Lambourne: Manors

Pages 76-81

A History of the County of Essex: Volume 4, Ongar Hundred. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1956.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.



Only one entry in Domesday Book relates specifically to LAMBOURNE. The manor of that name had been held in 1066 by Lefsi as 2 hides and 80 acres. (fn. 1) In 1086 this manor formed part of the honor of Eustace, Count of Boulogne, and was held of him by David. (fn. 2) It is likely, however, that the part of the parish of Lambourne later known as the manor of Arneways (see below) originally formed part of the manor of Battles Hall in Stapleford Abbots. The tenancy in chief of the manor of Lambourne passed with the honor of Boulogne to the Crown after the death in 1159 of William, Count of Boulogne. Lambourne was still considered to be part of the honor early in the 13th century, (fn. 3) but not, apparently, after that.

In the 12th century the tenancy of the manor came to Pharamus of Boulogne, the grandson of Geoffrey, which last was probably a bastard son of Eustace of Boulogne. (fn. 4) It descended to Pharamus's daughter Sybil, wife of Ingram de Fiennes, and subsequently to her son William de Fiennes. (fn. 5) In about 1220 the manor was held of the honor of Boulogne by Sybil. (fn. 6) In 1282 it was conveyed to Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells and Chancellor of England (d. 1292), by William de Fiennes, probably grandson of the lastnamed William. (fn. 7) In 1300 the manor was among the lands left at his death by William de Lambourne. It was then said to be held of the heirs of Philip Burnell for 2 knights' fees. (fn. 8) Philip, who had died in 1294, was the nephew and heir of the bishop. (fn. 9) There is no further mention of the Burnells in connexion with Lambourne. In 1485 the manor was said to be held as of the hundred of Ongar, and in the 16th century it was held of the hundred by service of the ward-staff. (fn. 10)

The manor had been subinfeudated to the Lambourne family long before 1300. That family held land in the parish in 1203, when Robert of Lambourne is mentioned, (fn. 11) and this Robert, or a namesake, was the owner of the advowson before 1218. (fn. 12) A John de Lambourne occurs in 1240. (fn. 13) In 1261 it was stated that Christopher of Lambourne, lately hanged for felony, had held ¼ knight's fee in Lambourne of William of Lambourne. This tenement had been in the king's hand since December 1259; the king had given his year, day, and waste to Elizabeth widow of Christopher who was said to have wholly spoiled the land. (fn. 14) A William of Lambourne was among those who did fealty to Bishop Burnell for their lands in Lambourne in 1282. (fn. 15) He was probably identical with the man of that name who held the manor at his death in 1300. (fn. 16)

William de Lambourne was succeeded by his son James. The manor was then said to include 140 acres of arable, worth £2 13s. 4d., 7 acres of meadow, worth 14s., 8 acres of pasture worth 8s., and 2 acres of wood, wasted and valueless. There were 19 free tenants rendering £2 10s. 11d. in rents of assize and 3 capons, valued at 2d: each, at Christmas. Nine customary tenants rendered 2 hens, valued at 2d. each, at Easter. Their services were valued at 12d. The total value of the manor was £6 19s. 9d. (fn. 17)

James de Lambourne (knighted 1306) made a settlement of the manor in 1307. (fn. 18) He was still alive in 1325. (fn. 19) Thomas de Lambourne held the manor in 1351. (fn. 20) He died in 1361 and his son and heir William died in the same year. (fn. 21) William was succeeded by his sister Joan, wife of William de Chene. Before 1376 Lambourne had been conveyed to Sir John de Sutton, William de Chene retaining a life interest. (fn. 22) Chene was evidently still alive in 1386, when he held the manor of Polstead (Suff.). (fn. 23) By 1411 the manor had passed to Thomas Lampet, whose widow Elizabeth was then holding it for life. (fn. 24) In that year it was settled upon William Lampet, 'kinsman' of Thomas. (fn. 25) In 1412 it was said to be held by Isabel Lampet. (fn. 26) She was probably identical with the Elizabeth of 1411. The manor subsequently passed to John Lampet, who was succeeded before 1456-60 by his daughter Cecily wife of William Curzon. (fn. 27) A William Curzon died holding Lambourne in 1485. It was then stated that Robert Curzon had enfeoffed certain persons with the manor. (fn. 28) This implies that Robert was the predecessor of the lastnamed William. That the William Curzon who died in 1485 was a young man and not identical with the William Curzon of 1456-60 is also suggested by the fact that he left an infant daughter, Mary, as his heir. (fn. 29) Mary apparently married a member of the Tey family, of Ardleigh, probably Sir Thomas Tey (d. 1540). (fn. 30) Sir Thomas made a conveyance of the manor in 1520. (fn. 31) Lambourne was apparently not among his possessions at his death. By 1547 it had passed to Robert Barfoot, who died in that year. (fn. 32)

Robert's successor was his son Thomas. The manor descended in the Barfoot family until 1733, when John Barfoot, probably great-great-grandson of Thomas, sold it to Sir John Fortescue-Aland. (fn. 33) Sir John was a distinguished lawyer and for many years a judge. In 1746 he became Baron Fortescue of Credan. (fn. 34) He died in the same year and was succeeded by his son Dormer, 2nd Baron Fortescue. (fn. 35) The latter died childless in 1780. He left his Essex property to his cousin Mary, widow of Richard Barford, D.D., of Titchmarsh (Northants.). (fn. 36)

