Gallow and Brothercross Hundreds: Raineham

An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 7. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1807.

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Francis Blomefield, 'Gallow and Brothercross Hundreds: Raineham', An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 7, (London, 1807), pp. 121-151. British History Online [accessed 16 June 2024].

Francis Blomefield. "Gallow and Brothercross Hundreds: Raineham", in An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 7, (London, 1807) 121-151. British History Online, accessed June 16, 2024,

Blomefield, Francis. "Gallow and Brothercross Hundreds: Raineham", An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 7, (London, 1807). 121-151. British History Online. Web. 16 June 2024,

In this section


Or Reineham, as it is wrote in the book of Domesday; takes it name from being seated near a running stream of water, or river; Rye and Rey, signifying as much in the Saxon tongue; thus we find a town in Essex, in the hundred of Chafferd, Rainham, on a river near its falling into the Thames; and thus Braintre, in Essex, occurs in Domesday by the name of Raine, being by a river. Thus the river Rhine, and Reineburgh, a city in Germany, on that river.

At the grand survey, it is placed in the hundred of Brothercross, but at this time (and for several centuries past) is accounted as a part of the hundred of Gallow; and great part of this town was then one of the lordships which the Conqueror bestowed on Hugh de Montfort, one of his Norman chiefs and barons. Bond, a noble Saxon thane of great possessions, held it in the Confessor's time, together with lordships in Bodney, Langford, Stanford, Marhum, Islington, Middleton, Bilney, West Geyton, Gately, Bodham, &c. of all which he was deprived at the conquest, and succeeded therein by Hugh.

It consisted of two carucates of land, held by 4 villains, 14 bordarers, and 4 servi, 2 carucates in demean, and one amongst the men, paunage for 120 swine, 6 acres of meadow, 2 mills, a saltpit, &c. and 100 sheep, 2 bees-skeps, and 14 socmen held half a carucate of land, and 15 bordarers had a carucate and an half, with 7 acres of meadow. (fn. 1) This was what belonged to that part of the town now called East Rainham, and made up that parish, or lordship, as I take it, called now Rainham-Magna.

South Rainham was then a beruite, that is, a less manor, and depending on this; wherein the aforesaid lord had a carucate of land, 5 bordarers, and 2 servi, one carucate in demean, one amongst the men, &c. 5 acres of meadow, one mill, &c. and in Helgeton (Helloughton) one socman belonged to this manor, with half a carncate of land, and 8 bordarers, with one carucate and 2 acres of meadow, valued in Bond's time at 8l. per ann. afterwards at 60s. but at the survey at 8l. 10s. to be paid under a great penalty. All South Reineham was 6 furlongs long, and 3 broad, and paid 10d. to the gelt.

This lordship, held by Hugh de Montfort, was afterwards divided, and held by two different families, the Inglethorps, and the Scales.

Inglethorp's Manor

Takes its name from its lords, who appear from ancient records to be seized of it in the reign of King John and Henry III. a family of great eminency in the county of Norfolk: the founder, and first that we meet with of it, is Robert de Ingaldesthorp, as he is called in the pedigree of the Sharnburns of Sharnburn, in Norfolk, published in Sir Henry Spelman's works, but in the register of the priory of Windham, is called Robert de Snetesham, who lived in the reign of King Stephen, and being enfeoffed in a manor at Snetesham, and in one at Ingaldesthorpe, wrote himself sometimes de Snetesham, and sometimes de Ingaldesthorpe; at this time, it was the custom for lords of manors to assume their names from the towns they held, according to the Norman practice, so was it also (as I find by ancient evidences) the usual practice of those who held more than one lordship, to vary and change their names, as they thought proper, to show their different fees and tenures, and to pleasure their capital lords, as in the case of this Robert; which has been cause of confusion in ascertaining ancient pedigrees.

Alan de Ingaldesthorp, or Yggulvesthorp, (as he is wrote,) was the son of Robert, and married—, a daughter of Jeffrey de Sharnebarne, by Etheldreda his wife, daughter of Robert de Dersingham; (fn. 2) in a grant of the prior of Lewes to him of the lordship of Kenwick, in Tilney, in the reign of Richard I. he is also called Alan de Snetesham; and Donatus, prior of Windam, granted to this Alan, son of Robert de Snetesham, 5 acres of the demeans of that priory in Snetesham, and six acres there, which Cecily de Verlj gave to that house, with one acre, which the said Alan purchased of the fee of Roger de Paveley; all which Alan was to have for ever, paying 28d. per ann. to the priory, by deed sans date; and in the reign of Henry II. Richard, son of William Thomas, John and Geffrey de Ingaldesthorp were witnesses to a deed of Alan de Ingaldesthorp, son of Robert de Snetesham, of lands given by him to the priory of Castleacre. In 1203, Philip de Mortimer, prior, and the convent of Acre, grants by deed to Geffrey, son of Alan de Ingaldesthorp, and his heirs, all their land at Otringheith, with the appertenances, paying 17s. for all services.

Sir Thomas de Ingaldesthorp was son and heir of Alan, and is termed in old records the Red: he is mentioned in the Pipe Rolls of the 8th year of King John, and in the 3d of Henry III. and was sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, in or about the 8th or 9th of that King; as was Hubert de Ingaldesthorp, in the 5th of the said King; the aforesaid Thomas had a suit with Peter de Clay, about the right of presentation to the church of Santon, in Norfolk: this Sir Thomas was accessary in a murder in the 9th year of King John, as may be seen in Inglethorp.

About this time, as I take it, or rather sooner, this family had an interest in, and seems to be seized of, this lordship.—Richard, son of William de Ingaldesthorp, by the advice and consent of Maud his wife, granted by deed sans date, to the priory of Normansbergh, in Reineham, two pieces of marsh land, one lying in Branches furlong, between the marsh of Thomas, son of Richard, son of William, and the marsh of Jeff de Reinham, and the homage, and service of William, son of Ralph de Gateley, for the tenement which he held of him, with the appurtenances, with one capon per ann. Witnesses, Alan son of John, Jeff. de Reinham, Bartholomew, son of William, John Poor, &c. (fn. 3) It is probable this Richard might marry one of the daughters and coheirs of Jeffrey de Lisewis, (fn. 4) or of his son William. William de Lisewise (of whom I shall afterwards treat) was the founder of the priory of Normansbergh, the name of his wife, and that of his son Geffrey's, was Maud; the Lisewises, father and son, appear to have held this manor, with that of Gateley, Islington, Clenchwarton, &c. under Hugh de Montfort, the moieties of all which came about this time to the Ingaldesthorps, and the Scales, who (as I conclude) might marry another sister and coheir. Richard grants this at the request of Maud his wife, who might have an affection for the abovementioned priory, as founded by her relations; and Richard, probably, dying without issue, left it to Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, Knt. (son of Sir Thomas) who by deed sans date, gave 27 acres of land, in Sharnburne, to the priory of Windham, as appears from the register of that house: and in the 12th of Henry III. a fine was levied between Thomas, son of Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, and Robert de Scales, querents, and Robert, prior of Acra, (whom Simon prior of Normansbergh, called to warrant,) of the advowson of the churches of Great and South Reinham, Ilsyngton, and a mediety of Wigenhale St. Peter's, before Hugh, abbot of St. Edmund's, Martin de Pateshall, archdeacon of Norfolk, Stephen de Segrave, &c. the King's justices, when the said Thomas and Robert gave to the priory of Normansbergh, in pure alms, 40s. rent per ann. out of the mill of South Reinham, with a clause, that if the mill shall fail, then to pay it out of other lands. About the same time Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, and Robert de Scales, held lands and tenements in Reinham, PuddingNorton, Helgeton, Ilsyngton, and Gately, in Norfolk, by the service of two knight's fees, and they held the same in the year 1233, when an aid was granted to the King, on the marriage of his sister Isabel, to the Emperor Frederick.

In 1235 a fine was levied between Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, and Hermerus de Bekeswell, of one carucate of land in Marham, Norfolk, conveyed to Hermerus; by which it appears, that he married Sibilla, relict of Peter de Bekeswell, brother to Hermerus, she being called therein, "late wife of the said Thomas de Ingaldesthorp." In 1249, Sir Thomas Ingaldesthorp was sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk; he seems to have married a second wife, Isabel, daughter of—Hamon; in 1255 she is called widow of Sir Thomas, and afterwards married Roger de Well: (fn. 5) Sir Thomas died (it seems) in 1251, when Thomas his son, was found to be of the age of 16 years.

In the pedigree of the family of the Jernegans Sir Hugh Jernegan is said to have married to his second wife, Ela, or Hellen, a daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, and to quarter the arms of Ingaldesthorp, and might be a relation to the aforesaid Sir Thomas, if not his daughter.

Thomas, son (as some make him) of the abovementioned Sir Thomas, was also a knight, sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, in 1272, and died soon after; Thomas de Ingaldesthorp Bishop of Rochester was one of his sons, and Sir John de Ingaldesthorp was his son and heir; in 1275 he was found to hold the manor of Reinham in capite of the King, paying 20s. per ann. to Dover castle-ward, as appears from the rolls of the hundred of Brothercross, to which it then belonged. Sir John died in or about the year 1282, and the King's eschaetor, in 1288, accounted for the rents of the late Sir John before the delivery of them, to Thomas, his son and heir; Sir John had been summoned, amongst the barons, to attend the King in the Welsh wars. Reinham manor then contained 200 acres of land, 20 of meadow, a windmill, advowson of the church of East Reinham, with other parcels of land there, and the rent of assise, valued at 14l. per ann.

About this time, also, lived Sir Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, who married Joan, a daughter and coheir of Fulk de Beaufoe, lord of Hockwold, &c. in Norfolk, by whom he had John, his son and heir, and Edmund de Ingaldesthorp, who held a lordship in Foulden in the 3d of Edward I. and was father of Edmund, who married Alice, sister and heir of John de la Rokeley, son and heir of Sir Ralph de la Rokeley and Joan his wife. A quære may be made, if this Sir Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, was not the same with him abovementioned, who died in or about 1272; it is probable that he was, and succeeded as a near relation.

On the death of Sir John de Ingaldesthorp, in or about 1282, Thomas was found to be his son and heir, aged 22. In the 13th of Edward II. he appears to be a knight and a commissioner for the banks and sewers of Marshland in Norfolk; in the 17th of that King, was lord of Wimbotsham, and Beatrix was his wife. In 1326, the jury find that it would not be to the King's loss if he granted license to Sir Thomas, to enfeoff the manor of Reinham, which he held in capite, by the service of paying 2s. per ann. to the honour of Haghley, in Suffolk, and the rent of 6s. 8d. per ann. to Dover castle-ward, on John de Ingaldesthorp, his son and heir, and Joan his wife, and their heirs; and before this, in the 9th of the aforesaid King, he petitions, That whereas he held the moieties of this manor, and that of Ilsyngton, which hardly amounted to the value of 10 marks per ann. by the service of the moiety of a knight's fee, only of the honour of Hagheley, and not of the Crown immediately, and believing that he had held them of the Crown, had ignorantly done services in Scotland to the King's father, and to him, desires to be exempted from them; on which the King ordered his barons of the Exchequer to search Doomesday Book, and other records of the Exchequer for the truth, and accordingly to discharge him, or to continue the service. (fn. 6) He died in or about 1327.

He was succeeded by his son Sir John, who married Joan, daughter of Sir William Weyland, and was found, on the death of his father, to be aged 33 years. He seems to have lived at Reinham, and the family before him, for many years. In 1330, he presented to the church of Rainham St. Mary, by the name of Sir John de Ingaldesthorp, son of Sir Thomas, and died in 1335, leaving two sons, Sir Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, and William.

