A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1924.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
In this section
EAST AND WEST LOCKINGE
Lakinge (ix cent.); Lachinges (xi cent.); Lokyng (xvi cent.).
Lockinge is one of several long and narrow parishes which run northwards from the Ilsley Downs into the Vale of the White Horse, and are formed in this shape that they may each have some of the different soils for use at various times of the year. It consisted in 1831 of four strips of land—West Lockinge, which adjoins Wantage parish, (fn. 1) East Lockinge, Betterton, and West Ginge. The last is separated from the rest of the parish by the parish of Ardington. The whole covered about 2,910 acres. The soil varies considerably at different levels. On the heights of the downs it is chalk, which is quarried and used for roads. There must have been quarries here in the 12th century, when the chalk of Lockinge was among the possessions of the kitchener of Abingdon Abbey. (fn. 2) Further north the subsoil consists of Upper Greensand, Gault, and in the lowest part of the parish some Kimmeridge Clay.
The whole of Lockinge and parts of the neighbouring parishes were turned by the late Lord Wantage into a large home farm, where various agricultural experiments have been successfully tried. The usual cereal crops are raised, the barley being especially good, and cattle are reared on the downs in large numbers.
East Lockinge is mainly a modern model village, built in 1860 by Lord Wantage, well laid out and planted with trees. The church stands in the park of Lockinge House, the residence of Lady Wantage, a large building incorporating a house built by Matthew Wymondsold about 1750 and fronting north. The old building has a centre with two side wings three stories high and is built of brick and stone. The rooms are panelled with good moulded cornices and the staircase is of mid-18th-century date. Across the hall is a fine oak screen of late 17th-century date formerly in the hall of one of the City companies. It has a central door, two side bays and a gallery with good turned balusters. The hall walls are fitted with Italian panelling and carved wood work. The house contains a large collection of pictures, including a fine Murillo. The old rectory was within the grounds, but in the late 18th century was pulled down by Mrs. Wymondsold (fn. 3) and rebuilt at the north end of the village street.
West Lockinge, which consists of one farm and a few cottages, lies a short distance to the west of the village street on a small brook. One of the cottages, a half-timbered building, bears the date 'MR 1666.' The farm is probably that 'new erected messuage' mentioned in 1770. (fn. 4) There is no trace of the tithe barn in West Lockinge which stood for many centuries and was the centre of many controversies. Geram de Curzon in the 12th century granted the tithes of 30 acres of his lordship here to the Abbot of Abingdon, as his ancestors had done, but afterwards refused to pay, and put the tithes into his own barn instead of the abbot's. He was recalled to his duty by the sacristan Richard, and gave up the tithes, 'breaking the bars of the barn with his own hand.' (fn. 5) After the Dissolution the tithe barn came with the tithes into the possession of the Aldworth family and later to the lords of the manor. (fn. 6)
Betterton House is a timber-framed building largely modern, for centuries the residence of the Collins family. Near it is a good ancient barn. 'Jegger's Hill, abutting upon Hickleton Meere,' and 'Barham's Headland, between Ardington Field and Locking Field,' are 17th century place-names in Betterton. (fn. 7) A small brook rising here flows through a deep wooded dell to Lockinge House and widens out into a lake in the grounds. The Domesday mill has long since disappeared.
