A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1968.
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Hasfield lies 6 miles north of Gloucester on the west bank of the Severn. The parish is irregular in shape and contains 1,446 a. At inclosure in 1797 143 a., forming an indentation on the western boundary, had been transferred to Ashleworth in compensation for ancient rights of common enjoyed in the parish by the inhabitants of Ashleworth. (fn. 1)
The south-eastern part of the parish is an area of water meadows and willow trees and, lying below the 50 ft. contour, is subject to flooding by the river for several months in the winter and at other times of the year. To the north-west the land slopes up to a ridge at c. 200 ft. and to Corse Wood Hill on the northern boundary of the parish. The lower part of the parish lies on alluvial soils, the intermediate part on marl, and there is an area of the Lower Lias, overlying the Rhaetic, on Corse Wood Hill. At inclosure in 1797 a quarry allotment was made on Corse Wood Hill. (fn. 2) Hasfield is part of the former wooded area west of the Severn, and was within the bounds of Corse Chase. (fn. 3) Mixhill Wood is probably a survival of the woodland area; Pigeon House Close to the south-east and the Lower Leasow to the west were still well wooded in the late 18th century, when each contained c. 100 elms and the Lower Leasow contained 14 oaks. (fn. 4) Corse Grove in the north is the main survival of the ancient woodland (see page 272).
The flooding of the river prevented settlement in the south-eastern half of the parish; settlement of the northern half was a slow process of woodland clearance, which has given Hasfield its pattern of scattered farms and hamlets. The name Hasfield indicates the nature of settlement; 'Hasleghe' was apparently an alternative name in the early 13th century, (fn. 5) and other ancient names in the north of the parish, such as Vintley, (fn. 6) the Reddings, (fn. 7) Wimundsredinge, (fn. 8) also indicate clearing of the woodland. The primary settlement is the scattered village below the slopes of Corse Grove and Mixhill Wood. Perhaps only the area around the village was cleared and settled by the 11th century, and that would explain the low hidation given for Hasfield in 1086. (fn. 9) By the 13th century, however, there was apparently an open field in the north-west of the parish, (fn. 10) and there were houses and pasture-closes in the two outlying settlements, at Wickridge Street and under Corse Wood Hill. Wickridge Street probably originated in squatter development on the waste beside the road described as the 'broad way' c. 1260 (fn. 11) which formed the boundary between the manors of Hasfield and Ashleworth, and there were three or four houses there by the 13th century. (fn. 12) The settlement was apparently never much larger; in the early 18th century it was said to consist of 8 houses but that presumably included the part of Wickridge in Ashleworth. (fn. 13) The settlement under Corse Wood Hill was probably also in existence in the 13th century, when the house later called Underhills appears to have been there. (fn. 14) There were 8 cottages there c. 1700. (fn. 15) At the end of the 18th century only the small area of the parish north of the TirleyWickridge road was included in the uncultivated waste known as Corse Lawn, (fn. 16) and the area of woodland in the parish was down to 40 a., (fn. 17) about the same as in 1966.
The main use of the land of Hasfield has long been for pasture and meadow. Flooding in the south-east and the wooded hills in the north-west made the establishment of large open fields difficult. The area that until 1797 comprised the small open fields was mainly in pasture in 1966. (fn. 18) The watermeadows and pasture in the south-east are drained by a system of channels which was made partly at inclosure, (fn. 19) but the main dike, which divided the southern meadow area from the pasture of Hasfield Ham, with a floodgate at its southern end near the Ashleworth boundary, was in existence earlier. (fn. 20) There was formerly common pasture in the north of Hasfield, the use of which was complicated by the fact that it lay within Corse Chase. In the 13th century a dispute between the men of Hasfield and the Earl of Gloucester, who owned the chase, led to the abduction of some of the men to Wales, (fn. 21) and in the early 17th century the lord of Hasfield manor was appointed a commissioner to enquire into a dispute over the right claimed by the commoners of the parishes surrounding the Lawn to cut fuel there. (fn. 22)
Most of the cottages in the parish are timberframed or of 19th-century brick, and the fact may indicate two main periods of building separated by a period of decline. In 1712 there were said to be 48 houses in the parish, (fn. 23) but there are several references in the mid-18th century to houses which had been pulled down or were in decay, (fn. 24) and in 1754 several cottages on the manorial estate were apparently untenanted. (fn. 25) By 1801, when the number of houses was 39, (fn. 26) a recovery had probably already begun and during the first 30 years of the 19th century the number increased to 51. (fn. 27) All the farm-houses except the Great House (fn. 28) and Hill Farm, a 17th-century timber-framed building with two gabled crosswings, appear to have been rebuilt in that period, but Old Farm retains a jettied gable-end to its cross-wing. Primrose Cottage has a cruck frame and a thatched roof; there are two stone cottages in Wickridge Street, where there are also three 20thcentury houses.