Sir Thomas was aged 23 at his father's death, and died in 1337, sans issue, (as I take it,) leaving William his brother and heir, aged 21, at his death. In 1303, Sir William de Ingaldesthorp, and Alianore his wife, settled the manor of Wilby in Norfolk, on Sir Thomas de Felton, Knt. during the life of the said Alianore, who seems to be one of the daughters and coheirs of Miles, son of Philip de Hastings, lord of Quidenham. In 1355, John de Herling purchased a third part of the manor and advowson of Quidenham, of William de Furueaux, who had married one of the daughters and coheirs of the said Miles; in 1362, he purchased another third part of Sir William Ingaldesthorp, and Alianore his wife; and in 1371, he purchased the other third part of Thomas Caus, and James de Hegham. Sir William died in 1372, as appears from the eschaet rolls: she survived him many years, and lived and died in the abbey and nunnery of Marham, but as a pensioner, and not as a nun professed, as I am apt to think. Amongst the mortuaries received by that convent after the year 1401, and about the year 1407, (in which year she is said to have died) I find this:—Received for the lady Alianore's mortuary, late wife of Sir William Ingaldesthorp, a mantle furr'd with grey: and she was buried in the said abbey, which had this privilege of receiving mortuaries, (granted by the Pope,) from all who died in the convent, or in the preeincts of it. Sir William, as heir to his brother, paid 100s. relief to this manor, and that of Ilsington, 1341.

Beatrix occurs widow of Sir Thomas in 1346, and held Ingaldesthorp's manor in Srvetesham.

Sir John de Ingaldesthorp was son and heir of Sir William, and the lady Alianore, aged 11 years, in 1372, and proved his age in the 7th of Richard II. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John de Burgh, of Burgh-Green, in Cambridgeshire, and sister and coheir of Sir Thomas de Burgh, her brother; in 1403, was one of the executors of Sir William de Elmham, Knt. and presented the said year to the church of Westhorp in Suffolk. (fn. 7) His will is dated on Thursday after All-Saints, in 1419; names Elizabeth his wife, Sir John Colvile, Sir William Assenhall, Knts. and William Allington, Esq. his executors, and was proved July 8, 1420. (fn. 8) He gave legacies to the churches of Reinham, Tilney, Emreth, Ingaldesthorp, and Snetesham, in Norfolk; to Swaffham-Bulbeck, Burgh, &c. in Cambridgeshire, and 20l. to the chantry of Bergh; of all which manors he was possessed, with that of Frenge in Norfolk, and Somerton in Suffolk, and was buried, according to his desire, in the chancel of Bergh in Cambridgeshire; where, on the north side, he has a stately monument, with the statue of himself (and lady) in complete armour. I have seen a note of Le Neve's, Norroy at Arms, where he says:—"About his neck is a collar, though more like a garter, with the buckle just pendant in the top of his forehead, somewhat above, or at least his hair coming down upon his forehead, above the garter."—This is an odd description of Le Neve's, and seems rather to be a chaplet, as was usual in that age. This will of Elizabeth, his lady, is dated on Thursday before the feast of St. Edmund the King and Martyr, (dated at SwaffhamBulbeck, in Cambridgeshire,) 1421, proved February 12th following; she appoints Sir Walter De la Pole, Sir John Colvile, Sir William Assenhall, Knts. Thomas Ingaldesthorp, Henry Nottingham, Esqrs. and John Green, her executors; bequeaths to Thomas, her son, a bed of white and red; to Alianore, her daughter, a black mantle; to Margaret Ingaldesthorp a testour; to the lady Margaret Zouch, her sister, a gold chain; Dame Joan Assenhall, wife of Sir William, was also her sister: she was buried by her husband at Bergh.

Thomas Ingaldesthorp was aged 19 at the death of his father Sir John; the custody, or wardship of him was granted to his mother. He married Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir Walter De la Pole, lord of Sauston, in Cambridgeshire, of Meldreth and Trumpington, nephew of Michael De la Pole Earl of Suffolk. This Thomas died under age, in the 10th of Henry V. or 1st of Henry VI. His will bears date, January 14th, in the said year, wherein he orders all his goods to be disposed of by Sir Robert Clifton, and Sir Thomas Lovel, Knts. and Thomas Sorrel, Esq. his executors, and was proved May 22, 1422, and buried in the church of Burgh. Margaret, his widow, had in the said year the King's license to remarry, and also an assignment of dower, and died soon after in 1426, seized of the 3d part of this manor, and of Ingaldesthorp in Snetesham, and Bellasis in Emneth, &c. leaving Edmund her son and heir, aged 5 years; she had also her thirds in certain manors in Yorkshire; she brought a great inheritance into this family, as heiress to De la Pole, Bradston, lord of Winterburne, &c. On an inquisition taken at Berking in Essex, July 19th, 1433, it was found that Sir Walter De la Pole died on Friday after the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, last past, possessed of the manor of Alvethley, or Aveley, in Essex, with the manors of Sauston and Derneford in Cambridgeshire, &c. and Edmund de Ingaldesthorp was found to be his heir, who married Joan, second daughter of John Tiptoft Lord Powis, and sister to John Earl of Worcester.

The will of Sir Edmund de Ingaldesthorp is dated August 4th, 1456; he names Joan his wife, Sir John Prisot, Knt. chief justice of the Common Pleas, Laurence Cheyney, Esq. and Thomas Lockton, his executors; gives to his wife the manors of Kenwick in Tilney, and of Frenge in Norfolk, Burgh, Meldreth, and Alvitheley, for life; after to Isabel his daughter, and for default of her issue, to John Earl of Worcester, Lord Tiptoft and Powis; and in default of her issue, to be sold, to pray for the souls of Sir John Ingaldesthorp, Thomas Ingaldesthorp, his own, and that of Sir Walter De la Pole. He died seized of this manor, that of Frenge, Wimbotsham, Clenchwarton, Sauston, the patronage of the priory of Crabhouse, Dernford, Bergh, Trumpington, Swaffham-Bulbeck, the patronage of St. Mary, Somerset, London, &c. and an annuity of 500 marks per ann. payable out of the Exchequer at Easter and St. Michael, which was granted by King Edward III. to Thomas de Bradston, his ancestor, lord of Winterbourne in Gloucestershire, in 1338, the heiress of that family, Elizabeth, being married to Sir Walter De la Pole.

He was buried in the midst of the chancel of Burgh, where a sumptuous monument was erected to his memory, with his portraiture in brass, and in armour; his head (without an helmet) resting on a bull's head, couped, in a coronet, (his crest, as I take it,) the inscription is, for the most part, broke off, and seems to have been in rude rhyming verse, according to the taste of the age:

Uxorem Comitis de Wyrceter ipse sororem, Anno milleno quater X. C. X quoq; seno: Ecce dies bina Septembris quando anima Militis hujus erat - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .

By this it appears. that he died on the 2d of September 1456. In 1460, Sir John Prisot, one of his executors, had license, dated December 5, Ao. 39th Henry VI. to found a chantry in the church of Burgh, for the said Sir Edmund, Sir Thomas his father, and Sir John his grandfather, Sir John de Burgh, and Catherine his wife.

The lady Joan, his relict, married Thomas Grey, younger son of John Lord Grey of Ruthyn, and brother to Edward Grey, the first Earl of Kent: this Thomas was created Lord Grey of Rugemont in Bedfordshire; and on the death of Edward Tiptoft Earl of Worcester, who died a minor, in the 3d year of Richard III. she, with her two sisters, Philippa, who married Thomas Lord Roos of Hamlake, and Joyce, who married Edmund, eldest son of John Lord Dudley, were found to be his aunts and coheirs; and dying on the 21st of June, 1494, was seized of the manors of Berklow in Cambridgeshire, and Horkesley in Essex, &c,

Isabel, only daughter and heiress of Sir Edmund Ingaldesthorp and Joan his wife, was aged 15 on the death of her father: she married John Nevill, created Marquis Montacute, (and Knight of the Garter, second son of Richard Earl of Salisbury, and brother to Richard, the great Earl of Warwick,) and afterwards on the attainder of the Earl of Northumberland, had that honour also conferred on him by King Edward IV. which last title he was obliged soon after to resign, the attainder aforesaid being taken off.—This Marquis having raised 6000 men, and marching with them to join (as was pretended) the aforesaid King, when he was come near to the place where the King was, declared to his soldiers,— "How he had been ill treated by him, in the case of the earldom of Northumberland; and that the King, in creating him Marquis Montacute, had (as Stow in his Annals expresses it) given him a pie's nest to maintain it withall; therefore he would leave to serve him, and take part with the Earl of Warwick, his brother." Upon this the King, who was then at Nottingham, fled to Lynn, and thence beyond sea; and returning soon after, this Marquis, with his brother, the Earl of Warwick, were killed in the battle at Barnet, April 14th 1471, fighting against King Edward IV. Stow says, "He had privily agreed with the King, and had gotten on his livery; but one of his brother's (the Earl of Warwick's) men espythis, fell upon him, and killed him."—Hall, in his Chronicle, observes, "That King Edward was not so jocund, nor so joyous, for the destruction of the Earl of Warwick, but was more sorrowful and dolorous for the death of the Marquiss, whom both he knew, and it appeared to others, to be inwardly his faithful friend, and for whose sake only he caused both their bodies to be, among their ancestors, solemnly buried at the priory of Bisham in Berkshire."

The Lady Isabel afterwards married Sir William Norris of Ricot in Oxfordshire, who, in 1479, presented to Raynham St. Mary's church, in right of his late wife. By the Marquis, she had 2 sons and 5 daughters; John, the youngest son, died a minor, and was buried in 1480 at Sauston in Cambridgeshire; George, the eldest, was created Duke of Bedford by King Edward IV. Ao. 33, and on the 4th of December 1471, his mother had a grant from the King of the custody and government of him, then a minor: she died in 1475, and was buried in the priory of Bisham, where a tomb was ordered to be made for her; and the Marquis, by the will of Elizabeth Lady Scroop, one of her daughters, in the 4th of Henry VIII. leaving 20l. for the same. The Duke, her son, was degraded in 1477, in the 17th of the said King, by act of parliament, for want of maintenance (as was pretended) to support so great honours, which might be justly said, for we are to observe, that before this, on February 23d, in the 14th of the same reign, he had been also deprived of an immense estate that he was heir to, partly from the Earl of Warwick, his uncle, and his father the Marquis, and which was then given to Richard Duke of Gloucester, the King's brother. This unfortunate nobleman died in the year 1485, at Sheriff's Houton in Yorkshire, sans issue; and his five sisters and coheirs were; Ann, who married Sir Will. Stoner of Oxfordshire; Elizabeth, who married, 1st, Thomas Lord Scroop of Upsal and Massam, and 2dly, Sir Henry Wentworth, of Nettlestead in Suffolk; Margaret, who married, first, Sir John Mortimer of Essex, 2dly, Charles Brandan Duke of Suffolk, from whom she was divorced; (fn. 9) Lucy, married to Sir Thomas Fitz-Williams of Aldwark in Yorkshire, and afterwards to Sir Anthony Brown; and Isabella, (fn. 10) married to Sir William Huddleston.—Upon a division of the estate of the Ingaldesthorps, &c. which was not till in or about the 11th of Henry VII. on the death of Joan their grandmother, this manor of Rainham, with that of Wimbotsham in Norfolk, Sauston, &c. in Cambridgeshire, came to Isabella aforesaid, who is said to have been relict of the Lord Dacres, before her marriage with Huddleston, and after the death of Huddleston, to have married William Smith, a third husband; and died November 12, in the 9th of Henry VIII. seized of this manor of Rainham, with the advowson of the church of St. Mary, Wimbotsham manor and advowson, with the manor of Snetesham in Norfolk, the manors of Sauston, Dernford, with Berklow manor and advowson, in Cambridgeshire, &c. and John Huddleston was her son and heir, aged 20, as appears from an inquisition taken at Cambridge, August 8th, in the 9th of the said King.

Sir John Huddleston, her son and heir by Sir William, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Sutton Lord Dudley; and by an inquisition taken at Norwich April 30, in the 28th of Henry VII. it appears that he died seized of the manor of Ingaldesthorp in Reinham, had view of frank pledge, the advowson of the church of St. Mary, held of the King, in capite, by the fourth part of a fee: (he died at Sauston, some years before this, on October 6, in the 23d of the said King) and John was his son and heir, aged 14 years; he was afterwards a knight, and in 1543, sold this manor to Sir Roger Townsend, Knt. who had the King's license for that purpose.

