Willingham: Economic history

A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 9, Chesterton, Northstowe, and Papworth Hundreds. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1989.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.

Citation:

'Willingham: Economic history', A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 9, Chesterton, Northstowe, and Papworth Hundreds, (London, 1989), pp. 404-408. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/cambs/vol9/pp404-408 [accessed 14 June 2024].

. "Willingham: Economic history", in A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 9, Chesterton, Northstowe, and Papworth Hundreds, (London, 1989) 404-408. British History Online, accessed June 14, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/cambs/vol9/pp404-408.

. "Willingham: Economic history", A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 9, Chesterton, Northstowe, and Papworth Hundreds, (London, 1989). 404-408. British History Online. Web. 14 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/cambs/vol9/pp404-408.

ECONOMIC HISTORY

In 1086 the abbot of Ely's demesne comprised 4 of the 7½ hides in the vill, cultivated by two ploughteams. (fn. 1) Two demesne ploughteams, each of 2 horses and 6 oxen, were at work in 1251 on 309 a. evenly distributed among the three open fields, named as West, Middle (later Cadwin), and Belsars. (fn. 2) West field stretched south from the village, Middle field south-east, and Belsars east. The boundaries between them were probably stable but after 1435 Belsars evidently extended over an area north-east of the village previously occupied by fisheries. (fn. 3) Ponds survived there in the mid 20th century. (fn. 4) There was abundant meadow in 1086. (fn. 5) In 1251 the bishop had 44 a., partly in West meadow between the village and the Over boundary, partly in the Meadow north of Belsars field. His demesne also included 60 a. of rough meadow in Queenholme, Henholme, and Snout fen and 40 a. of mowable meadow in Shelfords. The rest of the northern part of the parish comprised meres and three extensive commons, Hempsals fen in the east, Middle fen, and West fen, the last intercommoned with Over. (fn. 6) There is no record of ancient woodland but many osier holts survived in the fens in the 19th century. (fn. 7)

In 1086, when a single servuswas recorded, the demesne arable was presumably mainly tilled by the abbot's 12 villaniand 8 cottars, who had 5 ploughteams of their own. (fn. 8) In 1251 there were 28 half yardlanders and 7 cottars, each owing 2 weekworks and seasonal boons, 6 holders of tofts, reckoned as half cottars, who owed a single weekwork each, 11 other toft holders, and 17 men who paid small rents in cash or capons for common rights. The 3,900 works owed each year included tending the vineyard, ditching, maintaining Aldreth causeway, gathering rushes, making hurdles, and carrying services by land and water as far as Cambridge, Ely, and St. Ives (Hunts.). Seven of the eight free tenants shared I hide for which they paid rents totalling 10s. a year and performed varied services. The other, Thomas Something, held I hide for which he owed suit of court and sent his men to the bishop's harvest for one day, supervising their work himself. (fn. 9) In 1298 winter and summer works numbering 2,044 had been commuted for ½d. each and 277 harvest works for 1d., (fn. 10) but in 1335, when some men were hired for ploughing and mowing, the half yardlanders and cottars still owed weekwork on Mondays and Thursdays and the half cottars on Mondays only. (fn. 11) In 1356 the demesne arable in hand amounted to 166 a., the rest being leased. Shortly after Michaelmas the lord's barn contained 20 qr. of barley, 12 qr. of rye, 12 qr. of peas and vetches, 10 qr. of dredge, and 3½ qr. of wheat. (fn. 12)

The commons were capable of supporting many animals. The demesne flock was 80 strong in 1086 and 240 in 1251, when the shearing was done by the toft holders. Smaller numbers of pigs and cattle were kept at both dates. The tenants' sheep lay in the lord's fold from Hock Day until Christmas. The bishop was entitled to agist cattle belonging to non-villagers in the common fens, paying a seventh of his profits to the free tenants. (fn. 13)