Twenty-two inhabitants of Hasfield were assessed for tax in 1327, (fn. 29) and in the mid-16th century there were 38 households and 140 communicants. (fn. 30) There were 50 families in 1650, (fn. 31) and a total population of c. 200 in the early 18th century. (fn. 32) A fall in population by 1779 matches the decline in the number of houses, (fn. 33) but it had increased again slightly to 187 in 1801. (fn. 34) The population then rose to 304 by 1841 and remained at roughly the same figure for the next 30 years, then declining to under 200 by 1901. In the 20th century the population has varied between 150 and 200. (fn. 35)
There was a beer-house at Hasfield in 1856 but it had apparently closed by 1863. (fn. 36) The 'Yew Tree', in a cottage on the road below Corse Wood Hill, was apparently in existence by 1879 when the licensee was also a carpenter and builder. (fn. 37) It closed as a public house in 1906 and the house was later pulled down. (fn. 38)
William Parker, the last Abbot of Gloucester, is said to have been a native of Hasfield and to have retired there at the Dissolution. (fn. 39) Members of the Parker family were living in the parish in the late 16th century (fn. 40) and John Parker of Northleach, who bought Hasfield manor in 1654, claimed descent from the abbot's father. (fn. 41)
Manors and Other Estates.
Hasfield had presumably belonged to the pre-Conquest monastery of Deerhurst. (fn. 42) In 1086 1 hide at Hasfield, held by Brictric from St. Peter's, Westminster in 1066, was held by Thurstan son of Rolf. (fn. 43) Thurstan was deprived of his lands by William Rufus and a part of them passed, apparently through Winebaud de Ballon, to the Newmarch family. (fn. 44) In 1166 Henry de Newmarch was holding lands in Gloucestershire and Worcestershire from Westminster Abbey, and the lands probably included Hasfield, as Henry's under-tenants were Humphrey and Eustace Pauncefoot, of the family which held Hasfield manor for the next four centuries. (fn. 45) The overlordship of Westminster Abbey was recorded until 1795. (fn. 46) The intermediate Newmarch lordship passed to the Russell family but was not mentioned after the early 14th century when the yearly rent of a sparrow-hawk was owed to them by the Pauncefoots. (fn. 47)
The first of the Pauncefoot family recorded specifically as lord of the manor of HASFIELD was Richard, the son of George Pauncefoot, in 1199. (fn. 48) Richard was succeeded by his son, also Richard, (fn. 49) and it was probably the younger Richard who was lord in 1221 and received a grant of free warren in 1255. (fn. 50) About 1260 Richard was succeeded by his son, Grimbald, (fn. 51) who played a leading part in the defence of Gloucester against Prince Edward in 1264. Grimbald later became an important figure in military affairs in Wales and the Marches and was Keeper of the Forest of Dean. (fn. 52) Before his death in 1287 he had granted Hasfield for life to his father-inlaw, Hugh de Turberville, and Hugh's wife, (fn. 53) and after their deaths the manor reverted to Grimbald's son, also Grimbald, who died in 1314. Grimbald's successive heirs were his brother, Aumary (fn. 54) (d. 1332), and Aumary's son, Grimbald, (fn. 55) but Hasfield was apparently held in dower by his widow, Clemency. She was patron of Hasfield church in 1318, (fn. 56) was assessed for tax there in 1327, (fn. 57) and was still alive and apparently holding the demesne in 1351. (fn. 58) Grimbald, the son of Aumary Pauncefoot, had succeeded to the manor by 1367 (fn. 59) and died in 1375, when Hasfield probably passed with his other lands to his brother Hugh. (fn. 60) Hugh died in 1379 leaving a son John, a minor, and Hugh's lands were held by his widow Katherine until her death in 1382. John came of age in 1390 (fn. 61) and was first mentioned as lord of Hasfield in that year. (fn. 62) He was still alive in 1442 (fn. 63) but died soon afterwards, when his lands passed to his son Hugh. Thomas Pauncefoot was probably lord of Hasfield when he witnessed a deed of 1454, (fn. 64) and in 1457 he was involved in a riot against the Abbot of Gloucester. (fn. 65) He was mentioned as