Parishes : Ravenstone

Pages 439-445

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1927.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.


In this section


Raunston (xv–xviii cent.).

The parish of Ravenstone lies between the Northamptonshire boundary and the River Ouse, and covers 2,074 acres, of which 784 are arable. There are 120 acres of woodland, nearly all accounted for by the Great Wood on the north-eastern boundary. A piece of waste ground called 'Cokenowebrande,' which was in dispute in 1568, must have been in this part of the parish. It was claimed by the Crown as part of the manor of Ravenstone and by John Cheyne as a detached part of Cogenhoe, in Northamptonshire. (fn. 1) To the west of the village, which is near the eastern boundary, is a much smaller plantation called Parkfield Spinney, and near it is Parkfield Farm. Here must have been the 'Great Park's of Ravenstone, mentioned about 1270. (fn. 2) 'Tenements called Parkefeld' are mentioned in 1555. (fn. 3)

Limestone was quarried in the parish in 1862. (fn. 4) The only industry at the present day appears to be agriculture. Wheat, barley, beans, oats and root crops are raised, the soil being clay on a subsoil of Great Oolite.

The village has a long street running north and south. A lane leading south-west to Stoke Goldington connects it with the Newport Pagnell and Northampton road. Olney, 3 miles away, has the nearest railway station, though the Midland railway cuts across the north-east corner of the parish. The church stands on a little hill at the north end of the street. Below it is the site of the priory, now occupied by Abbey Farm. There are no remains of the building. A large orchard just below the farm is surrounded by a moat, (fn. 5) and was probably the site of the old manorhouse of Ravenstone. A capital messuage existed here in 1245, (fn. 6) and formed part of the endowment of the priory ten years later. (fn. 7) The dovecot, which existed in 1291, (fn. 8) was probably attached to it. In the 16th century the prior had a 'manor-place' here with a court in which there were fish-ponds. (fn. 9) These were apparently filled by the chalybeate spring from which a little stream now flows south into the Ouse. The existence of the fish-ponds in the orchard already mentioned was still remembered in Lipscomb's time. (fn. 10) There are no references to the manor-house later than 1588, but it probably existed as the residence of the Finch family in the 17th and 18th centuries. Sir Heneage Finch, afterwards Lord Chancellor and Earl of Nottingham, was described as of Ravenstone in 1660. (fn. 11)

The Almshouses, Ravenstone

Opposite the Abbey Farm are the almshouses built by him. (fn. 12) The buildings are of red and black brick with tiled roofs and wooden cornices at the eaves. They are arranged in two two-storied blocks, each containing six two-roomed houses.

Robinson's Farm, about 150 yards south-west of the church, is a 17th-century stone house of two stories with an attic.

The village also contains a Union chapel, founded in 1790 and rebuilt in 1907.

The only place-names of interest occurring in the records of the parish are 'Thongestoching' (1270, an assart of the Tonge family), 'Scytho' (1331), and 'Wotteny ferme' (1465). (fn. 13) It is worthy of note that in the late 15th and early 16th century three messuages in Ravenstone, to each of which 24 acres of land were attached, were destroyed by the prior and George Throckmorton. (fn. 14)


Five hides in RAVENSTIONE forming one manor were held under the Confessor by a thegn Lewin, who had power to sell. In 1086 this manor belonged to the fee of Walter Giffard, of whom it was held by Hugh (de Bolebec). (fn. 15)

The overlordship of the Giffards descended through Rose wife of Richard Fitz Gilbert and sister of Walter Giffard to the Clares, Earls of Hertford and Gloucester. (fn. 16) It is last mentioned in 1313. (fn. 17) Hugh de Bolebec's lordship followed the descent of Whitchurch (q.v.) to Robert de Vere, third Earl of Oxford, who married Isabel daughter and co-heir of Walter de Bolebec. (fn. 18) The Earls of Oxford are mentioned as mesne lords down to the end of the 14th century. (fn. 19) Part of the manor was held in 1375 of their manor of Whitchurch by suit of court at Whitchurch every three weeks. (fn. 20)

A second fee in Ravenstone, not apparently mentioned in the Survey, belonged in the middle of the 12th century to Osbert Martel. (fn. 21) With his land in Edlesborough (q.v.) it was in the king's hands in 1167–8. (fn. 22) Three years later part of it had been granted to Adulf de Braci. (fn. 23) This fee was always afterwards held in chief. (fn. 24)

