A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 3, the City and University of Cambridge. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1959.
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On 19 December 1546 Henry VIII issued letters patent founding a College to be called 'Trinytie College within the Towne and Universitie of Cambrydge of Kynge Henry theight's fundacion'. (fn. 1) This was followed on 24 December by letters patent endowing the new foundation. (fn. 2) The site of the College and part of its endowments were provided by grants of the property of earlier societies that had filled a considerable place in the medieval University and whose surrenders of their property into the king's hands had been completed a few days earlier, on 10 and 17 December. (fn. 3) Of these societies the most important were King's Hall and Michaelhouse, both of which dated from the first half of the 14th century.
Of these societies one was distinguished by its close connexion with the Crown and the court. The earliest record of the existence in Cambridge of the society of the king's scholars, which after its formal foundation by Edward III became known as King's Hall, is a writ issued by Edward II on 7 July 1317 directing the sheriff of Cambridgeshire to pay out of royal moneys sums sufficient to maintain in a 'hostel' in the University John de Baggeshot and twelve children of the chapel royal, whom the king intended to send to Cambridge. (fn. 4) John de Baggeshot and the first ten scholars arrived on 9 July. (fn. 5) For the remainder of Edward II's reign the society continued without formal foundation but in the medieval University Edward II was regarded as the society's founder; it is possible but not certain that the hostel he leased for his scholars was that which Edward III bought as the home of the established society. (fn. 6)
By 1319 the number of scholars had reached its normal level of 32. On 7 December all were ordered to spend Christmas with the court at York. The warden and six scholars left Cambridge on 20 December, reaching York on horseback by Christmas Eve: the remainder went part of the way by boat, arriving on 28 December. One party was back by 20 January, the other by 9 February. At least one had been left in York under arrest for assault. (fn. 7)
The society was unendowed and was maintained at the royal expense, by payments from the sheriff of Cambridgeshire. There was difficulty in obtaining punctual payment, necessitating royal orders for arrears to be paid, as on 14 December 1326, and repeatedly in the winter and summer of 1333. (fn. 8) On 26 January 1335 an order was made for the payment of £40, for the wages of the warden and 32 boys, direct from the Exchequer. (fn. 9)
In 1326 Edward II gave the society law books, which were taken from them by Queen Isabella, and for which £10 was given as compensation by Edward III in 1332. (fn. 10) In the same year a commission was appointed to remove those of the king's scholars who were sufficiently beneficed and those who were unfit to proceed to the University. (fn. 11) Two years previously 43 scholars had received maintenance in kind. (fn. 12) The society was perhaps felt to have become too attractive to unsuitable candidates for royal nomination, and to have become overstocked. In November 1333 the warden, John de Langetoft, was replaced by Thomas Powys. (fn. 13)
The 28 years' wardenship of Thomas Powys (1333–61) saw the establishment or foundation of the society of the king's scholars as the Hall of the King's Scholars, the licensed expansion of the numbers of the College, its settlement in permanent quarters of its own, and its endowment with land and rent charges, all at the direction and expense of the Crown.
On 12 April 1336 Edward III issued a writ of aid under the privy seal in favour of commissioners appointed to take seisin of a house bought from Robert de Croyland, and to put the Warden and king's scholars in possession of it. (fn. 14) On 7 October 1337 the king issued letters patent establishing a College to be called the Hall of the King's Scholars, consisting of a Warden and 32 scholars, who had been maintained in the University by his father, and for their reception gave them the house of Robert de Croyland which he had purchased. Thomas Powys was appointed Warden, and the College was given the advowson of the church of St. Peter, Northampton, with leave to appropriate. (fn. 15) On 16 October the king asked the Pope to confirm the foundation and gift. (fn. 16) The record of the approval of the foundation by the Bishop, Prior, and Chapter of Ely dates, however, from six years later, on 8 and 23 October 1343. (fn. 17)
The site of the permanent home of King's Hall lay between the High Street (later Trinity Street) on the east and the river on the west, but reaching to neither; north was the Hospital of St. John, which it also did not at first reach; and south was 'King's Childer Lane', upon which it abutted. (fn. 18) The first expansion of the site came on 17 January 1341 when Edward III granted lands he had purchased in the preceding two years: these were mainly westward of the house but not reaching quite to the river, stretching northward to the St. John's boundary, and eastward to the site of the present Great Gate. (fn. 19) The site was finally extended westward to the river at Cornhythe and Dame Nichol's Hythe in May 1351. (fn. 20) The eastward extension of the site to the High Street was completed by acquisitions in April 1344, March 1350, June 1351, and February 1376, (fn. 21) forming a compact block between the High Street and the river, and between St. John's Hospital and King's Childer Lane. In 1417, 1429, and 1430 King's Hall acquired leases, later renewed, of gardens south of King's Childer Lane, (fn. 22) and in 1430, 1433, and 1449 acquisitions were made (fn. 23) comprising, with the leased ground, a compact extension reaching southwards from King's Childer Lane (acquired from the town, with the right to close it, on 8 April 1433,) (fn. 24) between the High Street and a position near the present Fountain.
Endowments and Advowsons.
The earliest of King's Hall's endowments in land proved abortive: the advowson and church of St. Peter's, Northampton, granted in the letters patent of foundation, was found to have been granted already to St. Katherine's Hospital near the Tower of London, and the grant was revoked on 10 March 1338. In its place King's Hall was granted, on 12 March of the same year, the reversion of the advowson of the church of Fakenham (Norf.), held by Queen Isabella who was licensed to surrender it. (fn. 25) On 24 May 1342 a commission was appointed for its appropriation. In the same year, on 25 July, King's Hall received its largest single acquisition of endowments, the four rectories and advowsons of Felmersham with Pavenham (Beds.), Grendon (Northants.), Hintlesham (Suff.), and Great St. Mary's, Cambridge. (fn. 26) A century later, when complaints had been made of King's Hall's inadequate endowments, the advowson of the vicarage of Chesterton with the right to appropriate the rectory, was granted on 2 May 1440. (fn. 27) Another century later, on 8 April 1541, shortly before the surrender to Henry VIII, King's Hall acquired the last of its rectories and advowsons, of Bottisham and of Arrington, in exchange for annuities of £7 10s. 8d. from Waltham Abbey and 40 marks from the farm of the manor of Chesterton. (fn. 28) The advowson and the rectory of Hintlesham had been granted away on 10 July 1387. (fn. 29) The other seven advowsons passed to Trinity. The only manors possessed by King's Hall were those which appear to have been attached to the rectories of Felmersham, granted in 1342, and of Chesterton, granted in 1440. (fn. 30)
At first the Warden and scholars were maintained, at a rate of £103 8s. 4d. annually, 4d. daily for the Warden and 2d. daily for each scholar, by payments ordered in 1338 to be made by the sheriff of Cambridgeshire. (fn. 31) On 1 May 1340 £55 of this was ordered to be paid by the Abbot of Waltham, and in 1342 the Exchequer was charged with the remainder. On 1 August 1346 this remainder was charged on the Prior of St. Neots. (fn. 32) On 1 December 1351, 12 May 1355, 4 February 1364, and 4 February 1415 the grants were again readjusted, the Exchequer, the Abbot of Waltham, the borough of Scarborough, and the counties of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire being made responsible for the payments with, later, the Abbot of Sawtry (Hunts.). (fn. 33) Liveries of robes until 1448, then corresponding money payments, were also made from the Exchequer. (fn. 34)
Constitution and Statutes.
The youthfulness of many of the earliest members of the society left the powers of government at first in the hands of the Wardens. Increasingly, however, the administration of the society passed to its senior members. The management of expenditure and receipts and of the common chest was by 1337 being shared between the Warden and six guardians chosen by the members of the society. (fn. 35)
The appointments of Warden in 1375 and 1377 made his residence a condition of appointment and also ordered the nomination of a deputy to manage the external business of the house: this officer acquired independent status in 1434. (fn. 36) By the late 14th century the guardians managed most of the internal and external administration. In the 16th century there were general meetings of all scholars for the government of the house. The appointment of Wardens and scholars rested with the Crown, but the appointment of Wardens from 1364 to 1385 inclusive was declared to have been made in accordance with the election or choice of the society: (fn. 37) this was not said to be so thereafter.
Statutes were given to King's Hall by Richard II on 5 March 1380. (fn. 38) They were not elaborate and were concerned rather with the discipline of a house of residence than with the education and studies of a learned society. Scholars were to be at least fourteen years old on entry, with sufficient Latin to study logic or any other subject chosen by the Warden, (fn. 39) which they could not change without his consent. The wearing of weapons and fashionable attire was forbidden. All meals, at which the use of only Latin or French was permitted, were to be taken in common. Poverty was not a necessary qualification for admission, but membership was to be forfeited by the acquisition of a benefice worth 10 marks yearly or a private income worth £5 yearly, (fn. 40) also by entrance into a house of religion. Each scholar was allowed 14d. weekly for commons. The Warden was empowered to grant leave of absence. The Warden was to bear rule in ordinary matters but in difficult or important affairs was to consult all or most of the other scholars. The keys of the common chest were to be kept by the Warden and two stewards appointed annually, the Warden making account of expenditure to the Exchequer. The common seal of the College was to be affixed only with the consent of the greater and wiser part of the society. Provision was made for the punishment of members and for the suspension of their maintenances in the society by the Warden and six of the senior scholars, who also had authority to arbitrate in internal dissensions, and for expulsion by a decision of the majority of the house.
The Visitor was the Crown, and in 1383 the Bishop of Ely, acting as Visitor, did so on the Crown's behalf: in 1401 King's Hall was apparently exempt from the visitation of the University by Archbishop Arundel. (fn. 41) In November 1446 the Warden obtained leave to cease making an account of expenditure to the Exchequer. (fn. 42) In the same year was made the first appointment of a Warden, not during pleasure and good behaviour, but for life: this was henceforward the usual form down to at least 1488, with the possible exception of those Wardens nominated during the period when the right of patronage was held by the Provosts of Eton and King's Colleges.
