player, and made no mean figure on the English stage; he published, besides other things, "Injured Virtue; or the Virgin Martyr, a tragedy, as it was acted at the Playhouse at Richmond, by his Grace the Duke of Southhampton and Cleaveland's Servant's, in 1715, by Benjamin Griffin." There is also a metzotinto print of him and Johnson, (another excellent comedian,) in the characters of Tribulation and Ananias, in the play of the Alchemyst, which parts they were famed for performing, from a painting of Pet. Van. Bleech's in 1738, but not published till 1748.
1692, Lawrence Womack held it united to Castor by Yarmouth, (fn. 7) being presented by William Paston Earl of Yarmouth.
1725, the said Earl presented
Henry Perkins, A. M. who was buried in the south isle, as was also Mary his wife, and was succeeded by
The Rev. Mr. Benjamin Knights, the present vicar, 1751.
The Manor of Buxton,
In the time of the Confessor, was held by five brothers, who were all freemen, it containing then 7 carucates of land; one of the brothers was never seized of his part, but was in the wardship of Malet's ancestors; there were woods sufficient to keep 1000 swine, but so much cleared by the Conqueror's time, that they maintained then only 232. Ralf de Beaufoe owned it at the Conqueror's survey, and the church then had 30 acres of glebe; (fn. 8) there was a mill, 8 carucates of land in demean, and 8 more among the tenants; it was then worth 5l. a year, and was above a mile long, and six furlongs and an half broad, and paid 10d. geld, and a freewoman, held 20 acres belonging to this manor, lying in La-mers or Lammass. (fn. 9)
From the Conqueror's time, it passed with the manor of Hingham in this county, as you may see in vol. ii. p. 434, and became part of Rhye barony, of which it was always held, and so came to the Marshals, and Aliva le Marshal held it at 2 fees; Isabell wife of Roger de Cressi, her sister, having resigned her right to the moiety; in 1286 it was worth 100l. a year, had lete or view of frankpledge, assize of bread and ale, liberty of free-warren, and a common gallows, a hamlet called Kinesthorp and another called Dudewic, and a watermill; it paid ward to Norwich castle from six weeks to six weeks in all 20s a year, by name of wayte-fee; there were 200 acres in demean in Buxton, and 60 in Kinesthorp, and passed from the Marshals to the Morleys, and from them to the Lovells, and so to the Parkers, and was sold by Edward Parker Lord Morley, about 1570, to Henry Bedingfield, Esq. (fn. 10) who was returned lord in 1571, and so it became parted from Hingham.
He died seized of it in 1581, and it continued in the Bedingfields till it was sold to the Pastons, in which family it remained till lately, it being now purchased by Lord Anson, who is lord of the several manors, impropriator, and patron. (fn. 11)
The Manor of Levishagh
Was granted from the capital manor to Halfred de Leveshagh, called alsso Levis-hall; Thomas his son succeeded, and Henry his son, about 1260, after him; in 1296 William de Leveshagh had it, and his son Henry after him; but how it passed till 1401, I know not; but then, the heirs of Roger de Reffham had it, from which family it came to the Abbyses, many of whom are interred in the south chantry chapel; about 1480, John Abbys, senior, was lord, and after him Thomas his son, whose wife Margaret was buried by him, on whose brass plate this still remains,
Orate pro anima Margarete Abbys Uivue, nuper uxoris Thome Abbys Senioris, cuius anime propicietur Deus Amen.
His son, Thomas Abbys, followed him, whose wife Cecily was interred here also, with this,
Orate pro anima Tecilie Abbys Uivue, que obiit riiio die Oc tobris Anno Domini Millessimo Quingentessimo Sertoo cuius anime propicietur Deus.
