A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1924.
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Lamburn (ix cent.); Lamborne (xi cent.).
This parish, which is in the extreme west of the county, included in 1831 the township of Chipping Lambourn and the tithings of Eastbury with Bockhampton, Hadley with Blagrave, and Uplambourn. Hadley with Blagrave became in 1837 the ecclesiastical parish of Woodlands St. Mary, and since 1867 Eastbury has been a district chapelry and civil parish. (fn. 1) The ancient parish covered 14,880 acres of high down land, broken only by the valley of the Lambourn running south-east across it. In the valley and in the centre of the parish is the town of Lambourn. Uplambourn lies to the north-west, at the source of the stream, and Eastbury, the third village, is lower down the valley. Till the opening of the Lambourn Valley railway in 1898 this was a very lonely and secluded part of the county. The roads which meet at Lambourn are not important highways, and its market seems to have had no time of great prosperity. The principal industry at the present day is the training of racehorses.
Two ancient roads run through the parishthe Ridgeway, 4 miles north of the valley, and Ermine Street, 2 miles to the south. There is evidence of the Roman occupation of the site (fn. 2) and of the existence of an Anglo-Saxon town. (fn. 3) In a charter of about 1030 Chipping Lambourn is mentioned as the 'byri haeme tune,' the other hamlets appearing as 'up haeme tune' (Uplambourn), 'east byri,' and 'bok ham tune.' (fn. 4) The 'byri' suggests that Lambourn was a place of some importance. Probably its market was already in existence, though it is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey. A fair on St. Matthew's Day (21 September) was granted to Fulk Fitz Warin in 1227, (fn. 5) and the name 'Chepyng Lambourn' shows that the market was then established. Land here was held by burgage tenure in the late 12th century, (fn. 6) but though the tenure continues till the middle of the 15th (fn. 7) there are no other signs of an incipient borough. The market was held jointly by the lords of the manor of Chipping Lambourn. (fn. 8) It was still in existence in 1361, (fn. 9) but must have decayed during the next hundred years, for in 1446 a new market on Friday and two fairs on the vigils, feasts and morrows of St. Clement and St. Philip and St. James (23 November and 1 May) were granted to the Dean of St. Paul's. (fn. 10) There is a market cross still standing in the centre of the town which was probably raised at this time; it was restored in 1899. In 1669 a new market on Tuesday, and a fair on the Monday in Whit week were granted to the Earl of Craven, lord of the manor. (fn. 11) The Friday market lasted well into the 19th century, (fn. 12) but finally 'dwindled to a weekly meeting of two old farmers at the "George,"' (fn. 13) and became extinct about 1874. (fn. 14) Fairs are still held for sheep, cattle and horses on 2 October and 4 December.
The town is in form only a large village with its church in the centre, the churchyard being entered from the market-place through a modern lych-gate. The vicarage on the south side of the churchyard is a large gabled red brick building of 17th-century date. On the north side are the Isbury or Estbury Almshouses founded in 1501, but rebuilt in 1852. They are of red brick with embattled entrance-tower and a small cloistered courtyard. The founder, John Estbury, endowed an almshouse for ten poor people and a priest to teach a free grammar school there. (fn. 15) At the dissolution of chantries the school disappeared, but the hospital was refounded by an Act of 1589. (fn. 16) Also adjoining the churchyard are the Place Almshouses, founded at a rather earlier date by the Roger family, (fn. 17) refounded by Jacob Hardrett in 1625, (fn. 18) and rebuilt in 1827 by the Rev. Henry Hippisley. (fn. 19) They have been known in turn as Roger's, Essex', Hardrett's and the Place Almshouses, most of the patrons being owners of Lambourn Place. The Place adjoins the almshouses and the church, its small park extending northwards. The present building in the Elizabethan style dates from 1843, but replaced a house which was probably identical with the capital messuage called 'Roggers manor' in 1489. (fn. 20) It was called the Place House in 1640. (fn. 21)
The manor of Uplambourn had two capital messuages in 1273. (fn. 22) In 1419 there was a small hall with a chapel and farm buildings. (fn. 23) The 'manor house' of Uplambourn was sold to William Wilmot in 1609 and still existed in 1764. (fn. 24) The capital messuage of East Bockhampton, mentioned in 1300 and 1328, (fn. 25) survived till 1691 at least. (fn. 26) At the present day East and West Bockhampton consist only of three farms on the banks of the stream between Lambourn and Eastbury.
Eastbury, like Lambourn, has its cross in the centre of the village. In the 16th century it was stated that 'on Wednesday in the procession week the procession of Esbery goes to Gombelton Cross and meets Lamborne procession and then both come to Esbery chapel. . . . Then Esbery goes with them in to the Wodlond on Holy Thursday and the procession of Esbery goes to Wodebery Crosse and there tarries for Lamborne's procession.' (fn. 27) Of these other two crosses, both apparently in the parish, nothing is known. The 'Wodlond' is the south part of the parish, known from the 16th century onwards more often as Lambourn Woodlands than as Hadley and Blagrave. There is still a Hadley Farm in the south-west corner. The name Blagrave does not seem to have survived. In the extreme south is Inholmes, for centuries the seat of the Seymour family. It is now the residence of Mr. H. C. Gooch, who built the present house in 19057. Lye Farm, also in the Woodlands, belonged in the 17th century to the family of Loveden. (fn. 28)
When Leland visited Lambourn he saw a 'greate warren of conies longginge unto Mastar Estesex.' (fn. 29) This was probably Farncombe Down, to the west of Chipping Lambourn, where William Essex had a warren in 1613. (fn. 30) The 'windmill in South West Field,' which with this warren belonged subsequently to the owners of the Place, (fn. 31) was presumably on the site of Windmill Farm, between Farncombe and the town. Uplambourn had a windmill in 1273, (fn. 32) and all the villages on the stream had water-mills at various dates. (fn. 33)
There are Wesleyan Methodist chapels in Lambourn and Uplambourn, and Lambourn has a Primitive Methodist chapel also.
The earliest mention of LAMBOURN occurs in the will of King Alfred, (fn. 38) by which the vill was left with Wantage to his wife Ealswith. It subsequently reverted to the Crown, (fn. 39) and was royal demesne in 1086. The assessment of 20 hides (fn. 40) seems to have included the whole parish except for Bockhampton and a fee in Uplambourn.
Before 1155 a large holding in CHIPPING LAMBOURN was granted to Joce de Dinan, (fn. 41) formerly castellan of Ludlow Castle. (fn. 42) He must have been dead in 1166, when the Crown received the revenues of his lands. (fn. 43) Joce had two daughters and co-heirs, Sibyl and Hawise, of whom the former married Hugh Plukenet. (fn. 44) In 1166 Hugh was holding a part of the lands of Joce de Dinan in Lambourn (fn. 45) subsequently known as the manor of PLUKENETS. Hugh was dead in 1202 (fn. 46); his widow lived till 1212. (fn. 47) Her son and heir was Joce Plukenet, who in the latter year paid relief for half of Lambourn. (fn. 48) In 1229 the king took homage of William Plukenet, son and heir of Joce, for his father's lands, Joce retaining a life interest. (fn. 49) William died in or about 1257, leaving a son and heir Joce, who died in the king's wardship without issue. (fn. 50) Henry brother of Joce did homage for his father's lands in 1266. (fn. 51) He seems to have died immediately afterwards, for the wardship of the lands and heir of William Plukenet was granted to Hugh Plukenet in 1267. (fn. 52) This heir was probably William Plukenet, who was in possession in 1276. (fn. 53) He or a succeeding William died in 1311, leaving a son and heir William, aged fourteen, (fn. 54) who proved his age in 1319 (fn. 55) and died in 1361. (fn. 56) His daughter and heir Elizabeth was then the wife of Richard Lylling. (fn. 57) In 1367 Richard and Elizabeth settled the manor on themselves for life with remainder to John Duke of Lancaster and Blanche his wife and the heirs of the duke. (fn. 58) The duke had a grant of free warren here in the same year, (fn. 59) and the manor remained part of the duchy till 1543, (fn. 60) when it was granted in fee to William Essex and his son Thomas. (fn. 61) Thomas succeeded his father in 1548, (fn. 62) and was himself succeeded in 1558 by his son Thomas. (fn. 63) The latter died in 1575, and his son Thomas inherited the manor. (fn. 64) His son and heir William, (fn. 65) who was created a baronet in 1611, (fn. 66) conveyed his manors in this parish to feoffees for sale. (fn. 67) A considerable amount of land in all of them was sold in small parcels during the next few years, (fn. 68) but the manorial rights were retained till 1620. Sir William Essex and his son (fn. 69) William then conveyed them to Jacob Hardrett, (fn. 70) who six years later alienated the manor of Lambourn to William Craven, (fn. 71) created Lord Craven in 16267 (fn. 72) and Viscount Craven and Earl of Craven in 16645. (fn. 73) It has since followed the descent of Hampstead Marshall (fn. 74) (q.v.), and is now in the possession of the present Earl of Craven.