At the date of its permanent establishment by Edward III King's Hall was the largest College in Cambridge, and throughout its history retained at least that degree of importance implied by a close connexion with the court and the public service. (fn. 43) Its scholars and Wardens were nominated by the Crown; by the late 14th century its members were often connected with the upper ranks of royal servants and officers of the court, and were increasingly drawn from a wealthier class than most university students. (fn. 44) From the later 14th century onwards the Wardens often held high office in church and state, and were frequently absent on public and ecclesiastical business, as were some of the scholars. (fn. 45) The first recorded admission of a pensioner was in 1387: it is thought that few were admitted. (fn. 46) The interest of the Crown in King's Hall as a nursery of royal and public servants was shown in royal gifts of books, particularly on civil law, as in 1326, in 1368, and in 1440 for the use, in the first place, of a specified scholar. (fn. 47)
Legal studies were apparently encouraged. (fn. 48) The period after the foundation of 1337 was one of great royal interest. In 1341 and 1342 Edward III expressed his great affection for King's Hall and his sense of its importance. (fn. 49) Between 1338 and 1341 the buildings of the College were repaired, with royal grants of money and timber. (fn. 50) In 1346 six additional scholars were added to the establishment (fn. 51) and in 1349 the first chest of money to provide a reserve fund for loans and other exigencies was founded and endowed. In 1349, between April and August, the Black Death killed 16 of the 40 scholars in residence. In 1360–1 a seond outbreak killed the Warden and 8 more scholars. (fn. 52)
Soon after the grant of statutes the Bishop of Ely was directed in June 1383 to inquire into alleged negligence by the Warden, decay in the old buildings, and deterioration in discipline and numbers, The Warden and six scholars were removed on 19 May 1385. (fn. 53)
An inventory of 1362 suggests that the society was not then very wealthy. By 1390 the library contained 107 books, 69 being legal books and 52 of these on civil rather than on canon law, and in 1399 a second chest was endowed. (fn. 54) An inventory of plate and a note of a valuable gift of books, of 1425, suggests a society of some wealth. (fn. 55) Loss of revenue and consequent inconvenience is mentioned in 1440, (fn. 56) but was followed by the grant of Chesterton Church. Membership of the society was becoming of longer tenure, and non-residence, often on public service, was increasing. (fn. 57) Henry VI had continued the royal favour to King's Hall, but on 24 February 1447 the royal rights of patronage over the century-old College were transferred to the provosts of the new royal colleges at Eton and Cambridge, who on 24 January 1448 were also granted visitatorial powers of discipline and supervision. They were empowered to reform and enforce the College statutes, which King's Hall was said to have disregarded. (fn. 58) With the deposition of Henry VI King's Hall regained its former status, independence being restored on 3 February 1462. (fn. 59) Indications in the later 15th century are that the society continued to be of some wealth, with distinguished connexions. (fn. 60) In addition to the chapel, a new range of chambers was built in 1489, and in about 1515 a new large gatehouse was begun, the future Great Gate of Trinity. (fn. 61) Its first purely educational endowment, a fellowship in canon law, seems to have taken place in 1494. (fn. 62) A rota for the nomination of proctors in 1514 does not suggest that King's Hall then stood high in importance in the University, (fn. 63) but the valuation for first fruits and tenths in 1534 assessed its income at £211 12s. 8½d., exceeded only by King's College, St. John's, and Queens'. (fn. 64) The years 1539–40 saw unseemly disputes. The Warden, Geoffrey Blythe, was accused of compelling forcibly the resignation of a fellow, who was in turn accused of burglary, to make way for a chaplain of Hugh Latimer; and was also accused of avoiding the admission of a royal nominee in favour of a friend by retreating to his chamber and feigning slumber. He was said to have declared that none might join the society 'without my licence and good will and I may do my friend pleasure and am a good fellow, for I will take 40s. or 20s. for my kindness'. All this he denied. (fn. 65) But property continued to be acquired five years before the surrender to Henry VIII. In the commissioners' survey of 1545–6 the regular calculable income, excluding fines on renewal of leases, was assessed at £214 0s. 3d. yearly, exceeded by King's College, Queens', St. John's, and Christ's, and its expenditure at £265 18s. 7d. yearly. (fn. 66) King's Hall was a society of 50 persons, a Warden, 32 fellows or scholars, and 17 servants, at the time of its surrender, which took place on 29 October 1546 and was legally completed by the enrolment of the acknowledgment of the surrender on 17 December, (fn. 67) a few days before its buildings, site and property were merged in the new foundation.
The years 1375 to 1437 saw a period of slow rebuilding, completed by a fine entrance tower, to replace Robert de Croyland's house, on a site nearer the St. John's boundary. This tower, one wing of the new buildings, and the garden of King's Hall, survive as the clock-tower, 'King's Hostel' building, and Fellows' Bowling Green of Trinity. (fn. 68) A separate place of worship is first mentioned in 1419–20 in the accounts for building an oratory, (fn. 69) but the normal place of worship continued to be All Saints' Church (fn. 70) until 1485 when the College chapel begun in 1464 was completed; the chapel was not consecrated until 1499. A new library was built 1416–22. (fn. 71)
The other medieval College merged in Henry VIII's foundation, dedicated to the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St. Michael, and All Saints and known as Michaelhouse, was a smaller and more purely clerical society, of private foundation, and without the royal and governmental connexions of King's Hall. It was founded on 27 September 1324 by Hervey de Stanton, a well-beneficed ecclesiastic and Chancellor of the Exchequer to Edward II who had sent his own scholars to Cambridge a few years earlier. (fn. 72) On 1 June 1324 he obtained licence to found a house of scholars and to give them a messuage in which to reside, together with the advowson of St. Michael's Church. (fn. 73) On 31 August and 1 September the Bishop, Prior, and Chapter of Ely gave their approval. (fn. 74) On 27 September, in the presence of leading figures in the town and University, the ceremony of foundation took place. Hervey de Stanton was present, to appoint the first members and give the new College its statutes. (fn. 75) The following day he confirmed them in possession of their house and advowson; and on 12 November the legal transfer was completed. (fn. 76) Corporal possession of St. Michael's Church was confirmed to the College by the officials of the archdeaconry of Ely on 12 March 1325. (fn. 77) Hervey de Stanton died on 2 November 1327 and was buried in St. Michael's Church. He left vestments, books, and relics to the College. (fn. 78)
The home of the College had been purchased by Hervey de Stanton on 16 March 1324, when he acquired from Roger Buttetourte a house and grounds on the east side of 'Mill Street', in what is now the south-eastern corner of Great Court. (fn. 79) The previous autumn, on 15 September 1323, he had acquired from Dera de Madingley a house in the High Street, opposite St. Michael's Church, the advowson of which was included in the purchase, and it is possible that he gathered his scholars here before their final establishment farther west. (fn. 80) Two years after the foundation, on 11 November 1326, Hervey de Stanton added to the site of Michaelhouse by giving the College a house and land north of its existing home, and also another messuage in the High Street opposite St. Michael's Church. (fn. 81) On 28 September 1337 the most northerly part of the College site was acquired, the messuage known as Crouched Hall, later Newmarket Hostel, (fn. 82) and the continuous site along three-quarters of the future western side of Great Court was completed by the acquisition of three messuages, including a building called the Archdeacon's House, on 3 February 1353. (fn. 83) In the meantime two plots of land with one house on them, immediately south of the home of the society, had been conveyed to it, on 19 March 1331, by John de Illegh, one of Hervey de Stanton's executors. (fn. 84) By the mid-14th century Michaelhouse thus possessed the greater part of a compact site between the position of the present Queen's Gate on the east and the 'King's Ditch', a watercourse crossing the site of New Court and Nevile's Court, on the west, between the position of the present front door of the Master's Lodge on the north and Garret Hostel Lane on the south: the site was completed by the leasing of 'Millstones' in 1434; on 1 August 1542 it was bought outright. (fn. 85)
Michaelhouse also acquired in time the north-east corner of the future site of Dr. Caius's foundation opposite St. Michael's Church. (fn. 86) More important for the future Trinity was the acquisition in 1349 from Joan de Refham of the site of St. Catherine's Hostel in the south-east of the present Great Court. (fn. 87) The purchase of St. Margaret's Hostel in 1396 (fn. 88) left Michaelhouse the owner of the greater, southern part of the site of the present Great Court, with the exception of Physwick Hostel, and of as much of the site of the present Nevile's Court, New Court, and Bishop's Hostel as was east of the King's Ditch.
Endowments and Advowsons.
During the three remaining years of Hervey de Stanton's life after the foundation the endowment of Michaelhouse remained the rectory and advowson of St. Michael's Church, while Hervey de Stanton paid current expenses himself. (fn. 89) On 20 October 1326 he obtained licence to grant Michaelhouse the advowson of Barrington, and the manor of Lancaster (in Barrington). (fn. 90) The grant remained unexecuted at his death, and his executor, Alexander de Walsham, was licensed on 13 April 1328 to grant the advowson, (fn. 91) and on 15 May 1329 to grant the reversion of the manor. (fn. 92) On 1 January 1329 the Bishop of Ely decreed the appropriation of the church to Michaelhouse. The church appears to have passed into the possession of Michaelhouse by February 1330 (fn. 93) and the manor by 10 October 1339 when the royal escheator was ordered to restore it to Michaelhouse. (fn. 94) Hervey de Stanton had on 2 October 1326 obtained licence to grant to Michaelhouse the advowson of the rectory of Cheadle (Staffs.) (fn. 95) which also remained unexecuted until Alexander de Walsham obtained another licence on 20 February 1329. (fn. 96) The grant to the College was completed in the Hilary term, 1332. (fn. 97) The advowson of the rectory of Tittleshall (Norf.) was granted to Michaelhouse by one of Hervey de Stanton's executors under a licence of 28 February 1338; (fn. 98) it was assigned by the College to the Priory of Walsingham under a licence of 16 August 1359. (fn. 99) On 1 June 1353 the advowson of the rectory of Grundisburgh (Suff.) was granted to Michaelhouse by Walter Wauncy (fn. 100) under a licence granted on 6 May (fn. 101) which also permitted Michaelhouse to appropriate the church; other royal and papal licences to appropriate were granted in July and December 1402 (fn. 102), and in October 1405 Michaelhouse requested papal permission to appropriate out of the rectory, and that of Cheadle, the maintenance for an additional scholar; (fn. 103) at the surrender to Henry VIII the rectories of Grundisburgh and Cheadle remained unappropriated. The last of Michaelhouse's five advowsons which passed to Trinity, that of the rectory of Orwell, was granted to them on 1 April 1417 by Richard Hargar. (fn. 104)
At the surrender Michaelhouse held five manors. Apart from Lancaster (in Barrington), two other Barrington manors had been acquired, that of Heslarton on 3 November 1374 (fn. 105) under a licence granted on 25 October, (fn. 106) and that of Spalding four years before the surrender, on 4 September 1542. (fn. 107) The manor of Ickleton was acquired from John de Illegh, for the endowment of two additional fellowships and a chantry priest, under a licence of 16 June 1345. (fn. 108) Winghale Priory and manor (Lincs.), was acquired on 24 December 1461. (fn. 109)
Two educational endowments, in addition to Ickleton manor, were of land in London for the maintenance of two poor scholars or 'Turk's children', granted in a will of 1 March 1429, (fn. 110) and of land in Mildenhall for the support of two Bible-clerks or 'Sygo's children', under an agreement of 12 October 1483. (fn. 111) Michaelhouse also drew an income from the lease of parts of its site, which were managed independently as Newmarket Hostel, Gregory's Hostel, Ovyng's Inn, Garret Hostel, St. Catherine's Hostel and, until its purchase by Gonville Hall in 1467, St. Margaret's Hostel. (fn. 112)
Constitution and Statutes.