In 1782 Mary Barford sold Lambourne to the Revd. Edward Lockwood, Rector of St. Peter's, Northampton. (fn. 37) He died in 1802 and the manor of Lambourne passed to his second son Edward Lockwood, who assumed the additional surname of Percival. (fn. 38) Edward Lockwood Percival died in 1804, leaving a son and heir with the same names. (fn. 39)

Edward Lockwood Percival the younger died in 1842 and was succeeded by his cousin William J. Lockwood, owner of Dews Hall (see below). (fn. 40) In 1841 Lambourne Hall farm consisted of 208 acres. (fn. 41) It was occupied by Charles Blewett. The manor subsequently descended to Lt.-Gen. William M. Wood, son of W. J. Lockwood who had assumed the surname of Wood in 1838 on inheriting the property of an uncle. (fn. 42) Lt.-Gen. Wood died in 1883 and was succeeded by his son Amelius R. M. Lockwood, who had reassumed the original family name in 1876. (fn. 43) The latter was Conservative M.P. for Epping for many years and achieved distinction as chairman of the kitchen committee of the House of Commons. He became 1st Baron Lambourne in 1917 and Lord-Lieutenant of Essex in 1919. He died in 1928. (fn. 44)

The Lockwood estate in Lambourne was latterly known as that of Bishops Hall, from the family seat. In addition to the manors of Lambourne and Bishops Hall (see below) it included those of St. John's and Dews Hall (see below). The estate was put up for sale in 1929. It then consisted of 1,615 acres. Some 500 acres were in hand, including Lambourne Hall farm, whose extent was 371 acres. (fn. 45)

Lambourne Hall is said to have been built by Thomas Barfoot in 1571. (fn. 46) This date and the initials T.B. are carved on oak panelling formerly in the house and now in the Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight. (fn. 47) The central hall and the Oak Room adjoining it to the east are part of the original timber-framed building. Oak panelling now at the west end of the hall was originally incorporated in a partition across it and may represent the 16th-century screens. The Oak Room has original finely moulded ceiling beams, a fire-place with a fourcentred arch, and three doorways with four-centred heads. The house was reroofed and much altered in the 18th century. In 1937 a new east wing was built, the dated weathercock above it being brought from elsewhere. (fn. 48) Panelling in the dining-room and the overmantel in the Oak Room came from Marks Hall, near Coggeshall, which was demolished about 1950. (fn. 49)

The manor of LAMBOURNE-AND-ABRIDGE, later known as ST. JOHNS, originated in an estate in the north and west of the parish acquired by the Knights Hospitallers from various donors in the 13th century and perhaps earlier. (fn. 50) The estate remained in the hands of the Hospitallers until the Dissolution. In 1553 it was granted, as the 'manors' of Lambourne and Abridge, to Richard Morgan and Thomas Carpenter. (fn. 51) Soon after this it was acquired by Robert Taverner, who died holding it in 1556. (fn. 52) Thomas Taverner his son and heir was an infant and became a royal ward. In 1557 the manor was valued at £23 15s., and Elizabeth Taverner, widow of Robert, was granted dower in it. (fn. 53)

Thomas Taverner sold the manor in 1597-8 to Sir Robert Wroth, Kt. (fn. 54) Sir Robert died in 1606 and was succeeded by his eldest son, another Sir Robert. (fn. 55) In 1608 the manor was said to include 4 messuages, 2 gardens, 100 acres of land, 20 acres of meadow, 100 acres of pasture, 80 acres of wood, and 8s. rent. (fn. 56) Sir Robert Wroth the younger died in 1614. (fn. 57) James, infant son of Sir Robert, died two years later and was succeeded by John Wroth his uncle. (fn. 58) John Wroth still held the manor in 1621. (fn. 59) He apparently sold it before September 1630, when Richard Peacock received the royal confirmation of all rights and privileges connected with the manor. (fn. 60) Peacock died in 1634, leaving the manor to his son Edward. (fn. 61) In 1641 Edward Peacock conveyed it to John Charles. (fn. 62) This was probably a lease, for in 1645 Charles was occupying St. John's Wood, which was part of the manor. (fn. 63) In 1647 Charles Peacock, John Charles, and others conveyed the manor to George Bagstar. (fn. 64) In 1648 Bagstar sold St. John's farm, which formed the southern portion of the manor, to William Browne the younger of Abridge. (fn. 65) The northern portion, together with the manorial rights, did not go to Browne but was sold by Bagstar in 1649 to Edward Palmer, owner of Dews Hall (see below). (fn. 66) It subsequently descended along with that manor.

St. John's Farm was mortgaged by William Browne in 1658 to John Eyver of Tilty. (fn. 67) Browne died in 1665 and was succeeded by William Browne, probably his son. (fn. 68) In 1678 the latter sold the farm to William Scott of Chigwell. (fn. 69) In 1699 it was settled upon Scott's daughter Anne on her marriage to William Derham, Rector of Upminster. (fn. 70) Derham (1657-1735) became a Fellow of the Royal Society and published many books and articles on science and theology. In 1714 he became chaplain to the Prince of Wales and in 1716 a canon of Windsor. (fn. 71) In 1733 he sold St. John's farm to Sir John Fortescue-Aland. The farm was thus merged in the main manor of Lambourne and subsequently descended along with it (see above). (fn. 72)

In 1723 the court of the manor was being held at a house called Tobys 'near Clay Grove'. (fn. 73)

In 1841 St. John's farm consisted of 88 acres in the occupation of James Clark. (fn. 74) In 1929 the area of the farm was 160 acres. (fn. 75)

The manor of ARNEWAYS, whose name has been corrupted to the modern ARNOLDS, probably took its name from Adam Arneway, who is said to have held land in Lambourne 'about the reign of Henry VI' under the Earl of Oxford, who held the neighbouring manor of Battles in Stapleford Abbots (q.v.). (fn. 76) This tenure suggests that Arneways was originally part of Battles.