This Sir John Huddlestone descended from the ancient family of Millum-Castle, in Cumberland, and bore for his arms, gules, fretty, argent; and, in right of his grandmother, the lady Isabella, who brought this lordship into the family, he quartered these arms, gules, a saltire argent, and a file of three points, of the 2d, and azure, Gobone-Nevill Marquis Montacute. Argent, three fusils in fess gules, Montacute Earl of Salisbury. Or, an eagle displayed, vert, Monthermer Earl of Gloucester. England in a bordure argent, Holland Earl of Kent. Argent, a saltier ingrailed gules, Tiptoft Earl of Worcester Gules, a cross ingrailed, argent, Ingaldesthorp. Argent, on a canton, gules, a rose, or, Bradston. Or, a lion rampant, gules, Charleton Lord Powis Azure, a fess between three leopards faces, or, De La Pole. Argent, on a fess indented sable, three bezants, Burgh

This lordship thus being conveyed into the family of Townsend, wherein it remains at this present time, 1764, it will be proper in this place to treat of the same from ancient records, and authentick evidences.

It is undoubtedly a family of great antiquity in this county: Collins, in his history of the peerage, (fn. 11) says, that Lodowic, or Lewis, a Norman, surnamed Townsend, soon after the conquest, married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas Haywell, (rather Havile,) and was succeeded by Sir Walter de Townsend, who took to wife Maud, daughter of Sir Roger Scogan, Knt.—But this will appear to be a great mistake. The family is wrote in old deeds, &c. Ad Exitum Villæ.—William ad Exitum Villæ, that is Townsend, or Tunnesend, held considerable lands of the prior of Norwich's lordship in Taverham, in the reign of King John.—Stephen, son of Walter Atte Townsend, lived in the reign of Henry III. and, with Agnes his wife, purchased by fine of William de Denver, lord of Denver, and Maud his wife, a messuage and lands, in Downham; and about the same time lived Thomas Atte Townsend, of West Herling, possessed of a valuable estate, &c. and sealed then with a chevron, between three escallops, the arms of the family at this day. (fn. 12)

Thomas, son of William Atte Townsend, of Snoring Magna, lived in the said town, settled all his estates in that town, Snoring Parva, Thorpland, and Barsham, in Norfolk, on John his son and heir, by deed dated July 11, 1377, wherein he mentions Roger his brother. John, son of John aforesaid, was living at Snoring Magna in 1378 and 1396; he added much to the family estate, and held part of a fee in Rainham Magna and Parva, of Roger Mortimer Earl of March, of the honour of Clare, in 1398, and was the first of the family that settled at Rainham, or had an interest therein.

About the year 1400, Sir Walter de Townsend was living, son of Sir Lodowick de Townsend, whom Collins places at the head of this family, and says, that he married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Thomas Havile, and to have lived soon after the conquest: that Collins is mistaken, in respect of the time that Sir Lodowick lived in, appears from this proof; Sir Walter aforesaid married Maud, daughter of Sir Roger Scogan, Knt. by whom he had a son Roger.

Roger, son of Sir Walter, took to wife Catherine, daughter of John Atterton, Esq. of Sussex, and was father of Sir Thomas Townsend, whose wife Agnes was daughter of William Pain, Gent.

This Sir Thomas was buried in the choir of White-Friars church in Fleet-street, London; (fn. 13) and on the first of April, 1421, letters of administration were granted to Agnes, relict of Sir Thomas Townsend; and Roger Townsend, of Rainham, (son, as I take it, and heir, of Sir Thomas,) of the goods of Thomas Payn, probably brother of Agnes; (Collins says Eleanor,) which family held a lordship in Helloughton, and sealed with a fess between three birds; and their estate came to the Townsends. The said Roger Townsend, Esq. was a feoffee for the manor of Welborn, in 1444, and married Elianor, daughter of Sir Thomas Gigges, of Rollesby, who bore, sable, a frett ermine, and a chief checquer, argent, and of the second.

In 1433, he, Sir William Oldhall, and John Briggs, Esq. were feoffees of Edmund Eshall, for lands in Hempton, Pudding-Norton, Tofts, &c.

John, his son and heir, succeeded: Joan, his wife, was daughter and heir of Sir Robert Lunsford of Rumford in Essex; his will is dated in 1465, proved January 4th, 1466, and was buried in the middle of the body of the church of St. Mary in Rainham, before the image of the crucifix of our Lord; (fn. 14) appoints one secular priest to celebrate for his soul, and that of Agnes his wife, for the space of 20 years, where the body of the said Agnes lies; to John, son of John Blakeney, his grandson, 20 marks; appoints Isabel his wife, and Roger Townsend his son, executors; to Roger and his heirs, his manors of Havills and Rouses, in Rainham, lands, &c. in Horningtoft, called Scarndels, lands, &c. in Titleshale, called Caldewets, with the wood called Grinstons, lands in Helloughton, with all his lands in Rainham and Willingham, except those which he lately gave to John Blakeney, Esq. with his daughter Joan, in marriage.

Roger Townsend, Esq. son and heir of John, and Joan his wife, was entered a student of Lincoln's-Inn, elected a governour of that society in the first year, &c. of King Edward IV. and Lent reader. In 1461, the third part of the manor of Haviles in Rainham, by fine levied, was conveyed to him by Henry Argenton, and Cecilia his wife; in 1468, was a trustee for James Arblaster, in purchasing the lordship a Wichingham St. Mary; in 1472, a feoffee for the Countess of Oxford's manor of Fersfield, and member of parliament for Calne, in Wiltshire; and in 1476, purchased by fine of Roger Oliver of London, Sherman, and Elizabeth his wife, their interest or part in Havile's lordship, so that the whole was now in this family; and about the same time, a commissioner to settle the disputes between the priory and the city of Norwich.

In the 17th of Edward IV. he was called to the degree of serjeant at law; in 1480, summoned to be an assistant to the house of lords in Parliament; in the 1st of Edward V. King's serjeant at law; and, in the following year, was appointed a justice of the Common Pleas, King Henry VII. renewed his patent, and knighted him, in his chamber at Worcester, on Whitsunday before his coronation.

He married Anne, daughter and coheiress of Sir William Brews of Stinton-hall, in Norfolk, who brought him that manor, and a great inheritance in land; (fn. 15) by this lady he had 6 sons and 6 daughters;— Roger, John, Robert, George, Thomas, and Gyles;—of the daughters, —Thomasine was wife of Sir Thomas Woodhouse, of Kimberley, Knight of the Bath; —, to Anthony Castell, of Raveningham, Esq. Anne, betrothed to Philip Cressener, of Attleburgh, Esq. Susan, wife of Sir Edward Windham of Felbrigg; and Catherine, of Sir Henry Bedingfield, of Oxburgh.

Collins says, she died October 31, in the 5th of Henry VII.; the will of the judge is dated August 14, Ao. 8th of Henry VII. in which year he died, November 9; appoints his body (if he died at London to be buried in the church of the White-friars, in Fleet-street, befor the crucifix; but if at Rainham, in the chapel of St. Catherine, in St. Mary's church; and makes Eleanor, his wife, sole executrix and guardian, to Roger his eldest son. Eleanore survived the judge; her will is dated, November 9, 1499, and proved October 8, 1500. She orders her body to be buried by the high altar, before our Blessed Lady, in the chancel of Rainham St. Mary, and a new tomb to be made for her husband's and her bones; upon which tomb to be cunningly graven a sepulchre for Easter-day, if a chapel be not made at her decease; and if a chapel be made, then she would be buried in the same, and her husband's bones to be had home into the same chapel, and the tomb to be made there: names Sir Robert Clere, Knt. her executor.

Blomfield says, that Lady Anne (first wife of the judge) did not die till in the year 1551; if so, she survived the judge about 60 years: but it appears that the judge had a second wife Eleanore, who died in 1500, as aforesaid. I am inclined to think that the judge died at London, and was not buried at Rainham.

Roger, eldest son of the judge, was bred to the law, and, among other gentlemen of worth and dignity of this county, was appointed a commissioner by act of parliament, for assessing, &c. a subsidy of one hundred, sixty three thousand pounds, by a poll-tax, in the 5th of Henry VIII. On the 20th of June, in the said year, Sir William Sydney of Walsingham, in Norfolk, to fulfil the will of the judge, his father, delivered and confirmed to him, all the lands, tenements, rents, and services of Scroby Rivet's manor, &c. in Spectashale, in Suffolk, which he held jointly with Sir Roger, the judge, William Gourney, Esq. &c. of the grant of John Hoo of Blithburgh, and Sir John Heveningham.

In the 10th of the said King, he covenanted to serve the King with 10 men at arms; was thrice sheriff of Norfolk; in 1525, received the honour of knighthood; (Collins says, it was on the King's return from Bulloign, Ao. 37th of Henry VIII.;) was one of the masters in the Court of Requests, in 1529; and in the said year, one of the King's council, with the Bishop of Lincoln; and a feoffee of the manor of Kilverston, for the Duke of Norfolk, and had of the manor of Scales, in Rainham, from the king. (fn. 16)

In 1548, he purchased of Sir John Hudleston, the lordship of Ingaldesthorp, in this town, and in the following year, in commission with the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Surrey, and Earl of Sussex, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir William Paston, &c. to raise a benevolence for the King, and knight of that shire, in parliament, Ao. 33d of the said King; and by a letter from the Duke of Somerset, dated at the Tower, February 12thAo. 1st of Edward VI. required, with the Earl of Sussex, Sir William Paston, &c. on the death of King Henry VIII. to take care of the peace of the said county.

His will is dated July 31, 1550; he desires his body to be buried in the chancel of East Rainham church; names George and Thomas, his brothers, executors, and Sir Henry Bedingfield supervisor of it; mentions his lordships, lands, &c. in East, South, and West-Rainham, Helloughton and Barmere; lands, &c. in Over and Nether Geyst, Twyford, Wood, Norton, Bintre, Brunsthorp, Tofts, North Barsham, Shireford, and Saham; the rectory of Barwick; lands, &c. in Stanhow, Ryburgh Parva, and Oxwyk; constitutes Roger, son and heir of Richard, son and heir of his brother John Townsend, Esq. his heir, and dying S. P. November 30, 1551, his will was proved May 10, 1552.

Here it may be proper to mention what Leland the antiquary has said, who lived in the time of King Henry VIII.—"The grandfather of Townsend now living, (who was John Townsend, Esq. abovementioned, son and heir of Sir Thomas) was a mean man of substance; the father of Townsend, now living, got about hunderith pound of land by the yere, with much traveling yn the law.—Townsend now being first by enclining to the law, and good husbandry at home, hath encreased his lande to the sum of another hunderith pound; and this Townsende, now lyving, by marriage of a daughter, heir general to Hansard of Lincolnshire, had about 300 marks byside, of landes and yerely rents: he hath had fair issue by this woman, so that his sunne and heire, shaul be a man of a 600 markes of londe by the yere, yet cam not all the londes of the Hanshards to Townsend, for there be yet left of the name. (fn. 17) "

In answer to this, it appears from unquestionable authority and proof above, that John Townsend, Esq. grandfather of Sir Roger, then living, was not a mean man of substance; he married Joan, daughter and heir of Sir Robert Lunsford, and was son and heir of Sir Thomas Townsend.

He died possessed of the lordships of Haviles and Rouses in Rainham, and of that of Helloughton; considerable lands in Horningtoft, Wellingham, &c. married a daughter, Joan, to John Blakeney, Esq.; the said John, on his death, appointed a secular priest to pray for him, &c. for 20 years.

The father of Townsend then living, who got (as he expresses it) an 100l. per annum with much travelling in the law, was Sir Roger, a person of great eminency and dignity, made judge of the Common Pleas, by King Richard III. and in the reign of Henry VII.

Sir Roger Townsend, son of this judge, (whom Leland says, now living,) was also a gentleman of great honour and worth, both at home, and at court, where he had considerable posts, and was one of the King's privy council, &c. as has been shown.

The judge, his father, married Anne, daughter and coheir of Sir William Brews, a very ancient family, who held by descent a great estate, and not a Hansard; her sister and coheir, Thomasine, married Sir Thomas Hansard; so great and suprising is the mistake that Leland has made relating to this family.

John Townsend, Esq. second son of the judge, lived mostly at Brampton in Suffolk; by Eleanor his wife, daughter of Sir John Heydon of Baconsthorp, he had Richard, his eldest son. This John died Angust 4, 1540, before his eldest brother Sir Roger.