The statutes of Michaelhouse were given on the day of foundation. (fn. 113) The first Master and seven fellows were named. Fellows, or scholars (the terms were interchangeable), were to be regents in arts or philosophy, or bachelors of arts proposing to take the M.A. degree and study theology: all had to be priests or to take priest's orders within a year of admission. Poverty was not a qualification for membership, but possession of a benefice or private income worth £5 yearly involved forfeiture of place, as did the entry into religion. Priests were to have an allowance of 5 marks and deacons 4 marks a year. The Master and all fellows were to eat together and dress alike: 12d. weekly was allowed to each member for food. Provision was made for two servants, a barber and a laundress. A fellow was to be nominated weekly to act as steward. Detailed regulations were made for services in St. Michael's Church, which were, however, not to be allowed to hinder study. Disputes were to be composed by the Master and the wiser part of the society, unless reference to the Bishop of Ely or Chancellor of the University was necessary. The Chancellor of the University was to be Visitor. Guests were prohibited, but supplementary statutes soon provided for their entertainment. (fn. 114)
It is not known what building extension there was after the original foundation. It is said that twelve sets of rooms were constructed in the late 14th century, and in 1429 these twelve apparently constituted the whole accommodation for the fellows. (fn. 115) A list of benefactors records gifts of 100s. and of 40 nobles in the late 15th century, for 'the new building'. (fn. 116) The College worshipped in St. Michael's Church in accordance with the statutes of Hervey de Stanton who had rebuilt the choir for its use: there is no record of the existence of a chapel although it is said that in 1392 the college obtained leave from the Bishop of Ely to celebrate divine service in its own house, (fn. 117) and in June 1431 the Master was allowed to have a portable altar. (fn. 118)
Michaelhouse was a small society, designed for the studies of a graduate secular clergy. (fn. 119) It was never particularly under the surveillance of external authority and its surviving records are consequently few. In 1346 it was visited by the Chancellor, at its own request. (fn. 120) In the late 14th and early 15th centuries 'chests' for loans were founded and endowed in the College. (fn. 121) At the beginning of the 15th century the revenue seems not to have been abundant: in 1402 the College asked to be allowed to discontinue the maintenance of John de Illegh's chaplain (fn. 122) and in 1405 sought to augment its revenues for the maintenance of an additional scholar out of the appropriation of two of its rectories. (fn. 123) During the second quarter of the 15th century the Master, John Otryngham, had many title-deeds, domestic statutes, and miscellaneous notes copied into a folio volume on which much of the knowledge of the College's history depends. (fn. 124) By the late 15th century Michaelhouse seems to have enjoyed, in relation to its size, fair wealth and standing. The list of benefactors was becoming long and notable, and included a gift of 200 books from a late-15th-century Master, John Yotton. There are indications of new building in the early 16th century. The College was several times chosen at this period to overlook benefactions to other colleges as beneficiary in reversion. (fn. 125) John Fisher was a member of the society at the end of the 15th century: as his successor in the presidency of Queens' he chose a former fellow of Michaelhouse, Dr. Bekenshaw or Birkenshaw, while another member of Michaelhouse, Henry Hornby, Master of Peterhouse, assisted him in the foundation of St. John's, where yet another member of the society, Nicholas Metcalfe, was chosen as third Master. (fn. 126) In the rota for proctors of 1514 Michaelhouse had six turns compared with the eight apiece of four larger colleges. (fn. 127) In 1534 the annual revenue of Michaelhouse was valued at £124. 15s. 6d., (fn. 128) and in the Commissioners' Survey of 1546 its regular, calculable income for the support of a Master, eight fellows, three chaplains, four Bible-clerks and four servants, was assessed at £141 13s. 10d.; (fn. 129) in both surveys Michaelhouse was placed about half-way up the list of college revenues. In 1536 Cromwell gratified Cranmer by obtaining the appointment of his chaplain, Francis Malet, as Master. (fn. 130) In these last years before the surrender the numbers matriculating from Michaelhouse greatly increased, eleven pensioners and one scholar doing so in the Michaelmas term of 1546, (fn. 131) even though on 29 October the College surrendered its possessions, including its independently managed hostels, to the king. On 17 December the acknowledgment of the surrender was enrolled. (fn. 132)
At the time of the surrender of these earlier societies to Henry VIII the work of forming the new College was already in progress. The origin of the new foundation was in the crisis confronting University colleges in 1545 when an act was passed authorizing their dissolution. (fn. 133) The University obtained the appointment on 16 January 1546 of a friendly commission, including John Redman, the Warden of King's Hall, to inquire into the state of the colleges. (fn. 134) By the end of February the commissioners' report had been received, favourably, by the king. (fn. 135) In the meantime the University had petitioned Katherine Parr, through Thomas Smith, for her good offices. (fn. 136) On 26 February she 'scribeled' a reassuring reply, that far from destroying such ancient and godly institutions the king would 'rather advance lernying and erecte new occasion thereof'. (fn. 137) Thus the new College was foreshadowed. In view of Henry's need of money his motive was probably at least in part that attributed to him by the queen: 'that lernyng may hereafter justly ascribe hyr verye orygynall hole conservation and sure staye to our sovereyne lorde.' By 20 May the buildings of the dissolved House of Grey Friars, on the present site of Sidney Sussex College, were being demolished to provide stone for the erection of the new College. (fn. 138) Already a 'first plott or proportion' for its composition and constitution had been drawn up, under the title Distribucio Collegii, by the Court of Augmentations, probably early in April. (fn. 139) The officers of the College and their stipends were specified in detail. It is not recorded that commissioners were appointed to take over the existing foundations; on 29 October King's Hall and Michaelhouse made their surrenders to the king, as also did Physwick Hostel which had flourished as part of Gonville Hall. (fn. 140) The surrender of Physwick Hostel was acknowledged on 10 December, those of King's Hall and Michaelhouse on 17 December. (fn. 141) Some members of the new College were probably in residence in the Michaelmas term. (fn. 142) On 19 December 1546 came the charter of foundation, followed on 24 December by the charter of dotation by which the College was endowed. (fn. 143)
The College was declared in the preamble to the charter of foundation to be designed for the glory and honour of Almighty God and of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, for the increase of and strengthening of the pure Christian religion, for the extirpation of error and false teaching, for the increase of godliness and all good learning, for the education of youth in piety and knowledge, for the assistance of the poor and 'in fine for the common benefit and prosperity of the Church of Christ, of our kingdom and of our subjects'. In the circumstances of its foundation, in its declared purpose, and in the person of its first Master, John Redman, Trinity was an exemplar of the Henrician settlement.
Continuity with the past was not altogether broken. The chapel of King's Hall and the hall of Michaelhouse remained in use, (fn. 144) the Warden of King's Hall became the first Master of Trinity, and with King's Hall in particular there was a continuity of tradition; in January 1547 the new society was called 'the King's scholars' (fn. 145) and as late as 1589 a burial record refers to 'King's Hall otherwise called Trinity College'. (fn. 146) But the new endowments greatly overweighed the old, and from the start the surviving members of the earlier foundations must have been heavily outnumbered by the new recruits. These are thought to have come entirely from Cambridge colleges. (fn. 147)
The site of Trinity was those of King's Hall and Michaelhouse, together with that of Physwick Hostel on the south side of the present Great Court. The land opposite St. Michael's Church was sold to Dr. Caius for his new foundation of 1557. In 1613 land was acquired west of the river, (fn. 148) where further purchases were made in 1663–4; the site of the garden west of Queens' Road was purchased in 1871 after Whewell's death. The only material extension of the College site for building arose from the bequest by Whewell of the site of Whewell's Court on the east of Trinity Street in 1863. (fn. 149)
Endowments and Advowsons.
The endowments of the new College were enumerated in detail in the letters patent of 24 December 1546. (fn. 150) All the property of King's Hall and Michaelhouse was transferred to Trinity. (fn. 151) Further grants were made to a total annual value of £1,678 3s. 9¼d., less rents of £38 3s. 9½d.