Demesne arable of 256 a. and 61 a. of meadow and pasture were being leased for £12 a year in 1436 (fn. 14) and the demesne was not afterwards kept in hand. In the mid 16th century it was often leased to a group of leading villagers. (fn. 15) The copyhold half yardlands were enlarged from c. 15 a. to c. 20 a. in the late 16th century by adding meadow land in Long Shelfords and Snout fen, formerly part of the demesne. (fn. 16) When Miles Sandys bought the manor in 1601 he immediately began a vigorous campaign to regain demesne rights, submitting to arbitration with his tenants in 1602 but reviving his claims in full in 1621. (fn. 17) The award of 1602 allowed Sandys to inclose his land at Henholme, Snout fen, the Meadow, and Berry croft, and that which he claimed in West, Middle, and Hempsals fens, amounting to c. 250 a. In exchange Sandys gave up his common rights in Middle and Hempsals fens and acquiesced in the increased size of the half yardlands. Hempsals fen covered c. 480 a., Middle and Newditch fens 650 a. together, and West fen c. 450 a. after its separation from Over c. 1618. (fn. 18)

By 1605 Sandys had begun to sell parts of the demesne arable to his tenants; (fn. 19) he or his son was later recorded as having sold c. 180 a. (fn. 20) In the 1720s the lord of the manor held only 26 a. in the open fields and 11 a. in Berry croft. (fn. 21) Sales of meadow and fen may also have taken place in the 17th century. The younger Sir Miles Sandys was leasing perhaps nearly 450 a. in Queenholme and other inclosed fen pastures in plots of up to 20 a. in 1647, (fn. 22) but Queenholme was in other hands perhaps by 1700 and all the demesne in the fens may have been sold by Sandys's feoffees after 1650. (fn. 23)

Bourneys manor in the 17th century had 78 a. of open-field arable and 21 a. of meadow and marsh. (fn. 24) From the 16th century it was leased. Lessees included Robert Botton, the most heavily taxed resident in the 1520s, (fn. 25) and John Hammond, prominent in village affairs in the early 17th century. (fn. 26) Bourneys had 61 a. of copyhold land in 1727. (fn. 27) The demesne was recorded as 81 a. in 1730 but seems to have been entirely sold by 1804. (fn. 28)

Nearly 700 a. of the arable were copyhold of Willingham manor throughout the 17th century. In 1612 Sandys conceded to some of his copyhold tenants that they might freely sell their land or grant leases of up to six years. In the 1720s the freeholds amounted to c. 340 a. and c. 130 a. were leasehold, mostly of Jesus College. All but 4 of the 28 medieval half yardlands remained separate and intact or virtually so in 1603, when 125 occupiers had land in the open fields. By the 1720s the number had risen to 153 and the size of holdings was more diverse, many of the larger ones having been broken up. Although prosperous men bought up landless dwellings with common rights, there was little engrossing of land and the largest arable holdings in the 1720s, of 82 a. and 53 a., were no bigger than in 1603. (fn. 29)