It is plain that this Thomas had sold the manor to John Hawes, who, by will proved in 1503, ordered "a pylgrime to vysyte the holy Place of Sent Jamys at Compostyllum in Spayne," (fn. 12) and his manor in Buxton clepyd Levyshagh to be in feofment to his sister Jane and issue, or else to be sold by his executors for alms; which last seems to have been done, for Thomas Abbys, junior, son of the last named Thomas, was lord in 1536, and then released to the inhabitants of Buxton, an annual free rent of ten-pence issuing out of 3 roods of land, and the gild-hall thereon built, which were held of this manor; Thomas Abbes, junior, son and heir, sold it; (fn. 13) and in 1594 Henry Payne, Esq. and Thomas Parmenter, Esq. sold it by the name of Levershalle, alias Levyshawe, alias Leame's manor, to George Lambert and John Deynes; and in 1602 it was settled by Thomas Claxton, junior, Gent. and William Claxton, Gent.; it was after purchased by the Stubbes, who joined it to their
Manor of Buxton-Burgh with Kineshall,
Which was another manor granted from the capital one very early to the family that took their sirname from the town; (fn. 14) Bertram de Buxton was lord of it, and after him Jeffery his son, and afterwards Richard his brother had an interest in it, and it continued some generations in the family; but in 1355 Thomas de Buxton, rector of Bintre, settled his estate here, on Jordan Wyche of Havering, and Beatrix his wife, and Alice, sister of Beatrix, who seem to be his sisters and heirs; it after belonged to the Stubbes, and in 1528 Walter Stubbe left it to his brother John, (fn. 15) and made Avery his mother executrix; he lies buried under a stone by the pulpit, with this on a brass plate,
Here ligth under, in this same Grave, The Bodi of yong Stubbe Waltere, Hose Sowle Criste Jesu mut have For with his holi Blode, he bougth it full dare.
Anno Domini M.ccccc. rrviii.
John Stubbe, son of the former John, succeeded him, to whom in 1558, George Horseman of Booton, Esq. gave his estate, and entailed it on Edmund and Francis, sons of the last John, and by the former of them it was sold with the impropriation to John Jeggon Bishop of Norwich, for whom see vol. iii. p. 562.
Robert Jeggon, his son and heir, built a large house and settled here; his motto,
Dextera tua Protegat me,
remains in the windows of it; it is now in decay, and a farm-house; only. See vol. iii. p. 564.
By the heirs of the Jeggons it was sold to the Pastons, by which purchase the Pastons estate here was made very complete.
The Church hath a square tower and five bells; on the biggest is,
Pro me Fideles invocantur Preces.
The nave and chancel are thatched, the two isles and chantry chapels at their east ends, and the south porch with a vestry at the west end of the south isle, are leaded.
On a black marble in the south isle,
Johannes Hurton, ob. 20 Febr. 1692. Æt. 78.
Mary, daughter of Peter Blomefield, Gent. and Frances his wife, was born October 23, 1746, and was buried in this isle, aged 13 weeks.
In the east window of the south chantry chapel,
was the effigies of the Lord Morley, and that of his lady, kneeling on two cushions, and their children by them; the arms are, Morley impaling Wingfield. Morley's crest is a bear's head sab. muzzled and tusked, and set in a crown or, her daughter kneeling by her having over all her body the arms of Hastyngs and Foliot, she being married to Sir Hugh Hastyngs.
Sab. a griffin sejeant arg. chained or, for a crest.
Morley impales also arg. two chevrons gul. Ditto impaling De-la-poole. Spencer impaling Morley.
In the windows of the chapel of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, called the north chantry chapel, is Morley.
Ditto impaling De-la-Poole and Wingfield.
In the middle pane of the east window, is the Assumption of the Virgin, with many praying to her, saying,
Uirgo singularis inter omnes mitis, nos Culpis solutis, mites Fac et custos; Ave Maria gratia plena Domi nus tecum; Sancta Regina Celorum; Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto.
Justice with her equal balanced scales.
Our Saviour in his swaddling clothes by the Virgin,
Relligio Mundi et immaculata. Ave maris Stella, Dei mater Alma Uirgo felir, Celi porta. Monstra te esse Matrem, Sumat per te precem, qui pro uobis natus, Tulit esse tuos.
Here is a tomb against the north wall thus inscribed,
Here lieth Edmond Bedingfield, Esq; of Lames who deseased on St. Nicholas day, in the year of our Lord God, 1634.
In the north isle on a brass,
Orate pro anima Johannis Manning, cuius anime propicietur Deus.
Thomas, son of Thomas Bulwer, Gent. and Anne his wife, baptized Aug. 21, 1655, buried 3d April, 1656.
In the same isle is a stone with an imperfect inscription, with a shield of
Arg. on a cross ingrailed between 4 martlets sab. 5 plates.
There are two black marbles in the nave, on which,
Hic jacet Elizabeth Charissima Thomæ Bulwer Generosi Uxor, quæ postquam sacro Nuptiarum Vinculo trium Annorum spatium, Vitam serie satis Castam egisset, Binasque tantum Filiolas mœstojam Parentanti marito fælicissime peperisset tædia tandem humanæ Vitæ pertæsa, Christum supplicibus sollicitando votis, induit Æternitatem obijt 24 die Januarij, A. D. 1643. Æt. suæ 29.
Robert Hammond, March 18, 1713. 60. Roger his son March 19, 1714, Æt. 30. Sarah his daughter, March 6, 1714. Æt. 6 months. Susan his daughter, Sept. 7, 1715
In the chancel are the following memorials, viz.