The two holdings came into the possession of the family of Wahull apparently before the end of the 12th century and formed a single manor. The half which was held of the Bolebecs was given to Walter de Wahull (who flourished 1165–72) in marriage with his wife Rose, (fn. 25) probably a Bolebec. The other half Walter or his heirs must have had by grant of the Crown. John de Wahull, son of Walter's successor Simon, (fn. 26) was called upon to do homage to the Bolebec heirs in 1212 (fn. 27) and was dead in 1217. (fn. 28) Alice his widow, who afterwards married William de Breaute, had rent in Ravenstone as her dower. (fn. 29) The heirs of John were his sisters, Rose wife of Robert Lisle and Agnes wife of Robert Basingham, (fn. 30) who afterwards married William Fitz Warin. (fn. 31) Rose died without issue, and John Basingham, son of Agnes, inherited the family lands in 1238. (fn. 32) He died in 1239, (fn. 33) when his male heir was Saher de Wahull, evidently a distant cousin. (fn. 34) Saher inherited only that half of the manor of Ravenstone which was held of the Crown. (fn. 35) He granted it in 1245 to Peter Chaceporc, keeper of the king's wardrobe and a distinguished ecclesiastic, to hold for a rent of one pair of gilt spurs. (fn. 36) Peter had a grant of free warren in Ravenstone in 1253 (fn. 37) and died shortly afterwards. (fn. 38) His heir was Hugh Chaceporc, his brother, who at once released the manor to the king. (fn. 39) In 1255 it was granted to a community of Augustinian canons, who were called upon to celebrate divine service for the souls of Peter and Hugh de Vivon, his uncle. (fn. 40) The prior of the house so founded was said to hold one knight's fee in Ravenstone in 1275. (fn. 41) Four years later his holding was described as half a knight's fee, which was probably correct. (fn. 42) Its value in 1291 was £10 10s. 10d. (fn. 43)

Wahull. Or three crescents gules.

The priory was dissolved in 1525, (fn. 44) and in the following year the site and the part of the manor attached to it were granted to Cardinal Wolsey, (fn. 45) who also acquired the second half of the manor (fn. 46) and devoted the whole to the endowment of his college at Oxford. (fn. 47) It came again to the Crown on Wolsey's fall, (fn. 48) and in 1535 was granted to Sir Francis Bryan for life. (fn. 49) Sir Francis surrendered the manor to Edward VI, who in 1548 made him a new grant for the lives of himself and his wife Joan Countess of Ormond and Ossory. (fn. 50) Sir Francis was dead in November 1550. (fn. 51) His widow with her third husband Gerald, son and heir of the Earl of Desmond, (fn. 52) leased her interest in 1551 to Sir William Herbert and Clement Throckmorton. (fn. 53) They sold the lease to Sir Robert Throckmorton of Weston Underwood, (fn. 54) who in 1558 received a grant of the manor for seventy years from the death of Joan at a fee-farm rent of £73 13s. (fn. 55) He forfeited his interest through a failure in the payment of his rent, (fn. 56) and a lease for twenty-one years was made to Henry Berkeley in 1586. (fn. 57) Two years later the queen granted Ravenstone in fee to Sir Moyle Finch and John Audley in trust for Sir Thomas Heneage, afterwards her vicechamberlain. (fn. 58) The trustees conveyed it in the same year to Sir Thomas, who was thereby involved in a dispute with Thomas son of Sir Robert Throckmorton, who had died in 1581, (fn. 59) as to the lease of 1558. (fn. 60) Throckmorton's claim was finally referred to arbitration, (fn. 61) the decision presumably being in favour of Heneage.

Elizabeth daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Heneage, whom she succeeded in 1595, (fn. 62) was the wife of Sir Moyle Finch, (fn. 63) with whom she made settlements of Ravenstone in 1596 and 1606. (fn. 64) She survived her husband, who died in 1614, by twenty years, and was created Viscountess Maidstone in 1623 and Countess of Winchilsea in 1628. (fn. 65) She died in possession of Ravenstone, having made in March 1632–3 an elaborate settlement in tail-male on her eldest son, with contingent remainder to John son of her son John, Heneage, Francis and John sons of her son Heneage, and her son Francis. (fn. 66) The younger Heneage, who was keeper of the king's seal, Lord Finch of Daventry and Earl of Nottingham, was accordingly holding the manor in 1651 and in 1674. (fn. 67) His son and heir Daniel, who inherited Ravenstone in 1682, succeeded his second cousin in 1729 as Earl of Winchilsea and died the following year. (fn. 68) Daniel's son of the same name died in 1769, (fn. 69) and was succeeded by his nephew and heir George, (fn. 70) who died unmarried in 1826. (fn. 71) By his will the manor passed to George Finch of Burley (co. Rutland). who was still holding it in 1862. (fn. 72) George Finch was succeeded in 1870 by his son George Henry, on whose 86. An earlier settlement was made in 1623 (Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 20 Jas. I). death in 1907 the manor passed to his son Mr. Alan George Finch. (fn. 73) He was succeeded in 1914 by the present owner, Mr. Wilfred Finch.