The parish was inclosed in 1808. (fn. 8)
The fee afterwards called EAST LOCKINGE is first mentioned in 868, when Ethelswith, Queen of the Mercians, granted to her thegn Cuthwulf for 1,500s. 15 hides of land there which ultimately came into the possession of the abbey of Abingdon. (fn. 9) The monks' lands here were assessed at 6 hides 1 virgate in 1086, and they had also a mill worth 30d. (fn. 10) Lockinge remained in the possession of the abbey till the Dissolution, (fn. 11) and was one of the manors which were bound to provide messengers for the kitchener three times in the year. (fn. 12)
After the Dissolution the manor was in the hands of the king's bailiffs (fn. 13) till 1546, when it was sold by the Crown to John Winchcombe of Newbury. (fn. 14) He died in possession in 1557, (fn. 15) leaving a son and heir John. (fn. 16) The latter was succeeded in 1574 by his son Francis, (fn. 17) who sold East Lockinge in 1590 to Edward Keate. (fn. 18)
A settlement of 1617 secured the manor after Edward Keate's death to his younger son Francis and the heirs male of Francis, with reversion to the heirs male of his eldest son Edward and afterwards to his own right heirs. (fn. 19) Francis had a son Edward, (fn. 20) who had at his death only one daughter surviving, Anne, the wife of Edmund Wiseman. (fn. 21) As Edward son of Edward had died without issue, (fn. 22) Anne succeeded to the property. (fn. 23) Her only son died an infant in her lifetime, (fn. 24) and the manor reverted to the heirs of Frances, a sister of Edward and daughter of Francis Keate, who had married Joseph Prowse. (fn. 25) These heirs were five sisters, Anne, Elizabeth, Constance, Susan and Honor, the sisters of Francis Prowse and probably grandchildren of Frances and Joseph. (fn. 26) The eldest, Anne, was married to Robert Stone. (fn. 27) In 1718 the five co-heirs sold the manor to Matthew Wymondsold, (fn. 28) who settled here and built a manorhouse. He died in 1757 (fn. 29) and his sons Francis, William and Charles held the manor in succession. (fn. 30) The last of these left it on his death to his wife Sarah, who married as her second husband John Pollexfen Bastard. (fn. 31) He inherited the property under her will (fn. 32) and left it to his second wife with reversion to his nephew (fn. 33) Edmund Bastard, whose son Mr. E. R. P. Bastard was in possession in 1847. East Lockinge was sold by the latter in 1853 to Lord Overstone, (fn. 34) who gave the manor to his daughter on her marriage in 1858 to Colonel Loyd-Lindsay. (fn. 35) The latter was created Lord Wantage in 1885 (fn. 36) and died in 1901. Lady Wantage is still the owner of the estate.
WEST LOCKINGE belonged before the Conquest to Siward Barn, and passed with other lands of his to Henry de Ferrers. (fn. 37) It was held subsequently of the Ferrers' honour of Tutbury for a knight's fee. (fn. 38)
The tenant at the time of the Survey was a certain Hubert, who had an estate here of 10 hides (fn. 39) and was the ancestor of the family of Curzon. (fn. 40) His heir was a son Robert, who had two younger brothers Hubert and Stephen. (fn. 41) Geram de Curzon confirmed a charter to Abingdon Abbey in the time of Abbot Ingulf (1130–58), (fn. 42) and was succeeded by Stephen, who was in possession in 1166. (fn. 43) This or another Stephen was living in 1199. (fn. 44) In 1202 Aline widow of Stephen de Curzon claimed dower here from Geram de Curzon, (fn. 45) who was evidently lord of the manor at the time and was probably the son of Stephen. (fn. 46) He was living in 1211 (fn. 47) and was succeeded by Stephen. (fn. 48) West Lockinge then passed from father to son through several generations of Curzons all called Stephen. (fn. 49) The last of these was dead before 1351, when his son William was in possession of Lockinge; another son John succeeded to Fauld, in Hanbury (Staffs.). (fn. 50)
After the death of William and John de Curzon these manors devolved upon heiresses. (fn. 51) Half the manor of West Lockinge was in the hands of Richard Whysteler and Joan his wife, in right of Joan, in 1375. (fn. 52) Five years later they granted the whole manor to John de Lilebon and his wife Isabel for the life of Isabel, with remainder to John son of John de Rothwell. (fn. 53) It next appears in the hands of Edmund Sparsholt, (fn. 54) who demised it in 1405 to — Putton. (fn. 55) Shortly afterwards it was held by Thomas Chaucer, Robert Jeames, and others, (fn. 56) evidently feoffees of Edmund, who must have conveyed it before 1428 to John Golafre. (fn. 57) He granted it to William Fynderne, John Stowe and other feoffees, (fn. 58) who released it to Ralph Butler Lord Sudeley before 1444. (fn. 59) Two years later Ralph had a release of the manor from Robert Shyngle, who described himself as kinsman and heir of Alice, late daughter of Stephen de Curzon. (fn. 60)