Luke the son of Martin Jegon, Esq; died 20 Jan. 1669.
Sub hoc Lapide requiescit Corpus Arthuri Jegon, ex Æde Lincolniensi Armigeri, cuius origo per monumentum hic supra constructum patet. ob. 9 Oct. 1669, Æt. 34.
On a mural monument against the north chancel wall, of black and white marble, having the crest and arms of Jegon, impaling
Robinson, vert on a chevron between three harts current or, 3 cinquefoils gul.
Hic jacet Margareta Robinson, Filia Arthuri Robinson, ex agro Eboracensi Militis aurati, Uxor autem Roberti Jegon Armigeri, cui postquam castissimo Amoris Conjugalis Vinculo, per novem Annorum spatium conjuncta, quinque Liberos fœlicissimè peperisset, Sexta demum soboles Utero ejus adhuc inclusa expiravit, undè crebrò Convulsionem impetû conquassata, Animam Cœlo reddidit, quarto Die Decembris, A. D. 1638, cui superstes Maritus, hoc quicquid est Monumenti, certè longè infra meritum tam charæ Conjugis, Mœrens posuit.
Quam tegit hic terræ Tumulus prius ipsa Sepulchrum Molle quidem Marmor, Vivaque Busta fuit.
Quippe erat hæc Mortis reverentia, tangere Sacram Virtutum Acropolin, non erat ausa palam; Clamque intrans Uterum, tanquam quæ Vivere vellet, Dum Vitam simulat, Callida surripuit.
On a black marble at the altar,
Here lieth Ann, the Relict of Thomas Bulwer, late of this Parish Gent. who was Daughter of Robert Marsham, late of Stratton Strawless, Gent. she departed this life 27 March 1704, Aged 73 Years.
In Piety and Charity she was Exemplary.
An adjoining black marble hath the crest of Bulwer, a goat's head erased or.
Bulwer impales Marsham
Here lieth the Body of THOMAS BULWER, Gent. who depar ted this Life the 22d day of August A. D. 1694, Æt. 82.
Here lies the Case of a Soul whose Mind, Was fram'd to Benefitt Mankind, A Charity not out of breath, By length of life, nor yet by Death, Thou Buxton had'st the largest Dole, (fn. 16) (fn. 17) To Church, Priest, Poor, both Body and Soule, If thou a Pillar dost not rear, Let the other Six Townes twich thine ear, (fn. 18) If thou forget this Stone shall be, A Monitor to Posterity.
In 1490 Sir John Pictoe (fn. 19) purchased ten peices of arable land in Little Hautbois and one piece in Great Hautbois, containing two acres, and immediately settled the 2 acres on feoffees in trust, that the annual rent should be yearly employed to the lete fee of the town of Buxton, (fn. 20) and other royal burdens, such as the tenths or fifteenths paid to the King, when those taxes were granted, if there was any overplus of the annual profits; the other lands he also settled on trustees, that the churchwardens and constables of the parish for the time being, shall bestow the overplus yearly on the poorer sort of the inhabitants there. (fn. 21)
Robert Childerhouse, clerk, about 1480 gave 3 roods of land in Buxton, on which in 1487 the gild-hall was built, for the support of the gilds and the poor of the town; the land was freehold held of Levyshagh manor by a rent of 10d. a year, which was released in 1536 by Thomas Abbys, senior, then lord of that manor; the chaplains (fn. 22) of the gilds used to officiate for the souls of the brethren and sisters of the gilds in the two chapels at the east end of the north and south isles in the church, (fn. 23) and all the gild-dinners and drinkingales used to be kept in the gild-hall, which was built and furnished at the expenses of the members of the gilds and the townsmen.
In 1556, Ralf Anderson gave 2 acres of land in 3 peices in Buxton to repair the church there. (fn. 24)
26th of Elizabeth, Roger Docking gave one rood in the Gravel Pitts to the poor of Buxton, and 10 pounds to be put out to young beginners yearly at 6s. 8d. interest, 3s. 4d. of which to the poor, and 3s. 4d. to the churchwardens for their care and pains in putting it out. (fn. 25)
In King James the First's time the inhabitants of Buxton purchased of William Baspool, twelve acres of land in four peices in Westfield in Coltishall, which several sums of money given by Roger Docking, George Roberts, and John Kempe, heretofore inhabitants there.