The advowsons of 40 churches were granted to the College: Great Barford, Cardington, (fn. 152) Keysoe, (fn. 153) Eaton Bray, (fn. 154) Roxton, Shitlington, (fn. 153) Stagsden (fn. 155) and Stotfold (fn. 153) (Beds.); Mesworth (fn. 153) (Bucks.); Over, Shudy Camps, (fn. 152) and Trumpington (Cambs.); Gainford (Co. Dur.); Hatfield (fn. 153) (Essex); Hitchin, Ippollitts, (fn. 153) Ware (Herts.); Brading (I.W.); Wymeswold (Leics.); Little Coates, (fn. 152) Ravendale, (fn. 156) and Swineshead (fn. 152) (Lincs.); Enfield (Mdx.); Blythe, Flintham, Hoveringham, Langford, (fn. 153) Thurgarton, and Tuxford (fn. 153) (Notts.); Monk's Kirby and Withybrook (Warws.); Coxwold curacy with dependent curacies, (fn. 152) Darfield, (fn. 152) Kellington, Masham, Normanton, Pickhill, (fn. 154) Sedbergh, Walkeringham, (fn. 153) and Whitkirk (fn. 152) (Yorks.). All were vicarages except Coxwold; the four rectorial livings possessed at this time came from Michaelhouse (three) and King's Hall (one). (fn. 157)
Four more advowsons, of Heversham, Kendal, and Kirkby Lonsdale vicarages in Westmorland and of Aysgarth vicarage in Yorkshire were given, together with their rectories valued in all at £376 10s. 3d., by Queen Mary on 29 May 1554, (fn. 158) to offset deficiencies in the value of Henry's endowments of which the College had complained in the previous reign. (fn. 159)
Other advowsons acquired later were of Skidby (Yorks.) on 24 November 1619, with money given by Lady Bromley; (fn. 160) the rectory of North Runcton (Norf.), in 1623, by bequest from Thomas Hopes; (fn. 161) the third turn of presentation to the rectory of Guisely (Yorks.) given by Sir Thomas Strickland on 17 October 1667; (fn. 162) the rectory of Loughton (Bucks.), (fn. 153) given on 4 November 1678 by Francis Crane; (fn. 163) the rectory of Papworth (Cambs.) (fn. 152) on 29 December 1673 from Dr. Duport; (fn. 164) the rectory of Dickleburgh (Norf.) on 15 July 1681 from Dr. Chamberlain; (fn. 165) Bumpstead Helions (Essex) (fn. 152) on 10 August 1727 with Mr. Modd's bequest; (fn. 166) Gilling (Yorks.) in 1811 from Mr. Pigott; (fn. 167) and the rectory of Reepham (Norf.) for which North Runcton was exchanged, in 1840. (fn. 168) Between 1850 and 1868 the vicarages of Barnard Castle and Bolam (Co. Dur.), (fn. 152) and of Bottisham Lode (Cambs.), (fn. 153) and the perpetual curacy of Bawtry (Yorks.), (fn. 153) were acquired. The college also acquired by a bequest of Dr. Thomas Allen in 1558 the patronage of and right to present the master to three schools, at Stevenage (Herts.) and at Stone and Uttoxeter (Staffs.). At one time the College thus possessed some 70 livings, mainly vicarages, of which, however, few were of great monetary value. (fn. 169)
In addition to the manors derived from King's Hall and Michaelhouse, Henry VIII's endowment included the manors of Flintham, Hoveringham, Starthorpe, and Thurgarton (fn. 170) (Notts.); and of Collesden (Beds.) and Marshland in Newdigate, (Surr.), (fn. 171) It is not clear whether the manor of Pirton (Staffs.) or merely a rent-charge, was granted to the College. (fn. 172) The endowment also included the prebendal manor of Masham (Yorks.) and the rectorial manors of Brading (I.W.); Enfield (Mdx.); Hitchin and Ware (Herts.); Shitlington and Stotfold (Beds.); and Wymeswold (Leics.). (fn. 173)
On 24 May 1558 the manor of Whetstone (Leics.) was devised to Trinity by Thomas Allen. (fn. 174) On 13 June 1606 the manor of Tritton in Tydd St. Mary (Lincs.) was obtained in exchange for Winghole. (fn. 175) On 24 November 1619 the manor of Skidby (Yorks.) was acquired with the advowson, as a benefaction from Lady Bromley. (fn. 176)
Endowments were given for the maintenance of scholars by Dr. Thomas Allen, 1558, Lady Jermyn, 1581, Lady Bromley, 1618, Dr. Samwaies, 1661, Roger Jeston, 1662, Stephen Newnham, 1663, and William Penry, 1701. Others were given in the 19th century. (fn. 177)
Constitution and Statutes.
Until the statutes of 1552 Trinity was governed only by the injunctions made for the regulation of colleges by the University visitors of 1549. (fn. 178) The composition of the College followed closely, however, that laid down in the Distribucio Collegii of Spring 1546; a Master, 50 graduates and 10 undergraduates (comprising the 60 fellows and scholars of the foundation charter), 40 grammarians under a schoolmaster and usher, and 8 Bible-clerks. (fn. 179) The three regius professors of Hebrew, Greek, and Divinity received their stipends from the College. Between 1546 and 1552, probably about 1550, the grammar school was abolished, the grammarians becoming students. (fn. 180) From the beginning the Mastership was in the gift of the Crown.
On 8 November 1552 Trinity received its first statutes. (fn. 181) They were very detailed. The number of fellows was reduced to 50, the title being limited to M.A.'s; the scholars numbered 60, including both B.A. fellows designate and the younger students formerly grammarians. Provision was made for 54 pensioners, who were to be subjected to an entranceexamination; all students including sizars were to have a tutor. Twenty-four almsmen were to be maintained. Educational and disciplinary functions were charged upon named officers who constituted the governing senatus. The office of Master was described in detail and its importance was emphasized by the oath imposed upon its holder, including a declaration to maintain the Protestant faith, the authority of scripture, and the royal prerogative against foreign claims to jurisdiction. A declaration of religious belief and political allegiance was also exacted from fellows. Elections to fellowships were to be made by the whole body of officers: all fellowships obliged to the study of divinity except two reserved for civil law and two for medicine; all had to take holy orders within seven years of their M.A. degree, except that the medical and legal fellows had a longer period of grace. All fellowships except those of the regius professors were vacated by marriage. Acquisition of an income or benefice valued above £10 yearly similarly involved forfeiture; poverty was to be considered a recommendation in elections to fellowships. Three fellows were permitted to reside abroad for three years without forfeiture. Not more than three natives of any one county could hold fellowships simultaneously.
In November 1554 statutes were drafted but not sealed. (fn. 182) They were without legal validity but appear to have supplanted the Edwardian statutes in practice and were the basis of the Elizabethan statutes. (fn. 183) The number of fellows was restored to 60, including both M.A.'s and B.A.'s, distinguished as major and minor fellows. The number of scholars remained at 60.
New statutes were issued on 29 March 1560. (fn. 184) They were even fuller than those of 1552. The composition of the foundation remained as in 1554 except that two scholars were added and the number of chaplains reduced to four. The office of tutor was clearly recognized, all students, including pensioners and sizars, being required to have one. There was to be an annual entrance examination, and an annual election of scholars from resident students. A very wide educational curriculum was elaborated in detail, and the discipline of communal life was minutely prescribed. As the governing body under the Master, the senatus, recruited ex officio, of the Edwardian statutes, was replaced by the eight senior fellows or Seniority. The county limitation on fellowships was abolished but it was ordained that candidates from places where the College owned property were, ceteris paribus, to be preferred.
These statutes remained substantially unaltered until new statutes were approved on 24 February 1844. These, however, made few important changes; only scholars were allowed to sit for fellowships. New statutes, of 22 February 1860 (fn. 185) made fundamental changes. It was made possible for the more important College offices to be held by laymen, and easier for a married man to hold a fellowship. The distinction between major and minor fellows was abolished. So also was the local preference ordained in 1560. It was made possible, but not easy, for all fellows to participate in the government of the College at a general College meeting, while the Master's voting-power within the Seniority was reduced. Provision was made for the election of non-residents into scholarships, and for the election of honorary fellows.
In the 1870's Trinity was perhaps the most prompt of colleges in the movement towards further legislative reform, but the statutes of 3 May 1882 are rather a part of University than of College history. Among other provisions the Seniority was replaced by a College council of thirteen members, its composition partly ex officio and partly elective. Facilities for the participation of all fellows in the government of the College were increased.
New statutes were granted on 30 April 1926. Among other changes, the Mastership ceased to be tenable for life.
Three topics concerning the constitution governing the society may be noted. The Elizabethan statutes provided for a four-day fellowship examination: by the 18th century the electors often omitted to examine the candidates: in 1786 ten of the fellows protested against this as an abuse, and in 1789 a public fellowship examination was instituted. (fn. 186)
The statutes of 1552 had declared the Bishop of Ely to be Visitor. The Elizabethan statutes did not explicitly determine the point but directed the Bishop to hear complaints against the Master. It remained uncertain and, particularly during Bentley's Mastership, hotly disputed whether the visitatorial power had thus lapsed to the Crown. In 1860 the Crown was stated to be Visitor but the right to hear complaints against the Master was reserved to the Bishop. In 1882 all visitatorial powers were vested in the Crown. (fn. 187)
In the statutes given to Westminster School by Elizabeth I in 1560 three Westminsters yearly were given the right of election to a scholarship at Trinity (with similar privileges for the school at Christ Church, Oxford); letters patent of 11 June 1561 confirmed this right. In 1569 it was agreed that Trinity should take two Westminsters each year and three each third year. Letters patent of 1576 repeated the former injunction of 1561 but the 1569 agreement continued normally to be observed. On 27 June 1607 James I ordered the strict observance of the earlier injunctions and expressed a wish that Trinity scholars should be drawn mainly from Old Westminsters who should also be given preference for fellowships. (fn. 188) Trinity resisted, but by an agreement of 13 October 1608 (fn. 189) undertook, in return for the abandonment of these extreme claims, to take the three Westminsters yearly and to grant them seniority in candidature for fellowships. Intermittent friction continued but by the late 17th century there was a strong Westminster element in the College, Old Westminsters constituting more than a quarter of the fellows. About 1775 the Westminster ascendancy in fellowship elections ceased, without statutory enactment. (fn. 190) By a statute approved on 25 June 1857 the Westminster right to scholarships was exchanged for closed exhibitions. (fn. 191)
In the first year of the College building operations were undertaken, (fn. 192) and in 1550–1 parts of Michaelhouse and Physwick Hostel were altered. (fn. 193) In Mary's reign a Master's Lodge and a row of chambers, including a library, were erected connecting the building of Michaelhouse with those of King's Hall, and also ranges on each side of the Great Gate of King's Hall, linking it on the north with the new chapel, which was commenced in 1556 and completed in 1567. Its consecration is not recorded. (fn. 194)
It was during the Mastership of Thomas Nevile (1593–1615) that the buildings of Trinity substantially took their present form. Some of the recent buildings as well as older ranges were swept away to allow the construction of Great Court, the largest of English college courts, between 1595 and 1605. The buildings included a new library, the hall, the extension of the Master's Lodge, long ranges of chambers and the fountain. The old Edward III gate-tower of King's Hall was moved bodily into alignment with the new north side of the court. (fn. 195) To provide the necessary capital, Nevile obtained permission for College lands to be let for longer leases of twenty instead of ten years, allowing larger fines to be levied. (fn. 196) He also lent £3,000 to the College on easy terms. (fn. 197) Great Court completed, Nevile himself paid for the construction, probably between 1605 and 1612, of a second court open to the river, which bears his name. (fn. 198)
Half a century later the College entered on another period of building expansion. In 1670–1 Bishop's Hostel was built, with £1,200 given by John Hacket, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. (fn. 199) On 26 February 1676 the foundation was laid for the most imposing of Trinity's buildings, a new library. Sir Christopher Wren provided the design free of charge. In the same year and in 1681 the two sides of Nevile's Court were extended, at the cost of Sir Thomas Sclater and Dr. Humphrey Babington, to meet the new building. (fn. 200) The library was probably completed by about 1688 but the interior fittings took another seven years; the books were moved in from the old library in 1695. The cost of the new library was £16,425. (fn. 201)
The next extension of College buildings found to be necessary came when King's (later New) Court was erected between 1823 and 1825. (fn. 202) Forty years later, between 1860 and 1868, 100 sets of rooms were built opposite the main entrance to the College, on a site bequeathed by the Master, William Whewell. The extension of Bishop's Hostel, 1876–8, (fn. 203) was the last considerable piece of building undertaken by the College. A hostel was erected in Green Street after the Second World War.