The second half of Joce de Dinan's land, subsequently known as GRANDISONS, did not come into the possession of Hawise de Dinan and her husband Fulk Fitz Warin till 1190, when Fulk paid 100 for his wife's share. (fn. 75) He was dead in 1198 (fn. 76) and Hawise was dead in 1220, her son Fulk being her heir. (fn. 77) A daughter of this Fulk or of his successor (fn. 78) married John Tregoz, (fn. 79) and had her father's land in Lambourn as her dower, the Fitz Warins retaining an overlordship. (fn. 80) John Tregoz had a manor in Lambourn in 1272, (fn. 81) and in 1284 claimed part of the hundred in right of his wife Mabel. (fn. 82) In 1285 he and Mabel granted their land here to their daughter (fn. 83) Sibyl and her husband William de Grandison and their heirs. (fn. 84) William de Grandison was the tenant in 1316 (fn. 85) and died about 1335, leaving a son and heir Peter. (fn. 86) The manor was settled by Peter de Grandison on his nephew Thomas, who had seisin on his uncle's death in 1358. (fn. 87) Thomas granted it to John Pecche, who in 1369 conveyed his interest to Sir Nicholas de Tamworth and others apparently for sale to John de Estbury senior and John de Estbury junior. (fn. 88) The grant was subsequently (fn. 89) declared invalid on account of the settlement on Sibyl de Grandison, and on the death of Thomas in 1375 the representatives of his aunts, Mabel, Agnes and Katharine, became his heirs. (fn. 90) Mabel had four daughters and co-heirs, Alice who married Thomas Wake of Blisworth (Northants.), Katharine who married Robert de Todenham, Sibyl who in 1382 was represented by her grandson Roger Beauchamp, and Maud whose son and heir was Thomas de Fauconberg. (fn. 91) Agnes de Grandison had married a Northwode. Roger de Northwode, her great-grandson, had her interest in 1382. (fn. 92) Katharine de Grandison was the wife of William de Montagu Earl of Salisbury, and her heir was her son William. (fn. 93) Most of these shares came ultimately into the possession of the Essex family. Thomas Wake of Blisworth conveyed his twelfth to Thomas Marchaunt and Thomas his son in 1411. (fn. 94) Thomas Marchaunt was one of the tenants in 1428, (fn. 95) and his share appears to have passed with the manor of East Bockhampton (q.v.) to the family of Garrard. (fn. 96) Edward Garrard died in possession of one twelfth of the manor in 1530, his heir being a grandson Henry. (fn. 97) In 1575 Henry Garrard conveyed this estate to Thomas Essex, (fn. 98) and it subsequently followed the descent of Plukenets Manor.
Another share was acquired before 1375 by John de Estbury of Eastbury (fn. 99) (q.v.). It was held with Blagrave in 1428 by Margaret Estbury, (fn. 100) and descending with that manor was conveyed in 1510 to William Essex by Oliver Hyde and others. (fn. 101)
Katharine de Todenham died in possession of her part in 1383, leaving a son and heir Sir John. (fn. 102) This and other shares seem to have been bought up by the family of Cleet, who had held land here since the reign of Edward II. (fn. 103) In 1415 Richard Abberbury and Alice his wife, daughter and heir of John Cleet, (fn. 104) granted 53s. 5d. rent from thirty messuages in Chipping Lambourn to John Sybford for life. (fn. 105) In 1428 William Danvers, son of Alice by her first husband Edmund Danvers, (fn. 106) conveyed the Cleets' estate in Chipping Lambourn, Uplambourn and Bockhampton to John Barnard and Margaret his wife. (fn. 107) John Barnard appears as a tenant in the manor of Grandisons in the same year. (fn. 108) Ten years later he joined with Ralph Grey and Elizabeth his wife in conveying his lands here to John Roger of Benham, (fn. 109) who acquired in 1440 seven messuages, two tofts and 44 acres from Robert Huchyns and Margaret his wife. (fn. 110) John Roger's estate, which was called Rogers Manor in 1489, was brought into the Essex family by the marriage of his great-granddaughter Elizabeth to William Essex. (fn. 111)
The share of the Earls of Salisbury in Grandisons was inherited by John Earl of Salisbury in 1397 (fn. 112) and was held by his son Thomas in 1428. (fn. 113) It was in the hands of feoffees in 1433, (fn. 114) and was probably bought up like the others by the Rogers or the Essex family.
On the sale of the estates of William Essex in the early 17th century (fn. 115) Place House, the manor-house of Grandisons Manor, with a considerable amount of land, was bought by Edward Goddard. (fn. 116) It was purchased from him by Richard Organ, (fn. 117) whose father (fn. 118) John Organ had bought land in Uplambourn from the trustees of Essex. (fn. 119) Richard's heir in 1638 was his brother John, (fn. 120) who in 1640 was succeeded under a settlement by his nephew Richard Hippisley, son of his sister Elizabeth. (fn. 121) John son and heir of Richard (fn. 122) died in 1722, (fn. 123) his son John having predeceased him. (fn. 124) Organ Hippisley, son of the latter, was his heir. (fn. 125) He died in 1735, and his son John, a child, in the next year. (fn. 126) John brother and heir of Organ (fn. 127) left no issue, (fn. 128) and bequeathed his estates to his distant cousin, the Rev. John Hippisley of Stow, Gloucestershire. (fn. 129) The latter left them to his second surviving son the Rev. Henry Hippisley, (fn. 130) who died in 1838 (fn. 131) and was succeeded by his son Henry. Beatrix, daughter of the younger Henry, (fn. 132) married Charles Grove Edwards, whose trustees are now in possession of the Place House Estate.
The glebe land attached to the church of Lambourn developed into the manor of LAMBOURN DEANERY. It belonged to the Deans of St. Paul's (fn. 133) till 1800, when Dean Tomline sold it to Edward Withers of Newbury. (fn. 134) In 1824 it belonged to Hannah Clark, John Withers Clark, Hannah Withers Clark, Mary Ann Clark and Eliza Clark. (fn. 135) On the death in 1847 of Hannah Clark, who was a niece of Edward Withers, the lands and tithes were vested by a judgement of the court of Chancery as to onehalf in her grandchildren, the sons and daughters of the Rev. Robert Vaughan Hughes and Mary Ann his wife (formerly Clark), as to one-fourth in Messrs. Thomas Baverstock Merriman and William Clark Merriman, and as to the remaining fourth in Mrs. Vaughan Hughes for life under her marriage settlement. In 1886 three-fourths of the tithes with the manorial rights were sold to Mr. Henry Parry Gilbey, by whose executors they were sold in 1909 to Mr. Savill, the present owner. The remaining fourth still belongs to the Vaughan Hughes family. The glebe is vested as to three-fourths in the Vaughan Hughes family, and as to one-fourth in Messrs. Edward Baverstock Merriman and Robert William Merriman. (fn. 136)
The chief fee in UPLAMBOURN, which must have formed part of the king's demesne in 1086, was granted out during the 12th century in two holdings which amalgamated in 1248. The first, which consisted of 10 librates, belonged in 1167 to Henry son of Riulf. (fn. 137) His son Henry was in possession in 1200. (fn. 138) In 1204 the land of Henry was granted to William Briwer, (fn. 139) who seems to have granted it to his son William. (fn. 140) The younger William was dead in 1233, and his fee in Uplambourn came into the custody of William Gernon. (fn. 141) Alice wife of Ralph Haringod, daughter of William de Percy, (fn. 142) and one of the co-heirs of William Briwer, (fn. 143) eventually succeeded, and with her husband granted her land here in 1248 to Henry de Bathe, (fn. 144) retaining an overlordship. (fn. 145)
The second holding had various tenants in the early 13th century. Oliver Plukenet seems to have had some right in it before 1196, (fn. 146) and in 1198 it belonged to Baldwin Earl of Albemarle. (fn. 147) Richard Walens was the tenant in 1202 (fn. 148) by grant of King John. (fn. 149) He made a lease of some of his land here, (fn. 150) but the whole of it was granted in 1229, after his death, first to Robert de St. John, (fn. 151) and then to John de Gyse. (fn. 152) John de Gyse, who was a tenant at the king's pleasure, was succeeded before 1242 by Hugh Plukenet. (fn. 153) In 1248 Hugh exchanged his holding here with Henry de Bathe for land in 'Amenel' (Ampney, Gloucestershire). (fn. 154)
Henry de Bathe, thus lord of the whole manor, had a grant of free warren in 1255. (fn. 155) His widow Aline, who married Nicholas de Yattendon, retained the manor for life by grant of her son John de Bathe, (fn. 156) who died in 1291, leaving a daughter and heir Joan married to John de Bohun. (fn. 157) Her son and heir John de Bohun had seisin of her lands in 1316. (fn. 158) In the next year the granted the part of the manor held in chief to Edmund de Bohun, (fn. 159) who must later have had a grant of the rest. Edmund was involved in the rebellion of 13212, but the manor was restored to him in 1324. (fn. 160) In 1330 he granted it to Edward de Bohun, retaining a life interest. (fn. 161) Humphrey Earl of Hereford, brother of Edward, inherited the reversion, and had seisin on Edmund's death in 1349. (fn. 162) His nephew Humphrey succeeded him in 1361, (fn. 163) and on Humphrey's death in 1373 his widow Joan held the manor in dower. (fn. 164) She died in 1419, (fn. 165) and Humphrey's lands were divided between Henry V and Anne Countess of Stafford as his grandchildren by his daughters Mary and Eleanor. (fn. 166) The manor fell to the king's share and was annexed to the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 167) The manorial rights have since followed the descent of Plukenets Manor. (fn. 168) The manor-house and demesne lands were, however, purchased from the trustees of William Essex in 1609 by William Wilmot of Wantage. (fn. 169) The 'manor' was in the possession of his grandson (fn. 170) William in 1665. (fn. 171) The latter, who died in 1684, (fn. 172) left his lands in default of male issue to William Daniel, to provide portions for William Daniel's daughters and then to pass to his cousin Thomas Garrard. (fn. 173) His widow Mary had a life tenancy, (fn. 174) and Thomas Garrard entered on her death in 1728. (fn. 175) The subsequent descent of the estate is uncertain.