lord of Hasfield in 1478, (fn. 66) and his son Henry in 1492. (fn. 67) Henry's son John was lord in 1510, (fn. 68) and was murdered in 1516, apparently while carrying out his duties as a Justice of the Peace. (fn. 69) His heir was his son Richard, then aged 4, (fn. 70) but Arthur Kemys, a creditor of John Pauncefoot, gained possession of the manor, (fn. 71) and in 1529 granted it to John Browne. (fn. 72) Browne claimed to have been expelled from the manor by force in 1531, (fn. 73) but apparently regained possession, and c. 1537 was disputing the manor with Richard, John Pauncefoot's son. (fn. 74) Richard presented to Hasfield church in 1547 (fn. 75) and died seised of the manor in 1558. He was succeeded by his son, John, (fn. 76) who went into exile in 1584 because of his recusancy. He was accompanied by his son and heir, also John, (fn. 77) but another son, Richard, remained at Hasfield until 1598 when he sold the manor to Edward Barker. (fn. 78)
By 1601 Hasfield had been bought by Sir Paul Tracy of Stanway (fn. 79) who was created a baronet in 1611 and died in 1626, when he was succeeded by his son, Sir Richard. Sir Richard died in 1637, (fn. 80) and his son, Sir Humphrey, sold the manor in 1654 to John Parker of Northleach. (fn. 81) John Parker died in 1692 (fn. 82) and Hasfield passed to successive sons: Edward (d. 1728), (fn. 83) John (d. c. 1735), (fn. 84) John (d. c. 1774), (fn. 85) and John. (fn. 86) The last John sold Hasfield in 1806 to John Stone (d. 1811), (fn. 87) and in 1844 John Stone's son, Edward Gresley Stone, sold it to Thomas Fulljames. (fn. 88) Fulljames was already a considerable landowner in the parish: he had bought Hasfield Court and part of the manorial property from John Stone soon after Stone's acquisition of the estate, (fn. 89) he was buying small parcels of land in Hasfield from 1807 onwards, (fn. 90) and by 1826 had built up an estate of 200 a. in the parish. (fn. 91) He died in 1847, (fn. 92) and was succeeded by another Thomas Fulljames, the architect and county surveyor, (fn. 93) who sold the estate in 1863 to William Meath-Baker. (fn. 94) William Meath-Baker died in 1865 and was succeeded by his brother, the Revd. Ralph Bourne Baker, who died in 1875 leaving a son William, a minor. William died in 1935, having settled the estate on his second son, Francis Meath-Baker, (fn. 95) who died in 1940. Francis Meath-Baker's widow, Madeleine, married secondly Lt.-Col. A. A. H. Beaman (d. 1950) and thirdly Mr. J. L. Brooksbank, and Mr. and Mrs. Brooksbank lived at Hasfield Court in 1966. The estate, part of which had been sold in 1948, was conveyed in trust in 1965 for the children of Mr. Gregory Meath-Baker, Mrs. Brooksbank's son by her first marriage. (fn. 96)
Hasfield Court presumably occupies the site of a medieval house; the Pauncefoot family appears to have been resident at Hasfield from c. 1200. (fn. 97) The oldest surviving parts of the house, however, are 16th-century, including the panelling in the former dining room which bears the initials of Richard (d. 1558) and Dorothy Pauncefoot (d. 1568), a blocked doorway and a window at the back of the house, and the central arch of the stable block. The house was apparently rebuilt in the mid-17th century, presumably by John Parker soon after he purchased it. (fn. 98) The 17th-century house was a square building with rows of regular gables on its south and west faces, a projecting west porch, and upper story windows with flattened arches and prominent keystones. In the late 18th or early 19th century a Gothic doorway was added on the south side. (fn. 99) The house was then apparently built half of brick and half of stone. (fn. 100) A second rebuilding was carried out by William Meath-Baker between 1863 and 1865. (fn. 101) Much of the interior of the house was left unchanged but the outside was completely remodelled and entirely faced with stone. A larger porch replaced the original one on the west, and the 17th-century gables were replaced with smaller gables of Dutch character surmounted by urns and linked by a balustraded parapet. In the garden is a 17th-century brick dovecot.