Robert, the third son, married Alice, daughter and heir of Robert Poppy, Esq. of Linconlnshire; was serjeant at law, a knight, justice of Chester, steward of Pentney priory, had a pension on its dissolution, lord of South-hall in Overe, and Neither-Geist, of Wood-Norton Twyford, and Foxleys, had the rectory of Geyst, and advowson of the vicarage, seized also of the Augustine friary of Ludlow in Shropshire; died in the 3d and 4th of Philip and Mary, leaving, Thomas his son and heir, (as was found by an inquisition taken at Salop, August 11, 1556,) aged 22: from him descended the Townsends of Brakenash in Norfolk, of Gloucestershire, and Shropshire.

George Townsend, Esq. was the fourth son, and married a daughter of Sir Richard Thurston, sheriff of London, in 1516, and had a son Gyles; George was executor to his brothers, Thomas and Giles, and living in 1554.

Thomas, the fifth son, from whom descended the families at Testerton, Cranworth, and Wretham.

Giles was the sixth son; to him Sir Robert his brother, on December 3d, in the 35th of Henry VIII. then serjeant at law, granted the rectories of Whitwell and Berwick, the manor of Geyste, the rectory and manor of Ryburgh Parva, with the manor and rectory of Helgeton in Norfolk, their court-leets, in all which (except Whitwell) they enfeoffed their brother Roger. (fn. 18)

Richard Townsend, Esq. son and heir of John Townsend, Esq. (second son of the judge, Sir Roger, and brother to Sir Roger Townsend, who died in 1550,) was aged 22, at his father's death, in 1540; he married Catherine, 3d daughter and coheir of Sir Humphrey Brown of Ridley in Oxfordshire, a justice of the Common Pleas; died May 9, 1552, his will being dated July 20, 1551; (fn. 19) his wife survived him, and remarried John Roper, Esq. of Eltham in Kent, master of the King's Bench Office. Richard had by her, Elizabeth, married to Thomas Godsalve, Esq. of Buckenham Ferry, and a son Roger, his heir, and heir to his great uncle, Sir Roger, appointed by his will, in 1550. This Richard lived also, as his father, at Brampton.

This Roger, son and heir of Richard, was a minor at his father's death, and proved his age in 1564: in the year 1588, we find him in the English fleet, in the fight against the Spanish Armado; and on the 26th of July, in the said year, was knighted by the Lord High Admiral, Charles Howard, at sea, with the Lord Howards, Lord Sheffield, John Hawkins, and Martin Frobisher; (fn. 20) and as the aforesaid lords had a principal command in the said fleet and engagement, so no doubt had this Roger, who is named next to them, and before Hawkins and Frobisher. He died at Newington, by London, June 30, 1590, and was buried in the church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, at London. (fn. 21) By Jane his lady, youngest daughter of Sir Michael Stanhope of Shelord in Nottinghamshire, (ancestor of the Earls of Chesterfield and Stanhope,) he left John, his eldest son, and Robert, created a knight 1633; (fn. 22) and married Ann, daughter of William Lord Spencer, who died, s. p. Sir Roger's lady surviving him, remarried Henry Lord Berkeley.

John Townsend, son and heir of Sir Roger, married Ann, daughter and coheir of Sir Nathaniel Bacon of Stivekey, or Stukey, in Norfolk; was lord of that town, of Langham and Merston; in a duel with Sir Matthew Brown, died of his wounds on August 2d, 1603, leaving Roger, his eldest son, and Stanhope, his 2d son, who died also of his wounds, in a duel in the Low Countries, and unmarried. His lady survived him many years, dying May 20th, 1630, and was buried at Rainham. Ann, their daughter, married John Spilman, son and heir of Sir Henry Spilman. In 1591, I find John Townsend, Esq. of Norfolk, to give the senior proctor's staff to the University of Cambridge, of which he had been a member, in Trinity college; and probably was this Sir John, who was knighted for his valour by the Earl of Essex at Cales, in Spain, in 1596.

Roger, his son and heir, was a minor, aged 8 years, on his father's death, created a baronet April 16th, 1617; on the 20th of May, 1620, he had license to travel for three years, with three servants, and necessaries, but not to go to Rome, as appears by the council book. (fn. 23) He built the present seat of Rainham-hall; of this, see Spilman. By Mary his wife, daughter and coheir of Horatio Vere Lord Vere of Tilbury, of the noble family of the Veres Earls of Oxford, he had Roger and Horace, his two sons, and 5 daughters; Mary, married to Thomas Lord Crew of Stene in Northamptonshire; Jane, to John Windham, Esq. Anne, to William Cartwright of Aynhoe, in Northamptonshire; Elizabeth, who died single; and Vere, to Sir Ralph Hare, Bart. of Stow Bardolf. He died January 1st, 1637/8, aged 41, having granted three or four of his appropriations to the church.

By an inquisition taken at Thetford, June 8th, in 1637, he was found to have died possessed of the following lordships, &c.—Ingaldesthorp manor, in East-Rainham; Scales, in South-Rainham, held of the King, in capite, by knight's service, of the manor or honour of Haughley in Suffolk;—Sherborn's, in West-Rainham, held of Ingaldesthorp's manor in soccage, and the rent of 3s. 4d. per ann. with the lordships of Hall's, Mourehouse, and Pain's, in Rainham, held as aforesaid; —Hayvile's manor in West-Rainham, held of the King, as of his castle of Norwich, in soccage;—Staple's manor in Rainham, held in soccage of the manor of Haviles, paying 2s. per ann.;—a capital messuage, called Le Upper-house, &c. in South-Rainham, and West-Rainham; —divers lands and tenements in Normansbergh, South Rainham, Willingham, and Tittleshale;—divers lands and a tenement, with 20 acres in Rainham, and Helloughton, lately belonging to Hempton priory, held in capite;—the rectories of Helloughton, West-Rudham,— — Kypton manor, held of the King, in capite;—messuages, lands, and tenements, in Wesenham, containing 107 acres, with Fineham's tenement; held in soccage of the manor of Wesenham, and paying 5s. per ann.— Helloughton, St. Faith's manor, and Helloughton manor, held of the King, in capite, by knight's service;—the manor of Pattesly;—divers lands and tenements in Tofts, called Benson's, Odyham's, and Townsend's, held in soccage;—Stibberd manor, held in soccage of the manor of Fakenham, and paying 13s. 4d. per ann.—Paywell's manor in Ry borough, held of the manor of Sculthorpe, in free soccage;—St. Faith's manor in Ryborough Parva;—Stinton-hall manor in Salle;—two hundred acres of land, called Serbrigg's park, with a wood, &c. in Causton, held of Causton manor, in free soccage; the manors of Langham and Merston; the manor of Stewky, alias Stuky Tertevills, Irminglands and Carlew, Knights, &c. East-hall, alias East's tenements, held of the heirs of Simon de Penthorpe, with a moiety of the manors of Netherne and Stowes, &c. held of the King, in capite;—West-Rudham, St. Faith's manor;—East-Rudham manor, held of the King, in capite;— Buckenham's manor in Barwick, with the rectory of Barwick, held of the King, in capite;—Curson's, alias Thoresby's manor, held of the King in free soccage, as of the hundred of Smithden;—the site of the priory of Cokesford in Rudham, and divers lands and tenements, called the Demeans there, held of the King, in capite;—the manor of Easthall, in Stanhow;—Shernborn's manor in Stanhow.—Beaufoe's manor in South Creak;—a capital messuage, called Dainsdey's, alias Bolter's in North and South Creak;—a foldage, &c. for sheep, in West-Rudham, called the Great Grounds;—the manor of Barmere, and divers lands and tenements in Barmere, Barwick, and Bagthorp, held of the manors of Stanhow and Bagthorp, in free soccage;—the manors of Tilbury-hall, alias Tilbury-Mare, Clare, Nortofts, and Skeys, in Tilbury, Wivenhoe-park manor, with that of Much-Bentley in Essex, which came by the heiress of Horace Lord Vere.—The Lady Mary, his relict, married Mildmay Fane Earl of Westmoreland, by whom she had Vere Fane Earl of Westmoreland, and dying in 1673, was buried at Rainham, on the 22d of May.

Sir Roger Townsend, Bart. son of Sir Roger aforesaid, was a minor at his father's decease; and dying in his minority, was succeeded in honour and estate, by his brother, Sir Horace, a minor also, in ward to the King, born in 1630, created Baron Townsend, of Lynn Regis in Norfolk, April 20th, 1661, and Viscount Townsend of Rainham, December 11th, 1682, was in great favour with King Charles II. who paid him a visit at Rainham in 1671; was made lord lieutenant of the county of Norfolk, and city of Norwich, in 1660. He married in 1649 Mary, daughter and heir of Edward Lewknor, Esq. son and heir of Sir Edward Lewknor of Denham, in Suffolk, Knt. who brought nto the family that town, and other valuable estates. She died in 1673, without issue, and was buried at Rainham, on May 22d. His second lady was Mary, daughter of Sir Joseph Ashe of Twickenham, in Middlesex, Bart. by whom he had his son and successour, Charles, and Roger Townsend, Esq. member of parliament for Yarmouth in Norfolk, who died unmarried, May 22d, 1709, and was buried at Rainham. His 3d son was Horace, member of parliament for Heytesbury in Wiltshire, and one of the commissioners of the Excise.

Charles Lord Viscount Townshend was born in 1675; King Charles, and the Duke of York were his godfathers; was a nobleman of great honour, worth, and ability, as the posts that were conferred on him testify; a governour of the Charter-house, one of the privy council, Knight of the Garter, sent ambassadour by Queen Anne to the States General, captain of the yeomen of the guard, a commissioner for the union, chose by King George I. one of the regency in his absence, principal secretary of state, appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, which he declined; president of the council, and again secretary of state, in which office he continued, till he resigned it in May 1730; was also lord lieutenant, and custos rotulorum of the county of Norwich.

His first wife was Elizabeth, 2d daughter of Thomas Lord Pelham, by whom he had 4 sons; Charles, who succeeded him; Thomas, member of parliament for the University of Cambridge, one of the tellers of the Exchequer; William, aid-de-camp to King George I. member of parliament for Yarmouth; Roger, member for Yarmouth on his brother's death, and captain of a troop of horse; Elizabeth, the daughter, married the Lord Cornwallis. By Dorothy, his 2d wife, daughter of Robert Walpole, Esq. of Houghton, and sister to Robert Walpole Earl of Orford, he left George, lieutenant of a man of war; Augustus, captain of an East India ship; Horatio, commissioner of the victualling-office; and—Edward, rector of Pulham in Norfolk, deputy clerk of the King's closet, D. D. prebendary of Westminster, and dean of Norwich. This Lord died on June 21st, 1738. Dorothy, one of his daughters by this lady, married Spencer Cooper, dean of Durham, the other, Mary, married the Honourable Edward Cornwallis, Esq. member for Westminster.

Charles, his eldest son and heir, was summoned to parliament, May 24th, 1723, as Lord Lynn, in the life of his father; was gentleman of the bed-chamber to King George I. commissioner of trade and the plantations, master of the Jewel-office;—died at Rainham, March 13th, 1764. He married Audrey, daughter and heiress of Edward Harrison, Esq. Governour of Fort St. George in the East Indies, and of Balls, in Hertfordshire; by whom he had, 1, George; 2, Charles, who married the Honourable Countess of Dalkeith, relict of the Earl of Dalkeith, son and heir to the Duke of Buccleugh, member for Yarmouth, paymaster of the King's forces; 3, Roger, a colonel, killed at Ticonderago, in America; 4, Edward, died young; and Audrey, a daughter, unmarried.

George, the eldest son of Charles, the present Lord Viscount Townshend, being bred to arms, was colonel of the 28th regiment of foot, brigadier, and gained much honour on the taking of Quebec, when the command of the army came to him; (fn. 24) was after, major-general, and lieutenant-general of the ordnance, one of his Majesty's privy council; and, before his father's death, representative of the county of Norfolk in parliament. He married the Right Honourable Lady Charlotte, (only daughter and heir of the Earl of Northampton,) and Lady Baroness Ferrers of Chartley.