In 1547 Trinity had removed all 'popish traces' from the old chapel of King's Hall; the altar and steps were taken down and a communion table set up. Books, copes, and vestments to the value of £140 were sold. (fn. 204) The new chapel of Trinity was but imperfectly finished when, in 1565, Puritans, at that time strong in the College, broke the windows 'wherein did appear superstition', (fn. 205) and demonstratively cast off their surplices. In the early years the altar was placed two bays from the east end. An organ is first mentioned in 1593–4. There is a full report, from a Laudian standpoint, on the long-noted neglect of chapel service and negligences in its performance, made in 1635 preparatory to an intended visit by the archbishop; (fn. 206) it is noted that the College 'are about mending their chapel, if it holds', and in June 1636, it is recorded that the College determined to set the communion table at the east end 'as it is in cathedral churches' and that 'the chapell be adorned accordingly'. (fn. 207) In 1642 the ritual was high and the furnishings elaborate; (fn. 208) expensive hangings had been bought in London. (fn. 209) But in the same year, apparently in anticipation of Dowsing's visit, these adornments were removed, (fn. 210) and all he could find to do was to have '4 cherubims and steps levelled'. (fn. 211) There are records in 1644 of payments 'to divers soldiers at several times that behaved themselves very devoutly in the chapel' and to some who 'defended the chapel from the rudeness of the rest'. (fn. 212) At the Restoration an organ, altar furniture, and the original altar were replaced. In 1706 a new scheme of adornment was undertaken, not completed before 1734, by which ornate classical panelling and stalls and a great carved baldachin over the altar were set up. The chapel was repaired in 1831–2, and between 1867 and 1875 the walls were decorated and the present stained-glass windows inserted. (fn. 213)
The library, although it is not known to contain any books from the libraries of Michaelhouse or King's Hall, has been enriched since the early days of Trinity with notable acquisitions. It was not, however, until 1608 that a 'librarian's place' was founded and endowed, by Sir Edward Stanhope. (fn. 214) The gradual accession of interesting books was presumably assisted by the 'conclusion' of 27 August 1662 that each major fellow was expected to give to the library a book or books worth 20s. (fn. 215)
Of the more notable collections of manuscripts the chief are Archbishop Whitgift's collection, including the Amalarius Codex; Dr. Nevile's collection, including Bede's translation of St. Paul's epistles, of the 8th century, the library's earliest manuscript, and the Canterbury Psalter; and Roger Gale's large collection, including the manuscript of the Lexicon of Photius. A fine collection of Hebrew manuscripts was given by William Aldis Wright. The Milton MS. was given by Sir Henry Puckering in 1691.
The library possesses some 600 incunabula, and a fine collection of canon law books.
The remarkable Shakespeare collection given in 1779 by Edward Capell, contains a complete set of the folio editions of the plays. More important, a considerable number of early quartos are in the library. A second set of folios is in the very valuable miscellaneous library of William Grylls bequeathed in 1863. Another large valuable library, mainly theological, was given in 1855 by the widow of Archdeacon Julius Hare.
More recently, books from Newton's private library were given, during the Second World War, by the Pilgrim Trust, and since the war Lord Rothschild has given a large library particularly rich in 18th-century first editions and in Swift manuscripts.
In its infancy Trinity owed a good deal to the College which itself was much indebted for its existence to a member of Michaelhouse: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was a colonia deducta from St. John's. Its first four Masters were 'bread up before in St. Johns'. (fn. 216) It took some 30 years for Trinity to draw nearly level with St. John's in the number of its admissions but by about 1575 their numbers were in close rivalry and remained so until the Civil War. (fn. 217)
In the meantime the links with the Reformation and with royalty had been illustrated by two visits, of Bucer and Fagius in 1550, when they became members of the College, (fn. 218) and of Henry's sister, the Duchess of Suffolk, who stayed in the old Physwick Hostel in 1551. (fn. 219)
About the same time the failure of Henry's endowments to yield the expected revenue of £1,600 yearly, 'by reason of decayed tenements and the negligence of the first auditors and surveyors' was a subject of complaint by the College. (fn. 220) In May 1554 Queen Mary provided additional endowments, (fn. 221) expressing the unfulfilled hope that it would help to provide scholars able to 'tear out by the roots the perverse opinions of false prophets'. (fn. 222) The Master, William Bill, was forcibly ejected. (fn. 223) But the reformed tendency represented by the first Master, John Redman and by Bill, both of whom were concerned in revisions of the Prayer Book, was not to be reversed. The accession of Queen Elizabeth I brought Bill back, and in the next two decades it was rather against the early attacks of Puritanism on the Elizabethan church settlement within the College that the Masters had to struggle. Robert Beaumont, who succeeded Bill in 1561, shortly afterwards expelled Sanderson, a fellow of Puritan sympathies, (fn. 224) and enforced the use of the surplice, occasioning the demonstration against 'superstition' in 1565 under the leadership of Thomas Cartwright who was at that time a fellow. (fn. 225) Beaumont's personal sentiments were, however, largely in harmony with those of the Puritans. This sympathy with Puritan doctrine was partially shared by John Whitgift who succeeded him in 1567. But the discipline and order of the established church were firmly enforced and in the clash between Whitgift and Cartwright, whom he expelled from his fellowship in 1572 for failing to take priest's orders, (fn. 226) the College witnessed the rehearsal both of a national struggle and of its outcome. Whitgift was not an easily popular Master, but in him the College had a head the weight of whose personality was felt throughout the University. (fn. 227)
Meanwhile the College estates had been surveyed under a royal commission of March 1561. (fn. 228) Other commissions were licensed in 1564, 1568, 1582, and 1599. (fn. 229) In 1574 Whitgift spent four weeks of travel in surveying College estates. (fn. 230)
Under Whitgift the numbers of admissions rose to rival those of St. John's at a level not reached again until the 19th century, (fn. 231) and Trinity became a place of education of sons of the great and fashionable. Whitgift's tutorial accounts have been printed, (fn. 232) and contain payments for Lord Edward Zouch, (fn. 233) the Earl of Cumberland, and the brothers Anthony and Francis Bacon; Edward Coke had come up in 1567, and two years after Whitgift had left to become Bishop of Worcester, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, was admitted, during the Mastership of John Still. (fn. 234)
The firm discipline of Trinity's Masters during its first half-century of existence had established its status securely, but it was under the wealthy and well-connected Thomas Nevile (1593–1615) that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness of building and the high degree of royal and courtly association with the specifically governing class that distinguished it until the Civil War, more perhaps than in any subsequent period. At the end of the 16th century numbers had somewhat fallen, but by about 1610 had risen again until they once more fell from about 1625 until the Civil War. A curious instance of the connexion with the government in London is a request sent to Burghley in 1595 that robes might be lent from the Tower for two comedies and a tragedy to be performed at Trinity on the occasion of the 'Bachelor's Commencement'. (fn. 235) More seriously the College wrote on 12 March 1601 to Robert Cecil, that the intrusion of covetous persons upon the possessions of the College had made it 'bold from time to time to chose some personage of honour to patronize our poor college'; and they now thus sought his favour, his father, Burghley, having filled 'this office' before him. (fn. 236) The great building operations absorbed much of the College's attention at this time, and proceeded harmoniously. In 1595 the site of the Grey Friars had been leased for the foundation of Sidney Sussex College. In 1607 James I sought to secure more assuredly the privileges of Westminsters at Trinity granted by Elizabeth I, and met with resistance. This was not substantially successful and the Westminster infusion grew stronger in the 17th century. But it occasioned an impressive statement, perhaps composed by Nevile himself, of the success and high station then achieved by those Trinity men who were not Westminsters, including the two archbishops and seven bishops. (fn. 237) At this time members of the College, including Nevile's successor, John Richardson, were prominent in the production of the Authorized Version of the Bible. The lodging of the Judges of Assize at the Master's Lodge probably dates from Nevile's time; Coke stayed in Trinity when on circuit in 1610 and 1612 and the practice became customary. (fn. 238) In 1613 Prince Charles was entertained at the lodge by Nevile. In 1615 James I made two visits. Nevile had died shortly before the second of these. The royal statues erected on the Great Gate in commemoration of the royal visits indicate also something of the character of the College in his Mastership.
