An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 7. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1807.
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BUCKTON, or BOUGHTON,
Called Buchetuna in Domesday, from a winding water or rivulet, that divides it from Barton and Oxburgh, or from that large pond on the hill, in the centre of the town, and then consisted of two lordships, Over-Hall and Nether-Hall. Thus Buxton, or Buckston, in South Erpingham hundred, is wrote Buchestuna in Domesday Book; also Buckworth, and Buckbroke.
On Turchill's deprivation, this lordship was granted by the Conqueror to Rainald, son of Ivo; it consisted of a carucate, and 24 acres of land, 5 villains, 2 servi, 10 acres of meadow, and a carucate in demean, one runcus, 4 cows, &c. and 126 sheep; 5 socmen belonged to it, with 12 acres, and Ralph held it under Rainald; it was valued at 40s. at the survey at 62s. and 6d. All the town was 5 furlongs long, and four broad, and paid 8d. to a 20s. gelt. (fn. 1)
From Rainald, the capital lord, it came to the Earls of Clare; and, by inquisitions taken in the reign of King Henry III. Richard Fitz-Simon was found to hold the fourth part of a fee of the Earl of Clare; the said Richard had also a carucate of the King, paying 6 marks per ann. into the Exchequer. (fn. 2) This was the land of William Bygod, eschaeted to the King; which 6 marks seem to be granted afterwards to Miles de Brompton, who, with Beatrix his wife, in the 3d of Edward I. released all their right in the said land, and the rent of 6 marks per ann. aforesaid, to Richard.
After this, Roger, son of Hugh de Buckton, seems to be lord, who gave, by deed, sans date, to the abbey of West-Derham, lands in the field of Kyppehow, and the liberty of half a foldcourse here, as appears by his deed, sealed with a de-lis. (fn. 3)
In the 9th of Edward II. Thomas de Hindringham possessed it; and, in the 5th year of Edward III. Margaret de Hindringham gave by her deed, dated on Sunday before the feast of St. Catherine, to her sister Agnes, and her heirs, the reversion of this manor, which Nickolaa, relict of Sir Thomas de Hindringham, holds for life, they being sisters and coheirs to the said Sir Thomas. This Agnes was (as I conceive) the wife of John de Wyleby, or Wilbey, in the 17th of the said King. It appears, that a fine was then levied between John de Wylbegh, and Agnes his wife, querents, and John his son, Robert de Wylbegh, parson of Ketelburgh, and Alexander, parson of Horsham, deforcients, of this lordship; and, in the 20th of the said reign, John de Wilbey was found to hold the fourth part of a fee of the Earl of Gloucester and Clare, which Richard Fitz-Simon formerly held.
In the 35th of Edward III. William de Wilbey, second son of John, kept his court as lord, on Monday before the feast of St. Michael; and, in the 3d of Henry IV. John de Wilby occurs lord. After this, Richard Tooth of Werham, and Mary his wife, grant it to Roger Davy, and Alice his wife, and John Davy, Esq. his son, of Tofts, by Bircham; on his death, it descended to Margery, wife of Alexander Marshall, one of the daughters and heirs of Alice Charles, daughter and heir of John Davy; which Alexander and Margery held a court here, in the 27th of Henry VI. —. Her daughter and heir Elizabeth brought it by marriage to David Orrell, whose son, Sir Lewis Orrell, sold it to George Monox, Esq. citizen and alderman (afterwards Knt. and Lord Mayor) of London, who kept his court here, October 18, in the 18th of Henry VIII. as did Thomas Monox, Esq. in the 25th of the said King. After this it came to the Lovels, lords of Nether-Hall; and Sir Thomas Lovell of Herling sold it, in the 24th of Queen Elizabeth, to Francis Gawdy, Esq. serjeant at law, and afterwards lord chief justice of the Common Pleas, by the marriage of whose grand-daughter it came to Robert Rich Earl of Warwick. From this family it was sold, about the beginning of King Charles the First's reign, to Sir John Hare of Stow Bardolf, whose immediate heir and descendant, Sir Geo. Hare, Bart. was the late lord.
Ailed was lord of this manor in the Confessor's time, but at the survey, Ralph Baniard, a Norman baron. In Ailed's time, there was one carucate, 5 borderers, but Baniard had 7, one slave, one carucate in demesne, and one among the tenants; but at the survey, half a carucate, and 6 acres of meadow, &c. To this belonged a church, endowed with 20 acres, valued at 20d. the lordship was worth 40s. per ann. and 7 socmen belonged to it, who held lands, &c. valued at 10s. per ann. (fn. 4)
William Lord Baynard, rebelling against King Henry I. forfeited it, and that King gave it to Robert, a younger son of Richard FitzGilbert, ancestor to the Earls of Clare. From this Robert, the noble family of Fitz-Walter, Barons of the realm, descended. By the inquisitions, in the time of King Henry III. John de Aula (or Hall) was found to hold the fourth part of a fee of Robert, Lord Fitz-Walter; and in the said family it was, in the 3d of Edward I.
In the 21st of Edward III. John de Aula, son of Robert de Aula, gave to John de Well, citizen of Norwich, and John Hall, chaplain of Bukton, a messuage, with a croft, and all his lands, rents, reliefs, eschaests; but, in the 24th of that King, Sir Rober de Caston was lord, his bailiff giving in his accounts for it, on the feast of St Margaret. (fn. 5)
On the vigil of St. Bartholomew, in the 37th of said reign, Richar Fransham, rector of Aylmerston, kept his court as lord. Soon afte this, it was in the family of the Lovels of Barton Bendish. Thoma Lovell, Esq. by his last will, dated August 16, 1421, wills this manor, &c. to remain in his feoffees hands till his debts be paid, which descended to him from his father William. In this family it remained till Sir Thomas Lovell sold it to Gaudy, and so came after to the Hares; Sir George Hare being the late lord.