In 1525 Arneways was among the possessions of Sir William Fitzwilliam of Milton (Northants.) and was settled in that year to the uses of his will. (fn. 77) He also owned the manor of Hunts (see below), and his property descended on his death in 1534 to his son and heir Sir William. (fn. 78) In a list of owners drawn up about 1543-6 Anthony Browne is given under Arneways. (fn. 79) By 1556, however, Arneways and Hunts had come to Robert Taverner, lord of the manors of Pryors (see below) and Lambourne-and-Abridge (see above) who died in that year. (fn. 80) Arneways remained in the possession of Thomas, son of Robert Taverner, after Lambourne-and-Abridge had been sold, and descended on Thomas's death in 1610 to his son Robert. (fn. 81) In 1625 Robert Taverner sold Arneways and Pryors to Robert Draper, merchant tailor of London. (fn. 82) Taverner evidently remained tenant of the estate. Draper died in 1635 and was succeeded by his younger son William. (fn. 83) At its fullest extent the Taverner estate probably comprised about 500 acres.

In 1641 William Draper of Oxford sold Arneways to Robert Broomfield of Stratford. (fn. 84) The estate descended to John Broomfield, son of John, son of Robert, who in 1681 assigned the lease of Arneways 'heretofore in the occupation of Robert Taverner', to John Todd of Walthamstow. (fn. 85) In 1687 this estate 'once in the occupation of Robert Taverner and afterwards of Lance Nash' was sold to John Todd. (fn. 86) Todd is said to have given half the estate to William Church, who married his daughter; their daughter and heir married Peter Searle who sold Arneways to Thomas Scott (d. 1733) of Woolston in Chigwell (q.v.). (fn. 87) The estate passed to Thomas's son George Scott who was holding it in 1746. A map of the farm was drawn for George Scott in that year by Josiah Taylor. (fn. 88) Arnolds then consisted of 215 acres in Lambourne, most of which lay opposite the farm-house to the south of the main road. There were also a few acres in Stapleford Abbots. George Scott still held the farm in 1771, (fn. 89) but by 1782 it was owned by Edward Sewell. (fn. 90) He was returned as the owner until 1788 when the farm belonged to Mrs. Sarah Sewell, probably his widow. (fn. 91) After Mrs. Sewell's death about 1801 Arneways came to Samuel Sewell who still held it in 1841. (fn. 92) In the latter year the farm consisted of 203 acres in Lambourne. It was occupied by Mrs. Kitty Collyer and Philip B. Collyer. (fn. 93) The Collyer family had been tenants since 1788. (fn. 94)

Arnolds Farm was advertised for sale in 1843. It was then stated to contain 203 acres freehold in Lambourne and a further 10 acres copyhold of the manor of Stapleford Abbots. (fn. 95) It was bought by Samuel Crane, whose family continued to farm it until about 1916 when it was sold to Mr. Jacob Saward. In 1925 the farm was bought by Mr. A. Clarke, whose son, Mr. H. E. Clarke, is the present owner. (fn. 96)

The manor house, now a farm, is a timber-framed and weather-boarded structure with three gables to the front. Its present plan, which is approximately square, is the result of additions and alterations at various dates. The centre part of the front was once a 15th-century open hall, divided into two bays by a massive archbraced roof truss with a rebated king-post. Smokeblackened roof timbers indicate that there was an open hearth, probably in the eastern bay. Flanking the hall to east and west are two-story cross-wings, each with a front gable. These are probably of the same date or a little later. A ceiling has now been inserted in the hall and the central gable constructed to give light and headroom on the upper floor. The original truss has been incorporated in a bedroom partition. These alterations were probably made early in the 16th century. At about the same time a central chimney was inserted and a new two-story wing built out behind the hall. This would give a somewhat unusual T-shaped plan, the chimney providing fire-place openings both in the hall and the new wing. The ground-floor room of the added wing has fine moulded ceiling beams and joists of typical early-16th-century character and there is said to be a carved external bressummer, now covered over, at the north end. (fn. 97) The next addition was probably the north extension of the east cross-wing, which incorporates a 17th-century staircase. On the first floor of the west cross-wing there is panelling of the late 16th or early 17th century, and later still this wing was also extended northwards, giving the house its present square plan. There are said to be two earlier windows to the hall, now blocked. (fn. 98) The whole house has been reroofed.

The manor of BISHOPS HALL originated in an estate in Lambourne held by the Bishop of Norwich. It is probable that this estate extended into Stapleford Abbots. In 1250 Walter le Blunt and Maud his wife granted to Walter de Suffield, Bishop of Norwich, a messuage, 60 acres of land, 6 acres of meadow, and 1 acre of wood in Lambourne, which tenement had formerly been held by Andrew le Draper. (fn. 99) In 1252 the bishop received a royal grant of free warren in his demesnes at Lambourne. (fn. 100) In 1260 Roger le Hunt and Estrilda his wife gave Simon de Wauton, Bishop of Norwich, 14 acres of land in the parish to hold in free alms. (fn. 101) Early in 1384 the temporalities of Henry Despenser, Bishop of Norwich, were taken into the king's hands as a result of the disastrous expedition to Flanders which the bishop had led. (fn. 102) At a subsequent inquisition it was found that the manor called 'La Bisshoppeshall of Norwich' was held of the Knights Hospitallers and of Sir John Sutton by the service of 6s. a year, of the king in chief as of the manor of Havering, by service of making 60 perches of the park pale with his own timber, and of the Earl of Oxford by suit at his three weeken court. (fn. 103) The manor contained 80 acres of arable worth 13s. 4d. a year, 12 acres of wood which could be cut every 20 years and was worth 2s. an acre, 13s. 8d. rents of assize, and 17(?) acres (of meadow or pasture ?) each of which was worth 2s. 6d.