The governmental and royalist connexions and the courtly sympathies at the lodge continued under Richardson, Mawe, and Brooke. They did not, however, dispose Trinity to acquiesce easily in the royal enforcement of Westminster privileges and on 30 September 1623 James sent letters patent requiring that pre-election to fellowships, which impeded the election of Westminsters, should cease. At the same time he spoke of his great interest in the welfare of 'our College', which was 'the fairest in all our kingdoms'. (fn. 239) He stayed at Trinity in December of the following year and the ratification of the marriage treaty with France was signed in the lodge. (fn. 240) In 1626 Trinity, under the vigorous guidance of the Master, Leonard Mawe, was the chief supporter of the Duke of Buckingham in his election as Chancellor. In the following year Buckingham and Laud visited Trinity. (fn. 241) The doctrinal complexion of the College as a whole was not, however, necessarily in conformity with the Laudian ideal or the views of the lodge. In 1635 it was noted that in some tutors' chambers private prayers were 'longer and louder by far' than in the chapel, and that many fellows gave a bad example of individualistic disrespect for the established order of worship. (fn. 242) The diverse characteristics of the College ethos were becoming assembled.
In the first half of the 17th century Trinity was remarkable for the poets who were members of the College. George Herbert came up in 1609, John Suckling in 1623, Andrew Marvell in 1633, Abraham Cowley in 1637, and John Dryden in 1650. (fn. 243)
The brief Mastership of Leonard Mawe (1625–8) is said to have rescued the College from debt (fn. 244) perhaps arising from the expenses of the recently erected buildings. By 1630 the College finances were sufficiently prosperous to permit what was probably the first distribution of surplus income, in that year £900, in 'dividends' to the fellows, additional to their stipends. (fn. 245) The method of distributing each unit of £1,000 of surplus income, which sum was known as an 'original dividend', among the Master and fellows, was set out by the seniors on 8 January 1646. (fn. 246) From then until about 1686 distributions varied between one and two 'original dividends' yearly.
During the Civil War and Interregnum Trinity suffered heavily from the ejection of fellows. Of the 73 fellows in the College in 1642, after Lady Day, at least 31 seem to have been ejected and 19 more are said in Alumni Cantabrigienses or Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy to have been ejected; of these 50 fellows none occurs in the stipendium list of 1652. Only two of the 73 received payment as resident throughout the period, two more had permission to travel and one retained his fellowship without payment. Twenty-six fellows were irregularly intruded; only four survived the Restoration. Thirty-nine others were admitted 1642–59 and were confirmed in their fellowships at the Restoration. In 1645 and 1646 there had been 'a wholesale disappearance of the existing fellows'. (fn. 247) In 1643 the Earl of Manchester established his headquarters at Trinity and supported the College plea for the discontinuance of the sequestration of its property. (fn. 248) In February 1646 the Committee for the Regulation of the University ordered four fellows of Trinity to be made seniors; (fn. 249) there were other instances of Parliamentary nominees being favoured with advancement in seniority. The following year Parliament ordered the College to report on the alterations desirable in the statutes, wherein 'there are divers absurd things savouring of the darkness of those popish tymes wherein the said Colledge was founded'. (fn. 250) In April 1649 the Council of State wrote to the Master that students willing to go in the summer fleet should not thereby be prejudiced in the Michaelmas fellowship elections. (fn. 251)
The filling of vacant fellowships was 'quite irregular' in form. Dr. Thomas Hill supplanted the ejected Master, Thomas Comber, in 1645, but it was not until 1648 that a patent appointing him Master was granted in Parliament. (fn. 252)
The disturbance of personnel was great and the interference of Parliamentary authorities with the government of the College considerable. But the average number of yearly admissions was 49 in the decade 1640–9 and 45 in the decade 1650–9, both figures being higher than they were to become in the later 17th and the 18th centuries. Nor was the intellectual life of the College in abeyance. At the beginning of the period the ideas of the Cambridge Platonists were finding an early expression within the College. (fn. 253) In 1646 Isaac Barrow came up, succeeded to a fellowship in 1649 and remained despite his royalism until 1655 when, having published his Elements of Euclid, he travelled abroad until 1659. In 1646 John Ray also had come up, and in 1652 Francis Willoughby. With the mathematical and botanical studies of these fellows the tradition of the College as a home of distinguished scientific work may be said to have begun. (fn. 254) Hardly less consonant with the abiding character of the College was the payment in 1659 of £30 to 'the learned Lithuanian now employed here in translating the Bible into that language'. (fn. 255) A little later, after the Restoration, charitable donations were given, in October 1660, to a Polish and two German students and to 'the learned Grecian Rhodocanaces'. (fn. 256)
In July 1660 a petition was sent to the Crown that John Wilkins should be confirmed in his position as Master, (fn. 257) but Henry Ferne had been promised the post by Charles I, (fn. 258) and his claim was admitted. In April 1661 the Master and thirteen 'ancient lawful Fellows' petitioned for power to reject intruded and unworthy fellows. (fn. 259) But it appears that at least 43 fellows of the Interregnum survived the Restoration. (fn. 260)
The College during the later 17th century subsequent to the Restoration was the home of Isaac Newton, who spent all his academic life from 1661 to 1696 within its walls; in Pearson and Barrow the College had Masters of high distinction; and the building undertaken was extensive, costly, and splendid. But subsequent to the Civil War Trinity was never again until about 1755 as close a rival to St. John's in numbers as it had been in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. (fn. 261) Neither of Barrow's successors, North and Montagu, despite their personal merits, made an ideal Master, and under them royal mandates for elections to fellowships were, until the Revolution, frequent and deleterious. (fn. 262) At the same time, until the later 18th century, the Westminster privileges were, in practice, becoming accentuated. The College attempted to resist both tendencies, with only moderate success. (fn. 263) The result was a decline in the general standard of fellows. In 1677 and 1682 the maintenance of stricter residence and performance of College duties by fellows were the subjects of 'conclusions' by the Seniority. (fn. 264)
In December 1674 Barrow spoke of the poor monetary value of Trinity fellowships. (fn. 265) Perhaps connected with a consciousness of this was the benefaction of four advowsons to the College between 1667 and 1681. (fn. 266) The building operations may have reduced the surplus income further, as from about 1687 to about 1709 dividends were at a low level, none being distributed in eight of the years. (fn. 267)
From 1675 the register of admissions was kept more fully than before. The description of the geographical provenance of the entrants 1676–91 shows that the midland counties and the north were much more strongly represented than the south and west. Nevertheless, London and Middlesex and their near environs provided about a third of the total; so, too, London schools and Eton provided 40 per cent. of the whole: thus the entry was to a considerable extent 'metropolitan' rather than 'provincial'. (fn. 268)
In 1700 Trinity received as its Master a great and mean man, Richard Bentley. Trinity retained sufficient status for it to be proposed that the Duke of Gloucester, the heir to the throne, should be educated at the College under the new Master. But in the decade 1700–9 the Trinity entry was smaller in proportion to the rest of the University than before or after, until recent years. During the two middle decades of Bentley's 40-year Mastership the numbers rose, but the Master's enmities were allowed to damage the academic prospects of his opponents' pupils, and in the last decade of his Mastership the number of entrants fell lower than in the first: throughout the 40 years as a whole, however, the proportion of Trinity to University entries slowly and slightly rose. The fruitful tradition of providing facilities for a wide range of studies may be said to have been inaugurated with the construction of an observatory for the Plumian professor in 1706 (fn. 269) and a chemical laboratory in 1707. (fn. 270) The promise that Bentley's high conception of the College as a place of learning and education gave of a recovery of status was, however, largely nullified by the violent domestic strife provoked by the greed and truculence that debased his ambition. In 1710–14 and 1728–34, Bentley was charged with misdemeanours by a party of fellows in the court of the Bishop of Ely, acting as Visitor: accusations of the malversation of College property and the misuse of his powers to advance or retard the academic progress of members of the society were made against him. On both occasions the opinion of the bishop went against him and on both occasions he escaped, once by the death of the bishop before delivering judgement, and at the end by the refusal of the vice-master to execute a sentence of deprivation of the mastership. In these disputes with the fellows and in his concurrent dispute with the University he sought refuge and favour by recourse to the courts where his Hanoverian loyalties and his championship of the claim of the Crown to act as Visitor stood him in good stead with the government and the judges. The pertinacity of his opponents was great but Bentley's resilience was greater and he died in possession of the mastership and in the exercise of its powers and functions. Being under sentence of deprivation, he is not described as Master on his tombstone in the chapel. (fn. 271)
The intermittent strife did not altogether impede the academic work of Roger Cotes, Robert Smith, and Conyers Middleton. But by the mid-18th century the number of entrants was dwindling towards its lowest level. And the moral of the recent conflicts, that in times of friction the College statutes were as much a hindrance as a help, was, if drawn, not acted upon.
In the meantime the educational work had been increasingly passing from the College lectors to the tutors and by the end of the 17th century the number of fellows who acted as tutors had been reduced to about four. It rose in the first quarter of the 18th century but by 1755 had fallen again to two tutors, each with a definite 'side' of the College. Teaching had largely passed into their hands and those of their assistant-tutors. In the 19th century the number of tutors had by 1872 risen to four, but it was not until the last 30 years of the century that the education of the undergraduates passed from 'assistant tutors' to fellows with specified and recognized teaching posts. (fn. 272)
One of the earliest works of Bentley's successor, Robert Smith, was to borrow money cheaply: the expenses of the Bentley war had been heavy and had been borne by the College. In 1753 an attempt was made to enforce more strictly the residence in Cambridge and attendance at lectures of undergraduates. Trinity suffered perhaps less than some colleges from suspicions of Jacobitism: £200 was subscribed in 1745 to the Association, (fn. 273) and the College was later regarded as 'the great strength of the Whig interest'. (fn. 274) But political individualism characterized the College and Smith's advocacy of 'Jemmy Twitcher' for High Steward in 1764 both antagonized a body of fellows and lost the College some prospective undergraduates. (fn. 275)
About 1752 the number of 'original dividends' distributed to fellows, which had remained fairly steadily at two a year since about 1710, began a gradual and steady rise to about twelve a year in the first decade of the 19th century. Complaints were frequently made in the 18th century of the poor value of College livings, (fn. 276) few of which, unaugmented, were said to be of sufficient value to require or permit the vacation of a fellowship. In 1768 the College devoted £1,000 towards the augmentation of its livings. (fn. 277)
Between 1770 and 1790 Nevile's Court, the Bridge, and the Kitchen Building, containing the Combination Room (now the Old Combination Room), were brought by James Essex into harmony with the taste of the time. (fn. 278)
College numbers reached their lowest level in the decade 1760–9 but thereafter numbers began to rise again fairly quickly. By about 1755 Trinity was once more on a numerical level with St. John's, and subsequently the proportion which its members formed of the whole University rose, until in 1790 it constituted about a third of the whole, at which level it remained until the last quarter of the 19th century. Of great importance, the tutors of the later 18th century were, in the main, good. (fn. 279)
In the middle years of the 18th century the proportion of northcountrymen increased. By about 1775 nearly a half of the English entrants came from the six northern counties, mainly from the northeast; London and its countryside continued to provide about a third of the English entry; and overseas entrants now first became noticeable, being 7 or 8 per cent. of the whole.