An estate in Hasfield was built up during the 19th century by James Sevier, rector of the parish from 1833 to his death in 1881. (fn. 102) He was buying small pieces of property in Hasfield between 1838 and 1869, (fn. 103) but the bulk of the estate came with the purchase of 100 a. from Thomas Fulljames the younger c. 1850. (fn. 104) When put up for sale in 1893 the estate comprised c. 100 a. land in the north of the parish, centred on Woodside Farm, which had been bought by Sevier in 1845, (fn. 105) with 65 a. of meadow, Amberley House near the church, and several cottages. (fn. 106)
An estate centred on the Great House was owned by the Browne family in the 16th century. In the 17th century the house was known as Hasfield House, (fn. 107) but in the late 18th century the house and estate were called Pigeon House Farm, (fn. 108) and from the mid-19th century the Great House. (fn. 109) Two members of the Browne family occur at Hasfield in the early 16th century John Browne was lord, and Henry Browne was at one time tenant of Hasfield manor (fn. 110) and a Henry Browne died in 1580 leaving lands in the parish to his son, also Henry. (fn. 111) In 1610 Henry's lands in Hasfield amounted to c. 100 a. centred on Hasfield House. (fn. 112) He died in 1620 and was succeeded by his son, William, (fn. 113) who in 1627 was involved in a dispute with Sir Richard Tracy, lord of Hasfield manor, over Tracy's claim to services from Browne's lands. (fn. 114) William Browne died in 1658, and his son Henry in 1678, (fn. 115) leaving all but a small part of his Hasfield possessions to his wife Eleanor, with reversion to their son William. (fn. 116) William, who was badly in debt by 1691, mortgaged his Hasfield inheritance to Benjamin Hyett in 1694. (fn. 117) Hyett was proceeding against Browne for repayment in 1699, (fn. 118) and later Browne sold his reversionary interest to Hyett, whose son Charles took possession on Eleanor Browne's death in 1715. (fn. 119) Charles died in 1739 and in the 1760's the estate belonged to his second son, Nicholas, who died in 1777. (fn. 120) Nicholas's son Benjamin (d. 1810) (fn. 121) devised the Hasfield land with his other estates to William Adams (who took the name of Hyett), (fn. 122) and in 1845 William exchanged the estate with John Crump for a property in Painswick. (fn. 123) John Crump died in 1847 (fn. 124) and Thomas Crump held the estate at his death in 1875, in which year his trustees sold it to the trustees of Ralph Bourne Baker, late owner of Hasfield manor. (fn. 125)
The Great House is a building of brick, stone, and timber-framing consisting of a central block and two side wings projecting towards the south. The earliest part of the house is the central block which was probably built in the late 16th century and contains the great hall; a sketch of 1610 shows the south side with a round-headed doorway, later blocked, and two gables which have been removed. (fn. 126) The west wing was probably added soon afterwards, and the east wing by 1678 when an inventory mentions c. 20 rooms. (fn. 127) The north side of the house is faced half with brick and half with stone and has four gables and windows with dripmoulds. The windows of the brick part, with a continuous platband stepped over them, are similar to those of Hasfield Court before its second rebuilding. The timber-framing is exposed on the south side of the central block and on the east side of the west wing; the east wing is of brick. Timber-framing was added on the west side of the west wing in the late 19th century, reputedly to improve the view of the house from Hasfield Court. (fn. 128) Internally there is a fine Jacobean staircase at the junction of the central block and the west wing.