Arable holdings were roughly equally distributed among the three open fields, (fn. 30) one of which lay fallow each year and was grazed by one of the four village flocks. (fn. 31) Barley made up nearly half the sown acreage in 17th-century inventories, most of which showed at least two fifths sown with wheat or maslin. Peas were also widely grown. (fn. 32) Meadowland lay in three places, 172 a. in the Meadow, 83 a. in Shelfords, and 15½ a. in West meadow. There were 16 meadow furlongs in all, those in the Meadow interspersed with small closes mostly belonging to the manors and the rector. (fn. 33) Apart from Little Shelfords, (fn. 34) Queenholme, and Sir Miles Sandys's closes, the rest of the fens remained divided into three large commons. In the 17th century there were 109 common rights, Bourneys manor and the rectory each having two. (fn. 35) By the 1720s the number of houses with common rights but no land had reached 42. (fn. 36) Disputes over stocking the commons led in 1655 to arbitration, the articles of which were re-enacted in 1677. (fn. 37) Middle fen was reserved for cattle and horses. Holders of a full half yardland might keep 3 mares or geldings and 6 cows there, landless commoners 1 mare and 4 cows. Extra horses could be kept if the number of cows was reduced by two for each horse. From 1 August to Michaelmas the milk herd was turned into Middle fen and at Michaelmas was moved with the draught animals to Hempsals until St. Luke's Day (18 October). Cattle were also pastured in Long Shelfords after 1 August when the hay had been mown. Hempsals fen was for hay and in 1655 and later was divided into three furlongs each of 109 strips. The owner of each common right had c. 4 a. there from 24 February to Michaelmas and an entitlement to pasture cattle for the rest of the year and sheep from 11 November to Christmas and from 10 January to 24 February. (fn. 38) Irams was a mowing fen under similar regulations after it had been dividend between Willingham and Rampton c. 1655. The village had four flocks of sheep, one each for the occupier of Bourneys manor and the rector, each with his partners, and two for the rest of the commoners. In 1655 it was agreed that 220 a. of West fen nearest the village be set aside as a sheep pasture and ditched off from the rest of the fen, though sheep were still allowed on Middle and Hempsals fens. Each commoner might keep 10 sheep if he had no land, with 4 more for each 3 a. or 20 for a full half yardland. The lord of Bourneys and the rector were each restricted to a flock of 160. The stint of sheep was cut by nearly half in 1677 and was again reduced in 1733 along with that of cattle in Middle fen. (fn. 39) After West fen was divided between Willingham and Over Sir Miles Sandys alleged that overstocking by the commoners was preventing him from keeping his own sheep and agisted cattle there but the commoners asserted that no stint was set. (fn. 40)

Most late 17th-century probate inventories listed cattle, herds of 9-12 being common. Cheese was widely produced, some farmers having up to 150 lb. in stock for market. Fewer commoners kept sheep, though some flocks reached 50 strong. One or two men seem to have bred horses and most kept a few pigs. (fn. 41) Even after the sale of demesne land, estates remained small and numerous, their holders reliant on exploiting common rights in the fens. In 1730 the largest open-field holdings after that of Jesus College were three of c. 80 a. (fn. 42) In 1804, including fen pastures, there were farms of 269 a. and 238 a. but only 15 others over 50 a., none of them larger than 125 a. (fn. 43) Most common rights were still held singly in 1843, only 6 commoners having three rights each and 2 having four or more. (fn. 44)

The commonable land was inclosed in 1847 under an Act of 1846. The award was completed in 1853. After small allotments to the lords of Willingham, Bourneys, and Rampton Lisles for right of soil, a little over 3,000 a. in the open fields, meadows, and commons was divided among 148 allottees. About 1,280 a. were allotted for freehold, nearly 1,400 a. for copyhold of Willingham manor, and c. 220 a. for copyhold of Bourneys and manors outside Willingham. The rector's 158 a. mostly formed a compact holding in Hempsals fen, later Glebe farm. Seven other owners had over 100 a. after the award, the largest being Jesus College with 275 a.; sixteen held 50-100 a., and there were 147 smaller landowners. (fn. 45)

Throughout the period 1851-81 there were about a dozen farms of 100 a. or more. (fn. 46) The largest farmer in the early 20th century was William Norman, who occupied three farms covering 177 a., 142 a., and 47 a. until 1932. (fn. 47) All the other ring-fenced farms established in the north after inclosure were much smaller. In 1901 two covered c. 20 a. each and another c. 36 a. (fn. 48) Bridge farm was 39 a. in 1935 and Shelfords farm, licensed for horse slaughtering in 1919, was only 14 a. (fn. 49) Larger holdings were often scattered throughout the parish and leased in plots by their owners. (fn. 50) In the early 20th century many were divided for sale as potential market gardens. (fn. 51) Between 1905 and 1915 holdings of 1-5 a. increased from 22 to 116, while the number of larger holdings fell by over a third. Division continued after 1918, producing 180 holdings of 1-20 a., 38 of 20-100 a., and 9 of over 100 a. in 1925. Later consolidation had by 1980 produced 46 of up to 10 ha. (25 a.), 25 of 10-100 ha., and 4 of over 100 ha. (fn. 52) The county council bought land for smallholdings c. 1910, c. 1920, and c. 1970; in 1985 it owned 461 a., let as 20 holdings. (fn. 53)