His lordship's arms are, azure, a chevron ermine, between three escallops, argent, Townshend; and quarters; 1st, gules, a chevron, between three flowers-de-lis, or, Havile, or Haywell;—2d, argent, a lion rampant, and crusily of cross crosslets, gules, crowned, or, Brewse; —3, sable, a cross ingrailed, or, Ufford;—4, gules, a cross, argent, in a bordure, engrailed, or, Carbonel;—5, argent, a chevron, gules, between three cross crosslets, fitchée, azure, Shardelow;—6, gules, a chevron, between three lions gambs, erect and erased, in a bordure, argent, Brown;—7, per bend, sinister, or and sable, a lion rampant, counterchanged, Francis;—8, quarterly, ermine and gules, Stanhope; —9, gules, on a chief, argent, two mullets, sable, Bacon;—10, quarterly, gules and or, in 1st quarter, a mullet, argent, Vere;—11, azure, three chevronels, argent, Lewknor:—crest, a buck passant, sable, attired, or; supporters, on the dexter side, a buck, sable, on the sinister, a greyhound, argent.—Motto, Hæc generi, incrementa, fides.


Another part or moiety of Hugh de Montfort's lordship came to the family of Scales, (as I conceive, and have above observed,) by the marriage of a daughter and coheir of Lisewise; and this family was in possession of it in the reign of King John, and Henry III. this moiety, or lordship, was that of South Reinham. Robert de Scales was son of Roger de Scales, and left Maud his widow, in the 3d of Henry III. she being then remarried to William de Beauchamp, a fine was levied between her, and this Roger, her son, of the 3d part of 2 carucates of land, or the lordship of Middleton, and certain rents, as parccl of her dower; and it is to be observed, that this lordship of Middleton in Norfolk was also one of those which the aforesaid Hugh de Montfort held at the survey. See there. In the 33d of Edward I. this manor was found to consist of one capital messuage, 120 acres of land, 14 of meadow, 17 of pasture, a water-mill, &c. in demean, and was held of the honour of Haughley. In the 5th of Edward III. it appears, that certain herbage belonged to it at Kipton. Inhams, and South Wadhirne, let to Sir John de Ingaldesthorpe, with a fishery, part let to Sir John Ingaldesthorp, at 12d. per ann. and part to Sir — Havile, at 12d. and it paid 4s. 4d. per ann. castle-guard to Dover.

In a computus of the bailiff of this manor, Ao. 5°. Edward III. I find wheat sold at 3s. 4d. per quarter, and about Lent at 8s. per quarter.— Barley at 3s. 4d.; pease at 6s. 8d.; oats at 4s. 6d.; a bushel of hemp-seed 2s.; six long hurdles, (claiis) 6d.; a scot, (bought in to fat) 6s. 6d.; for the making of 12 capons, 1d.; for 10 geese 2s.; four stone of cheese, 3s. 8d.; one bushel of salt, 4d.; paid for thrashing of wheat, 3d. per quarter, barley, 1d. ob.; oals, 1d.; pease, 3d.; for the fanning, or cleaning (ventilatione) of 9 quarters of corn, 2d.; for the mowing 22 acres of pasture, 9s. 2d. per acre, 5d.

Paid a carpenter for 3 days work, 10d.; a shepherd's, or neatherd's wages, (bercatoris,) for one year, 3s.; a carter's, 40d.; a swineherd's, 12d.; for the carriage of a swan, from this town to Wilton, by Brandon, with, &c. 2d.

For the farm of 21 new milch cows, and their calves, for one year, 6l. 6s. every cow valued at 6s. and 10 calves were excepted of the best for the lady of the manor, (Lady Scales;) and for the farm of 9 hens, 2s. 3d. each hen at 3d.

In this family of the Lord Scales it continued, till Elizabeth, the only daughter and heir of Thomas Lord Scales, the last of that ancient family, (fn. 25) brought it by marriage to Anthony Woodvile Earl Rivers, and Lord Scales, who being attainted, and beheaded in the reign of King Richard III. that King gave it, with many other lordships, (fn. 26) to his great favourite, John Howard Duke of Norfolk; but on the accession of Henry VII. to the crown, that Duke being attainted, it remained in the Crown till granted in 29th of Henry VIII. to Sir Roger Townshend, and so continues, being united to the other lordships in this town.

Havile's, or Hauvil's Manor.

This was the next capital manor in this town; Ulviet held it in the time of the Confessor, but at the survey it was in the hands of the Conqueror, and Godric took care of it, or farmed it of him. In King Edward's time, it consisted of two carucates of land, eleven bordarers, two servi, and two carucates in demean, one carucate amongst the men or tenants, paunage for ten swine, four acres of meadow, a mill, &c. and 63 sheep. Helgetun was a beruite to it, of half a carucate of land; and two bordarers here held half a carucate, and one servus, one mill, an acre of meadow, a fishery, and a salt-work belonged to it, &c. with 42 sheep. There belonged to this manor of Reinham, also, 16 socmen, who held one carucate of land, and two carucates and an half, &c. with six bordarers, paunage for four swine, and two acres of meadow. In Helgetun, six socmen held half a carucate of land, two bordarers, two carucates, &c. and two acres of meadow, valued in King Edward's time at 40s. at the survey at 6l. per ann.— Reinham was one leuca long, and three furlongs broad, and paid 20d. gelt; and Helgeton was four furlongs long, and three furlongs broad, and paid 10d. gelt. (fn. 27)

This lordship remained in the Crown many years, till King Stephen gave it, with the manors of Hingham, Stow, Rackheith, Erleham, &c. to William de Caineto, or Cheyney, in exchange for Moleham or Mileham; (fn. 28) on condition, that if he or his son should like Moleham better, that they might renounce it, which Cheyney did soon after, and so was again lodged in the Crown; and the said King granted it to the Haviles. In 1196, Sir Ralph de Havile was lord of Erlham, by Norwich: he was a younger brother of Humphrey de Havile, (fn. 29) de Alta Villa, or Hautville, as they styled themselves, and purchased this lordship of Humphrey, who probably was lord of this town. This Ralph hereupon changed his name to that of De Erlham; the river here appears by this to be called the Hier of Er.

In 1233, Henry de Havile was lord, and held it by grand serjeanty, as falconer to the King, and paying 40s. per ann. to the King, fee-farm rent. (fn. 30) He died in 1252, when the jury present, that he held this manor in capite, and gave it to Thomas, his younger son, Ralph and Henry being his two elder sons. This Thomas, and others, disseized John, son of Matthew, of his free tenement in Reynham Magna, in the 41st of King Henry III. At this time it appears, that the Haviles were a spreading family, and several of them had interests in this town. Alan, son of John de Havile, and Margery, lived at this time; he was uncle to John, and Elias de Havile, and brother to William, who had several sons; John, Roger, Ralph, Richard, and Geffrey. In the 14th of Edward I. there was a suit among these, to enquire if the aforesaid Alan, uncle of Elias de Hauvill, died seized in demean, and in fee of one messuage, 44 acres of land, two acres and three roods of meadow, 128 acres of pasture, with 9s. rent per ann. in Reinham.

In 1266, Thomas de Havile died seized of this manor, and that of Dunton, and Kettleston, in 1275. Thomas his son (as I take it) claimed the lete here, and in Dounton: in 1277, a fine was levied between this Thomas and Henry de Havile, by which Thomas conveyed to him 10l. rent per ann. in Dunton and Ducton, and 3l. in Reynham and Kettleston, with divers lands in Lincolnshire, released to Henry, together with a tenement, late Henry de Haviles, (grandfather of Thomas;) this probably was by way of trust; for in 1286, that Thomas de Hauvile held a certain lastage in Lynn, of the King, in capite, valued at 100s. per ann. by the service of keeping a gerfalcon for the King; (fn. 31) and in 1296, Thomas de Hauvile gave 40s. relief to the King, for his lands, tenements, &c. in Reynham, Helgeton, Tofts, Oxwyke, Patesley, Norton, Gateley, Horningtoft, and Stanfield, held in capite, by paying 40s. per ann. castle-guard to Norwich.

In 1301, Thomas de Havile impleaded Thomas de Ingaldesthorp and about 60 others, of Reynham, for pulling down a pillory newly erected by him for the execution of justice, &c. Ingaldesthorp pleads, that he, and Robert de Scales, were lords also of the said town, and had view of frankpledge, &c. therein, and that Havile held only a third manor or part in this town, and that Havile having erected the pillory on the common ground, and not on his own proper soil, they pulled it down. (fn. 32)

In the said year Thomas de Havile died, (and Thomas was found to be his son and heir,) seized of lands, tenements, rents, &c. here, held in capite, paying 40s. per ann. blanch-farm to Norwich castle, the whole then valued at 6l. 4s. 9d. per ann. This Thomas paid to the King 40s. relief in 1306, for this manor, and held also the lordships of Tofts, Oxwyk, Pattesley, Norton, Gately, Horningtoft, and Stanfield. In 1316, Thomas, son of Thomas de Hauvill, held by his father's enfeoffment, the manors of Dunton and Reynham, with the advowson of the church of Reynham St. Margaret, paying for Dunton 18s. per ann. (as it was then found,) and keeping the King's gerfalcon, at the King's costs, and paying 40s. per ann. (as above) into the sheriff of Norfolk's hands: and in the said year, he gave to the priory of Miremound the patronage of the aforesaid church, with one acre of land. In 1318, this manor was settled by John de Havill, and Joan his wife, on themselves, by fine; by this it appears, that this lordship was about this time divided; for in the year 1329, Maud, late wife of Thomas de Hauvill, paid 10 marks to the King, for license to keep to herself and her heirs, the manors of Reynham and Dunton; (fn. 33) and before this, in 1326, it was found that it would not be to the loss of the King if he granted to Thomas de Havile leave to infeof, in the manors of Reynham and Dunton, Maud his wife, and his heirs, together with the advowson of the churches of Reynham, Dunton, and Doketon: the manor of Dunton is then said to be worth 9l. per ann. and that of Reynham 40s. and no more; because (as it is expressed) though it was held for a manor, yet no profit was from it but the rent of the assise.

In 1330, James de Hauvile gave the King 10 marks, for license to have a fine to grant to Robert Tiffour and Maud his wife the manors of Reynham and Dunton, and that they might regrant them to the said James and Anne, daughter of James Wace, and the heirs of James and Anne; and in 1345, Sir James Havile was lord; and in 1354, Roger de Caston, who was rector of Rainham St. Mary, was found to hold it, in trust, as I take it.

Soon after, this lordship of Rainham Haviles came into the family of the Townsends, by the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Thomas de Haywell, or Havile, Knt. to Lewis de Townsend; as Collins, in his Peerage, observes; but this does not appear from any records or evidences that I have met with; and if an heiress of Havile was married, (as is above observed,) only some part or portion of this manor came to the Townsends, by that marriage.

The Scoggans, a family of good account, were about this time possessed of the principal part of this lordship, and had their residence here; Robert Scoggan of Reynham was a witness to a deed of Sir Thomas de la Rivere, Knt. lord of Sporle, in 1361: Thomas Scoggan, Esq. was in the retinue of the great Norfolk commander, Sir Robert Knolles, in 1378, and attended John King of Castile and Leon, and Duke of Lancaster, in his expedition into Spain. (fn. 34)

John Scoggan of East Reynham, clerk, was lord of Haviles in 1379, and manumised Godwyn Werp of Pudding-Norton, and John his son, his villains, as appears by this deed,—"Omnib; Xti. fidelib; ad quos psentis. lre. pvenint. Johes. Scoggan, de Est Reynhm. saltm. in dno. Novitis me manumisse et ad libum. statum redigisse Godwynum Werp, de Puddyngnorton, et Johem. fil. ejus cu. omnib; sequelis. eor. tam pcreatis. quam pcreand. ita qd. nec ego pdcus. Johes. Scoggan, nec aliquis hed. meor. nec aliquis nomine meo aliqd. juris vel clamej nativitatis seu villenagij in pdcis. Godewyno et Johe. fil. ejus nec in eor. sequel. pcreatis. nec pcreand. here. exigere vl. vendicare potim. in futuru. tn. cuj. rei testimin. psenti. scripto manumissionis sigillu. meu. apposui. Dat. apud Puddynorton, primo die Maij anno regni Regis Rici. scdi. post conquestu. quinto." The seal is of redwax.—Two bendlets lozengy,—which hereby appears to be the true arms of these Scoggans.