Finch, Earl of Winchilea. Argnet a cheveron between three griffons passant sable.

That half of the manor which was not inherited by Saher de Wahull in 1239 passed, presumably through female heirs of John Basingham, to William Blancminster and the heirs of Adam de Tyndal, (fn. 74) and was held till the end of the 14th century at least in two separate quarters. William Blancminster had four daughters and co-heirs, of whom Joan the wife of Sir William Barentine seems alone to have had any interest in Ravenstone. (fn. 75) The Hugh Blancminster who was returned as tenant here about 1245 was apparently William's brother, and may have had custody of his heirs. (fn. 76) Joan was still holding land here in 1302–3, (fn. 77) and was succeeded by Drew Barentine, probably her son. (fn. 78) Drew was said to hold half a knight's fee in 1316. (fn. 79) In 1330 a settlement of land and rent in Ravenstone was made on William Barentine and Maud his wife and the heirs of William. (fn. 80) Maud survived for more than fifty years and married her second husband Sir Warin Trussel, who is returned as lord of this part of Ravenstone in 1346. (fn. 81) The heir of William Barentine was his brother Philip, who granted the reversion to William Isbrond, 'brouderer,' and his wife Nichole. (fn. 82) They in 1371 conveyed it to John Pykenham, to whom Maud Trussel also granted her interest. (fn. 83) After the death of Maud, John Pykenham gave a life interest in the manor to William Trussel. (fn. 84) Meanwhile Thomas son of John Lovel of Dawley, who claimed the reversion as cousin and heir of William Barentine, (fn. 85) made a grant of it in 1381 to Sir Robert Sall, (fn. 86) though he had already confirmed the grant to John Pykenham. (fn. 87) The grant to Sail was set aside on the ground that Thomas Lovel was under age (fn. 88); nevertheless Margaret sister and heir of Sir Robert Sall and her husband Philip Warner conveyed the reversion to Hugh Fastolf and William Snettisham, (fn. 89) who in their turn had a confirmation in 1386 from Thomas Lovel. (fn. 90) They conveyed their interest before 1394 to William Thirning and others, who in that year sued William Trussel, the life tenant, for the estate. (fn. 91) The verdict was given for the plaintiffs, but the defendants appealed. This part of Ravenstone is next mentioned in 1399, when it belonged to John Baker of Sutton in Holderness (Yorkshire), and was taken into the king's hands for the satisfaction of his creditors, Robert de Garton, Simon Gaunstede, and Henry Maupas, clerks. (fn. 92) Another gap in its history follows, Henry Watford, who was 'late of Raunston' in 1471, (fn. 93) being the next tenant whose name is known. His daughter and heir Joan married William son of William Isham of Pytchley, (fn. 94) and with her husband conveyed three messuages and 80 acres in Ravenstone to Robert Throckmorton in 1501. (fn. 95) Two years later they made him a further grant of three messuages, 100 acres of land, 20 acres of meadow, 30 acres of pasture, and 10 acres of wood. (fn. 96) Sir Robert died seised of 'the manor' in 1518, leaving a son and heir George, on whom it was settled. (fn. 97) In 1528 George Throckmorton sold it to Cardinal Wolsey, (fn. 98) and it was joined to that part of the manor which had belonged to the priory.

The remaining fourth part belonged in 1239 to Nicholas de Boltby, who had married Philippa, elder daughter and co-heir of Adam de Tyndal. (fn. 99) Henry de Boltby was said to hold it about 1245. (fn. 100) probably in mistake for Nicholas, who lived till 1272. (fn. 101) Nicholas' widow Alice held a quarter of the vill in dower for a quarter of a knight's fee in 1279 (fn. 102) and 1284–6. (fn. 103) In 1302–3 the tenant was Henry de Bray or Gray. (fn. 104) The holding passed before 1316 to Sir William de Muxton (Mokelistone), (fn. 105) who had it in right of his wife Joan. (fn. 106) He was in debt to John de Sutton in 1340, and pledged his manor of Ravenstone in payment. (fn. 107) It was forfeit by 1347 to John de Sutton, who mortgaged it in that year to Henry Green. (fn. 108) When next mentioned this part of the manor was held in thirds, one of which Joan Stubbs, who died in 1371, had granted to John Cave and others. (fn. 109) Another was then held by Thomas Bosyate by courtesy of England after the death of Elizabeth his wife, probably a sister of Joan. (fn. 110) On the death of Thomas in 1375 it passed to Thomas Stubbs, son of Joan, as kinsman of Elizabeth. (fn. 111) Thomas granted lands and tenements in Ravenstone in 1390 to trustees, (fn. 112) who regranted them to his widow Joan and his daughter Joan nine years later. (fn. 113) The son and heir of Joan the daughter was John Man. (fn. 114) The further history of this part of the estate is uncertain. John Baker (fn. 115) was said to hold 'half the manor' in December 1399, an expression which suggests that both the fourth parts were united in his possession; but Joan Stubbs held this quarter in March 1398–9, (fn. 116) and it seems unlikely that John Baker should have acquired land during the intervening months, when he was heavily in debt. Probably this part of the manor was acquired later by Henry Watford or the Throckmortons.