The manor was restored to the bishop with his other property in 1385 and remained appurtenant to the see of Norwich until 1534, when the then bishop, Richard Nix, was deprived of his property on the charge of infringing the Statute of Praemunire. (fn. 104) Nix was later pardoned, but in 1536, immediately after his death, the temporalities of the see were vested in the king by Act of Parliament in exchange for the former estates of the abbey of St. Benet's Hulme and of the priory of Hickling. (fn. 105) In October 1536 the bishop's manor in Lambourne was conveyed to the chancellor, Sir Thomas Audley. (fn. 106) Audley transferred it in 1538 to William Hale. (fn. 107) In 1556 Hale settled the manor on himself for life with remainder to Thomas Hale. (fn. 108) This may have been the Thomas Hale of Codicote (Herts.) from whom descended the Hales of King's Walden (Herts.). (fn. 109) How long Bishops Hall was held by the Hales is not certain. It appears to have passed about 1606 to the family of Stoner of Loughton (q.v.) and together with land in Stapleford Abbots (q.v.) formed the estate of Knoll's Hill. (fn. 110) In 1606 the 'manor or messuage of Bishops Motte' was in the possession of Clement Stoner. The site was then 'wasted and overgrown'. The fields belonging to the manor were Nether Barnfield, Upper Barnfield, Wheelers Ridden, Great Perryfield, Little Perryfield, Sedwins, Blackcroft, Stanes, and Sagars. The total extent was about 100 acres. (fn. 111) Stoner died in 1612, leaving Francis his son and heir. (fn. 112)

Bishops Hall seems subsequently to have been separated from the Knoll's Hill estate. Later in the 17th century the manor came into the possession of Edmund Colvill, salter of Maidstone (Kent). He was evidently a Parliamentarian, for in 1662 he was removed from the common council of Maidstone for refusing the oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance. (fn. 113) He died in 1675. (fn. 114) In 1686 his widow Katherine sold Bishops Hall to William Walker, citizen and ironmonger of London. (fn. 115)

William Walker died in 1708 and was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas (d. 1748). (fn. 116) Thomas Walker was surveyor-general to George II and M.P. for West Looe (1733), Plympton (1734), and Helston (1741). (fn. 117) He left all his Essex estates to his nephew Stephen Skinner. (fn. 118) Skinner died in 1762 and his widow Mary in 1769. The will of Thomas Walker had provided that his estates should pass after Skinner's death to Skinner's three daughters and their heirs. (fn. 119)

In 1772 a private Act of Parliament was passed for dividing the estates. (fn. 120) Bishops Hall was included in Lot C of the subsequent partition and became the property of Mary wife of Sir Thomas Aubrey, 6th Bt. of Boarstall (Bucks.), and daughter of Sir James Colebrooke, 1st Bt., by Mary, eldest daughter of Stephen Skinner. (fn. 121) In 1774 Sir Thomas and Lady Aubrey sold the manor to William Waylett of Lambourne. (fn. 122) Waylett sold it in 1785 to Admiral Sir Edward Hughes, who had recently returned to England from service against the French as Commander-in-Chief, East Indies. (fn. 123)

On Sir Edward Hughes's death in 1798 the manor passed to his stepson Edward Hughes Ball (d. 1863), who later assumed the additional surname of Hughes and became a social celebrity and dandy, familiarly known as 'Golden Ball'. (fn. 124) In 1818 Ball Hughes leased Bishops Hall to W. J. Lockwood of Dews Hall (see below) for fourteen years. (fn. 125) The unexpired portion of the lease was surrendered in 1827. (fn. 126) The manor is said to have been sold about this time to Edward Dowdeswell, Rector of Stanford Rivers, who gave it to Miss Lockwood Percival (presumably Louisa Elizabeth, sister of Edward Lockwood Percival the younger, for whom see above, Manor). (fn. 127) After Miss Percival's death (before c. 1838) Bishops Hall apparently descended along with the main manor of Lambourne.

The original manor house of Bishops Hall was no doubt that which in 1606 was described as Bishops Motte, and was then wasted and overgrown (see above). This moated site can still be identified. Buried tiles and debris at the south-west corner may be the remains of former buildings.

The second Bishops Hall was built ¾ mile west of the first, probably by William Walker (d. 1708) or his son Thomas (d. 1748). (fn. 128) This became the seat of the Lockwood family and gave its name to their estate in the 19th century. It was much enlarged by Lord Lambourne about 1900. After the break-up of the estate (1929) the house was demolished (1936) (fn. 129) and the present Bishops Hall, the third of the name, was built in the grounds about 150 yds. south-east. This is a two-story gabled building, partly half-timbered. Various features from the earlier house are incorporated, including the carved stone Lockwood arms on the south front and the 17th-century Dutch panelling in the library.