Land in Uplambourn, assessed in 1086 at 2 hides 1 virgate, belonged to Hascoit Musard. (fn. 176) This fee, except for 1 hide granted by Robert Musard in 1233 to the Prior of the Hospital of St. John of Lechlade, (fn. 177) passed with Eastmanton (fn. 178) to the Achard family. It was held of them before 1291 by the lords of Uplambourn, (fn. 179) and followed the descent of the manor. (fn. 180)
Land in Lambourn was granted by various members of the Plukenet family and by Fulk Fitz Warin to the abbey of Stanley, Wiltshire. (fn. 181) In 1460 the abbot's lands in Chipping Lambourn and Uplambourn were mentioned. (fn. 182) They were granted as manors in 1537 to Sir Edward Baynton. (fn. 183) The priory of Lechlade acquired 2 virgates in Uplambourn in 1311. (fn. 184) Its lands here passed to Wallingford College. (fn. 185)
Land in BLAGRAVE (Blacgrave, xii cent.) was granted by Henry II to Ralph de Lanvalei, presumably the Ralph who held Eastbury (fn. 186) (q.v.). From 1190 to 1194 it was in the hands of Robert Burdon. (fn. 187) In 1196 it was restored to a Ralph de Lanvalei, but seems to have been successfully claimed against him in the next year by William the son of the first Ralph. (fn. 188) William, who was holding Blagrave about 1210, (fn. 189) must have died shortly afterwards, for the sheriff was ordered in 1215 to grant his lands here to Richard Walens, claimant in right of his wife, the daughter of Ralph de Lanvalei. (fn. 190) In spite of this order William's son William retained them, (fn. 191) and his daughter and heir Hawise and her husband John de Burgh (fn. 192) had an overlordship in about 1240. Meanwhile Geoffrey Arsic appears to have been enfeoffed as tenant in demesne. (fn. 193) He granted one-eighth of a knight's fee in Blagrave to John de Rivers in 1230 to hold of him. (fn. 194) The rights of the various tenants are subsequently a little difficult to understand. William le Breton and John de Rivers held a quarter of a knight's foe of John de Burgh about 1240, (fn. 195) the heir of Geoffrey Arsic presumably holding a mesne lordship. Reginald Arsic in 1256 granted to Henry de Bathe the homage and service of Henry de Sewelle. (fn. 196) Land in Blagrave 'put to farm' then appears among the possessions of the descendants of Henry de Bathe (fn. 197) till in 1331 Edmund de Bohun granted the manor to Richard de Rivers. (fn. 198) John son of Richard de Rivers granted it before 1348 to Henry Dale, (fn. 199) who appears to have conveyed it to John de Estbury. John de Estbury died in possession in 1374, (fn. 200) and a John de Estbury, 'junior,' perhaps a cousin, was in possession in 1387. (fn. 201) Margaret Estbury, who held the manor in 1428, (fn. 202) was apparently widow of the latter John. (fn. 203) The John Estbury who died in 1508 directed his feoffees to make estate of his land in the 'Woodlandes,' probably this manor, to John Dawnete in reversion after the death of his wife Elizabeth. (fn. 204) Shortly afterwards Blagrave was in the possession of Oliver Hyde and others, who in 1510 conveyed it to William Essex. (fn. 205) The manorial rights then followed the descent of the manor of Plukenets (fn. 206) (q.v.), the Earl of Craven being the present owner.
Most of the land in the tithing of Blagrave passed during the 16th and 17th centuries into the possession of the family of Seymour. William Seymour leased two tenements called Holt and Hellhouse in 1541 from the Fraternity of the Holy Cross at Abingdon, (fn. 207) to which they had been granted by Richard Shaill before 1480. (fn. 208) He was of INHOLMES which he had probably purchased from the Essex family, at his death in 1568. (fn. 209) His son Thomas Seymour of Hungerford purchased Holt and Hellhouse in 1555 from John Thynne and Thomas Throckmorton, to whom they had been granted on the dissolution of the brotherhood. (fn. 210) He leased them with Inholmes to his younger son Thomas in 157980. (fn. 211) His heir was Thomas, son of an elder son William. (fn. 212) The younger Thomas sold Inholmes and the rest of the property to his uncle Thomas in 1605. (fn. 213) The latter settled his estate on his heirs male by Katherine Digges, Anne Hilles, or Jane Hilles, with remainder to his second son Roger, and died in 1608. (fn. 214) Roger inherited Inholmes, (fn. 215) and must have purchased the manor-house of Blagrave, which had been sold in 1611 by the trustees of William Essex to Cicely Browne. (fn. 216) He was in possession of this property at his death in 1631, (fn. 217) and it probably descended with Inholmes. His heir was a son Thomas, aged three, who with his mother Anne barred the entail in 1652. (fn. 218) Thomas had several sons by his wife Jane Eyston, (fn. 219) but all were dead in 1711, when the heirs of Jane Eyston were her three daughters Anne, Frances and Jane. (fn. 220) They were also the heirs of Thomas, who died in about 1717. (fn. 221) The eldest, Anne, married Toby Richmond of Purton, Wiltshire, and had sons Toby, Seymour and Thomas, and a daughter Anne, who married Thomas Seymour of Uplambourn. (fn. 222) Frances Seymour married John Walford and had a son Thomas. (fn. 223) Jane Seymour remained a spinster, and granted her share of the estate to her nephew Seymour Richmond. (fn. 224) In 1719 (fn. 225) Inholmes was assigned half to Anne Richmond, who released it to her son Toby, (fn. 226) and half to Seymour Richmond. A new arrangement was made in 1720, (fn. 227) by which all the Berkshire lands of the Seymours became the property of Toby. He died in 1761, (fn. 228) and left his lands to his nephew Edmund Seymour, son of Anne Richmond and Thomas Seymour. (fn. 229) Edmund had a son John Richmond and daughters Alethea, Marianne, and Charlotte, founders of the church of Woodlands St. Mary. (fn. 230) John Richmond Seymour died in 1848, (fn. 231) and Inholmes was sold to Mr. Aldridge, whose son was the proprietor in 1894. (fn. 232) The property was bought in 1905 by Mr. H. C. Gooch.