A court baron at Ravenstone in the prior's manor is mentioned in 1525. (fn. 117)


The church of ALL SAINTS consists of a chancel 28 ft. by 15 ft., a south chapel of the same dimensions, nave 39 ft. 6 in. by 21 ft. 6 in., south aisle 11 ft. 6 in. wide, and west tower 10 ft. 6 in. square. All these measurements are internal.

Some herring-bone rubble in the west wall of the nave indicates the former existence of an 11th-century church, consisting probably of a chancel and nave. In the 12th century a short south aisle of two bays was built, and perhaps a north aisle. The present west tower was added about 1250, and some hundred years later the chancel appears to have been rebuilt and the south aisle lengthened westward by one bay and reroofed. A nave clearstory was added in the first half of the 15th century. Considerable restoration and alterations were carried out in 1670, when probably a north aisle was destroyed and most of the windows and doorways were renewed in the style of the time; the walls of the nave and chancel were at the same time lined with oak panelling and oak panelled pews inserted. Probably in 1675 the south chapel was built as a mortuary chapel for the Finch family, and particularly to receive the body of Elizabeth Lady Finch, who died in that year. The church was restored in 1885, and the south chapel in 1892.

The chancel has a modern east window and roof. The chancel arch is of two chamfered orders, which die into plain jambs; the whole of the stonework is coated with modern paint, but probably dates from the 14th century. The walls are lined with oak wainscot having raised moulded panels and a moulded capping, which is continued across the west side to form a low chancel screen with two doors in the middle.

The south chapel with the wall between it and the chancel is of about 1675. It communicates with the chancel by a wide pointed arch of two chamfered orders, the inner order resting on semicircular shafts which have capitals and bases of Renaissance detail.

The chapel has in the east wall a window of three lights with a transom, under a square head, and a similar window in the south wall; to the west of the latter is a small square-headed doorway. An arch like that to the chancel, but narrower, opens to the south aisle on the west. The openings of both archways are filled in with oak screens, the lower part having raised moulded panels, while the upper part, which is left open, has twisted balusters under a classic entablature. The screens are divided into bays by panelled pilasters and have folding doors with old brass locks. In the middle of the chapel stands a fine monument of black and white marble to Heneage Finch, Earl of Nottingham and Lord Chancellor (d. 1682), and his wife Elizabeth daughter of Daniel Harvey (d. 1675). It consists of a large altar tomb with a moulded top slab of black marble, on which is the life-size effigy of the chancellor in his robes of office, leaning on his right elbow. At the angles are carved and panelled pilasters; on the east and west sides are shields of his arms with coronet and motto, behind which the chancellor's purse and mace are shown in saltire; on the north side is a long inscription in Latin, and on the south side another in English. At each corner of the top slab is a Corinthian column supporting a horizontal canopy with a classic entablature. On the north and south sides are curved and broken pediments inclosing the earl's armorial achievement with crest and supporters; below the entablature on the same sides are white marble curtains twisted round the columns, and at each corner of the canopy is a flaming urn. All the heraldic detail is coloured and gilded, and the whole monument was carefully restored in 1909 by Mrs. Edith Finch, and is in excellent condition. Against the east wall of the chapel is a reredos of four oak panels painted with the Creed, Lord's Prayer and Commandments, and surmounted by a central broken pediment with a flaming urn. This was formerly in the chancel and is of late 17th-century character. A plain oak chest with three locks and iron bands is kept in the chapel and is probably of 17th-century date. The open lean-to roof of the chapel is of flat pitch and has moulded main rafters, purlins and cornices.