In 1391, John Scoggan (capellane) aforesaid died seized of the manor of Haviles, and Henry his brother was found to be his heir, (as is proved by the eschaet-rolls,) aged 30; and the said Henry occurs lord in 1395, and held it by the service of paying 40s. per ann. to Norwich castle, at the feasts of Easter and St. Michael, by equal portions: this Henry died seized of it in 1407, and Robert was his son and heir aged 19 years. This was, as I presume, that Henry Scoggan, famous for his wit and humour in the time of King Henry IV. who wrote a ballad directed (as Stow informs us (fn. 35) ) to Prince Henry, the King's son, Thomas Duke of Bedford, and Humphrey Duke of Glou cester, at supper with the merchants of London; an author out of whom the said historian (as he tells us) gathered materials, and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster abbey. Robert Scoggan abovementioned was lord of Haviles in 1409, and Rouses manor in Rainham, with a toft called Wards; and in 1414, released to Henry Maupas, clerk, &c. all his right in all his manors, lands and tenements here and elsewhere, in Norfolk, which formerly belonged to John Scoggan his uncle, and Henry his father. (fn. 36)

In 1420, William Champneys of Oxwyk confirmed to William Marchall, Esq. of East Reinham, Thomas Scoggan, &c. several lands in East Reinham field, and Oxwyk.—Witnesses, John Soper of East Reinham, John Barker and William Brown of East Reinham, &c.

About this time lived Walter de Townsend, who is said to have married Maud, daughter of Sir Roger Scoggan, who probably brought with her all Scoggan's right in this manor; after this I find no mention made of any of that family, as lords here; but in Edward the Fourth's reign, lived John Scoggan, descended most probably from this family, a celebrated poet: Bale says, he was by nature a jocose and a witty man, profited so much in philosophy, and other liberal arts, that he was A. M. at Oxford, and was so greatly esteemed for his smart and witty expressions, that he was sent for by King Edward IV. to court; where, as another Democritus, he turned all into jokes, mirth, and laughter; published certain comedies, and a book Ad Proceres Curiœ, &c. Sir Richard Baker, also, mentions him as a learned gentleman, and a student sometime at Oxford: (fn. 37) from him came the proverb, What says Scogane?

John Townsend, Esq. who lived in the reign of Henry VI. was undoubtedly lord of the manor of Haviles, died seized of it in 1465, from which time it has remained united to that of Ingaldesthorp, &c.

Bigot's, or Sherbourn's Manor.

Roger Bigot had also at the survey a small lordship here, which one freeman held in King Edward's time of the fee of Stigand, the Archbishop of Canterbury, consisting of one carucate of land, and Edwin held it under Bigot; there belonged to it 4 servi, with one carrucate, &c. 2 acres of meadow, valued in King Edward's time at 10s. at the survey at 5s. per annum; and in South Reinham, one freeman held 20 acres of land, held by Aitard, and one bordarer, and half a carucate always belonged to it, with one acre of meadow, valued before at 5s. now at 3s. (fn. 38)

This Roger Bigot was a principal commander under King William I. and attended him in his expedition into England, and was ancestor to the Earls of Norfolk, of that name; but on the marriage of his daughter Maud, with William de Albiney, the King's chief butler, ancestor to the Earls of Arundel, it came to the said William and seems to be held of the Albineys, by the ancient family of Raineham, who took their name from this town; of this family was William, son of Bartholomew de Reynham, who in 1232, was summoned to make answer to the prior of Castleacre, in a plea of a certain debt of 69s. in arrear, for an annual rent of 3s. due to him, which Godfrey le Pover of Reynham Magna, by his deed granted to the said prior, out of a tenement of the said Godfrey, in the said village, called Scortheldelond, and out of a tenement which Roger Gos and Thomas le Carpenter held there, of the said Godfrey, and into whatever hands the said tenements should hereafter fall; (fn. 39) and the said William, for 23 years then last past, being possessed thereof, had detained the same: the prior on producing Godfrey's deed, and proving possession to be in William, recovered the said debt.

In 1249, Bartholomew de Reynham gave lands here, to Geffrey his son; and about the said time, Reginald and Hugh de Sprouton were found to hold lands, and tenements here, and in Kypton, &c. by the service of a knight's fee, of Robert de Tateshale, who was one of the heirs of the Earl of Arundel; and in 1268, Peter son of Roger de Reinham, had lands here, conveyed to him by fine, from Elfrid, of South Reynham.

Oliva, late wife of Thomas, son of Giles de Reynham St. Margaret, sued Roger de Vaux for the third part of a messuage, 18 acres of land, 3 of meadow, and 10s. rent, with appertenances in that parish, for her dower; (fn. 40) and in the said year, 1291, an assise was brought to know if Alan, son of John de Reinham, uncle of Elias de Havile, was seized of lands and rents in the 3 Reinhams, of which Thomas, son of Richard de Snetterton, William, son of Bartholomew de Reinham, Thomas de Ingaldesthorp, and Robert de Scales, held parcels, (John Fitz Richard, brother of Alan, being heir to Alan,) before William de Giselham, and H. de Cressingham, the King's justices, at Norwich. And by a fine levied in 1306, it was agreed, that Robert de Reinham should hold certain tenements, and lands in Reinham St. Margaret, of Richard de Gemeston, and Alice his wife, by the rent of 20d. per annum for all services. Edmund de Reynham, Knt. was living in 1379.

After this I find no mention of the family of Reinham, in this town. In 1345, Thomas Neel, and Catherine his mother, (who probably might be of that family) were found to hold lands and tenements here, and in Kypton, by the service of half a fee, of the heirs of Robert de Tateshale, which Hugh de Sproustone formerly held; and in 1407, Henry Scoggan held a messuage, called Rainham-Wards, with lands here; and Robert his son, in 1409, held a messuage, formerly Edmund de Reinham's, &c. but the manor of Rainham was before this, in the family of Sherborne, who gave their name to it: Henry, son and heir of John Sherborne, conveyed it by fine, in 1495, to Thomas Gygges, and Thomas Curson, with the manors of Hedenham and Kelling.

In the reign of Henry VI. it came (as I take it) into the family of Townsend, Sir John Townsend held it in Queen Elizabeth's time, and was found to die seized of it in 1603; it being called in the inquisition post mortem, the manor of Sherborn's, in West Rainham, held of the manor of Ingaldesthorp, in soccage, and paying 3s. 4d. rent per annum.—and it remains united with the other manors in the said family.

The Earl of Clare's Fee.

Rainald, son of Ivo, had also a lordship given him by the Conqueror, which Bond was a lord of in the Confessor's time, and Boteric held it under Rainald; it consisted of 4 freemen, one of them was claimed by Herold, but Rainald held him, who had half a carucate of land; there always belonged to this one carucate, 3 acres of meadow, formerly valued at 10s. at the survey at 5s. per annum; the sheriff laid claim to Herold's man, as belonging to the lordship of Fakenham, and the hundred witnessed that it did belong to it. (fn. 41)

In 1176, Pope Alexander III. by his bull, confirmed to John Bishop of Norwich, the lands which William Fitz Buteri, gave to him in West Rainham; (fn. 42) and in the reign of Henry III. when an aid was granted on the marriage of that King's sister to the Emperor, the heirs of William Boteri were found to hold half a fee, in Reinham Parva, of the honour of Clare.

William de Brunne was found, in 1314, to hold in this town, Wyveton, Snyterle, Cley Wichingham, Stiveky, and Grimstone, lands of the aforesaid honour; and in 1345, the tenants of the fee of Gloucester held one quarter of a fee here, of the Earl of Gloucester; and in 1398, John Atte Townsend was found to hold it of Roger Mortimer Earl of March; and in the family of Townsend it appears to be, in the years 1424 and 1459, and remains so at this time, being united to the other lordships.

Besides these lordships which were at the time of the conquest, there were also some other little ones, or free tenements, which arose afterwards out of these principal ones; viz. Hall's, Pains and Morehouse, found on the death of Sir Roger Townsend, Bart. to be held of the manor of Ingaldesthorp; Staple's manor in Rainham, held of the manor of Paviles, by soccage, and paying 2s. per annum.

Here was also the manor of Rouse's: in 1357, Richard Gallows of East Reinham confirmed lands to Roger Barker, at Talbots, in the said town, by the lands of John Champneys, and John Rouses; to which John le Rous, Robert Scogan, &c. were witnesses. In 1407, it was possessed by Henry Scogan; and in 1409, Robert Scogan enfeoffed certain persons in the manors of Rouses, and Haviles, and afterwards came to the Townsends, together with Haviles; and John Townsend, Esq. died seized of them in 1465.

The township of East Rainham was taxed for tenths, &c. at 6l. per annum deducting 20s. remained payable 5l.—West Rainham 5l. 10s. remain 3l. 10s. 2l. being deducted.—South Rainham 3l. 5s. deduct 15s. remain 2l. 10s.; these deductions were on account of lands of the religious, and were paid by them.

East Rainham lete fee to the lord of the hundred, was 2s. 6d.

Normansburgh Priory.

At a place so called in South-Rainham, William de Lisewise founded a little priory, about 1160, (fn. 43) for the health of his own soul, that of Maud his wife, and Godfrey his son, dedicating it to the Blessed Virgin, and St. John the Evangelist; appointing it for a cell to the priory of Castleacre, endowing it with land, called Middeles, and Franscheshoe, with the hermitage of Wigenhale, &c.—Witnesses, Alan de Tilneia, and Adam, his son, Simon Norreis, Walter and Seman, Hugh Cook, William de Lechesham, William Waleis, and Geffrey de Swaffham.

Godfrey his son, with the consent of Maud his wife, William his son and heir, and all his children, confirmed the donation and grant of his father William, of this cell on his land or lordship, and all that he had given, viz. 60 acres of land, and 10 acres, which his father afterwards had added to his first grant; all the land at Middele and Franscheshoe, with all the land lying between the croft of Seliva, and the land of Richard de Boit, in South-Reinham, and half an acre of land by Medeles, and the hermitage of Wigenhale, (fn. 44) which John, the hermit, held, with all its appertenances, and the third part of a certain turbary, which Alfric, son of Kideman held, which is by the said hermitage; all which the said priory was to hold freely in pure alms without any demand, custom, or secular service, for the health of his own soul, his wife's, and all his children's, and for the soul of his father, the souls of all his ancestors and successours; and for this grant he retains, or reserves nothing to himself, or his heirs, but the prayers that shall be in the monastery of Acra, and in the church of St. John de Normansberch; and on this condition, that the monks of Acre shall make divine service to be celebrated at Normansberch, by three monks at least; to whose sustenance and support the said Godfrey adds, and gives the church of South-Reinham, with all its appertenances, and 9 acres of land in Gerdel; Richard, the herdsman, or shepherd, with all his family and goods, and John le Frere, with all his family and goods, and the tenement which he held of him; and warrants the same grant against the King, and all men, free from all service whatever:—witnesses, William, prior of Lewes, Richard Coleman, Alexander, the prior's notary, Philip de Mortemer, his socii, (that is, his monks,) William de Lechesham, Eustace, the clerk, John and Godfrey de Helet, Seman Cook, and Hamon, the Earl's servant, sans date. (fn. 45)

From this it appears, 1st, That Godfrey had a lordship in SouthReynham, and by this grant gave part of it to this priory, which became also a lordship: 2dly, we may have some knowledge of the time of this grant; Philip de Mortimer, who was at this time one of the chief monks of Lewes, was after prior of Castleacre, and occurs so in 1203, so that it is probable it was in the time of King Henry II. 3dly, it is likely Hamon, the Earl's servant here mentioned, was servant to the Earl Warren, whose ancestors founded the priories of Lewes and Castleacre. It is probable, that the family of Lisewise might hold some fees, or lands, under the Earl Warren. William, the founder of this priory, gave to the priory of Castleacre all the tithe of his woods, and assarts at Gateley, and of his demean lands there, as in Castleacre may be seen. It is certain that Gateley, and part of this town, was held by Hugh de Montefort; and as William de Lisewise appears to have a lordship there and here, it is highly reasonable to conclude, that he held a part of this under Hugh's family, and descendants, and came from the Lisewyses, by two daughters and coheirs, to the Ingaldesthorps and Scales.