EAST BOCKHAMPTON (Bochentone, xi cent.) must be identified with the 3 hides which were held by Edward of the king in 1086. (fn. 233) Here as at Alderbury, Wiltshire, Edward was followed by a family holding by the serjeanty of keeping the king's harriers. Walter de Hairez seems to have held this fee in 1130. (fn. 234) In the late 12th or early 13th century the tenant was Humphrey de Bockhampton, (fn. 235) who was succeeded by a son William. (fn. 236) Richard son of William son of Humphrey paid relief for his land here in 1222, (fn. 237) and was succeeded in the serjeanty by his brother Raer son of William. (fn. 238) The latter was still in possession in 1248, (fn. 239) and was succeeded by Ralph his son, (fn. 240) who took the name of Raer as a surname. (fn. 241) Ralph was dead in 1280. (fn. 242) His son and heir William (fn. 243) in 1300 enfeoffed John Tany of his holding, (fn. 244) the demesne of which had been reduced by numerous enfeoffments (fn. 245) to 4 oxgangs. John Tany's daughter and heir Ela married Richard de Pevensey, (fn. 246) and her father settled this holding on her in 1309. (fn. 247) Ela was dead in 1328, leaving a son Richard de Pevensey, (fn. 248) who granted East Bockhampton in 1331 to John son of Roger la Warre for life, with remainder to John's son John and Margaret his wife. (fn. 249) Their son John (fn. 250) died in 1358, leaving a brother and heir Roger, (fn. 251) whose son John (fn. 252) granted the holding in 1373 to John de Estbury the younger. (fn. 253) John de Estbury (fn. 254) settled it in 1386 on himself for life with remainder to Thomas Marchaunt, (fn. 255) who was in possession in 14012. (fn. 256) Thomas Marchaunt's daughter and heir Joan married William Pykemound, (fn. 257) and with him had a grant of East Bockhampton from the feoffees of Thomas in 1451. (fn. 258) They regranted it to Edward Langford, Thomas Fachell and Thomas Joynour, who were probably also trustees. (fn. 259) The manor is next mentioned as the possession of Agnes wife of Richard Garrard, who according to the traditional pedigree of Garrard was a daughter and heir of William Packman (Pykemound ?). (fn. 260) Agnes and her husband made a settlement in 1489 by which the manor passed to their son Edward Garrard and Eleanor his wife and Edward's heirs. (fn. 261) Edward Garrard was succeeded by his grandson Henry, (fn. 262) who in 1589 had licence to alienate his capital messuage here to Thomas Smalbone. (fn. 263) The John Smalbone whose lands in Bockhampton were sequestered in 1650 seems to have been the grandson of Thomas. (fn. 264) The manor was mortgaged for the payment of his debts, (fn. 265) and was apparently recovered by the Garrard family, for in 1766 Thomas Garrard conveyed it to Stephen Earl of Ilchester. (fn. 266) In 1796 it was in the possession of Richard Lord Holland of Foxley (Wilts.). (fn. 267) Its later history is uncertain.
A small amount of land in Bockhampton known as HOPPESHORTLAND (Hobbshardes, xvi cent.) was held of the Crown with East Bockhampton by serjeanty. The family of Hoppeshort was in possession in the reign of Henry II. (fn. 268) In 1210 Hubert Hoppeshort held with William de Bockhampton by serjeanty of keeping the harriers. (fn. 269) His son Ralph had seisin of his father's land in 1214, (fn. 270) and was succeeded in 1221 by his son Ralph. (fn. 271) The heirs of the latter were Isabel de Lente, Maud daughter of Gode and William son of Maud. (fn. 272) In 1284, however, the holding had returned to the family of Hoppeshort, and the tenure had been changed. William Hoppeshort then held by service of keeping six damsels for the king at the king's cost. (fn. 273) Before his death in about 1303 this service had been superseded by the duty of carrying the king's horn when he hunted in the hundred of Lambourn. (fn. 274) John Hoppeshort, son of William, (fn. 275) was succeeded about 1307 by his sister Alice, (fn. 276) who granted her land to William de Wanting and William his son before 1309. (fn. 277) William granted it in that year to Richard de Pevensey and his wife Ela, (fn. 278) who in her widowhood regranted it to the younger William and Alice his wife. (fn. 279) Hoppeshortland belonged to John de Wanting at his death in 1349 (fn. 280) and then descended with the manor of Eastbury (q.v.) till the reign of Henry VI, when Richard Hankeford appears to have granted it to the co-feoffees of his grandfather William in return for a release of their claim on Eastbury. (fn. 281) In 1589 Hoppeshortland was alienated with East Bockhampton to Thomas Smalbone. (fn. 282)
In 1086 Ralph son of the earl held in WEST BOCKHAMPTON 3 hides all but a virgate which had been held of Edward the Confessor as three manors. (fn. 283) In the early 13th century this land was in the fee of the Bishop of London. (fn. 284) The bishop still held an overlordship in 1362, (fn. 285) but twenty years later it had passed to Sir John Cobham. (fn. 286)
The tenants in demesne were the family of Barry. In 1224 the custody of the son and heir of Ralph Barry was granted to the bishop. (fn. 287) Ralph Barry was in possession about 1280, (fn. 288) and in 1284 John Barry was sued by the bishop for his services. (fn. 289) In 1314 Thomas Barry (fn. 290) settled land here on himself for life with remainder to his son John. (fn. 291) John in 1320 granted a messuage and a mill with 2 carucates of land in Bockhampton to Henry Tyes and Margaret his wife for life, with reversion to Henry son of Warin de Lisle, nephew of Henry Tyes. (fn. 292) Henry Tyes, knight, who was presumably identical with Henry de Lisle, died in possession in 1361, his heir being Warin son and heir of his brother Gerard de Lisle. (fn. 293) Warin was lord of Kingston Lisle (q.v.), and West Bockhampton followed for some time the descent of that manor, (fn. 294) appearing as the manor of 'Berres' (fn. 295) in 1557 among the possessions of William Hyde of Dench worth. (fn. 296) In 1568 his grandson William Hyde (fn. 297) and Katherine his wife conveyed it to Thomas Blagrove, (fn. 298) whose daughters and co-heirs Joan and Elizabeth married Thomas Grove and Roger Garrard. (fn. 299) William Grove, son of Thomas and Joan, conveyed his moiety to Richard and John Organ for the use of their sister Joan wife of Thomas Stephens. (fn. 300) Joan's son and heir Thomas, a lunatic, who died in 1631, was succeeded by his cousin George Hippisley, (fn. 301) who was in possession in 1690. (fn. 302) John son of George (fn. 303) with Mary his wife, Hugh Brice and Margaret his wife, and Baldwin Malet, clerk, and Katherine his wife conveyed this moiety to Matthew Wymondsold in 1721. (fn. 304) Sarah Wymondsold, widow, was among the landowners of Bockhampton in 1778, when the manorial rights were already extinct. (fn. 305)
The second moiety of the manor was conveyed by Roger Garrard, jun., and others to Thomas Payne in 1626. (fn. 306) No evidence has been found as to its later history.