The last two decades of the 18th century saw an important rise in academic standards. The elections to fellowships had become lax and unregulated in form: electors often did not examine candidates adequately. In 1786, during the mastership of John Hinchcliffe, ten fellows made their celebrated protest against elections without examination. On being censured they appealed to the Crown as Visitor, and the judgement of Lord Thurlow in arbitration contained a salutary condemnation of such abuses. (fn. 280) Gunning dated Trinity's ascendancy from this event. Three years later, in 1789, the new Master, Thomas Postlethwaite, instituted a public fellowship examination. The next year annual examinations for firstand second-year undergraduates were established. (fn. 281)
The attempt of the Evangelical Tory President of Queens', Isaac Milner, to obtain from Pitt the Mastership of Trinity in 1789 and 1798 in order to force the College of Porson from its libertarian tendencies (fn. 282) is a striking testimony to what he called the 'great academical and even national importance' of the society, and also, in the light of the Duke of Gloucester's admission in 1787 under Hinchcliffe, a testimony to its diversity. From about 1790 Trinity drew away in numbers from St. John's, and particularly so after about 1820.
The second decade of the 19th century saw the number of dividends distributed to fellows fluctuate violently, (fn. 283) but in the main rise steeply to an average of about 24 a year. Thereafter it fell to about 16, by about 1824, then recovered to a level deliberately kept fairly steady at about 19 dividends (fn. 284) in the mid19th century. The average annual distribution had risen to 23 or 24 by 1886 when the distribution of surplus income to fellows ceased in this form.
In the early 19th century Trinity's relative freedom from local restrictions on the disposal of its awards enabled it to profit from the advance, at the expense of the local grammar schools, of the bigger 'public' schools: at this period the range of schools from which it drew its members began to narrow and its entry began increasingly to be derived from the large non-local school. The character of Trinity in this period, with its strength largely in classical learning, may be indicated by pointing to the friendships and ideas formed as undergraduates there by Macaulay, Tennyson, or F. D. Maurice. Numbers rose steeply during the first three decades, then more gradually at much the same rate as those in the University as a whole. In 1823–5 and again in 1860–8 accommodation was enlarged.
During the 19th century the history of Trinity was in large measure a part of the wider history of the University. But in two important respects that wider history took its shaping from Trinity opinion. In the first half of the century the College was prominent in movements for academic and educational reform, and after the changes in the statutes in 1860 (fn. 285) there was much activity within the College in the discussion of further reform. An extensive programme of changes was submitted to the general College meeting of 1867. (fn. 286) In 1871 a committee considered the election to and tenure of fellowships (particularly the questions of compulsory celibacy and of life-fellowships) and the composition of the tutorial and educational staff. In December 1872 the tenure of life-fellowships merely by right of entering holy orders was abolished, and the other proposals of the committee, in May 1872, tending towards the abolition of compulsory celibacy and of prolonged unconditional tenure of fellowships, had comprised a far-reaching change in the character of the society. Royal approval of the revision of the College statutes was withheld in view of the anticipated appointment of a statutory commission, and the Trinity reforms became merged in the more general changes of 1882. These lie, in the main, outside the scope of college history; but it can be said that in contributing to the changes of 1882 Trinity was 'the first of the Cambridge colleges to break completely with the tradition of the past'. (fn. 287)
Trinity also contributed to the widening of University studies. In 1858 an exhibition in astronomy was established, (fn. 288) and in 1867 scholarships were established in oriental languages, (fn. 289) international law, (fn. 290) and natural sciences, for which, in 1868, it was ordered that one fellowship in three years should be given. (fn. 291) At this period Trinity assumed seriously the responsibility of providing a wide and systematic range of lectures and supervisions for its undergraduates. (fn. 292) In 1870 Michael Foster was appointed to a praelectorship in physiology (fn. 293) and in 1878 Trinity offered to found a chair of that subject, as well as of history. In the 1870's scholarships were being awarded in moral sciences. (fn. 294) The facilities given in 1882 for awarding research fellowships were turned to good account in Frazer's anthropological researches, and by the late 19th century the fostering of new or under-endowed subjects was established as a distinctive but not wholly new characteristic of the College, which more recently was to contribute notably to the development of biochemical studies.
Since the First World War the numerical proportion of Trinity men to the rest of the University has fallen greatly, to under 10 per cent., while its numerical ascendancy over St. John's has almost disappeared. Of other aspects of its recent history it need only be said that the relatively large number and varied studies of its fellows and research scholars is in substantial conformity with the traditions of its recent and more remote past. Its wide and diversified recruitment is similarly maintained by the presence among the 461 entrants (including research students) in the years 1950–1 of 69 whose previous education was outside Great Britain.
Notable Pictures. (fn. 295)
Of the portraits of historical interest the first to be mentioned is the lifesize full-length portrait of Henry VIII by Hans Eworth, derived from the Holbein portrait made for the Palace of Whitehall. It is in oil on an oak panel in two pieces. The portrait was left to the College by Robert Beaumont, Master.
Probably also bequeathed by Beaumont is the life-size full-length portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, probably by Marcus Gheeraerts. (fn. 296) There is also a good copy, almost life-size, after the portrait of Queen Mary Tudor in the Prado by Antonio More. It was given by J. W. Clark in 1903. Of four portraits of Francis Bacon, that in oil on panel, slightly less than life-size, and probably contemporary, given in 1751 by Peter Burrell, should be mentioned. There is a portrait of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, on panel, probably contemporary and by Marcus Gheeraerts, given by Robert Moxon in 1756. Of eight portraits of Newton, that by T. Murray, threequarters length, given by Mrs. Ring, the granddaughter of Newton's niece, merits mention as being probably contemporary. The three-quarter length seated figure by Thornhill, was given by Bentley; this portrait seems to have been used by Roubiliac for his statue and bust. (fn. 297) The life-size seated figure by Vanderbank, painted in 1725, two years before Newton's death was given by Robert Smith, Master. Robert Smith's own portrait, also by Vanderbank, painted in 1730, was given by J. Riddell in 1827.
Two other portraits by Thornhill are possessed: a life-size three-quarter length figure of Ezeckiel Spanheim, given by Bentley; Bentley's own portrait, given by himself, a life-size figure, to the knee. This is identical with that in the National Portrait Gallery and is probably the original. Also possessed, by Kneller: Dryden, a life-size half-length holding a laurel wreath, given by Sir Thomas Barlow in 1946; Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, a full-length standing figure, nearly life-size, painted in 1699 and given by Dr. Bainbrig; another portrait of the Earl of Halifax, by Kneller, a life-size standing figure, to the knee, bought by the College in 1852; Matthew Prior, a life-size seated figure, three-quarter length.
By Reynolds: William Frederick, 2nd Duke of Gloucester, a full-length figure, rather under lifesize, as a small boy of four, in fancy dress, painted in 1780. It was given by Princess Sophia Matilda, sister of the Duke, in 1843; John Manners, Marquess of Granby, a full-length life-size standing figure, said to have been given by Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland.
By Romney: William Frederick, 2nd Duke of Gloucester, a life-size full-length standing figure, aged 14 or 15, in the gown of a Trinity nobleman, painted and sent to the College 1790–1, presumably given by the Duke; Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, a life-size three-quarter length standing figure, given by subscribers in 1929.
By Lawrence: John Jeffreys Pratt, 2nd Earl and 1st Marquess Camden, a full-length life-size standing figure, source unknown; George Henry Fitzroy, 4th Duke of Grafton, a full-length life-size standing figure, given by the Duke in 1831. Also, in the library, a miniature by Lawrence of Thomas Moore, given by T. Woolner in 1871. The College possesses a reputed portrait of Byron, attributed to Lawrence, given by A. C. Benson, in 1907.
Of other portraits, that of Matthew Raine by Hoppner; the two of Isaac Hawkins Browne by Highmore, painted in 1731 and 1744; and that of Tennyson by G. F. Watts, painted in 1890 and given by the painter, should be mentioned. The College also possesses a small portrait of Scaliger, on a panel, bequeathed by Bentley; probably of the school of Veronese. Notable among the College portraits are those in marble in the antechapel and library. Foremost among them is the statue of Newton by Roubiliac, carved in 1755, in the antechapel. Also by Roubiliac in the antechapel is the portrait bust of Daniel Lock. (fn. 298) In the library are ten posthumous marble busts by Roubiliac: of Sir Francis Bacon, Isaac Barrow, Richard Bentley, Sir Edward Coke, Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Isaac Newton, John Ray, Thomas 2nd Baron Trevor, Charles 1st Baron Whitworth, and Francis Willoughby, all carved between 1751 and 1757. Also in the library are four marble busts by Scheemakers: of Roger Cotes (1758), James Jurin (1766), Edward Wortley Montagu (1766), and Robert Smith (1758). The statue of Byron by Thorwaldsen stands at the south end of the library. There are, by Chantrey, a bust of Richard Porson in the antechapel, and of Sir Walter Scott in a set of College rooms. There are, by Woolner, a statue of Macaulay (1868) in the antechapel, and a bust of Tennyson (1857) in the library. A statue of Tennyson by Hamo Thorneycroft (1909) is in the antechapel.