By another deed, the said Godfrey granted to the priory of Castleacre 13 acres and one rood of land, 8 acres and a rood of which was called Caldewelleil, and 5 acres of which lay in the field of East-Gisdele in South-Rainham, and all the liberties which they had to their cell of Normansberch; also a foldcourse in all the land belonging to the church of St. John of Normansberch, which are the lands beyond the water towards the south; and all the lands, tenements, and liberties which William, his father, granted to them: witnesses, Gerard, the priest of Barsham, Roger, priest, his brother, Richard de Fulden, William de Lechesham, Roger de Sengham, Simon Mareschal, &c.

Whether this Godfrey was of the family of Dodo de Lysures, Lord Lysures de Fletborough, who had a daughter and heir, Albredge, first married to Richard Fitz-Eustace, lord of Halton, and constable of Chester, of whom descended the Lacies Earls of Lincoln, and afterwards married Sir William Fitz-William, of whom descended William Fitz-William Earl of Southampton. and Sir William Fitz-William, Knt. &c. I cannot say; but this I may observe, that the Fitz-Williams were afterwards patrons of the hermitage, or (priory and nunnery of Crabhouse, as it was afterwards called, and converted into,) in Wigenhale, above mentioned. This Dodo lived in the time of King Stephen, and bore, or, a chief, azure. About the said time, in the reign of King Henry II. lived Fulco de Lysures, who married Alice, daughter of —, and sister of William de Aubervill, who was a widow in 1183, aged 30; and holding lands in capite, was de donatione Regis, that is, could not marry without the King's license and consent; (fn. 46) and had then two sons, who were knights, and three other sons, and six daughters, married and unmarried, which last were in the ward of their mother, who held Glapthorp and Abington in Northamptonshire, valued at 14l. per ann.

Godfrey also gave, with the consent of Maud his wife, to the said priory, 12d. per ann. rent, due from Gilbert Pauvere: (fn. 47) Witnesses, Ivo, Capellane, William de Bec, William de Lechesham, Godfrey de Cambridge, John de Hellet, &c.

In 1199, a fine was levied between Godfrey de Lisewyz, and Gilbert Pauperem, (Poor, or Le Pouvre,) of lands, customs, and services in Reynham, granted to Gilbert, who gave 6 marks of silver to Godfrey, one talent to Maud his wife, and another to Maud his mother, and a third to William, son of Godfrey; by this it appears, that six marks of silver were more than one talent.

Aveline, daughter of Richard de Hoxewic, by deed sans date, granted to the said priory of Normansberch one penny rent, per ann. which Richard, son of Godefrid, Dean of Hoxewic, owed to her, and all her right in a tenement, which the said Richard holds of the fee of the priory of Normansberch: Witnesses, Sir Peter Buzun, Sir Ralph de Patesle, Hamon, his son, Godfrey, son of Hugh de Hoxewic, Richard, son of Thomas de Croft, Geff. de Croft, Richard Wade of Hoxewic, Adam Buzun, Robert Sparwe, Adam, his son, Robert de Hardele, Roger de Patesle, &c.

John Gunnild, by deed sans date, granted to Ralph, son of Osbert, and to his daughters, Agnes and Joan, of Suth-Reynham, a piece of ground there, paying yearly to the priory 1d. Roger, son of Giles de Patesley, chaplain, by deed, sans date, released to the priory his right in a tenement which he held of the priory in Godewic; viz. the tenement which Manser le Paumer of Brecham held: Witnesses, Sir Hamon Burt, Geffery de Longvil, Ralph de Herlam, William FitzRalph de Hoxewic, Richard his son, William, son of Edrick de Titleshale, Giles de Patesle, Adam Buzun Wissenset.

Jeffrey de Longvile, brother of Roger de Lonvile, by deed, sans date, confirmed to this priory all the land which Roger, his eldest brother, gave them; viz. six acres and a rood of land in Godewic, lying at Gatewong, and an acre and half at Stiwong: Witnesses, Geff. de Medlers, Roger de St. Denyns, Reimer de Dunton, Roger le Strange, Wymer de Bradeham.

Richard, son of William de Ingaldesthorpe, by the advice and consent of Maud his wife, grants to this priory 2 pieces of marsh-land, one lying in Branches furlong, between the marsh of Thomas, son of Richard, son of William, and the marsh of Jeff. de Reinham, and the homage and service of William, son of Ralph de Gateley, for the tenemen which he held of him, with the appertenances, with the rent of one capon per ann: Witnesses, Alan, son of John, Jeff. de Reinham, Barthol. son of William, John Poor, &c. sans date.

This deed, in some measure, confirms what I have observed, that the manor of East and South Reinham came to the Ingaldesthorpes and Scales, by the heiresses of Lisewise. Here we find Maud to be the wife of Richard de Ingaldesthorpe, and to grant this at the request of his wife, being related to the founder, most probably, and daughter of William de Lisewise, grandson to the founder, whose mother's and grandmother's name was also Maud.

Gowline, son of Richard Derebout, granted by deed, sans date, land in South Reinham:—Witnesses, Sir Robert de Eschalers, (or Scales,) Sir Jeff. de Medlers, &c.

Roger occurs prior in Henry the Second's time, (fn. 48) and styles himself as below.—Hugh, prior, occurs 1204.

Simon, prior of Normansberch, occurs, 1227, with the assent of his brethren, grants to Philip de Longvil, (by deed, sans date,) rector of the church of Godewic, for his homage, &c. 4 acres and a half of land in the fields of Godewic, of the gift of Pagan de Longvill, paying 12d. per ann.—Witnesses, Sir Thomas Burt, Sir Gilbert de Fransham, Sir Richard de Butellers, Hamon de Patesle, Ralph de Erlham, Richard, son of Walter de Tittleshale, &c.—Gervase, prior.

Roger, prior of Normansberch, styles himself in the Pope's language and style, Rogerus, servus servorum Dei, prior humilie de Reynham.— They had no spiritualities, as it is said. The temporalities of this house, in 1428, in Reinham St. Mary, were 3s. 6d. per ann.; in St. Martin's, 4l. 14s. 4d. and all their temporalities in Norfolk then were valued at 6l. 0s. 10d. per ann. The Duke of Norfolk had a grant of it at the Dissolution, and in 1554, on March 4th, died seized of it; but in the 33d of Henry VIII. it was in the King's hand, and farmed of the King, called the manor of Lewsewis; afterwards it came to the Townsends, and in 1564, Roger Townsend held all those, late the Duke of Norfolk's, called Normansburgh, and had livery of them in that year.

Rainham St. Mary's Church.

In this town were 3 churches, of which this was the chief, called also East-Rainham, and is a rectory valued, in the reign of King Edward I. at 20 marks; paid Peter-pence 10d. ob. The present valor is 18l. 13s. 4d. and pays first-fruits, and tenths.

It consists of a nave, with two isles, and a chancel covered with lead, and has a four-square tower, and four bells; on the south side of it is a curious large dial, with a clock, erected at the charge of the late Charles Lord Viscount Townsend, and on the north side of the church and chancel, a dormitory, but no monuments.

Against the north-east part of the chancel is a very fair tomb, but without any inscription, erected to the memory of Sir Roger Townsend, the judge, agreeable to the will of the Lady Elianore his wife, as is abovementioned, with a canopy, &c. of stone work. On it were the arms of Townsend; azure, a chevron, ermin, between three escallops, argent. and that of Havile's, quarterly; gules, a chevron, or, between three de-lis, argent,—impaling, quarterly, azure, a chevron, between three boars heads, couped, or, Lunsford;—and argent, three chevronels, gules, a file in chief of three points, azure,—Barrington.

On a marble grave-stone;—

Orate p. aiâ. Johs. Townsend, filii Rogeri et Elianore, qui obiit iiii. die Octob, Ao. Dni. M. CCCC.LXV.

Orate p. aiâ. Georgii Townsend, filii Rogeri Townsend, Armigeri.

Orate p. aiâ. Magistri Robti. Godfrey, Clici. in Legibus Bacularii. quoda. rectoris de Reynham. Sce. Marie, qi. obiit xxiii. die mens. Apr. Ao. Dni. mo. vc. xxiio.

Gulielmus Prestland, hujus ecclesiœ rector, obiit die Novemb. 13°. 1721.

Orate p. aiâ. Dni. Willi. Silvester, alias vocati Candeler, quodam. Capellani istius ecclie. qi. obiit vicesimo die mens. Septemb. Ao. Dni. m. cccco. lxxio.

Orate p. aiâ. Joh. Cresner, Generosi.

Robert Wolvey of Reynham Magna, buried here in 1524, gave by will to the repair of this church 3l. and a cross of silver of the price of 10l. and makes his special, and most trusty master, Sir Roger Townsend, supervisor of his will. (fn. 49)

On the windows of the south isle are the arms of the Lords Scales, —Ingaldesthorp,—Townsend, and Havile, impaling gules, three falcons, beaked and jessed, or,—Atterton;—also in the west window, Townsend and Havile impaling azure, a fess, wavy, or; and in a north window was — a fess, counterembattled between three trefoils.


In 1227, John occurs rector, as appears by a fine, wherein Osbert grants a tenement, in Reynham Magna, to John, and his successours.

1320, William de Hackford, presented by Sir John, son of Sir Thomas de Ingaldesthorp.

Roger de Caston occurs in the 22d of Edward III.

1361, William Burghard, by Sir William de Ingaldesthorp.

1380, John de Tyveteshale, by the King, on the minority of the son and heir of Sir William.

1423, Gregory Whery, by the King.

1479, Thomas Smyth, L.L. B. by Sir William Norye, Knt. in right of his late wife.

1496, John Clyff, by the Lady Elianor Townsend, widow of Sir Roger.

1522, Robert Godfrey.

1581, Samuel Gardiner.

1600, Samuel Gardiner, by the Lady Berkeley.

1622, William Armstead occurs rector.

1634, Samuel Clerk.

1638, John Easton.

1681, William Prestland.

1721, Thomas Cole, D. D. by Lord Townsend, afterwards Dean of Norwich.

1730, Edward Franklin, by ditto.

In this church was St. Mary's guild.

In 1553, Laur. Maptid, late chantry priest in Rainham, had a pension of 6l. per ann.

The prior of Fakenham-dam had temporalities in this parish, a mill, and land valued in 1428, at 27s. per ann.

The prior of St. Faith's (of Horsham) temporalities, valued at 12d.

Rainham St. Margaret, or West-Rainham.

This church has a nave, and a north isle, covered with lead, and a chancel with tiles.

Its ancient valor was 18 marks; paid Peter-pence, 10d. ob.—the present valor is 13l. 6s. 8d. pays first-fruits, &c.

On the screen, between the church and chancel were painted the arms of Townsend and Havile impaling Gigges, as aforesaid; Townsend and Havile impaling Brews, argent, a lion rampant, and crusily of crosslets, gules, lion crowned, or.

The patronage was anciently in the manor of Haviles, and was given by Sir Thomas Havile, with one acre of land to the priory of Miremond, in the isle of Ely, by fine, in 1316.

In 1322, Richard de Walton, rector, presented by the prior of Mirmound.

1327, Henry de Gysych. Ditto.

1339, Nicholas Taterford, by the King.

1349, George de Mylham, by the prior.

1364, William Cressingham occurs rector of Rainham.

1375, William Vechey, by the prior.

1391, Robert Newman. Ditto.

1391, John de Lenne. Ditto.

1417, Ralf Grys. Ditto.

1449, John Fincham. Ditto.

1458, John Wastell, by Sir Thomas Todenham, the prior's assignee.

1497, Mr. John Scarlet, Decret. Dr. by the Lady Eleanore Townsend, widow.

1508, Robert Bradshaw occurs rector.

John Baldwin, rector.

1616, Samuel Gardiner.

1633, Thomas Ramsey.

Charles Roderick, D. D. he was provost of King's college, Cambridge, and Dean of Ely, and died 1712.

1721, Thomas Cole, D. D. by the death of William Prestland, by the Lord Townsend, Dean of Norwich.

1730, Edward Franklin. Ditto.

The prior of Westacre had lands in this parish, valued at 101s. and 3d. per ann. In 1428, by an agreement between them, and the priory of Castleacre, sans date, exchanged them.

King Henry VIII. in his 36th year, granted to Thomas Broke and John Williams, lands, pastures, and sheep-walks, in West-Rainham, and Kypton, late belonging to Castleacre priory, in the tenure of Sir Roger Townsend; and in the said year, October 28th, he granted to Sir Thomas Wriothesly, and Jane his wife, messuages, lands, &c. late belonging to Westacre priory.