Land in Bockhampton which had been granted to the priory of St. Frideswide was released by the prior in the 13th century to Henry de Bathe. (fn. 307)
Part of EASTBURY, sometimes known as LE WYKE by Eastbury, was evidently the king's demesne in 1086. It was granted in the 12th century to Ralph de Lanvalei, but in 1164 had for some reason been taken into the king's hands. (fn. 308) It was restored to Ralph in 1173. (fn. 309) In 1194 William (?) de Lanvalei paid 15 marks to have seisin of his land in Lambourn as he had when the king started for Jerusalem, (fn. 310) and in 1209 Ralph de Lanvalei died in possession of Eastbury. (fn. 311) His heir, then the king's ward, was a daughter Maud, who married Richard Walens in 1211. (fn. 312) Her second husband was Gilbert de Mareys, who had seisin of Eastbury in 1231. (fn. 313) Ralph Walens, her son by Richard, succeeded her, (fn. 314) and died in or about 1250, (fn. 315) leaving two sisters Agnes and Juliana, children of his father and mother, and a third sister Agnes, daughter of his mother by her last husband. (fn. 316) The second Agnes died in 1252 without issue. (fn. 317) Her sister Agnes married first John de Mareys and afterwards Ralph Hadley, (fn. 318) and had by her first husband a son John and four daughters, ultimately her co-heirs. (fn. 319) Of these Joan married Simon le Bret and had a son Thomas; Amice married Thomas Grazenhoil; Anastasia married John de la Grave, and Agnes married William de Gomeledon. (fn. 320) The second sister Juliana Walens, wife of Geoffrey de Wrokeshale, also had a son and four daughters. The son Eustace died in her lifetime, and her four daughters inherited her moiety. The eldest, Joan, married John (fn. 321) de Cerne and had a son John; Rose, the second, married Richard de Brokenbergh and also had a son John. Anastasia had a son Henry by John de Haddon, and Margery married Geoffrey de Mohun. (fn. 322) The manor was thus divided into eight parts, most of which were gradually purchased by the Wanting family. In 1306 John de Cerne and John de Brokenbergh had licence to grant their shares to William de Wanting and Joan his wife. (fn. 323) At his death (1324) William held another share also, which must be that of Margery de Mohun. (fn. 324) His son and heir was John de Wanting, on whom with his wife Margaret 'the manor' of Eastbury was settled in 1325. (fn. 325) In 1332 he and his second wife Elizabeth had a grant from John de Blebury, clerk, of the shares of Thomas le Bret and Amice Grazenhoil and from Henry de Haddon of his own share. (fn. 326) In 1334 a settlement of the manor was made on John and Elizabeth and their issue with reversion to John de Winterbourn and his heirs. (fn. 327) John de Wanting died in 1349, leaving a widow Joan and a son William, who proved his age ten years later. (fn. 328) William's sister and heir at his death in 1360 was Joan, an idiot. (fn. 329) Her custody was granted to John de Estbury, (fn. 330) who in 1365 secured from her, on the pretext that she had recovered her sanity, a grant of three messuages, 3 virgates and 26s. 8d. rent. (fn. 331) He also leased four messuages and 4 virgates from Joan, the widow of John de Wanting. (fn. 332) In 1367 Joan de la Grave granted him the share of the manor which had belonged to her mother Anastasia. (fn. 333) Two years later Joan de Wanting the idiot made a further grant to John de Estbury (fn. 334) and in the same year he acquired from John atte Mulle and William Dawe and their wives Joan and Agnes, sisters and heirs of John de Gomeledon, (fn. 335) the share of the manor which had remained in that family. (fn. 336) At the death of John de Estbury in 1374 the entire holding of William de Wanting was entered among his lands, (fn. 337) though the grants of Joan de Wanting had just been disallowed on the ground of her lunacy. (fn. 338) His heir was his son John de Estbury, senior. (fn. 339) The heirs of Joan de Wanting, who died in 1392, were her cousins Joan and Agnes, daughters and heirs of Thomas de Winterbourn, and another cousin, Roger atte Green. (fn. 340) Roger granted 2 virgates in Eastbury to John de Estbury in 1393, (fn. 341) and in 1396 Thomas Goion and his wife Agnes, one of the daughters of Thomas de Winterbourn, released the manor to him. (fn. 342) John de Estbury died in 1406, when Ralph Arches, grandson of his sister Edith, was his heir. (fn. 343) Ralph conveyed the manor to William Hankeford and others in 1408. (fn. 344) William Hankeford was succeeded in 1423 by his grandson Richard, (fn. 345) who settled the manor on himself and his wife Anne. (fn. 346) The heir of Richard and Anne was their daughter Anne wife of Thomas Ormond, (fn. 347) who granted it to Fulk Bourchier, (fn. 348) lord of Wantage and son of her half-sister Thomasina, and Elizabeth his wife. Eastbury then followed Wantage (q.v.) in the Bourchier family (fn. 349) till 1540, when John Bourchier Earl of Bath mortgaged it to Christopher Aleyn, (fn. 350) who perhaps foreclosed. By 1547 the manor had passed into the possession of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset, who had a release from the Earl of Bath in 1549. (fn. 351) It was among his lands at his forfeiture in 15512, (fn. 352) and was granted to George Owen and William Marten, who in 1553 had licence to alienate it, half to John Clarke of Ardington and half to John Coxhead. (fn. 353) John Clarke died seised of his share in 1570, leaving it to his eldest son Henry, (fn. 354) who in 1579 had a grant of the other half from Henry and Oliver Coxhead. (fn. 355) Henry Clarke died in 1597 leaving a son and heir John, (fn. 356) who in 1615 settled Eastbury on himself and his wife Susan in fee tail with remainder to Edward Clarke, his kinsman, in tail-male. (fn. 357) Sir Edward Clarke, who was lord of Ardington, died holding the reversion in 1630, (fn. 358) and the two manors descended together till 1685. (fn. 359) In that year Eastbury was purchased from John Clarke by trustees under the will of Sir William Jones, ancestor of the Jones family of Ramsbury (Wilts.). (fn. 360) It has remained in the possession of his descendants, following the descent of East Garston (fn. 361) (q.v.). Sir Francis Burdett is the present lord.
A second holding, which seems to have represented Eastbury proper, was in the possession of Matthew de Moretain in 1086, when it was extended at 4 hides. (fn. 362) It appears to have belonged to Geoffrey le Moyne in 1163, and was subsequently held of his family. (fn. 363) This overlordship belonged in 1374 to William Hoo. (fn. 364) In the early 13th century Elias de Hinton held a carucate of land in Eastbury. (fn. 365) He seems to have had a son Henry, whose ultimate heirs were his four sisters. (fn. 366) Their shares were released to Richard de Hinton. (fn. 367) In about 1230 Henry de Hinton held three parts of a knight's fee of William le Moyne, (fn. 368) and in 1254 his son Henry was tenant here. (fn. 369) In 1305 John de Broughton and William de Hinton conveyed this fee to Thomas de Abberbury. (fn. 370) It was purchased before 1311 by William de Wanting (fn. 371) and was so united to the principal manor.
HADLEY appears in the 13th and 14th centuries in the possession of a family taking its name from the place. Reginald de Hadley had land there in 1276, (fn. 372) and a messuage and 2 carucates known as the manor of Hadley were settled on Robert de Hadley and Joan his wife with remainder to the issue of his son John in 1310. (fn. 373) Five years later John released his reversionary interest to his father, who in February 13467 granted the manor to another son Robert. Robert granted it in 1348 to John Bishop of Lincoln and Walter atte Bergh, against whom it was unsuccessfully claimed in 1352 by Thomas de Temese and Elizabeth, as representatives of John de Hadley's son John. (fn. 374) The manor of Hadley was held by John de Estbury in 1374 of Richard Lylling, (fn. 375) and it subsequently followed the descent of Blagrave. (fn. 376)
The church of ST. MICHAEL AND ALL ANGELS (fn. 377) consists of a chancel 38 ft. 6 in. by 18 ft. 9 in., north chapel 35 ft. by 15 ft. 6 in., south chapel 18 ft. 10 in. by 16 ft. 6 in., a small chapel to the south of it 17 ft. 10 in. by 10 ft., a central tower 16 ft. 9 in. square, north and south transepts each 29 ft. 6 in. by 18 ft. 6 in., nave 61 ft. 6 in. by 18 ft. 6 in., aisles 7 ft. 6 in. wide, and a south porch with chamber over 12 ft. 6 in. by 10 ft. 4 in. These measurements are all internal.
The tower and nave belong to a cruciform building of c. 1180, the transepts and chancel of which were rebuilt and extended in the 13th century. In the succeeding century chapels were erected in the angles of the chancel and transepts, north and south porches added, and new windows inserted in the south wall of the chancel, the west wall of the nave and the south wall of the south transept. Probably the side walls of both aisles were also rebuilt at this time on the old foundations and buttresses added, but the evidence of rebuilding on the north side is less clear than on the south, though the wall is thinned to the east of the westernmost buttress and the doorway is of 14thcentury date. The chapel on the south of the chancel, a re-founding by John de Estbury, appears to have replaced an older chantry of St. Mary. Towards the end of the 15th century (fn. 378) the chapel of St. Katharine was rebuilt and extended eastward, the upper stage of the tower added, a new low-pitched roof erected over the chancel and a new east window inserted. In 1502 the chapel of the Holy Trinity, founded by John de Estbury, was added in the angle of the south transept and St. Mary's chapel. The old north porch was rebuilt in brick in 16256 and the chancel was repaired in 1705. Six years after the repair of the chancel galleries were erected round the nave and the lower part of the arcade piers was cased in wood, while a flat plaster ceiling was constructed concealing the old timber roof. (fn. 379) In 184950 a restoration was carried out, when the galleries were pulled down and new roofs erected to the nave and transepts. St. Katharine's chapel, which had long been used for housing the parish fire-engine and was in a very ruinous condition, was rebuilt with the old materials and on the old lines and the roof of St. Mary's chapel was repaired and re-leaded. At the same time the nave piers and other features which had been mutilated when the galleries were erected were repaired in cement and the 17th-century north porch was pulled down. In 1861 the chancel was restored by Street, the pitch of the roof being raised and the 15th-century oak ceiling replaced by the present one of pine. A thorough restoration of the tower, which had long been in a bad condition, was carried out in 18912, the walls being generally strengthened by long bonding stones and grouting, the piers shored up and underpinned, the timber props which had been inserted in the 17th century removed, the arches partially reconstructed and a vaulted oak ceiling erected. The chancel and the chapel of the Holy Trinity were restored at the same time. The walling throughout the building is of flint rubble, plastered internally and rough-casted externally with the exception of the chapel of the Holy Trinity and the lower external stage of the tower, which are faced with ashlar. The chancel, nave and transepts have slated eaved roofs, but the other roofs are leaded and the chapels of St. Katharine and the Holy Trinity have embattled parapets.