In 1641, it appearing that the produce of the above lands and gifts were misemployed, a commission of charitable uses, grounded upon the statute of the 43d of Elizabeth, was taken out, and sat at Aylesham on April 12, when Sir John Hobart, Bart. Thomas Windham, Esq. and the others commissioners decreed, that the surviving feoffes should forthwith convey all the lands in trust to Robert Jeggon, Esq. Ed mund Bedingfield, jun. Gent. Thomas Marsham, Gent. Roger Suffield, and five more, and that as often as four of the nine feoffees die, the five survivours shall forthwith convey the lands to themselves and four other persons, which four are to be chosen by the five remaining feoffees and by the Vicar, churchwardens, overseers, and constable of Buxton for the time being, or the greater number of them, and as to the employing the profits, it was decreed, that
"The 18 acres (of Sir John Pictoe's gift) be for ever employed to discharge the lete-fee, (fn. 26) and for the discharge of the poorer sort only of the inhabitants of Buxton, which shall be laid or taxed for their subsidy or for their lands, or for their fifteenths, (when any such shall happen to be granted) by or out of the other part of the rent of the said 18 acres; and the residue (the lord's rents being deducted) shall be distributed yearly for ever, towards the extraordinary relief of the poorer sort of the inhabitants of Buxton; but no ways to free or ease any of the parishioners of Buxton aforesaid of or in their ordinary weeklie or monthly rates for the relief of the poor of the parish of Buxton aforesaid."
And the rent of the two acres (fn. 27) (given by Ralf Anderson) "shall be yearly employed for necessary ornaments or repairs, within the church of Buxton aforesaid." And the profits of the twelve acres (purchased by the inhabitants with divers gifts as aforesaid) "shall be employed for the discharging of the poorer sort only of the inhabitants of Buxton; but in no ways to ease any of the parishioners of or in their ordinary weeklie or monthly rates for the relief of the poor of the parish."
"And the profits of the three roods, (the Gild-Hall,) and the one rood, and the 3s. 4d. for the one half of the yearly profits of the ten pounds shall be yearly employed towards the extraordinary relief of the poor; but no ways to ease any of the parishioners of or in their weeklie or monthly rates for the relief of the poor of the parish."
And it was also decreed, "that a true and particular Account shall be publickly and openly made every Easter Monday in the afternoon in the parish church of Buxton, every year by the feoffees, and by such persons as from time to time shall have the stock of the said ten pounds, shewing how and in what manner the rents and profits of the said lands are employed, which accounts shall be yearly entered in the overseers books, with the hands of the accountants, and other parishioners, which shall then be present, and the same account shall be yearly offered to the view, examination and consideration of the justices of the peace for the time being of that limit, at their next meeting, after the making of the said account, and the ten pounds shall be yearly put out to such young beginners of the said parish, upon such security as shall be agreed upon, by the Vicar, churchwardens, overseers, constables, and other inhabitants that shall then be present."
All the said benefactions are now managed by the feoffees, who are in possession of the several lands and tenements at this time.
The Girls hospital in Norwich, hath an estate here, let to Mr. Richard Wright of Buxton, at 24l. per annum. (See vol. iv. p. 451.)
The Brothers Austin Hermits in Thetford, had lands here, given them by Sir Thomas de Morley, Knt. in Richard the Second's time; about which time Sir Roger Bois, Knt. and others, settled lands here, on the prior of the church of the Holy-Trinity at Ingham in Norfolk. The priory of Beeston had revenues here taxed at 25s. 2d.; the prior of Sempringham's spirituals were taxed at 22 marks, being the impropriate rectory.
The whole town paid to every tenth 5l. 6s. 8d. but had a deduction allowed on account of the lands of the religious of 1l. 8s.
It now pays 10s. towards every 300l. levy of the county-rate, and is laid to the land-tax at 537l. 13s.
In Richard the First's time there were two hamlets belonging to this town, viz. Kinesthorp and Dudwic; the last gave name to a very ancient family which had a good estate in it, owned in 1198 by Hervy de Dudewic, whose sister Rignare inherited, and sold it to Hermer de Brampton.
The several families of the Wrights, (of which John Wright was rector of Stratton-Strawless) Rumps, Callows, Pitchers, and Mathews, have been in the parish for many ages past.
The Romans were much concerned here; many urns have been found in this parish, and other Roman antiquities, as we learn from Sir Thomas Browne's works, &c. but it was then part of Brampton, to which I refer you.
There is a close called Gallow-hill Close, in which was a large hill now levelled, on the top of which the gallows stood, this manor having the liberty of infangthef and outfangthef, that is, of executing all criminals belonging to the manor within itself, and all other criminals that were taken in the manor, though they did not belong to it; it lies at the south end of the town.