Rainham St. Martin, or South-Rainham.

William de Lek was rector in the time of John Grey, Bishop of Norwich, and was granted by Godfrey de Lisewis to his priory of Normansbergh, and appropriated thereto by the said Bishop, and confirmed by Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury; and after granted by Robert, prior of Castleacre, (Normansbergh being a cell to that house,) and Simon, prior of Normansbergh to Robert Lord Scales, in 1227, and given by him, at the request of his son, to the priory of Blackburgh, and appropriated to it, by Walter Bishop of Norwich, in 1257, and a vicarage appointed, valued at 40s. the rectory at 15 marks; Peterpence 10d. ob.

1325, Hugh, occurs vicar.

1326, John de Helmingham, presented by the prioress of Blackburgh.

1335, John Lefts. Ditto.

1350, Henry de Grafton, by the Bishop of Norwich.

1374, Simon Austin.

1382, Thomas Oxley, by the prioress.

1397, John de Leicester. Ditto.

1399, William Cocket. Ditto.

1400, John Lomnour. Ditto.

John de Gwillis, vicar.

1426, William Corby. Ditto.

1431, John Bulle. Ditto.

1441, John Whetele. Ditto.

1449, Thomas Nory. Ditto.

1458, Thomas Frarewell. Ditto.

On the dissolution of Blackburgh priory, the rectory, and advowson of the vicarage were granted May 5, Ao. 3° of Edward VI. to Sir Roger Townsend.

Soon after this it became a rectory again, and Henry Baldwin was rector. Edward Hampton, rector. Richard Ketwell, rector, and Elias Bate, rector, about 1635.

Mr. — Cushion died rector in 1740.

1740, Thomas Scot, rector, presented by Lord Townsend.

1742, William Miles. Ditto.

1748, Charles Allen. Ditto.

It is now a rectory, valued at 6l. and discharged.

In the church were formerly the lights of St. Martin, and of Cor pus Christi.

On the 3d of April Ao. 7°. of King Richard II. the prior and convent of Bynham demised for ever, in fee farm, to the prior and convent of Lewes, in Sussex, all the fruits and profits of their portions of tithes, in Reynham, Norton, Tofts, and Shireford, for the yearly pension of 24s. payable on the feast of St. Andrew.

King Edward VI. on July 1, Ao. 7°, granted to Thomas Spany, and John Baspoole, 30 acres and 10 roods of land, in East, West, and South Rainham, belonging to Thetford priory.


  • 1. Tre. Hugo. de Monteforti.— H. de Brodercros.—In Reineham, ten. Bond, T. R. E. ii. car. tre. sep. iiii. vill. et xiiii. bor. et iiii. ser. et in dnioii. car. et hou. i. car. silva ad cxx. por. vi. ac. pti. ii. mol. i. salin. sep. iii. r. et iiii. an. et vi. por. et c. ov. tc. ii. vas. apu. et xiiii. soc. dimid. car. tre. et xv. bor. sep. i. car. et dim. vii. ac. pti.— Huic maner. i. beruita Sutreincham de i. car tre tc. v. bor. mo. iiii. et ii. ser. sep. in dnio. i. car. tc. houm. i car. mo. d. v. ac. pti. i. mol. tc iii. r. sep. vi. por. —In Halgetuna i. soc. de dim. car. tre. tc. viii. bor. mo xii. sep. i. car. ii. ac. pti. tc. val. viii. lib. et p. lx. s. mo viii. lib. et x. sol. cum magna pena. et tota Soutreinaham, hab. vi qr. in long. et iii. in lat. et x. in gelt.—Lib. Domesday.
  • 2. Reg. Windham. Reg. Castleacre, p. 35, 109.
  • 3. See in Norman's priory.
  • 4. A proof that the estates of Lisewise came to Ingaldesthorp, in this manor, 5 by their being patrons of the priory of Crab-house, in Wigenhale, St. Mary Magd. which was founded by William de Lisewise: Sir Edmund de Ingaldesthorp, the last heir male of that family, died seized of it, 1456.
  • 5. On his death, in 1251, he was found to hold Colne of the inheritance of Isabel his wife, daughter of Hamon, Eschact. 36th Hen. III.
  • 6. Madox Hist. Exch. p. 445.—Lib. Remembr. Abbat. de Mark. penes Dom. Tho. Hare Bt.
  • 7. Escheator for Norfolk and Suffolk, in the 3d of Henry V.
  • 8. Regist. Perch in Cur. Prerog. Lond Regist. March. ditto.
  • 9. She is also said to have married Robert Horne, afterwards.
  • 10. Sir William Huddleston appears to be her husband in 1486.
  • 11. Vol. iv. p. 25.
  • 12. MSS. Prior de Norw. penes Edw. Themilthorp, Gent. de Norwich.—E Chart. Bass. Gawdy, Bt.
  • 13. Stowe's Survey of London.—Regist. Hurning, Norw. fol. 10.
  • 14. Regist Jekky, fol. 89. Reg. Lincoln, Norw. p. 55.
  • 15. Collins's Peerage, vol. iii. p. 26, &c.—Regist. Vacation. Episci. Norw. p. 118.—Blomfield, Hist. Norf. vol. vi. p. 242.
  • 16. Proceedings of the Court of Request, p. 82.
  • 17. Leland's Itin. p. Hearne, vol. iv. p. 12, in octavo.
  • 18. Reg. Wilkins, Norw. p. 56.
  • 19. Regist. Lincoln. p. 305.
  • 20. See Stow's Chron. p. 1276.
  • 21. Where he purchased of Thomas Sutton, Esq. an agreable house, &c. but Rainham was his seat.
  • 22. In 1603, April 9th, in a bond, he writes himself of Wivenhoe, in Essex.
  • 23. History of Sacrilege, p. 268.
  • 24. King George I. being his godfather.
  • 25. See in Middleton.
  • 26. Granted Feb. 1, Ao. 2°. Ric. III.
  • 27. H. de Brodercross. Terre Regis qna. Godric. servat,—Reineham qua. ten. Ulviet, T. R. E. ii. car. tre. sep. xi. bor. et ii. ser. tnc. ii. car. et p. et mo. i. tnc. houm. i. car. et p. d. et mo. simil. Silva ad x. por. iiii. ac. pti. i. mol. sep. i. r. et iii. an. et xiiii. por. et lxiii. ov. et i. beruita Helgetuna de dim. car. tre. sep. ii. bor. et dim. car. et i. ser. et i. mol. i. ac. pti. i. pisc. et i. salin. et i. r. et ii. animal. et xlii. ov. Jacent in hoc. man. xvi. soc. de i. car. tre. tnc. ii. car. et d. et p. ii. mo. ii. et vi. bor. Silva ad iiii. por. et ii. ac. pti. et in Helgetuna vi. soc. de dim. car. tre. sep. ii. bor. tnc. ii. car. p. d. mo. i. ii. ac. pti. tnc. val. xl. sol. mo. vi. lib. et Reinham ht. i. leu. in long. et iii. quar. in lat. et xx. d. in gelt. et Helgetuna ht. iiii. quar. in lon. et iii. lat. x. d. in gelt. —Lib. Domesd.
  • 28. Madox Formul. Anglic. p. 154.
  • 29. Of this family, see in Dunton.
  • 30. Lovell's Book of the Exchequer.— Claus. 37. Hen. III. Plita. Coron. 41. Hen. III.
  • 31. Plita. Coron.—Rot. Fin. in Turrj Lond.
  • 32. Plita. Term. Michael. 29 et 30 Ed. I. cor. Rege.—Eschaet.
  • 33. Rot. Fin. in Turrj Lond.—Eschaet.
  • 34. Rot. Franc. Rymer, vol. i. p. 201.
  • 35. Survey, edit. in 1720. b. 6. p. 15.
  • 36. Claus. 3. Hen. V.
  • 37. Bale's Script. Britan. fol. 68.— Baker's Chron. p. 219.
  • 38. Terra. Rogeri Bigoti.—H. de Brodercross.—In Remeham be fedoStigand. epi. ten. i. lib. ho. dim. car. tre. mo. tenet Eadvuinus. sep. iiii. ser. tc. i. car. mo. dim. ii. ac. pti. tc. val. x. sol. mo. v. sol. In Sutreinham. i. lib. ho. de xx. ac. tre. que. tenet. Aitard. et i. bor. sep. dim. car. i. pti. tc. val. v. sol. mo. iii. sol.
  • 39. Regist. Castleac. fol. 55.
  • 40. Plita. assis. Norwic. oct. Sci. Hillar. R. 50. Rot. 6. et 7.
  • 41. H. de Brodercross. Terre Rainaldi, filij Ivonis.—In Remeham, T. R. E. ten. Bond. iiii. lib. hoes. mo. tenet. Boteric. et Herold. i. mo. Renald. de dim. car. tre. sep. i. car. iii. ac. pti. tc. val. x. sol. mo. v. et hoen. Heroldi calupniatr. vicomes. in Fagenham, et hund. testatr.
  • 42. Regist. Eccles. Norw. 1. p. 71.
  • 43. Monast. Angl. v. 1. p. 636, &c.
  • 44. In Wigenhale St. Mary Magd.
  • 45. Regist. Castleacr. fol. 54.—Venabili. pri. et Dno. suo Johi. Dei gra. Norwic. epo. et archidiaconis et decanis et universis. scæ. matris ecclie filiis ta. psentibq; qua. futuris Godefr. de Lisewise salut.—Noverit. me dedisse et assensu Matildis uxoris, Willi. hered. mei, et oiu. libror. meor. Deo et Sce. Marie et Monach. de Acra cellam in fundo meo q. Wills. pater meus de Lisewise fundavit in loco, qui dicitur Normansberch. in honore Be. Dei Genetricis Marie, et Sci. Johis. Evangaliste in libam. et quieta. et ppetua. elmam. dedi, &c. quicqd. pr. meus, pus. ecclie. et canonicis. illius loci dedit, viz. lx acr tre. et x acr. qs. pr. meus eis accrevit, et tota. tram. de Middele, et tota. tram. de Franscheshoe. et tota. tram. q. jacet intr. crofta. Selive, et tram. Ric. de Boit in Suth-Reinham, et dim. acre. tre. que. jacet ja. Meteles, et hmetorium. de Wigehale. q. Johes. hemita. tenuit cum oib; ptinent. et tertiam partem cujusd. turbarie qu. Alfricus fil. Kideman. tenuit q. est juxta pdictu. hemetorium. Hæc oia. volo ut pdicti monachi teneant liberè, quitè, et paceficè, sine oi. exactione et consuetudine, et servitio sclari. in libam. et ppetua. elmam. p. salute meâ. et uxoris mee, et o u. libor. meor. et p. aiâ pris. mei Wi. de Lisewise, et p. aiab; oiu. antecessor. meor. et successor. pro hac donatione nichil mihi, vel heredib; meis retinui pter. orationes. qs. fuit. in monasterio de Acra, et orationes q. fuit. in pdicta. ecctia. Sti. Johs. de Normannesberg. Ita qd. monachi de Acra facient, ibi divina officia ppetuo. celebrari. per tres monachos ad minus, ad quor. susten. tationem ego accrevi, et dedi eis ecclia. de Suth Reinham cu. oib; ptinentiis. suis et ix. acr. tre. in Gerdel, et Rici. Bercarium fil. Scule cu. oi. seqlâ. suâ, et Johem. le Frere cu. totâ seqlâ. suâ, et totu tenementu. qd. de me tenet. Ft ego et heredes mei warrantizabimus eos contra regem et ones. hoeis. de omni servitio, et de oib; rebus. Hiis testib; Willo. priore de Lewes, Ric. Coleman, Alex. Natario poris. Ph. de Mortuomarii, sociis suis, Will. de Lechesham, Eust. clico. Joh. de Helet, Godef. de Helet, Seman Cook, Hamon, serviente comitis.
  • 46. Ro. de Dnab; pueris et puellis, 30 Ilen. I. in Sccio.
  • 47. Regist. Castleacr. fol. 54.
  • 48. Mon. Angl. vol. i. p. 637, &c.
  • 49. Regist. Alabastor. Norw. fol. 233.