The chancel has a 15th-century east window of five cinquefoiled lights with tracery. On either side is a short length of string-course marking the sill level of the 13th-century lancets. In the south wall is a 14th-century pointed window of four trefoiled lights; to the west of this is a built-up priest's doorway with a four-centred head. The sill of the window is brought down to form sedilia, and the piscina to the east of it has a trefoiled head with crocketed canopy, pinnacles and projecting bowl. The north side of the chancel is almost entirely occupied by a 15th-century arcade of two bays opening into the north chapel. The arches are four-centred and of two moulded orders and spring from a central pier and responds having engaged shafts with moulded capitals and bases. To the east of the arcade is a low recess at the floor level. On the south side the western half of the chancel opens to St. Mary's chapel by a wide pointed arch of two continuous wave-moulded orders. The chancel is separated from the side chapels by modern oak screens.
The arch to St. Mary's chapel extends further east than the face of the east wall of the chapel, which is splayed off to the angle of the respond. (fn. 380) In the east wall is a pointed window of three trefoiled lights, with interesecting tracery in the head, while on the west the chapel opens to the transept by a wide 14th-century arch of two orders, chamfered on the east side and moulded on the west. The outer chamfered order is continuous, while the outer order on the transept side is continued on the north to within 4 ft. of the ground, but stops at the springing on the south, where the inner order is carried on half-octagonal responds, the capitals of which are carved with grotesque human heads. In the hollow of the outer order on the same side is a remarkable series of carvings, including the ball flower, winged heads, fishes, and a couple of hounds chasing a hare accompanied by men blowing horns. The west face of the north respond has also a hollow moulding ornamented with four many-lobed flowers and two carved heads, one being that of a bishop. The roof of the chapel is old and of two bays, boarded on the underside.
On the south a wide early 16th-century arch opens into the chapel of the Holy Trinity, which is externally very much more elaborate in detail than the rest of the building. It has a high moulded plinth and buttresses of three stages taken up above the parapet as panelled and crocketed pinnacles, and a flat-pitched eastern gable. The east window is of four cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a straight-sided four-centred head, and on the south are two pointed three-light traceried windows, the hood moulds in one case terminating in shields. The string below the parapet has grotesque heads and the panelled ceiling is of oak crossed by moulded beams. At its west end the chapel opens to the transept by a pointed arch of a single hollow-chamfered order, the faces of the jambs having traceried panels. On the outside of the chapel, near the south-east angle, is a lead panel, probably from a rain-water head, bearing the initials and date, I.N. I.H. 1677.
St. Katharine's or the Essex chapel, though rebuilt, retains substantially all its original features. At its west end the chapel opens to the north transept by a 14th-century arch similar in detail to that on the south side of the chancel, the only remaining evidence of the earlier chapel on the same site. The east window is four-centred and of four lights with tracery, and there is a three-light window of similar type in the north wall, west of the doorway.
The four arches of the central tower are each of three pointed orders slightly chamfered with labels on both faces stopped by quirked and hollow-moulded imposts which are carried round the piers. The inner orders are carried by large keel-rolls (corbelled off about 9 ft. above the floor level on the east and west) and the two outer orders by filleted angle shafts. All have carved capitals, varying in design but generally with stiffleaved foliage, a small head being introduced in each. The greater number of the capitals and shafts are original, but a few have been restored.
Above the roof the tower is of two principal stories, the lower 12th-century stage, which is plain and massive and is of mingled flint and stone rubble with dressed quoins, contrasting with the wrought stone walls and more elaborate detail of the later bell-chamber. The lower stage is further divided by string-courses into three, but is without buttresses or windows except a small round-headed opening on the east side. The bell-chamber windows are of three transomed cinquefoiled lights with four-centred heads and vertical tracery. The hood moulds are continued along the wall, stopping against the buttresses, and the string below the embattled parapet is enriched with flowers and other carved ornaments. The buttresses are taken up above the parapet as octagonal turrets with embattled parapets and finials, and there is a vice in the south-east angle from the bell-chamber to the roof.
The north transept, now the organ chamber, has on the north a 15th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery and on the east an original lancet. The line of the old roof remains on the north side of the tower. The south transept has a 14th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights with geometrical tracery in the south wall, and to the east of it is a plain pointed piscina with projecting bowl, while high up in the west wall is a 15th-century square-headed window of two cinquefoiled lights. Part of the transept is used as a vestry. The arches between the transepts and the nave aisles, which are of original late 12th-century date, are pointed, and of a single order chamfered on the edge, with flat soffit and chamfered hood moulds. The original roofs of the transepts remained in 1849, that on the north being 'of plain open timber work of early character, with tie-beam and king post,' and the other similar, 'but not quite so good or so early.' (fn. 381)
The nave arcades are each of four bays, and have circular columns with moulded bases and scalloped and carved capitals and semicircular arches of two slightly chamfered orders, with chamfered labels on both faces. The west responds are of similar type, but on the east the arches spring from flat corbels with scalloped capitals. On the north side the responds and one of the piers have the ordinary scalloped capitals, but that of the first pier is fluted, while the capital of the second has foliage of an early type with volutes at the angles. On the south the first pier and west respond have capitals with enriched scalloping, and that of the middle pier is carved with in-turned foliage. The clearstory has seven round-headed windows on the south side and six on the north, all much restored. Originally there were two windows to each bay in either wall, but the two westernmost windows on either side were removed when the galleries were erected, and in the north-east bay there is only one opening. The late 12th-century west doorway has a semicircular arch of two moulded orders, the outer enriched with zigzag ornament, forming a lozenge pattern on the edge. The moulded label is stopped by long dragons' heads above the imposts and has a small head at the apex. The imposts are continued along the wall as strings and stop against the buttresses. Both orders spring from angle shafts with carved capitals and moulded bases, the outer shafts having also midbands. The 14th-century west window is of three cinquefoiled lights with geometrical tracery and label, and in the gable above is an original circular window moulded with the billet. On either side of the west window are portions of two 12th-century stringcourses, with the spring of the hood moulds of the original windows, and the flat western buttresses are of two stages. On either side of the doorway are traces of two smaller windows, now blocked, which were inserted when the galleries were erected.
The aisle walls were heightened when rebuilt, but all the windows on the south side are now modern; the modern round-headed west window is said to replace a 14th-century square-headed opening. The corresponding and similar window in the north aisle seems to be a restoration, but is probably not in its original position. (fn. 382) The other windows of this aisle are square-headed and of two cinquefoiled lights, the label of the westernmost ending in carved heads. The north doorway has a pointed arch of a single moulded order continued down the jambs in the form of attached angle shafts and a wave-moulded label. Above the doorway are the marks of the roof of the destroyed porch. 'A wretched imitation of Perpendicular work in plaster,' erected on the inner side in 1849, was removed in 1892, but its marks remain. The south doorway is pointed and of a single continuous chamfered order with label, and the porch has a modern slated eaved roof with diagonal angle buttresses of a single stage and smaller ones to the east and west walls. The gable has a moulded coping and an original octagonal chimney at the apex from the fireplace in the porch chamber. Access to the chamber was from the outside by a newel staircase in the north-west corner, but this was blocked in 1847 and an iron stair erected within the porch. The chamber is lighted by a square-headed window of three lights on the west and a slit on the east side, and there is also a square-headed window of two trefoiled lights to the nave.
The rood-loft stood in front of the western arch of the tower and supported an altar. The piscina remains high up in the wall at the south end, and two mortise holes in the soffit of the outer order of the eastern arches of the nave arcades apparently mark the position of the top rail. Access to the loft was from the east end of the north aisle by a newel stair in the outer wall, a half-arch being thrown across the aisle to carry the return steps in front of the arch to the transept. The doorway is now built up and the stairs have been used since 1850 for access to the ringing chamber direct from the outside, being connected with the tower by a stone gallery across the north-east angle of the nave at the level of the clearstory.