Plate. (fn. 299)
None of the Michaelhouse or King's Hall plate is possessed, or any pieces earlier than the 17th century. The earliest pieces possessed by the College are a pair of silver-gilt flagons, London dateletter for 1607–8, given by Lord John Stuart and Lord Bernard Stuart, sons of the Duke of Lennox. (fn. 300) The next oldest piece is the large silver Nevile Cup, London date-letter for 1615–16, given by Thomas Nevile. The cover is missing. (fn. 301) Of silver rosewater dishes and ewers the following are notable: a set, with London date-letter for 1635–6 on the ewer, given by Ambrose Aykerod, bursar; (fn. 302) a set, with London dateletter for 1662–3 on the ewer, given by Anthony Grey, later 10th Earl of Kent; (fn. 303) a set, with London date-letter for 1671–2 on the ewer, given by George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, probably when visiting Cambridge in October 1671. (fn. 304) Of silver bowls or cups, with cover, the following are notable: a large punch bowl with cover, London date-letter for 1691–2, given by Charles and George Firebrace, son of Sir Basil Firebrace of the City of London; (fn. 305) a large bowl and cover, with two handles, of porringer form, with London date-letter for 1697–8, given by Henry Boyle, later (1714) Lord Carleton; (fn. 306) a two-handled cup and cover, given by the Hon. John Verney. (fn. 307) Also noteworthy is a large plain silver salt. It is inscribed as the gift of Dr. James Duport, vicemaster (1655–65, d. 1679) and is in the style of about 1675, but bears a London date-letter for 1733–4. It was apparently remade on the old-fashioned pattern of the original gift. (fn. 308) Three large silver tankards may be mentioned, the first with a London date-letter for 1698–9, given by Sir Thomas Bellot of Cheshire; the second, with similar date-letter, given by Peter Phesaunt of Upwood (Hunts.); and a third, with London date-letter for 1699–1700, given by Sir Thomas Alston of Woodhill (Beds.) (fn. 309) The college also possesses a large and notable collection of 18thcentury silver candlesticks.
The King's Hall Seal. (fn. 310) Size, 2¼ in. On a low carved pedestal in a carved and canopied gothic niche with open sides, K. Edward III, founder, seated with crown, holding in the left hand a model of a church, with the right hand presenting foundation charter to the Master, kneeling on the left, outside the pale of the niche. In base, under 5 carved arches of a penthouse, 3 three-quarter length and 2 half-length suppliants with upraised hands. On each side, on a mount, an oak tree, on which is suspended a shield of arms: left, England; right, quarterly 1, 4, France (ancient), 2, 3, England, for Edward III. Legend: sigullu' comune custodis et scolarium aule regis cantebriggie. The best of the imperfect impressions in the muniment room is on a document of 1387. (fn. 311)
The Michaelhouse seal. (fn. 312) Size, 15/8 in. St. Michael the Archangel, with expanded wings in the left hand a shield of early form charged with a cross, trampling on a dragon, and piercing his head with a long cross held in the right hand. Legend: s' magri' et scolariu' dom' sci' mich'is cantebr'. The best example, a good one, in the muniment room, is attached to an indenture of 12 October 1483 between the College and the executor of Robert Sygo. (fn. 313)
The Trinity seal. (fn. 314) The Baptism of Our Lord; a dove with nimbus and expanded wings descending from rays of light in the upper part. Over the dove, on a scroll, the inscription: hic est filius meus dilect' i' ipsum audite. sigillum collegii trinitatis cantabrigiae fundatore henrico octavo.
Wardens of The King's Scholars and of King's Hall
John de Baggeshot: Mentioned 7 July 1317, arrived in Cambridge 9 July, occurs to Easter 1321. (fn. 315)
Simon Bury: Occurs Christmas 1325 to 2 Oct. 1332. (fn. 316)
John de Langetoft: Occurs after 2 Oct. 1332 to 9 Nov. 1333. (fn. 317)
Thomas Powys: 10 Nov. 1333, appointed Warden of King's Hall 7 Oct. 1337, died 14 Sept. 1361.
John de Schropham: 26 Oct. 1361, to 1 Dec. 1363.
Nicholas de Drayton: 1 Dec. 1363, resigned 2 Dec. 1364.
Nicholas Roos: 2 Dec. 1364, died 24 Sept. 1375. (fn. 318)
Richard Ronhale: 14 Nov. 1375, resigned 1377. (fn. 319)
Simon de Neylond: 12 Aug. 1377, removed 19 May 1385.
Thomas Hetherset or de Hethersett: 26 May 1385, resigned 10 Jan. 1381.
Ralph Selby: 10 Jan. 1391, resigned 2 Aug. 1398.
Richard Dereham: 6 Oct. 1399 (fn. 320) to 21 Mar. 1413, reappointed 5 June 1415, died 10 Aug. 1417.
John Stone: 23 Mar. 1413, resigned 5 June 1415.
Richard Holme: 3 Oct. 1417, died 22 Mar. 1424.
Robert Fitzhugh: 6 July 1424, resigned 2 July 1431.
Richard Cawdrey: 2 July 1431, resigned 29 Sept. 1447. (fn. 321)
Nicholas Ayscough: Sept. 1448, to 1449.
Nicholas Close: 1449.
John Blakman: 3 Dec. 1452, resigned 11 July 1457.
William Town: 1457. (fn. 322)
Richard Scrope: 11 Dec. 1457, resigned Dec. 1463.
Thomas St. Just: 12 Dec. 1463 to Sept. 1467.
John Gunthorpe: 30 Sept. 1467. (fn. 323)
Roger Rotherham: 28 Jan. 1473, died before 2 Oct. 1477.
Henry Bost: 2 Oct. 1477 to 30 Oct. 1485 (?).
Christopher Urswyke: 26 Nov. 1485, resigned before 24 Apr. 1488.
John Blythe: 24 Apr. 1488 to 11 Feb. 1498.
Geoffrey Blythe: 11 Feb. 1498, resigned before 26 Nov. 1528.
Geoffrey Blythe junior: 26 Nov. 1528, (fn. 324) died before 13 Mar. 1541.
John Redman: 13 Mar. 1541, (fn. 325) became first Master of Trinity.
Masters of Michaelhouse
Walter Buxton: 27 Sept. 1324. (fn. 326)
Robert Mildenhall: Occurs Feb. 1331 to 5 Mar. 1346. (fn. 327)
Thomas Kenyngham. (fn. 328)
John Runham: Died on or before 29 Apr. 1354. (fn. 329)
Ralph de Langelee: Occurs 1 month after Easter 1357 to 1361. (fn. 330)
Michael de Cawston. (fn. 331)
William Gotham: Occurs 6 June 1369 to 1379. (fn. 332)
William Colvile: Occurs 1392, 1396, and 1397, 1402. (fn. 333)
Henry Granby: Occurs 3 July 1402 to 1420. (fn. 334)
John Otryngham: Occurs 30 Sept. 1423 to 1454, dead by 1 July 1455. (fn. 335)
William Ayscough: Occurs 1455 to May 1466. (fn. 336)
Edward Story: Occurs 1466 to 1474. (fn. 337)
Richard Smith: Occurs 20 Oct. 1477. (fn. 338)
John Yotton: Occurs 1478 to 1494. (fn. 339)
William de Melton. (fn. 340)
John Fisher. (fn. 340)
John Fothed: Occurs 1498 to 1510. (fn. 341)
Thomas Stackhouse: Occurs 1516 to 25 June 1528. (fn. 342)
Nicholas Wilson: 1530–3. (fn. 343)
Francis Malet: Before 18 Jan. 1536 until surrender. (fn. 344)
Masters of Trinity College
John Redman: 19 Dec. 1546, died 4 Nov. 1551. (fn. 345)
William Bill: 19 Nov. 1551, ejected by 18 Oct. 1553, (fn. 346) reappointed 11 Jan. 1559, died 15 July 1561.
John Christopherson: 4 April 1555, died Dec. 1558. (fn. 347)
Robert Beaumont: 19 Aug. 1561, died 1567.
John Whitgift: 23 June 1567, resigned 1577. (fn. 348)
John Still: 17 May 1577, resigned 1593.
Thomas Nevile: 1 June 1593, died 2 May 1615.
John Richardson: 23 May 1615, died 20 Apr. 1625.
Leonard Mawe: 28 May 1625, died 2 Sept. 1629. (fn. 349)
Samuel Brooke: 19 July 1628, resigned 1631. (fn. 350)
Thomas Comber: 1 Oct. 1631, ejected 1645. (fn. 351)
Thomas Hill: 21 Mar. 1648, died 18 Dec. 1653. (fn. 352)
John Arrowsmith: 29 Nov. 1653, died Feb. 1659. (fn. 353)
John Wilkins: 17 Aug. 1659, ejected 1660. (fn. 354)
Henry Ferne: 29 Apr. 1660, resigned by 3 Dec. 1661. (fn. 355)
John Pearson: 11 Apr. 1662, resigned by 1 Dec. 1672. (fn. 356)
Isaac Barrow: 1 Dec. 1672 (?), died in Spring 1677. (fn. 357)
John North: 8 May 1677, died Apr. 1683.
John Montagu: 25 Apr. 1683, resigned by 21 Dec. 1699. (fn. 358)
Richard Bentley: 13 Jan. 1700, died 14 July 1742. (fn. 359)
Robert Smith: 24 July 1742, died 2 Feb. 1768. (fn. 360)
John Hinchcliffe: 27 Feb. 1768, resigned after 21 Mar. 1789. (fn. 361)
Thomas Postlethwaite: 12 June 1789, died 4 May 1798.
William Lort Mansel: 2 and 28 June 1798, died 27 June 1820. (fn. 362)
Christopher Wordsworth: 13 July 1820, resigned Oct. 1841.
William Whewell: 13 Nov. 1841, died 6 Mar. 1866.
William Hepworth Thompson: 6 Apr. 1866, died 1 Oct. 1886.
Henry Montagu Butler: 19 May 1885, died 14 Jan. 1918.
Joseph John Thomson: 21 Feb. 1918, died 30 Aug. 1940.
George Macaulay Trevelyan: 24 Oct. 1940, retired 30 June 1951.
Edgar Douglas Adrian: 9 July 1951.