The manor of DEWS HALL took its name from the family of Deu or Dew. Thomas Deu held land in Lambourne in 1248. (fn. 130) He and John Deu made a conveyance of 9 acres of land and 1 acre of meadow in 1262. (fn. 131) A Richard Deu of Lambourne occurs in 1280-1. (fn. 132) A John Deu was verderer for the regards of Chelmsford and Ongar in 1285. He was probably identical with the man of the same name who was a juror at the perambulation of the forest of Essex in 1301. (fn. 133) In 1304-5 Hamon de Deu conveyed to Richard of Chigwell and Joan his wife a messuage, 120 acres of land, 24 acres of pasture, and 9 acres of meadow in Lambourne and Theydon Bois. (fn. 134)

In 1305 Juliane, widow of John de Deu, conveyed to Henry de Multon and Agnes his wife a messuage, 200 acres of land, 6 acres of meadow, 15 acres of wood, and 20 acres of pasture in Lambourne. (fn. 135) It was provided in this conveyance that the property should descend to the heirs of Agnes; probably therefore she was the daughter of John Deu. In or about 1322 the estate passed to Juliane, daughter of Agnes and Henry and wife of Richard de Welby of Multon (Moulton, Lincs?). (fn. 136) In 1333 it was said to consist of a messuage, 220 acres of land, 7 acres of meadow, 20 acres of pasture, 20 acres of wood, 24s. rent and ½ messuage all in Lambourne. A settlement in that year provided that the estate should descend to the male heirs of Juliane and Richard, with successive remainders to their daughters Margaret, Elizabeth, Joan, and Ada. (fn. 137) No sons are mentioned by name and it is probable that Dews Hall descended through one of the daughters.

In 1419 John de Leventhorpe held an estate in Lambourne, described as 1 messuage, 220 acres of land, 100 acres of meadow, 20 acres of pasture, 20 acres of wood, 24s. rent and ½ messuage. (fn. 138) A Thomas de Leventhorpe had connexions with the parish in 1469. (fn. 139) The Leventhorpe estate was probably Dews Hall. Reynold Bismere (d. 1506) held Dews Hall of the Duke of Buckingham as of Ongar castle by doing what are called 'white services' at the wardstaff of the hundred of Ongar. (fn. 140) Two other Essex manors held by Bismere in 1506 had formerly belonged to the Leventhorpes. (fn. 141)

By 1540 Dews Hall had passed to Sir William Sulyard who died in that year. (fn. 142) He was succeeded by his half-brother Eustace Sulyard (d. 1547). Eustace's heir was his eldest son Edward, but Dews Hall, then in the occupation of James Haydon, was left to a younger son John. (fn. 143) There is no further mention of John. In 1580 Edward Sulyard and Anne his wife conveyed Dews Hall to Henry Palmer. (fn. 144)

The manor descended in the direct male line of Palmer to Henry Billingsley Palmer, son of Edward Palmer. (fn. 145) Between 1668 and 1697 a number of mortgages were taken out on Dews Hall. (fn. 146) Among the mortgagees was Richard Lockwood. In 1709 Henry Billingsley Palmer sold the manor to Catlyn Thorogood, an official of the South Sea Company. (fn. 147) Thorogood died in 1732. (fn. 148) His son Pate Thorogood sold Dews Hall in 1735 to Richard Lockwood, 'an eminent Turkey merchant', the son of the above-mentioned Richard Lockwood. (fn. 149)

Lockwood settled at Dews Hall and the manor descended to his eldest son Richard (d. 1794). (fn. 150) The latter left no children and was succeeded by his brother the Revd. Edward Lockwood, owner of the main manor of Lambourne (see above). In 1802, after the death of the Revd. Edward Lockwood, Dews Hall passed to William Joseph Lockwood, son of his elder son. It was thus separated from the manor of Lambourne, but the two manors were reunited in 1842 and Dews Hall subsequently descended along with Lambourne.

In 1841 Dews Hall farm consisted of 40 acres occupied by William Wootton. (fn. 151) In 1929 it consisted of 87 acres, in hand. (fn. 152)

When Richard Lockwood acquired Dews Hall in 1735 the manor house was 'an old brick building'. (fn. 153) He enlarged and refronted it in the classical style. (fn. 154) A print of 1824 shows a fine three-story Georgian mansion with seven windows across the front. (fn. 155) The central bay had a pediment and a first-floor balcony. The arcaded side wings were of one story. The house was demolished shortly before 1841. (fn. 156) The site is now occupied by a red-brick stable court belonging to Bishops Hall and dating from about 1900.

The estate or farm known as HUNTS and later as PATCH PARK never seems to have been styled a manor. It derived its original name from the family of Richard le Hunte who with Cecily his wife held land in Lambourne in 1306. (fn. 157) In 1360 John Hunte and his 'parceners' held ½ knight's fee in Lambourne of the Earl of Oxford. (fn. 158) The name Patch Park probably came from the family of John Patche of Lambourne, a woodward of the bailiwick of Ongar in Waltham forest in 1498. (fn. 159) The estate or at least the farm-house was still known as Hunts as late as 1714. (fn. 160)

In 1525 Hunts was held along with Arneways (see above) by Sir William Fitzwilliam. (fn. 161) It passed with Arneways to Robert Taverner, who was holding it in 1556. (fn. 162) In 1716 'a parcel of pasture or marsh known as Patch Park', comprising about 60 acres, belonged to Thomas Luther, lord of Suttons in Stapleford Tawney (q.v.) and the farm subsequently descended along with Suttons. (fn. 163) After Pryors (see below) had been added to the Suttons estate Patch Park and Pryors were worked as a single farm.