The nave has a south arcade of three bays, the two eastern of which date from the latter part of the 12th century, and have plain pointed arches. The east respond has a hollow-chamfered impost, and the eastern column has a moulded base and square plinth and a capital carved with shallow leaf-ornament rising from interlacing arches, the abacus being similar to the impost of the respond. The third and westernmost bay was probably added about 1350 and has an arch of two chamfered orders. The western pier has moulded capitals and bases, and the springing stones of the central arch have been cut back to fit the circular capital. The west respond is semicircular. In the wall to the east of the arcade is a plain arched opening, apparently ancient but much plastered. In the north wall is a single light with chamfered jamb and an ogee head, probably of 17th-century date, and to the west of this is a re-set 14th-century doorway with a pointed head. The east end of the wall, which is slightly thicker than the rest, may indicate the position of the east respond of the former north arcade. One of the three buttresses on this side of the nave bears the date 1670. The three pointed clearstory windows on each side of the nave date from the 15th century; each is of two trefoiled lights with quatrefoil tracery in the head. The nave walls are lined with oak wainscot of the same date and detail as that in the chancel; the oak-panelled pews are also of 17th-century date, as well as the hexagonal oak pulpit, which has moulded and inlaid panels, moulded sill and cornice, a panelled wall standard and a large horizontal sounding-board with moulded cornice.

The south aisle has two south windows, both with 15th-century jambs, but the segmental head of the eastern window belongs to the period of the late 17thcentury reconstruction, while the head and tracery of the western window are modern. The south doorway is entirely of the late 17th century and has moulded jambs and entablature, above which on the outside is a stone head, probably refixed 15th-century work. The external stonework to the west of the doorway shows signs of alteration. In the west wall is a twolight window of 15th-century date altered in the 17th century. The lean-to roof of three bays has moulded main rafters with curved braces under their southern ends standing on embattled and moulded wooden corbels; the purlins and lesser principals are chamfered, and all the work dates from the 15th century. Over the nave arcade is a plain chamfered corbel. In the south wall of the aisle are a trefoilheaded piscina, and two sedilia with chamfered heads supported by a small central column and half-columns, attached to the jambs, all with moulded capitals and bases. Both piscina and sedilia are of 14th-century date.

The 13th-century west tower is of three stages, with short angle buttresses at the west corners, and is crowned by a modern parapet, below which are several carved stone heads much decayed. The tower arch is chamfered and has an indented label; the chamfered jambs have moulded imposts little more than 3 ft. above the floor. The arch is filled in with an oak screen and panelled door of the 17th century. The west doorway is probably of the same date, and just above it is a small ancient lancet. The bellchamber is lighted by a two-light window in each wall; that on the east is of 17th-century date. On the north there is a window of the 13th century, with dog-tooth ornament in the heads of the lancet lights, and traces of a moulded capital and base on the mullion. The south window is partially restored, and the west window, which is much decayed, has been repaired with cement.

The early 13th-century font has a tapering circular bowl carved with trefoiled arcading having quatrefoils in the spandrels; the plain circular base has four volute-like reeded projections near the top, probably intended for foliage. The oak cover is a tall plain pyramid with turned top, and dates from the 17th century.

In the nave is a plain tablet to Robert Chapman, vicar (d. 1785), and on the east side of the churchyard is a head-stone, now illegible, to Thomas Seaton, vicar (d. 1741), founder of the Seatonian Prize for Sacred Poetry at Cambridge University. The communion table is of oak and has a moulded top and rails and twisted legs. The rails have twisted balusters similar to those of the screens in the south chapel. Both table and rails are of 17thcentury work.

There is a ring of three bells: the treble is by Newcome, 1616; the second, a 14th-century bell, probably by John Rufford, is inscribed 'Ave Maria' (fn. 118); the tenor, inscribed 'God Save our King, 1625, I.K.,' is by James Keene.

The plate consists of a cup and cover paten, both without marks, but of 17th-century date. The cup has an engraved shield of the Finch arms surrounded by mantling. There is also a flagon inscribed 'The Gift of Rev. Thos. Seaton, Vicar of Ravenstone in the year 1741.'

The registers down to 1812 are as follows: (i) mixed entries 1568 to 1652 (there is a gap from 1653 to 1700); (ii) mixed entries 1701 to 1771 (in this book is a register of briefs with amounts collected, 1726 to 1741); (iii) mixed entries 1771 to 1812; (iv) marriages 1754 to 1812.

The churchwardens' accounts are contained in two books: (i) 1641 to 1734, (ii) 1767 to 1870. There is also a book of vellum leaves bound in panelled calf, lettered on the outside 'Orders for the Almshouse at Ravenston,' containing carefully written regulations, with a list of deeds and an extract from the will of the Earl of Nottingham, 1682, founder of the charity, and signed on page 17 by his successor and six others of the Finch family. At the end is a register of admissions from 1684 to 1908.

Near the south doorway is the square stone base of a churchyard cross of the 14th or 15th century.