In 1447 Ralph Butler conveyed West Lockinge to John Norris, (fn. 61) whose son and heir William granted it in 1475 to William York the elder and William York the younger (fn. 62) of Brians Manor in Wantage (q.v.). John York, son of William York, was in possession of the manor in 1506. (fn. 63) He had a son Thomas (fn. 64) who died without issue, (fn. 65) his heirs being his two sisters Elinor wife of Robert Hungerford, (fn. 66) and Jane, who married first Thomas Bodenham and afterwards Stephen Apharry. (fn. 67)
The manor descended in moieties for several generations. Robert Hungerford, son of Elinor, succeeded to one half and had a son Walter. (fn. 68) Walter's sons were George and John, (fn. 69) who in 1602 sold their moiety of the manor to Francis Moore of Fawley. (fn. 70) The other half was inherited by Jane Bodenham's son Roger, (fn. 71) and was left by him to Roger, his younger son. (fn. 72) The latter granted it in 1614 to Francis Moore, who thereby became lord of the whole manor. (fn. 73) It followed the descent of his manor of Fawley (fn. 74) (q.v.) till 1733, when Sir Richard Francis Moore left it to trustees for the payment of his debts and other purposes. (fn. 75) In 1750, these uses having been fulfilled, it was sold by them to George Prescott. (fn. 76) He sold it twenty years later to Sir John Reade, bart., of Shipton under Wychwood (co. Oxon.). (fn. 77) Sir John Chandos Reade was lord of the manor in 1808, (fn. 78) and it was held by the Dowager Lady Reade as her jointure in 1824. (fn. 79) This family must have sold it to Mr. J. T. Rice, who was in possession in 1869. Before 1883 it had been purchased by Lord Overstone, whose daughter Lady Wantage is the present owner.
WEST GINGE (Gainge, Gaeging, ix cent.; Gainz, xi cent.). Ten hides in Ginge were said to have been granted to Abingdon Abbey in the 7th century by Caedwalla, the grant being confirmed by Kenulf in 821, but both the charters produced in the monastic chronicle in support of the statement are forgeries. (fn. 80) The lands were said to have been subsequently seized by the Danes, (fn. 81) and regranted to the abbey by Edwy in 956 (fn. 82) and Edgar in 959, (fn. 83) but neither of the charters in question is above suspicion. The estate, however, was held by the abbey in the time of Edward the Confessor and remained among its possessions till 1538.
After the Dissolution West Ginge was granted with East Lockinge (q.v.) to John Winchcombe. (fn. 84) It was left by him to his younger son Thomas, (fn. 85) who sold it in 1571 to Edward Horton. (fn. 86) The latter died in possession in 1603, (fn. 87) leaving the manor to Edward son of his nephew Jeromy Horton, with reversion to Jeromy's younger son John. (fn. 88) Edward died without issue, (fn. 89) and John, as Sir John Horton of Elsdon, was in possession in 1611. (fn. 90) He sold West Ginge in that year to Benedict son of Thomas Winchcombe, (fn. 91) who some time before had attempted to dispute the validity of his father's sale to Edward Horton. (fn. 92) In 1623 Benedict Winchcombe died without issue. (fn. 93) His heir was his sister Mary, the widow of William Hall (fn. 94) of High Meadow, Gloucestershire. She was succeeded two years later by her son Benedict Hall, on whom the manor had been settled. (fn. 95) His son Henry Benedict and his grandson Benedict (fn. 96) inherited in turn. The latter had an only daughter and heiress Benedicta Maria Teresa, who married Thomas first Viscount Gage. (fn. 97) She and her husband sold West Ginge in 1720 to Matthew Wymondsold, (fn. 98) who had already purchased the manor of East Lockinge (q.v.). From that date the two followed the same descent.
BETTERTON (Bedretone, xi cent.; Westbaterton, xiii cent., generally West Betterton) was held in the reign of Edward the Confessor by Leuric the monk and belonged at the time of the Domesday Survey to Miles Crispin, who had here a mill worth 5s. (fn. 99) It passed with the rest of his estate on his death to his wife, the lady of Wallingford (q.v.), and in the 13th century is described as a fee of the honour of Wallingford. (fn. 100)
In 1207 Robert son of Amaury of Chesterton, who had several knights' fees in the honour, (fn. 101) sued Ilbert de Mascey, his tenant, for the service of a knight's fee due to him in Betterton. Ilbert recognized by fine that he owed the service. (fn. 102) Thomas de Mascey, the heir of Ilbert, granted the manor before 1244 to Poughley Priory, with the obligation to render the service of a knight's fee on the death or removal of each prior. (fn. 103)
The manor remained the property of Poughley Priory (fn. 104) till the dissolution of that house, when it was granted to Cardinal Wolsey. (fn. 105) On his attainder it was given to the Abbot and convent of Westminster, (fn. 106) and in 1542, after the general Dissolution, to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 107)
Till the middle of the 19th century the dean and chapter were owners of the manor. It was held on lease under them, as it had been under Poughley Priory, by the family of Collins, who lived here for four centuries. (fn. 108) In 1876 Ferdinando Collins purchased the freehold. (fn. 109) He held it till his death in 1889, when it was purchased by Lord Wantage. Lady Wantage is the present owner.