In 1830 an alleged arsonist destroyed five farms in an attack supposedly prompted by the use of a threshing machine on one of them. The damage, estimated as £4,000, was among the worst anywhere during the Swing riots. (fn. 54) In 1831 a third of the adult male population of over 300 were agricultural labourers and a third were employed in retail or craft trades. Of the third occupying land, half employed no labour. (fn. 55) There were c. 200 male agricultural workers, including boys, in the period 1851-81. The number living in their employers' farmhouses dwindled from nearly 100 in 1841 to almost none by 1881. (fn. 56)

In the 1740s the parish was said to depend almost wholly on dairying, its cheese being sold under the name of Cottenham. (fn. 57) 1,200 milk cows were usually kept on the commons c. 1808. (fn. 58) A cattle club established in 1837 provided small farmers with help with veterinary fees and compensation for the death of animals. (fn. 59) Fattening calves for the London market was important c. 1850. (fn. 60) Although cheese making declined greatly after inclosure, (fn. 61) one maker of cream cheese survived in 1861 (fn. 62) and a farmer described himself as a cheese factor in 1883. (fn. 63) At least one dairy still made cheese in the 20th century and became solely a retail business only during the Second World War. (fn. 64) In 1866 there were 852 a. of permanent grass and 2,445 a. of corn but the acreage of grass apparently more than doubled and that of corn nearly halved by 1905. Several dairy farms were in business between 1841 and 1881. Cattle numbered over 600 in 1865. (fn. 65) and almost 700 in 1905. Over half the grain grown after 1866 was usually wheat, even when the total acreage fell below 800 a. in 1935, but barley had replaced oats as the second most important cereal crop by 1955. In 1980 grain was recorded on 939 ha. (2,320 a.). Over 750 sheep and over 850 pigs were recorded in 1866. Sheep keeping declined rapidly in the later 19th century and in the 20th. Some farms had pig or poultry units in the 1980s. At Woodhall farm 10,000 turkeys were reared from chicks each year c. 1975. (fn. 66)

Domestic orchards were recorded in the 16th century (fn. 67) and Berry croft had been planted as one by the 1720s. (fn. 68) Although some fruit was sent to market in London in the early 19th century, (fn. 69) commercial production on a large scale did not begin until after 1875, when only 18 a. were recorded as orchards. (fn. 70) By 1890 much fruit was sent to London and Manchester (fn. 71) and orchards covered nearly 200 a. in 1905 and over 750 a. in 1935. Plums comprised half or more of the acreage, with apples in second place and some pears and cherries in 1935. By 1886 orchards had spread beyond the village along the roads to the south and south-east and by 1924 they covered most of the former open fields. (fn. 72) Fruit bushes were recorded as extending over c. 150 a. in 1895 and over 300 a. in 1925. Gooseberries and raspberries predominated until the First World War, strawberries afterwards. Horticulture was introduced on a large scale by I. F. Thoday c. 1862. In the 1890s his son and namesake was the largest grower in the parish, with 45 a. of orchards in 1899 (fn. 73) and in 1894 six large glasshouses covering c. 32,000 sq. ft. and containing vines, peaches, nectarines, strawberries, tomatoes, cucumbers, carnations, spring flowers, and ornamental plants. (fn. 74) In 1933 there were 43 fruit growers, 6 market gardeners, 9 flower growers, and 3 firms of fruit agents in the parish. (fn. 75) Flower growing, widespread in the 1930s, (fn. 76) was much reduced during the Second World War but revived afterwards (fn. 77) to cover 32 ha. (77 a.) in 1980. (fn. 78)

Willingham mere had a fishery for three boats from before 1251 until the 16th century and there were other fisheries in the Stacks, 'Dernlode', and 'Frithmere' in 1335 and in Oxe mere and Shelfords in 1548. Fishponds were recorded at Fordoles, Henholme, and Wilford in 1435 and numbered 23 in 1548. (fn. 79) The bishop of Ely normally leased rights of fishing to the copyholders. (fn. 80) Fishing, fowling, and reed and willow gathering formed an important supplementary livelihood for landless commoners in the late 16th century. (fn. 81) Willingham mere had a fishery for 10 boats in 1655 (fn. 82) and provided swans c. 1575. (fn. 83)