William Fitz Warin presented a rector to the church of Ravenstone in 1225 in right of his wife Agens de Wahull. (fn. 119) The church was then in the possession of Walter de Ravenstone, who as vicar received its fruits, paying the rector a pension of 40s. (fn. 120) The advowson passed with half the manor to the priory of Ravenstone, (fn. 121) to which it must have been appropriated between about 1260, when Richard de Clifford was rector, (fn. 122) and 1291, when a vicarage was already ordained. (fn. 123) In 1465 the prior agreed to augment the vicar's stipend by £3 14s. from two farms belonging to the priory. (fn. 124) After the Dissolution the advowson descended with the manor (fn. 125) till the lease in 1558 to Sir Robert Throckmorton, when it was reserved to the Crown. (fn. 126) A grant of it was made to Heneage Lord Finch afterwards Earl of Nottingham in 1676, (fn. 127) and the lords of the manor have since presented. (fn. 128) Mr. Wilfred Finch is the present patron.

The rectory was leased to Sir Robert Throckmorton in 1567 for twenty-one years, and in 1578 was granted to John Goodwin for life with remainder to Thomas Throckmorton for life. (fn. 129) In 1604 it was granted to Anthony Crewe and William Starkey, (fn. 130) who perhaps sold it to Thomas Throckmorton. In 1610 it was conveyed by Sir Francis Fortescue, Sir William Fortescue and Thomas Throckmorton to Sir Arthur Savage. (fn. 131) He sold it two years later to Sir Moyle Finch, (fn. 132) and it has since followed the descent of the manor.

At the dissolution of chantries it was found that a rent of 3s. 6d. had been given for an obit in Ravenstone. (fn. 133)


The hospital founded in 1682 by Hereage Earl of Nottingham, Lord Chancellor, for six single men and six single women is endowed with certain fee-farm rents in the counties of York and Cambridge, in respect of which £247 11s. 6d. was paid in 1910. The official trustees now (1913) also hold a sum of £1, 263 16s. 6d. consols, producing £31 11s. 8d. a year, arising in part from the redemption of fee-farm rents, and a sum of £400 India 2½ per cent. stock is held by the trustees of the hospital, producing £10 a year. The charity is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 20 April 1886, as varied by a scheme of 19 April 1904. The six men hospitallers and the six women hospitallers receive 5s. a week each, amounting to £156 a year, with an allowance for coal, £10. The sum of £84 a year is paid to the vicar of Ravenstone in augmentation of his emoluments, and the sum of £10 a year is paid to the churchwardens for the reparation of the church.

James Ward by his will, 1787, devised a cottage, the rent of which was to be distributed in bread and meat at Christmas. The cottage was sold in 1885, and the proceeds, with accumulations, are now represented by £62 4s. 10d. consols with the official trustees, producing £1 11s. yearly. The income has for some time been accumulated, there being in 1910 a balance in hand of £9.

The Rev. Robert Chapman, a former vicar, by his will proved in the P.C.C. 3 January 1786, bequeathed his residuary personal estate to trustees for investment in the public funds, the interest to be applied for the charitable purposes in his said will specified. (fn. 134) The trust fund is now (1913) represented by £5,303 India 3 per cent, stock with the official trustees, producing £159 1s. 8d. a year. The charity was the subject of a scheme of the Court of Chancery, 31 July 1857.