In the 16th century the Latton family was in possession of an estate in Lockinge called LATTONS. It included a capital messuage and various lands. (fn. 110) John Latton, who died about 1595, (fn. 111) was succeeded by William, who sold the estate to Richard Allen in 1600. (fn. 112) He conveyed it three years later to Francis Moore, (fn. 113) and it became attached to the manor of West Lockinge, which it followed in descent.
The church of ALL SAINTS consists of a chancel 28 ft. by 14 ft. 9 in., nave 34 ft. 6 in. by 16 ft. 6 in., and a west tower 11 ft. 3 in. by 12 ft. 3 in., all part of the old church. To these have been added a new chancel and nave to the south of the old with a south aisle and transept and north and south porches.
The nave was apparently built about the middle of the 12th century, but of this the north doorway is the only remaining detail. The chancel was rebuilt in the 13th century, probably with a south chapel, and a south aisle was added to the nave in the same century. The chancel arch was rebuilt in the 14th century and the west tower was added or rebuilt in 1564. In the 19th century the north nave wall was rebuilt and the south chapel and aisle were pulled down and a new church built on to the south, the old church forming a north aisle and chapel.
The chancel has a two-light east window, uncusped and probably of late 13th-century date. In the north wall are two square-headed 14th-century windows of two lights with chamfered rear arches. At the east end of the south wall is a square-headed piscina with a locker above it and further west a double sedile with pointed and chamfered arches; the western arch also forms a squint into the modern chancel. The arch to the former south chapel is pointed and of two chamfered orders, apparently of 13th-century date; the inner order rests on carved head corbels. Further west is a four-centred arch of the 15th century, perhaps erected for a monument. The 14th-century chancel arch is deeply moulded and has moulded responds with a continuous moulded capital carried round each. Flanking the arch on the east face are two cinquefoil-headed niches at the floor level with ogee labels; both impinge on the line of the side walls, which are cut away and corbelled back to admit them. The roof has three old tie-beams, but the boarding is modern.
On either side of the chancel arch towards the nave is a moulded corbel to support the rood beam. The north nave wall has been rebuilt, but incorporates at the east end an old window opening with modern mullions and tracery. The north doorway, of about 1150, is of two semicircular orders, the inner plain and the outer with deeply-cut embattled ornament and a moulded label enriched with billets; each jamb has a shaft with carved capitals and moulded abaci continued round the jamb. Further west is a twolight 15th-century window cut into by the later tower wall. The south arcade, opening into the modern nave, is of three bays with pointed arches and octagonal piers. It is almost entirely modern and was originally of 13th or early 14th-century date.
The west tower is three stages high, faced with ashlar and having three-stage diagonal buttresses at the western angles. On the north face, about half-way up, is a medallion dated ANNO 1564. The tower arch is four-centred and of two chamfered orders, the inner springing from modern corbels. The west window is of three square-headed lights under a four-centred head. The bell-chamber is lighted by windows of two square-headed lights with moulded labels, and the tower is finished with an embattled parapet.
The modern church is built in the style of the 14th century and has a south transept and aisle of four bays, the arcade being formed with five oak posts carrying a deep moulded beam. On the south of the sacrarium is a small round-headed window, of which the external stone-work is largely 12th-century work refixed.