The bishop of Ely's manor had a windmill by 1251 to which all his tenants owed suit. (fn. 84) It was being leased in 1335 (fn. 85) and was under repair in 1436. (fn. 86) It perhaps stood south-east of the village near Rampton Road on the site of a later mill in Mill Hill furlong, named in 1435 together with Mill Street, later Mill End way. (fn. 87) A smock mill built there c. 1812 was disused by 1901, though its brick base survived in the 1970s. (fn. 88) A second windmill was in existence by 1678 south of the village beside Long Lane, called Mill Road in the 20th century. (fn. 89) A smock mill built on the site in 1828 (fn. 90) worked until 1967 and survived disused and dilapidated in 1982. (fn. 91) There were wind and steam mills at Mill House on the Long Stanton road by 1861. (fn. 92) The windmill was dismantled c. 1958. (fn. 93) Another windmill stood on Belsars way at a distance from the village but was disused by the 1830s. (fn. 94)

By the late 17th century byemployments had become common. (fn. 95) A weaver was recorded in 1416, a tailor in 1555, and a fellmonger in 1671. (fn. 96) In the mid and late 19th century the village's large population supported a wide variety of trades. (fn. 97) Carpenters and wheelwrights, tailors, and shoemakers numbered five or more each. There were six blacksmiths between 1841 and 1881 and plumbers and glaziers, coopers, bricklayers, stonemasons, thatchers, sawyers, and harness makers numbered up to four each. There were two families of basket makers in 1881 and in 1894 osier baskets were much used for packing fruit and garden produce. (fn. 98) Among the less common craftsmen were two watchmakers in 1851, a tinman and brazier in 1881, and a cycle manufacturer in 1908. (fn. 99) Two members of the Kidd family were machinists in 1861, one of them later founding a firm making agricultural implements at Green End Works. (fn. 100) A firm still repaired and maintained agricultural machinery there in 1962 (fn. 101) but the works were later occupied by a garage and from c. 1969 by haulage contractors. (fn. 102) From 1978 the former board school buildings were occupied by Granta Windings Ltd., manufacturers of transformers. (fn. 103) A brickmaker lived at Brick Kilns House in 1851 but brickmaking had ceased by 1890. (fn. 104)

In the late 19th century there were over a dozen butchers and almost as many other shops, mainly bakers or grocers and drapers. A greengrocer had set up by 1881, a chemist by 1909, and a fishmonger by 1933. There were usually also a physician and a veterinary surgeon. (fn. 105) In 1980 the village had 11 shops, 2 sub-branch banks, and a doctor's surgery. (fn. 106)