In the middle of the floor of the chapel of the Holy Trinity is the tomb of John Estbury, the founder, and the sills of the windows form seats for the brethren. The tomb is of grey marble with panelled sides and ends and moulded top. On each side are three shields of arms and there is one at each end, and on the top is a brass with his full-length figure in armour. From the mouth issues a scroll with the inscription, 'Pater Decelis Deus miserere nobis.' There are also the indents of seven smaller scrolls, three on each side and one at the bottom, together with those of a smaller figure near the top, and of three shields in the corners. The fourth shield and one below the small figure remain. Round the edge of the tomb is the following inscription, now somewhat imperfect: 'Hic jacet Estbury Armig' fundator istius nove capelle et cantarie et consan guenius et Heres is . . . . [predi hujus veteris capelle qui obiit] . . . . . viii. cui' ae ppicietur Deus Amen.' (fn. 383) Between the words are figures of various animals and birds, a hare chased by two dogs, an eagle, an owl, a raven, a dragon, a dog with a bone, a bird with a snake, a fish, &c. Some painted glass remained in the windows of the chapel at the beginning of the 19th century. (fn. 384)
In the floor of St. Mary's chapel is a brass with halffigures to John de Estbury (date of death 1372), (fn. 385) the founder of the chantry, and his son Thomas, the date of whose death is left blank. The inscription reads: 'Hic jacent John[an]es Estbury Armiger fundator cantarie S[an]c[t]e Marie isti' capelle qui obijt xxv die Anno di MCCC lxxij et Thomas fili' ejus Armiger Q1 obijt die mes a di MCCCC quor' aabz ppicietr ds Am.'
Near it on a blue-stone slab are two other mediaeval brasses without inscription, half-figures of a man and woman with hands in prayer, and below is an inscription of 17th-century date inserted from another tomb. The figures may be those of John Estbury (who died in 1438) and Agnes his wife. (fn. 386) The symbols of St. Matthew and St. Luke remain in the corners of the slab, but the others are gone. The inserted inscription is to Roger Garrard, who died in 1631, and Elizabeth his wife, and was removed from their marble monument on the south side of the chancel, which was demolished in 1849.
Near the south doorway is an old brass plate, fixed in its present position in 1891, inscribed: 'Of your cherryte pray for the sowle of Thomas Garard whyche departtyd in the yer of ower lorde A mccccc and xxx of howys sowlle Ihs have marcy.'
On the north chancel wall is a monument to Thomas Garrard, who died in 1583, and Agnes Blagrove, his first wife, who died in 1556, with their kneeling figures and those of their son and daughter, but the heads of both the male figures are broken off. The monument bears the Garrard arms, with helm, crest and mantling. Below, in the chancel floor, was formerly a blue-stone slab with full-length brasses, arms and inscription, to Thomas Garrard, who died in 1619, and Anne Tutt, his wife, 1610, but this has been moved to the south wall in front of the priest's doorway. (fn. 387)
The alabaster tomb of Sir Thomas Essex, who died in 1558, and his wife Margaret, second daughter of Lord Sandys, stands in its original position in the middle of St. Katharine's chapel. On it are their recumbent figures, the knight in his armour, with a surcoat of arms, his head resting on a crested helm. (fn. 388) There are four shields of arms on the sides of the tomb and three at each end, and the inscription is carved along the moulded edge. An inscribed 15thcentury brass plate to Johanna Tremayne, daughter of John Estbury, and one to Roger Seymour of Inholmes, 1631, have disappeared. (fn. 389)
The font is modern and replaces one of pseudoclassic design of the reign of Charles II. This latter, which found its way to a farm-house garden near Marlborough, was restored to the church about 1908 and now stands in St. Katharine's chapel set on an older base.
In St. Katharine's chapel is also an oak communion table with turned legs, dated 1633, and an old chest; in the chancel are two oak chairs dated 1636. The pulpit and other fittings are modern.
There is a ring of eight bells: the treble by James Wells of Aldbourne, undated; second, inscribed 'Henry Bagley made mee it is trw in the year of our Lord 1742'; third, 'Anno Domini 1639'; fourth, 'Anno Domini 1637'; fifth, recast in 1892 by Warner from a bell of 1804 by James Wells of Aldbourne; sixth and seventh, 'Anno Domini 1637'; tenor, 'Come when I cal to serve God all 1637.'
The plate consists of a silver-gilt chalice or ciborium without marks, a cup of 1587 inscribed on the foot 'P. Kissell, T. Hatchett Churchwardens,' a cover paten for the same inscribed 'Parish of Lambourne 1631,' a secular flagon inscribed, 'Given in 1701 by Mrs. Willmot Late wife of Sr William Willmot Esqr,' an almsdish or large plate given by the same, a breadholder of 17467, and a silver-gilt paten of 1881.
The registers begin in 1560. The first volume contains all entries down to 1635.
A church existed at Lambourn in about 1032, when a charter of King Cnut, then lord of the manor, defined its endowments. These included, besides tithes and church scot, one hide of land free from all exactions. (fn. 390) This summary was perhaps made on the occasion of the grant of the church by Cnut to the Dean of St. Paul's, (fn. 391) to whose maintenance it was appropriated. (fn. 392) In 1086 the church and its glebe were included in the account of the king's demesne, (fn. 393) but the deans of St. Paul's remained in possession till the early 19th century. A vicarage was ordained before 1316. (fn. 394) The last presentation by a dean of St. Paul's was made in 1832. (fn. 395) Four years later Berkshire was annexed to the bishopric of Oxford, (fn. 396) and the bishop secured the presentation to the living, (fn. 397) which still belongs to his successor.
At the end of the 12th century Hugh Plukenet and Sibyl his wife granted land in Lambourn to Gloucester Abbey for the purpose of finding a lamp in the chapel of the Blessed Mary at Lambourn. (fn. 398) This chapel was mentioned in 1291, but was apparently replaced in the 14th century by a new chapel built and endowed by John de Estbury. (fn. 399) In 1349 John de Holte, (fn. 400) and in 1363 John de Chetwood and Thomas Thorpe, (fn. 401) chaplains, added to the endowment of this chantry. The advowson of the chapel belonged to the heirs of the founder, and was conveyed with Eastbury Manor by Ralph Arches to William Hankeford and his co-feoffees. (fn. 402) William Floyer, to whom the manor of Eastbury had been leased by Richard Hankeford, (fn. 403) presented in 1432. (fn. 404) Shortly afterwards, however, the advowson was secured by the junior branch of the Estbury family. (fn. 405) It was claimed against John Estbury in 1468 by the heirs of Richard Hankeford, (fn. 406) apparently without success, for Elizabeth Estbury, widow of a younger John, presented in 1512. (fn. 407) She also made the last presentation in 1534. (fn. 408) Part of the land of this chantry was sold in 1557 to Roger Yonge. (fn. 409) William Essex had lands late of the chantry of the Blessed Mary in 1613. (fn. 410)
The chantry of the Holy Trinity in Lambourn Church was founded by John Estbury in 1502 (fn. 411) in connexion with the Lambourn almshouses. (fn. 412) The advowson belonged to the Warden of New College, Oxford. (fn. 413) The chapel is still used by the almsmen, though the chantry was dissolved at the general dissolution of chantries. Its endowments were granted to Edward Wymarke in 1588. (fn. 414)
A priest in connexion with the Rogers Almshouses is mentioned in the will of John Roger and was maintained by his family. (fn. 415) The almsmen appear to have made use of St. Katharine's chapel in the same way as those of John Estbury's almshouse did of Holy Trinity chapel. Nevertheless, the chantry, which is not mentioned in the chantry certificates, was called St. Mary's, and not St. Katharine's. Its endowments were granted to Theophilus Adams and others in 1585. (fn. 416)
A chantry of St. John Baptist is once mentioned in 1349. (fn. 417)
Licence to build a domestic chapel at Uplambourn was granted in 1240 to Henry de Bathe. (fn. 418) The advowson belonged to the lords of Uplambourn, (fn. 419) and came to the Crown with that manor (q.v.). In 1503 the king granted it to the Abbot of St. Peter's, Westminster. (fn. 420) It was transferred to the dean and chapter in 1542, (fn. 421) and was surrendered to the Crown two years later. (fn. 422) In February 15867 Elizabeth granted the chapel, then in ruins, to Edward Wymarke. (fn. 423) A modern church of St. Luke, of which only the chancel is consecrated, was built at Uplambourn in 1868. It is a red brick building of the 13th-century style.
A chapel existed at Bockhampton between 1181 and 1200, when Philip de Windsor granted half a virgate of his demesne at Bockhampton, on condition that the chaplain of Lambourn should celebrate mass there. (fn. 424) It is not again mentioned.