The fittings include a massive cylindrical font, probably of the 12th century, slightly tapering towards the base and finished square, an old parish chest with a later lid dated 1756, and a Jacobean pulpit of semi-octagonal form with good carved arcaded panels and carved consoles to the cornice. The three fine brass candelabra in the new nave are foreign work of the 17th or 18th century. The north and south doorways are fitted with old oak doors and some much worn old tiles remain in the chancel. On the north wall of the old chancel is a Jacobean tablet to James Gerard, M.A. (1628), with Doric pilasters and a coat of arms. A plain tablet commemorates Edward Keate (1679), and a tablet to Millicent, late wife of John Grace, vicar of Aldworth, has a painted kneeling figure under an arch with a coat of arms, Gules a lion and an orle of cinquefoils or, for Grace, impaling Needham. In the nave are several tablets of the 18th and 19th centuries to the family of Collins of Betterton, and under the tower are two floor slabs to Thomas Upton, rector (1684), with the Upton arms, and to Christopher Minshull (1681), with his arms, Azure a star coming out of a crescent argent. Also under the tower is a brass to Mary daughter of Edward Needham (1628), with a figure and shield of the Needham arms; another in the chancel is to Edward Keate (1624) and Joan (Doe) his wife, with two small figures and a coat of arms. In the head of the northwest chancel window is a certain amount of old grisaille glass with a border.
There are four bells: the treble inscribed,' Praysed be thy name O Lorde that hast sent 1578 I. W.'; the second by W. Taylor of Oxford, 1852; the third inscribed, 'God be our spyd in our begynyng W. T.,' with a cross flory; the tenor by Robert Wells of Aldbourne, 1793. There is also a ting tang by Robert & James Wells of Aldbourne, and the bell frame is inscribed '1620 W.C.'
The plate includes a cup (London, 1576) with a chased band round the bowl; a paten (London, 1677) inscribed, 'This belongs to ye Church of East Lockins in Berks'; and a silver-gilt chalice presented by Lord Wantage in 1886.
The registers previous to 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms and burials 1546 to 1663, marriages 1547 to 1662; (ii) baptisms 1664 to 1739, marriages 1666 to 1738 and burials 1663 to 1738; (iii) baptisms 1739 to 1787, marriages 1738 to 1787, burials 1739 to 1788; (iv) marriages 1787 to 1812; (v) baptisms 1788 to 1812; (vi) burials 1788 to 1812.
There was a church in Lockinge in 1086 which belonged to the Abbot of Abingdon and was at that date held of him with half a hide of land by Gilbert. (fn. 114) The church remained the property of the Abbots of Abingdon till the Dissolution. It does not seem to have been regularly appropriated, but a 'consolidated vicarage' was in existence in 1291. (fn. 115) In 1390 the abbot had two-thirds of the ground tithes from most of the lands in the parish (fn. 116); the rest presumably belonged to the vicar.
In 1546 the advowson of the rectory was granted with the manor of East Lockinge to John Winchcombe, (fn. 117) who died in possession. (fn. 118) It was conveyed by his son John to William Forster in 1570. (fn. 119) In 1619 Robert Challoner presented (fn. 120) for one turn, the Crown presenting two months later by lapse. (fn. 121) Gabriel Rolles was both rector and patron in 1632, when he sold the advowson to the Warden of All Souls' College, Oxford. (fn. 122) In 1764 the rectory was attached to the wardenship, (fn. 123) and it was held by the wardens of the college till 1873. In that year it was purchased by Col. Loyd-Lindsay, afterwards Lord Wantage.
East Lockinge.— The poor's lands consist of 3 r. 23 p. in Wantage Upper Field, let at £1 14s. yearly, and of 2 a. 3 r. 30p. allotted for the poor by the Charlton Inclosure Award, dated 8 January 1868, in lieu of common field lands, producing £3 a year. The net rents are applied in the distribution of coal.
John Aldworth, by deeds dated 1716 and 1722 respectively, gave land for the poor. It appears that the lands assured by the deeds are incorporated in the glebe, and the sums charged upon them, amounting to £24 18s. 6d., are expended by the rector in parochial charities. By the terms of the deeds the residue, after payment of £2 to the parish clerk and the distribution of £6 among the poor, are to be received by the rector without any account being given for the same.
The allotment land, containing 5 a. 1 r. 2p., acquired in part under an Inclosure Award dated 1 June 1853 and in part by an exchange in 1864 with Col. Loyd-Lindsay, is let in allotments to the poor at rents amounting to £8 14s. yearly, which are distributed in coal.
In 1858 the Rev. Lewis Sneyd, by his will proved at Oxford 3 March, bequeathed £500 in aid of the education of the poor in connexion with the Church of England. The legacy was invested in £513 9s. 7d. consols with the official trustees, the annual dividends of which, amounting to £12 16s. 8d., are applied in prizes to children attending the day and Sunday schools and in payment of the diocesan inspection fee.
There do not appear to be any endowed charities in West Lockinge.