The present farm-house of Patch Park was originally timber-framed and may be of 17th-century date or earlier. It probably consisted of a central block with cross-wings projecting to the south and oversailing at first floor level. The house has been much altered, particularly in the mid-19th century when most of the lower story was faced with gault brick.

The manor of PRYORS took its name from the priory of Dunmow, to which it belonged in the Middle Ages. In 1273 Roger Bishop and Alice his wife and Geoffrey Sleybrond and Rose his wife conveyed to Hugh, Prior of Dunmow, 43 acres of land and 2 acres of meadow in Lambourne. (fn. 164) In 1291 the property of the prior in Lambourne was valued at 18s. 2d. (fn. 165) In 1311 the priory was granted licence to acquire a further small property in the parish. (fn. 166)

In 1536, after the dissolution of the priory, the lands in Lambourne formerly belonging to it were granted to Robert, Earl of Sussex (d. 1542). (fn. 167) In 1554 Henry, Earl of Sussex (d. 1557), sold Pryors to Robert Taverner. (fn. 168) The manor subsequently descended with Arneways (see above) until 1681. In that year Arneways was sold by John Broomfield to John Todd, but Pryors remained in the possession of Broomfield, who left it by his will (1687) to his sister Elizabeth, wife of Nicholas Staphurst, M.D. (fn. 169) Nicholas Staphurst, son of Elizabeth, sold the estate in 1713 to Dr. Thomas Tooke, Rector of Lambourne. (fn. 170) A sketch map of Pryors and the glebe land made in 1714 is a little difficult to follow but appears to show that Pryors proper consisted of 35 acres and that an additional 11 acres belonging to the glebe were farmed as part of Pryors. (fn. 171) Tooke died in 1721, leaving Pryors to his wife for life with remainder to his brother John Tooke (d. 1764) who also succeeded him as rector. (fn. 172) John Tooke was succeeded as rector and owner of Pryors by his son Robert Tooke (d. 1776). (fn. 173) Robert left Pryors to his sister Mrs. Calvert, who held it until her death about 1794. (fn. 174) She was succeeded by her daughter Mary, wife of John Martin, who sold the farm about 1798 to Charles Smith of Suttons in Stapleford Tawney (q.v.). Pryors was thus merged in the Suttons estate. (fn. 175) In 1841 Pryors and Patch Park (see above) together contained 136 acres. (fn. 176)

A small timber-framed and weather-boarded house, now known as Patch Park Cottage, is thought to represent the former manor house of Priors. Until recently it was divided into two tenements. Externally it appears to be of the 18th or early 19th century, but two groundfloor rooms have stop-chamfered beams, probably of the 17th century and it is possible that at one time the building was of greater extent.

The priory of Stratford Bow (Mdx.) owned 6 acres of land in Lambourne called MYNCHYNLANDS, which were granted after the Dissolution to Sir Ralph Sadler, who in 1546 received licence to grant the property to John Lowe. (fn. 177) It may have been in connexion with these lands that the Abbot of Waltham was paying ½ mark a year to Stratford priory in about 1254. (fn. 178)