The chapel of St. James at Eastbury is mentioned in the will of the John de Estbury who died in 1406. (fn. 425) There was a priest attached to it at that date, (fn. 426) and the inhabitants claimed in 1544 that he should be maintained at the cost of the vicar of Lambourn. (fn. 427) The vicar denied all obligation, stating that the custom had been for the incumbent to send his curate occasionally as a favour. (fn. 428) The chapel was described at the dissolution of chantries as a chapel of case, (fn. 429) and was granted to John Farneham and John Dodington in 1575. (fn. 430) The ruined chapel of St. James is mentioned in 1786. (fn. 431) A new church, with the same invocation, was consecrated in 1853. (fn. 432) It is a building of flint in the 13th-century style, consisting of chancel, nave with north aisle and small bell turret. The patronage belongs to the Bishop of Oxford.
A chapel of St. Mary at Lambourn Woodlands was built and endowed by the Misses Seymour in 1837. (fn. 433) It consists of a chancel, nave, north aisle and north-west bell turret, and is built in the style of the early 14th century. The advowson belonged to the founders and must have passed with Inholmes (q.v.) to the Aldridge family. The present patron is Major J. Aldridge.
Estbury's or Isbury's Almshouses for ten poor men, founded by John Estbury under Letters Patent dated 8 March 15001, are regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 24 March 1899. The trust properties consist of real estate as follows: The almshouse buildings and the Estbury Chapel; the Manor Farm of Goldhill in East Garston, containing 245 acres or thereabouts; 136 acres, known as Crane's Farm, also at East Garston; a farm-house and 48 acres at Seven Barrows; a house and garden at Lambourn; a house and two cottages in Hungerford; a house and land known as Wormstalls; a rent-charge of 3 9s. 4d. out of the manor of Eastbury and of 6s. 8d. out of a bake-house at Childrey. The income from real estate amounts to about 325 yearly. The personal estate consists of 7,978 17s. India 3 per cent. stock and of 6,283 4s. 7d. Metropolitan 3 per cent. stock, held by the official trustees, arising from sales of land from time to time and from investment of surplus income, and producing 427 17s. 4d. yearly. By the scheme the trustees are empowered to give 10s. a week to each almsman, to apply 104 yearly in pensions of 6s. a week, and to provide every third year the customary coat for each almsman, also to pay 52 a year for the support of the inmates of the Place Almshouses.
The Place or Hardrett's Almshouses.These almshouses, originally founded by the Roger family, were in existence in the reign of Edward IV. (fn. 434) In 1625 Jacob Hardrett by deed granted rent-charges amounting to 16 4s. yearly for the benefit of the almsmen; and in 1675 Thomas Pain, by his will, devised a rentcharge of 50s. yearly issuing out of Hadley Leaze, to be distributed to the almsmen. The trust properties now consist of the almshouses, a shed adjoining let for a fire-engine house at 2 12s. yearly; certain rent-charges issuing out of lands in Lambourn and Hadley, amounting together to 13 10s. 2d. yearly; and 81 2s. 3d. consols with the official trustees, representing the redemption in 1860 of two rentcharges of 2 2s. and 6s. 8d., now producing 2 0s. 4d. yearly. An annual payment of 52 is also made by the trustees of the Isbury almshouses. Each almsman receives 5s. a week.
The 'United Charities' are administered under a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 26 February 1892, comprising the charities of Thomas Gifford (will 1621), being an annuity of 2 15s. issuing out of a tenement known as Cleeve Coppice; Christiana Organ (will 1633), being a gift of 20 applied towards building a pest-house, now two cottages let at 5 5s. 6d. yearly; Richard Organ (will 1634), an annuity of 6 13s. 4d. issuing out of a close of land in Lambourn Woodlands; Samuel Dunch (will 1667), an annuity of 2 issuing out of an estate in the parish of Pusey; Thomas Pain (will 1675), an annuity of 2 10s. issuing out of a meadow called Great Hadley Leaze; Charles Fettiplace (will 1719), an annuity of 5 issuing out of Cakesbridge Farm in Asthall, Oxon; Organ Hippisley (will 1735), an annuity of 3 issuing out of Lambourn Place estate, which is applied towards the repairs of the public elementary schools. The charity of Thomas Pain is distributed at Midsummer and Christmas in shillings to twenty-five poor widows, the income of the remaining charities being apportioned among the three ecclesiastical districts in the parish, and applied in the distribution of articles in kind and in small sums of money.
In 1839 William Chowler, by his will proved 3 January of this year, bequeathed 500, the income to be applied in clothes and bedding. The legacy is now represented by 556 0s. 4d. consols with the official trustees, the annual dividends, amounting to 13 18s., being distributed in clothes among poor persons of sixty years of age and upwards.
The sexton's house and land consist of 2 a. 3r. in Folly Field, allotted in 1806 under an Act for inclosing Chipping Lambourn, in exchange for other land. The land and cottage are let by the sexton at 12 yearly.
Allotments for public purposes.Other allotments were made which are under the control of the council, the net rents of which are paid into the general district fund.
Charity of Thomas Bush.In 1848 Thomas Bush, by his will and a codicil thereto proved in the P.C.C., gave a sum of money for the purposes of a school then carried on in a room adjoining the Wesleyan chapel at Chipping Lambourn. The endowment now consists of a house and shop let at 30 yearly, trustees whereof were appointed by an indenture dated 20 July 1897. By an order of the Charity Commissioners of 12 April 1907 the trustees were authorized to apply the income, or so much as might be required, towards the maintenance of a week-day Wesleyan Methodist school or schools under the title of 'Thomas Bush's Educational Foundation.'
Tithing of Eastbury.In 1791 John Serjent, by his will, gave a messuage with gardens and orchards, and two rent-charges of 9 and 2, for the education of twenty-five poor children. The house having become ruinous, the present school was erected in 1860 on part of the land subject to the rent-charge of 9, whereby the said charge was reduced to 7 10s., which is now paid by the Newbury Brewery Company; the annuity of 2 is now paid by Sir Francis Burdett, the lord of the manor.
The Eastbury poor's furze.By an award dated 19 December 1776, made under the Act for the inclosure of Eastbury, 10 acres in the Sheep Down were allotted to the lord of the manor for raising furze or other fuel for the use of the poor. The land, being unsuitable, was, by an order of the Charity Commissioners, 25 April 1911, exchanged for 3 acres in Eastbury, being part of a field on Pound Farm.
The Wesleyan Methodist chapel comprised in an indenture of 21 April 1814 was by an order of the Charity Commissioners of 5 May 1896 vested in trustees thereby appointed on the trusts of the Skircoat Wesleyan chapel model deed, dated 3 July 1832. The trust premises include a cottage let at 4 yearly.
Ecclesiastical district of Woodlands St. Mary.St. Mary's Chapel was erected and furnished in 1837 at the cost of Alethea Seymour, Marianne Seymour and Charlotte Seymour, who also by deed of 2 September 1837 endowed the same with 2,833 6s. 8d. consols as a stipend for the vicar, also with 233 6s. 9d. consols for the clerk, and with 166 13s. 4d. consols as a repair fund. The first-mentioned sum of stock was in 1851 transferred to the Governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, and the clerk's fund and the repair fund are held by the official trustees.
The same donors, by indenture dated 24 July 1845, conveyed 11 acres at King's Heath and Blagrave and two cottages in augmentation of the benefice. The land is in the occupation of the vicar, the cottages being let at 8 13s. yearly. The dividend on the clerk's fund, amounting to 5 16s. 8d., is paid to the organist, there being no parish clerk.
The National school is endowed with a sum of 800 consols, being the gift by the same donors by deed of 13 February 1860, the annual dividends, amounting to 20, being paid to the school managers. The stock is held by the official trustees, who also hold a sum of 87 3s. 11d. consols, producing 2 3s. 4d. yearly, representing a gift of 80 for the poor by John Wright by deed of 28 February 1871.
The official trustees further hold a sum of 184 9s. 8d. India 3 per cent. stock, producing 5 10s. 8d. yearly, representing a legacy of 200 by will of Miss Sarah Eve Aldridge, proved at London 18 January 1898, the income to be expended on flannel to be sold at half-price to labourers at Christmas.
Tithing of Hadley.Platt Meadow charity: A meadow in Hadley, containing 3 a. 2 r. 28 p., is mentioned in the earliest records of the churchwardens of Lambourn as appropriated for the use of six poor men of Hadley. The land is let at 6 yearly, which is divided half-yearly among six aged men, who are appointed for life.