Footnotes

  • 1. V.C.H. Cambs. i. 426.
  • 2. B.L. Cott. MS. Claud. C. xi, f. 111; C.R.O., R 59/14/5/8F.
  • 3. Below for fisheries; cf. C.R.O., P 177/27/3.
  • 4. Inf. from Mr. Jeeps.
  • 5. V.C.H. Cambs. i. 426.
  • 6. B.L. Cott. MS. Claud. C. xi, f. 111; cf. ibid. Harl. MS. 5011, pt. 1, f. 41 and v.
  • 7. C.R.O., Q/RDc 77.
  • 8. V.C.H. Cambs. i. 367.
  • 9. B.L. Cott. MS. Claud. C. xi, ff. 111-114v.
  • 10. P.R.O., SC 6/1132/10.
  • 11. Ibid. SC 6/1132/13.
  • 12. B.L. Add. MS. 6165, f. 147; cf. Miller, Ely, 100 n.
  • 13. V.C.H. Cambs. i. 426; B.L. Cott. MS. Claud. C. xi, ff.111v., 113v.
  • 14. C.R.O., L 1/197.
  • 15. e.g. P.R.O., STAC 2/5/129.
  • 16. C.R.O., R 59/4/1/17; cf. B.L. Cott. MS. Claud. C. xi,f. 112.
  • 17. C.R.O., R 59/4/1/17; P.R.O., C 2/Jas. I/S 19/64. Spufford, Contrasting Communities, 121-30, prints parts of those and other docs. generated by the dispute.
  • 18. P.R.O., C 3/324/29; Wells, Bedf. Level, ii. 179.
  • 19. P.R.O., E 134/3 Jas. I Mich./34, dep. of John Starling and Geo. Frog.
  • 20. C.R.O., R 59/14/5/8b, ff. 38v.-39.
  • 21. Ibid. ff. 29v.-30.
  • 22. C.R.O., P 177/28/6.
  • 23. Cf. above, manors.
  • 24. C.R.O., R 59/14/5/8b, ff. 55v.-58; R 59/14/5/8g.
  • 25. L. & P. Hen. VIII, iii (2), p. 1117.
  • 26. P.R.O., E 134/3 Jas. I Mich./34.
  • 27. C.R.O., R 59/14/5/8b, ff. 63v.-64.
  • 28. Ibid. P 177/3/10; P 177/28/8.
  • 29. Ibid. R 59/14/5/8b; ibid. P 177/28/7; Spufford, Contrasting Communities, 134-51; Rep. Com. Univ. Income, 271.
  • 30. Spufford, Contrasting Communities, 128.
  • 31. C.R.O., R 59/14/5/9b, p. 7.
  • 32. Spufford, Contrasting Communities, 129.
  • 33. C.R.O., R 59/14/5/8g.
  • 34. P.R.O., C 3/324/37; ibid. REQ 2/24/23.
  • 35. C.R.O., P 177/28/10; ibid. R 59/14/5/9F.
  • 36. Ibid. R 59/14/5/8b.
  • 37. Rest of para. based on ibid. R 59/14/5/9b; R 59/14/5/9F.
  • 38. Ibid. R 59/14/5/8G, no. 19; C.U.L., MS. Plan R.b.13.
  • 39. C.R.O., R 59/14/5/8G, nos. 17, 28.
  • 40. P.R.O., C 3/324/27.
  • 41. Spufford, Contrasting Communities, 129-32.
  • 42. C.R.O., P 177/28/8.
  • 43. Ibid. P 177/3/10.
  • 44. Ibid. R 50/9/26A-C.
  • 45. Ibid. Q/RDc 77.
  • 46. P.R.O., HO 107/1759; ibid. RG 9/1019; RG 10/1579- 80; RG 11/1658.
  • 47. C.U.L., Maps PSQ 19/448.
  • 48. C.R.O., 470/0 105-6.
  • 49. Ibid. SP 151/3; ibid. 515/SP 75.
  • 50. e.g. C.U.L., Maps PSQ 18/363.
  • 51. e.g. ibid. Maps PSQ 19/58; 19/150; 19/188.
  • 52. P.R.O., MAF 68/2113, 2683, 3232, 3752, 4489; Cambs. Agric. Returns, 1980.
  • 53. Inf. from Chief Land Agent, Shire Hall, Camb.
  • 54. The Times, 23, 24, 25 Nov. 1830; Hobsbawm and Rudé, Capt. Swing(1969), 165, 223.
  • 55. Census, 1831.
  • 56. P.R.O., HO 107/70; HO 107/1759; ibid. RG 9/1019; RG 10/1579-80; RG 11/1658.
  • 57. B.L. Add. MS. 5820, f. 2.
  • 58. Lysons, Cambs. 286.
  • 59. Rules of Willingham Cattle Club(copy in Cambs. Colln.).