  • 1. V.C.H. Essex, i, 467b. This does not suggest a large manor, which is surprising in view of the present size of the parish. Some parts of Lambourne may have been included in 1086 in entries for other places: and see below.
  • 2. V.C.H. Essex, i, 467b.
  • 3. Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 576; Bk. of Fees, 236.
  • 4. For Pharamus see J. H. Round's article, Genealogist, N.S. xii, 145-51. See also Magdalen Laver, Blake Hall in Bobbingworth. Pharamus died in 1183-4.
  • 5. Bk. of Fees, 236, 240, 1428; Red Bk. of Exch. 576.
  • 6. Bk. of Fees, 236, 240, 1428; Red Bk. of Exch. 576.
  • 7. Feet of F. Essex, ii, 36. Another Ingram de Fiennes was probably father of the William of 1282: cf. W. Farrer, Feudal Cambs. 248-9.
  • 8. Cal. Inq. p.m. iii, p. 440.
  • 9. D.N.B. Robt. Burnell.
  • 10. Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, p. 86; C142/84/55. For the wardstaff see the Hundred of Ongar, above.
  • 11. Cur. Reg. R. ii, 206.
  • 12. See below, Church.
  • 13. Feet of F. Essex, i, 123.
  • 14. Cal. Inq. Misc. i, p. 181.
  • 15. Feet of F. Essex, ii, 36.
  • 16. This Wm. of Lambourne was an active local official under Edward I: see C. Moor, Knights of Edw. I, iii, 7.
  • 17. C133/93/10.
  • 18. Feet of F. Essex, ii, 115.
  • 19. C. Moor, Knights of Edw. I, iii, 7.
  • 20. Cal. Inq. Misc. iii, p. 24.
  • 21. Cal. Inq. p.m. xi, p. 81.
  • 22. Feet of F. Essex, iii, 182.
  • 23. W. A. Coppinger, Manors of Suffolk, i, 180.
  • 24. Feet of F. Essex, iii, 256.
  • 25. Ibid.
  • 26. Feud. Aids, vi, 439.
  • 27. C1/26/472.
  • 28. Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, pp. 85-86.
  • 29. It is perhaps significant that William Curzon died on the day of the battle of Bosworth.
  • 30. W. A. Coppinger, Manors of Suffolk, iii, 11; Morant, Essex, i, 432; Visits. of Essex (Harl. Soc.), 207.
  • 31. CP25(2)/11/54 East. 12 Hen. VIII.
  • 32. C142/84/55. He was a member of the Mercers' Co.
  • 33. E.R.O., D/DLo T56. For the Barfoot pedigree see Morant, Essex, i, 172, and E.R.O., T/G 30/5.
  • 34. Complete Peerage, v, 562.
  • 35. Ibid. 563.
  • 36. E.R.O., D/DLo T2.
  • 37. Ibid. T56; T. Wright, Hist. Essex, ii, 397.
  • 38. Burke, Commoners (1833-8), iv, 82.
  • 39. Ibid.; E.R.O., D/DLo T54.
  • 40. E.R.O., D/DLo E2.
  • 41. E.R.O., D/CT 202.
  • 42. E.R. xxxviii, 34; Burke, Land. Gent. (1906), ii, 1035.
  • 43. J. Grant, Essex Historical, Biographical and Pictorial, Lockwood.
  • 44. E.R. xxxviii, 34-36.
  • 45. E.R.O. Sale Cat. A. 1046.
  • 46. T. Wright, Hist. Essex, ii, 396.
  • 47. Inf. from Mrs. S. Padfield, present occupier, and from Mr. R. B. Pugh.
  • 48. Ibid.
  • 49. Ibid.; For a photo. of Lambourne Hall, 1929, see E.R.O., Sale Cat. 1046. For the demolition of Marks Hall see E.R. lix, 164.
  • 50. Morant, Essex, i, 173; Feet of F. Essex, i, 215; P.N. Essex (E.P.N.S.), 60.
  • 51. Cal. Pat. 1550-3, 309.
  • 52. C142/109/54.
  • 53. Cal. Pat. 1555-7, 466.
  • 54. CP25(2)/138/1750. For the Wroths see also Loughton.
  • 55. C142/294/87.
  • 56. CP43/103 rot. 34.
  • 57. See Manor of Loughton, in that parish.
  • 58. Ibid.
  • 59. CP25(2)/296 East. 19 Jas. 1.
  • 60. E.R.O., D/DLo M1 (copy from Forest Roll).
  • 61. C142/590/15.
  • 62. CP25(2)/418 Trin. 17 Chas. 1.
  • 63. Hist. MSS. Com. 6th Rep. App. 61b.
  • 64. CP25(2)/419 East. 23 Chas. 1; E.R.O., D/DLo T1.
  • 65. E.R.O., D/DLo T56.
  • 66. CP25(2)/550B Trin. 1649.
  • 67. E.R.O., D/DLo T56.
  • 68. Ibid.
  • 69. Ibid.
  • 70. Ibid.
  • 71. D.N.B.
  • 72. E.R.O., D/DLo T56.
  • 73. E.R.O., D/P 181/8/1.
  • 74. E.R.O., D/CT 202.
  • 75. E.R.O., Sale Cat. A. 1046.
  • 76. Morant, Essex, i, 173.
  • 77. Earl Fitzwilliam (Milton) Deeds, 1725, 1726. This reference has been provided by Mr. A. A. Dibben. For Fitzwilliam see also Gaynes Park in Theydon Garnon and Marshalls in North Weald.
  • 78. C142/57/20.
  • 79. E.A.T., n.s. ix, 217; E.R.O., D/DRg 1/197.
  • 80. C142/109/54.
  • 81. C60/456, No. 44. For the Taverner pedigree see Visits. of Essex (Harl. Soc.), 498.
  • 82. E.R.O., T/A 44, p. 319.
  • 83. C142/525/130.
  • 84. E.R.O., T/A 44, p. 319.
  • 85. Ibid.
  • 86. Ibid.
  • 87. Morant, Essex, i, 173, 169. It is not clear whether the estate remained permanently divided. A Mr. Church owned Arnolds in 1723: E.R.O., D/P 181/8/1.
  • 88. Map in possession of Mr. H. E. Clarke of Arnold's Farm and kindly lent to the editor. A photo. of this: E.R.O., T/M 227.
  • 89. Hist. Essex by Gent. iv, 24.
  • 90. E.R.O., Q/RP1 687.
  • 91. Ibid. 688-93.
  • 92. Ibid. 694-737; D/CT 202.
  • 93. Ibid. D/CT 202.
  • 94. Ibid. Q/RP1 693 f.
  • 95. E.R.O., Sale Cat. B. 168.
  • 96. Inf. from Mr. H. E. Clarke.
  • 97. Ibid.
  • 98. Ibid.
  • 99. Feet of F. Essex, i, 183.