  • 1. Exch. Dep. Mich. 10 & 11 Eliz. no. 1.
  • 2. Cal. Chart. in Bodl. 29.
  • 3. Ld. Rev. Misc. Bks. clxxxviii, fol, 110.
  • 4. Sheahan, Hist. and Topog. of Bucks. 590.
  • 5. V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 32; Hist. Monum. Com. Rep. North Bucks. 252.
  • 6. Feet of F. Bucks. 29 Hen. III, no. 9.
  • 7. Cal. Close, 1327–30, p. 345–6.
  • 8. Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 47.
  • 9. Pat. 4 & 5 Phil. and Mary, pt. v, m. 52; Ld. Rev. Misc. Bks. clxxxviii, fol. 111–12.
  • 10. Lipscomb, Hist. and Antiq. of Bucks. iv, 314.
  • 11. G.E.C. Baronetage, iii, 30.
  • 12. See below, charities.
  • 13. Cal. Chart. in Bodl. 29, 31.
  • 14. Leadam, Dom. Incl. 1517 (Roy. Hist. Soc.), 176–7.
  • 15. V.C.H. Bucks. i, 252.
  • 16. G.E.C. Peerage, vi, 199. See. Crendon and V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 299.
  • 17. Inq. a.q.d. file 101, no. 13.
  • 18. Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 87; Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 138.
  • 19. Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iii, 150; Cal. Close, 1237–42, p. 177; Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 247; Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 349; Feud. Aids, i, 73; Inq. a.q.d. file 85, no. 10; file 112, no. 4.
  • 20. Chan. Inq. p.m. 50 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 33a.
  • 21. Pipe R. 14 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 10.
  • 22. Ibid.
  • 23. Ibid. 17 Hen. II, 57.
  • 24. The mill, which was attached to the Bolebec manor in 1086, subsequently belonged to the priory, which held the Crown fee (Pope Nich. Tax. [Rec. Com.], 47). It may have been granted to the priory by the sub-tenants of the Earls of Oxford.
  • 25. Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 87.
  • 26. Ibid. 46, 87.
  • 27. Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 87.
  • 28. Rot. Lit. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i, 329.
  • 29. Ibid. 628; Cur. Reg. R. 71, m. 13 d; 79, m. 17.
  • 30. Rot. Lit. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i, 329.
  • 31. Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), i, 7.
  • 32. Orig. R. 22 Hen. III, m. 2 d.
  • 33. Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iii, 150.
  • 34. Ibid.; Cal. Close, 1237–42, p. 177.
  • 35. Ibid.
  • 36. Feet of F. Bucks. 29 Hen. III, no. 9.
  • 37. Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 431.
  • 38. Ibid. 447.
  • 39. Ibid.
  • 40. Ibid.; Cal. Chart. in Bodl. 28; Cal. Close, 1327–30, p. 345.
  • 41. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), i, 37.
  • 42. Ibid. ii, 348.
  • 43. Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 47.
  • 44. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxvi, 2.
  • 45. L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, 1913.
  • 46. See below.
  • 47. Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 18 Hen. VIII.
  • 48. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxvii, 59.
  • 49. Pat. 26 Hen. VIII, pt. ii, m. 30. A grant to St. George's Chapel, Windsor, in 1532 does not seem to have become operative (L. and P. Hen. VIII, v, 1351).
  • 50. Star Chamb. Proc. Phil. and Mary, bdle. 10, no. 67; Pat. 4 & 5 Phil. and Mary, pt. v, m. 52.
  • 51. Acts. of P.C. 1550–2, p. 158.
  • 52. G.E.C. Peerage, vi, 148.
  • 53. Ld. Rev. Misc. Bks. clxxxviii, fol. 112.
  • 54. Star Chamb. Proc. Phil. and Mary, bdle. 10, no. 67.
  • 55. Pat. 4 & 5 Phil. and Mary, pt. v, m. 52.
  • 56. Lansd. MS. 106, no. 47.
  • 57. Pat. 28 Eliz. pt. iii, m. 7.
  • 58. Ibid. 30 Eliz. pt. xvi, m. 37; Chan. Proc. Eliz. W. 11, no. 62.
  • 59. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxciii, 89.
  • 60. Lansd. MS. 106, no. 47.
  • 61. Lipscomb, op. cit. iv, 314.
  • 62. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccli, 107.
  • 63. Ibid; G.E.C. Baronetage, i, 35.
  • 64. Recov. R. Trin. 38 Eliz. m. 2; Feet of F. Bucks. East. 4 Jas. I.
  • 65. G.E.C. loc. cit.; Exch. Dep. Spec. Com. no. 5163.
  • 66. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), dlxxxviii, 86. An earlier settlement was made in 1623 (Feet of F. Div Co. Hil. 20 Jas.1).
  • 67. Recov. R. 1651, m. 1; Feet of F. Bucks. East. 26 Chas. II. Thomas Earl of Winchilsea, eldest son of the countess, appears to have renounced his claim in 1635 (Feet of F. Bucks. East. 11 Chas. 15 Recov. R. East. 11 Chas. I, m. 57) and other members of the family in 1646 (Feet of F. Div. Co. Trin. 22 Chas. I).
  • 68. G.E.C. Peerage, viii, 179, 181. He made a settlement of the manor in 1694 (Feet of F. Bucks. Trin. 6 Will. and Mary).