The lete was in Sir Geo. Hare, Bart lord of the hundred.
The Church is dedicated to All-Saints, and is an ancient building, built of flint and boulder; the nave is about 36 feet in length, and about 23 in breadth, covered with thatch; at the west end stands a four square tower of the aforesaid materials, embattled, with quoins &c. ornamented with 4 pinnacles of free stone; on this a spire of wood covered with lead: this tower was erected about the year 1416, when John Elvered, rector of Oxburgh, left, by will, 3s. 4d. to the new tower here, in which hang 3 bells. The chancel is in length about 25 feet, and in breadth about 16, covered with thatch, &c. and the communion table is railed in. On the top of the spire was a cross, which, in 1644, was taken down, and the churchwarden then paid 3s. 4d. on that account, and charged in his rates, as he did 6s. 8d. for one Gally's taking a view of the church, (fn. 6) and charged 2s. for going to Lynn to take the covenant.
Roger de Hingham, rector here in the reign of Henry III. gave considerable lands to the abbey of West Derham, with his body to be buried there. (fn. 7)
Philip de Brancoster occurs rector in the 23d of Edward I. (fn. 8)
1329, John de Brakkele, by the prior of Dunmow. (fn. 9)
1330, John Baas, on Brakkele's resignation. Ditto.
1349, William Mulcent. Ditto.
Robert Helm occurs rector in 1368. (fn. 10)
1404, John Smith. Ditto; he succeeded Helm, and was also rector of Linford.
1408, Robert Chapman, on the resignation of Smith; he was rector of Assewardy in Lincolnshire, and exchanged with Smith.
Robert Lecy, rector.
John occurs rector in 1427.
John Chelton, by the prior, &c. in 1441.
1447, Simon Tew, on Wickham's resination. Ditto.
1461, William Baskervyle, on Tew's death. Ditto.
1464, John Wenham, on Baskervyle's resignation. Ditto.
1467, John Stradset, a canon regular, collated by the Bishop of Norwich, by lapse.
1481, John Rawghton, decret. bacc. on Tassel's death.
1483, William Byshop, on Rawghton's resignation.
1490, Henry Botheby, on Byshop's resignation, by John, prior of Dunmow; vicar also of Stow Bardolf.
John Ratcliff, rector also of Attleburgh 3d part. He died 1524.
1530, Robert Martyn, on the resignation of Alexander, by Brytton, L. L. D. he paid Alexander a pension of 10l. per annum for life
1544, Roger Forman, on Martyn's resignation, by Robert Huntley. —Forman was the last abbot of West Derham.
1548, Robert Halman, on Forman's death, by Henry Ratcliff Earl of Sussex, who, on the dissolution of Dunmow priory, obtained the advowson of the King. He was also rector of Colneston; and in 1553, was deprived, being a married priest. (fn. 11)
1554, John Lane, by the Earl of Sussex.
1560, John Toller, on the death of Lane; (fn. 12) rector also of St. Mary in the Marsh at Norwich, and petty canon in the cathedral. In 1563, presented to the rectory of Spixworth in Norfolk.
1574, Thomas Carre, on Toller's death, by John Flower, A. B. hâc vice.
1589, Elias Commeliche.—In his answer to King James's quæries in 1603, he says, there were 60 communicants here; that he held the vicarage of Stradset with this rectory, being A. B.
1612, Alexander Ames, A. B. on the death of the last rector, by Richard Swan, hâc vice.
1617, Thomas Winter, A. B. on the resignation of the last rector, by John Winter, hâc vice.
1645, James Bradley, A.M. on Winter's death, by Ralph Eltonhead, Esq.
1677, Henry Meriton, A. M. on Bradley's death, by Sir John Marsham, Bart. and Matthew Pinder, Esq. rector also of Oxburgh.
1683, Henry Meriton, junior, A. M. on the resignation of Henry Meriton, senior, by Matthew Clerk, trustee of Henry Meriton, who purchased the advowson of—Dashwood, Esq. he was afterwards rector of Lutterworth and Pratling Parva, in Leicestershire.
1687, John Meriton, A. M. on the resignation of Henry Meriton, junior, by H. Meriton, senior, rector of Oxburgh.
1717, Charles Parkin, A. M. on the death of Meriton, by Mrs. Mary Meriton, rector also of Oxburgh.
This is a rectory, valued in the King's Books at 10l. per annum, and being in clear value, 49l. is discharged of first fruits.
Gilbert Earl of Clare confirmed the gift of Richard Fitz-Simon of two parts of the tithe of his demense land here to Stoke juxta Clare, and 5s. rent per annum. (fn. 13)
The spiritualities of the priory of Dunmow were valued at 20s. a portion of tithe given that house, probably on its foundation, by the Lord Baynard.
The temporalities of the prior of Shouldham, in 1428, were valued at 3l. 10s, per annum; most of this came to the Bedingfields, with the grant of the manor of Cavenham in Werham, by King Henry VIII. the prior's manor there extended into this town,
The abbot of Derham's temporalities at 3l. 4s. 8d. in 1428. This was land of the fee of Winwaloe priory, and held by the Lovels of Barton, of the abbot.
The spiritualities of Westminster abbey at 20s.
The tenths were 4l.—Deducted 13s. 4d. on account of the lands held by the religious, and charged to them.