  • 100. Cal. Chart. R. 1226-57, 404.
  • 101. Feet of F. Essex, i, 237.
  • 102. Cal. Close, 1385-9, 3-4. For the career of Despenser see D.N.B.
  • 103. C145/229. The document is badly stained but the name of the manor seems to be as given above. This makes it reasonably certain that the manor was named after the Bishop of Norwich, and not, as suggested by Dr. Reaney (P.N. Essex, 60-61) after a family named Bishop.
  • 104. For Nix see D.N.B.
  • 105. 27 Hen. VIII, c.45 (priv. act.).
  • 106. L. & P. Hen. VIII, xi, p. 377.
  • 107. Ibid. xiii (1), p. 325.
  • 108. Cal. Pat. 1555-7, 90.
  • 109. Burke, Land. Gent. (1906), 746- 7.
  • 110. Morant, Essex, i, 178.
  • 111. E.R.O., D/DFa E1 : this includes a sketch map of the estate. Francis Stoner (d. 1604), father of Clement, does not appear to have owned Bishops Hall: C142/285/116.
  • 112. Morant, Essex, i, 178.
  • 113. Recs. of Maidstone (1926), 146.
  • 114. P.C.C. Wills, 1671-5 (Brit. Rec. Soc.), 49.
  • 115. E.R.O., D/DLo T14.
  • 116. Ibid.
  • 117. T. Wright, Hist. Essex, ii, 398-9.
  • 118. E.R.O., D/DLo T14.
  • 119. Ibid.
  • 120. Skinner's Estate Act, 12 Geo. III, c.96 (priv. act.). Cf. E.R.O., D/DLo T14.
  • 121. E.R.O., D/DLo T14.
  • 122. Ibid.
  • 123. Ibid.; for Hughes see D.N.B. He had fought 5 battles in about a year.
  • 124. D.N.B. x, 174.
  • 125. E.R.O., D/DLo T14.
  • 126. Ibid.
  • 127. T. Wright, Hist. Essex, ii, 399; Burke, Commoners (1833-8), iv, 82.
  • 128. William Walker was resident in the parish (cf. E.R.O., D/P 181/8/1). Before him the owners of Bishops Hall manor in the 17th cent. were probably nonresident. The house existed by the time of Morant (cf. Morant, Essex, i, 173).
  • 129. Inf. from Col. J.C. Lockwood, present owner of Bishops Hall. For the building demolished in 1936 see E.R.O., Sale Cat. 1046 (includes photo.). For the contents of that great house in 1929 see E.R.O., Sale Cat. A. 623. They included a 'magnificent French state bedstead' upon which Edward VII had slept during his visit to Bishops Hall.
  • 130. Feet of F. Essex, i, 161.
  • 131. Ibid. 245.
  • 132. E.A.T., N.S. xviii, 139.
  • 133. Ibid. xvi, 93-94.
  • 134. Feet of F. Essex, ii, 98.
  • 135. Ibid. 100.
  • 136. Cal. Fine R. 1319-27, 89.
  • 137. Feet of F. Essex, iii, 28.
  • 138. Feet of F. Essex, iii, 270.
  • 139. Cal. Pat. 1467-77, 173.
  • 140. C142/20/56. This is the first reference to the estate as a manor. For the wardstaff see above, Hundred of Ongar.
  • 141. Leventhorpes in Wennington and Launders in Rainham: see Morant, Essex, i, 86, 89.
  • 142. C142/64/89. For the Sulyards see Morant, Essex, ii, 42 and also Manor of Otes in High Laver.
  • 143. C142/86/63.
  • 144. E.R.O., D/DLo T5. An Edward Palmer probably occupied Dews Hall before 1547; E.A.T. n.s. ix, 217.
  • 145. For the descent see Visits. of Essex (Harl. Soc.), 463.
  • 146. E.R.O., D/DLo T5, 6.
  • 147. Ibid. T7; Morant, Essex, i, 174.
  • 148. Morant, Essex, i, 174. For his part in renovating the church and the subsequent dispute between the parish and his executors see below, Church.
  • 149. Ibid.; E.R.O., D/DLo T9.
  • 150. For the Lockwood pedigree see Burke, Commoners (1833-8), iv, 81.
  • 151. E.R.O., D/CT 202.
  • 152. E.R.O., Sale Cat. A. 1046.
  • 153. Morant, Essex, i, 174.
  • 154. Ibid.
  • 155. See plate facing p. 30. A view in Gents. Mag. Oct. 1821 is less good: here the apparent position of the house to the south-east of the church is probably due to faulty perspective.
  • 156. E.R.O., D/CT 202. The Tithe Map and Award show the 'scite of old mansion' at the position of Dews Hall. T. Wright, Hist. Essex (1835), ii, 401-2 speaks of the house as still standing.
  • 157. Feet of F. Essex, ii, 107.
  • 158. Cal. Inq. p.m. x, p. 522.
  • 159. E.R. xiv, 200.
  • 160. E.R.O., D/DSd P1; Chapman and Andre, Map of Essex, 1777, sheet xvi, give Hunts as name of present Great Downs farm. This was probably an error.
  • 161. Earl Fitzwilliam (Milton) Deeds, 1725, 1726.
  • 162. C142/109/54.
  • 163. E.R.O., D/DSd T2.
  • 164. Feet of F. Essex, ii, 1.
  • 165. Tax Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 25b.
  • 166. Cal. Pat. R. 1307-13, 395.
  • 167. L. & P. Hen. VIII, xi, p. 87.
  • 168. CP25(2)/70/579 Mich. 1 & 2 Ph. & Mary.
  • 169. Morant, Essex, i, 174; E.R.O., D/DSd T42.
  • 170. Ibid.
  • 171. E.R.O., D/DSd P1.
  • 172. Morant, Essex, i, 174-5.
  • 173. Ibid.
  • 174. T. Wright, Hist. Essex, ii, 402; E.R.O., Q/RP1 686-99; ibid. D/DSd T42.
  • 175. Ibid.
  • 176. E.R.O., D/CT 202. The name of this Pryors is not now used locally. Priors near Bishops Hall is a modern house with no known connexion with the Dunmow priory estate.
  • 177. L. & P. Hen. VIII, xiv (1), p. 161; ibid. xxi (2), p. 348.
  • 178. E.A.T. n.s. xviii, 18.