  • 69. G.E.C. Peerage, viii, 181.
  • 70. Ibid; cf. Recov. R. Mich. 15 Geo. III, m. 285; Feet of F. Berks. Trin. 45 Geo. III.
  • 71. G.E.C. Peerage, viii, 181.
  • 72. Sheahan, op. cit. 591.
  • 73. Burke, Landed Gentry.
  • 74. Cal. Close, 1237–42, p. 177; Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iii, 150.
  • 75. Cal. Inq. p.m. (Edw. I), ii, 226; Feud. Aids, i, 73; Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 265.
  • 76. Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 247; Eyton, Antiq. of Shrops. ix, 280.
  • 77. Feud. Aids, i, 105.
  • 78. Joan settled lands in Dawley, Middlesex, on Gilbert son of William Barentine in 1307 (Feet of F. Middlesex, 35 Edw. I, no. 361).
  • 79. Feud. Aids. i, 110; Inq. a.q.d. file 85, no. 10; file 112, no. 4. It is more probable that his holding was a quarter of a knight's fee.
  • 80. Feet of F. Bucks. 4 Edw. III, no. 8.
  • 81. Chan. Misc. bdle. 88, file 8, no. 173; Close, 10 Ric. II, m. 41 d.; Coll. for Staffs. (Will. Salt Arch. Soc.), xii, 135; Feud. Aids, i, 131.
  • 82. Coran Rege R. Mich. 18 Ric. II, m. 40. In 1349 Jordan Barentine, whose relationship o William and Philip is not clear, gave Sir Warin Trussel, William Trussel the younger and John Lowell (Lovel ?) power to receive seisin in his name of his inheritance in Ravenstone and various places in Essex (Cal. Close, 1349–54, p. 87).
  • 83. Coram Rege R. Mich. 18 Ric. II, m. 40; Feet of F. Diy. Co. 6 Ric. II, no. 70; Close, 6 Ric. II, pt. i, m. 26 d.
  • 84. Coram Rege R. Mich. 18 Ric. II. m. 40; Cal. Chart. it Bodl. 31.
  • 85. Coram Rege R. cit.
  • 86. Ibid.; Chan. Misc. bdle. 88, file 8, no. 173.
  • 87. Close, 6 Ric. II, pt. i, m. 26 d.
  • 88. Chan. Misc. bdle. 88, file 8, no. 173.
  • 89. Coram Rege R. Mich. 18 Ric. II, m. 40.
  • 90. Close, 10 Ric. II, m. 41 d.
  • 91. Coram Rege R. Mich. 18 Ric. II, m. 40.
  • 92. Chan. Extents on Debts, file 49. no. 3.
  • 93. Cal. Pat. 1467–77, p. 255.
  • 94. Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 209, no. 48.
  • 95. Feet of F. Bucks. East. and Trin. 16 Hen. VII.
  • 96. Ibid. East. 18 Hen. VII. He was then a knight.
  • 97. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxxiii, 46.
  • 98. Close, 20 Hen. VIII, no. 53; Ld Rev. Misc. Bks. clxxxviii, fol. 110; see also Feet of F. Bucks. Mich. 21 Hen. VIII; L. and P. Hen. VIII, v, 47 (4), 84, 1051.
  • 99. Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), i, 244; Cal. Close, 1237–42, p. 177.
  • 100. Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 247.
  • 101. Cal. Inq. p.m. (Hen. III), i, 286;
  • 102. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 349.
  • 103. Feud. Aids, i, 73.
  • 104. Ibid. 105, 131. Philip de Castello was a tenant of the Earl of Oxford in 1313 (Inq. a.q.d. file 101, no. 13).
  • 105. Feud. Aids, i, 110; see also Cal. Chart. in Bodl. 31.
  • 106. Cal. Close, 1346–9, p. 239.
  • 107. Ibid. 1339–41, p. 489; 1346–9, p. 239.
  • 108. Ibid. 1346–9, p. 239.
  • 109. Chan. Inq. p.m. 50 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 33a.
  • 110. Ibid.
  • 111. Ibid.
  • 112. Cat. of Anct. D. iv, p. 429.
  • 113. Ibid. i, p. 19.
  • 114. Ibid. iv, p. 429.
  • 115. See above.
  • 116. Cat. of Anct. D. i, 19.
  • 117. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxvi, 2.
  • 118. a C. H. Cocks, V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 118.
  • 119. R. of Hugh of Wells (Cant. and York Soc.), ii, 67.
  • 120. Ibid.
  • 121. Feet of F. Bucks. 29 Hen. III, no. 9; Cal. Chart. R. 1327–30, p. 345.
  • 122. Cal. Chart. in Bodl. 29.
  • 123. Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 33.
  • 124. Cal. Chart. in B 31.
  • 125. Pat. 17 Hen. VIII, pt. i, m. 21–2; 26 Hen. VIII, pt. ii, m. 30.
  • 126. Pat. 4 & 5 Phil. and Mary, pt. v, m. 52.
  • 127. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1676–7, p. 457. The advowson is mentioned in the fine by which Sir Arthur Savage conveyed the rectory to Sir Moyle Finch, but not in the corresponding Close Roll (see below). The Crown presented in 1660 (Inst. Bks. [P.R.O.]).
  • 128. Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.); Recov. R. East. 2 Jas. II, m. 100. Lord Finch purchased the fee-farm rent of the manor and endowed the vicarage with it (Bacon, Liber Regis, 500; Lysons, Mag. Brit. i [3], 626).
  • 129. Pat. 20 Eliz. pt. ii.
  • 130. Ibid. 2 Jas. I, pt. xxii, m. 4.
  • 131. Close, 8 Jas. I, pt. xi.
  • 132. Ibid. 10 Jas. I, pt. xxv, no. 19; Feet of F. Bucks. Mich. 10 Jas. I.
  • 133. Chant. Cert. 5, no. 20.
  • 134. V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 220.