  • 60. Gardner's Dir. Cambs. (1851), 30.
  • 61. Robson's Commercial Dir. (1839); Kelly's Dir. Cambs. (1847).
  • 62. P.R.O., RG 9/1019.
  • 63. Kelly's Dir. Cambs. (1883).
  • 64. Inf. from Mr. J.P.G. Hind, Willingham.
  • 65. Rest of para. based on P.R.O., MAF 68/7-8, 403, 973, 1543, 2113, 2683, 3232, 3752, 4489; Cambs. Agric. Returns, 1980; Camb. Chron. 30 Dec. 1865.
  • 66. Farmers' Weekly, 29 Aug. 1975.
  • 67. e.g. P.R.O., CP 25(2)/93/843/21 Eliz. 1 East. no. 3.
  • 68. C.R.O., R 59/14/5/8E.
  • 69. Ravensdale, Liable to Floods, 172 n.
  • 70. Rest of para. based on P.R.O., MAF 68/403, 973, 1543, 2113, 2683, 3232, 3752, 4489; Cambs. Agric. Returns, 1980.
  • 71. H.E. Norris, Village of Willingham, 39 (copy in possession of V.C.H.).
  • 72. O.S. Maps 6", Cambs. XXVIII. SE.; XXIX. SW.; XXXIII. NE., SE.; XXXIV. NW., SW. (1886 and later edns.).
  • 73. Jnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 3rd ser. ×. 60-1.
  • 74. Gardeners' Chron. 19 May 1894, where the initials of both Thodays are given wrongly: inf. from Mr. Jeeps; cf. Jnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 3rd ser. ix. 541; x. 307.
  • 75. Kelly's Dir. Cambs. (1933).
  • 76. Camb. Region(1938), 143, 153.
  • 77. L.M. Munby, Fen and Upland, 67.
  • 78. Cambs. Agric. Returns, 1980.
  • 79. B.L. Cott. MS. Claud. C. xi, f. IIIv.; ibid. Add. Ch. 34274, m. 5d.; P.R.O., SC 6/1132/13; C.R.O., L 1/197.
  • 80. P.R.O., SC 6/1132/13; ibid. C 3/45/85.
  • 81. Spufford, Contrasting Communities, 133-4.
  • 82. P.R.O., C 3/468/91.
  • 83. Hist. MSS. Com. 9, Salisbury, xiii, p. 136; C.U.L., C.U.A., 3.3, f. 77.
  • 84. B.L. Cott. MS. Claud. C. xi, f. IIIV.
  • 85. P.R.O., SC 6/1132/13.
  • 86. C.R.O., L 1/197.
  • 87. Ibid.; ibid. P 177/28/10.
  • 88. Smith, Windmills in Cambs. 26; O.S. Map 6", Cambs. XXXIII. NE. (1901 edn.).
  • 89. C.R.O., 132/T 1084.
  • 90. Smith, Windmills in Cambs. 26.
  • 91. Kelly's Dir. Camb. (1883 and later edns.); Camb. Ind. Press, 22 Jan. 1960; Camb. Evening News, 3 July 1984.
  • 92. P.R.O., RG 9/1019.
  • 93. Inf. from Mr. Jeeps.
  • 94. C.R.O., P 177/27/3.
  • 95. Spufford, Contrasting Communities, 157-8.
  • 96. Cal. Pat. 1416-22, 68; P.R.O., REQ 2/24/23; ibid. E 134/22 & 23 Chas. 11 Hil./5.
  • 97. Rest of para. based on P.R.O., HO 107/70; HO 107/1759; ibid. RG 9/1019; RG 10/1579-80; RG 11/1658.
  • 98. Gardeners' Chron. 19 May 1894.
  • 99. Kelly's Dir. Cambs. (1908).
  • 100. Ibid. (1883 and later edns.).
  • 101. C.R.O., SP 177/2.
  • 102. Inf. from Mr. C. G. Dockerill, manager, Geo. Webb and Partners Ltd.
  • 103. Inf. from Mrs. C. Wayman, Willingham.
  • 104. Norris, Willingham, 38.
  • 105. P.R.O., HO 107/70; HO 107/1759; ibid. RG 9/1019; RG 10/1579-80; RG 11/1658; Kelly's Dir. Cambs. (1908, 1933).
  • 106. Cambs. Villages: Guide to Local Facilities(1981), 40 (copy in possession of V.C.H.).