A portion of the tithes of Hasfield, formerly held by Tewkesbury Abbey as part of Deerhurst Priory, (fn. 129) were leased by the Crown in 1574 to William Pauncefoot of Pauntley (d. c. 1616) (fn. 130) and William's son, Grimbald (d. 1667) was granted a further lease in 15878. (fn. 131) Grimbald was involved in a dispute in 1627 with Thomas Allanson, Rector of Hasfield, and others whom he claimed had been encouraged by Sir Richard Tracy to prevent his carrying away his hay tithe from a meadow in the parish. (fn. 132) In 16356 Grimbald sub-let the tithes to William Browne, the owner of the Hasfield House estate, and in 1637 Browne also was involved in a tithe dispute with Allanson. (fn. 133) In 1646 there was a further agreement between Grimbald Pauncefoot and William Browne about the tithes, (fn. 134) which passed on Browne's death to his son Henry. (fn. 135) The tithes were included in the mortgage made by William Browne in 1694, and in 1715 they passed with the Brownes' estate in Hasfield to the Hyetts, (fn. 136) who were paying a fee-farm rent to the Crown for them in 1779. (fn. 137) At inclosure in 1797 Benjamin Hyett received an allotment of land for the tithes. (fn. 138)
Lands at Hasfield owned by the Throckmorton family were known in the 16th century as the manor of UNDERHILLS COURT, (fn. 139) and in the early 17th century as the manor of BRIDGE COURT. (fn. 140) The lands were probably closely associated with the Throckmorton manor in Tirley whose descent they followed from the 15th century. William Underhill witnessed a Hasfield deed in the mid-13th century, (fn. 141) John Underhill had a house there in 1279, (fn. 142) and Nicholas Underhill was buying further property in the 1340's. (fn. 143) Thomas Underhill had land there in 1361, (fn. 144) and in 1423 Richard Underhill made a quitclaim of all his lands held in demesne in Hasfield to his son Thomas. (fn. 145) Lands owned by Edward Bridges at his death in 1435 included a house called Underhills. (fn. 146) After Edward's death his lands in Hasfield followed the descent of Apperley and Tirley manors, passing, by the marriage of his daughter, to the Throckmortons. (fn. 147) Christopher Throckmorton was seised at his death in 1513 of the manor of Underhills Court, amounting to c. 150 a., and other lands, (fn. 148) but by the beginning of the next century much of the land had apparently been sold and in 1627 part was owned by William Browne of Hasfield House. (fn. 149) In 1631 the Throckmorton possessions in Hasfield comprised only a chief house called Bridge Court or Bridge Orchard, another house, and c. 20 a. of land. (fn. 150) In the next year the estate was apparently sold with Tirley manor to Lord Coventry, (fn. 151) for in 1638 John Francombe died holding the Bridge Court house from that manor. (fn. 152) The house stood north of the Great House, and had been demolished by 1780. (fn. 153) The Underhills part of the Throckmorton estate in Hasfield was said to be held from Little Malvern Priory in 1435 (fn. 154) but in 1513 was held from Westminster Abbey, (fn. 155) and other parts of the estate were held from the lords of Hasfield manor. (fn. 156)
No complete survey of the demesne of Hasfield manor earlier than the 18th century has been found. In the early 13th century it contained a fair proportion of arable when the lord of the manor granted pasture rights in Hasfield to certain Ashleworth tenants in return for works to be done on the demesne, including one ploughing with 7 ploughs and one reaping with 32 men. (fn. 157) The demesne was, however, probably always predominantly meadow and pasture. In 1221 some of the meadow was leased to one of the tenants, (fn. 158) and in 1223 the lord of the manor was willing to give up 12 a. of meadow in settlement of a dispute. (fn. 159) The lord's wood probably Corse Grove was mentioned c. 1240, (fn. 160) and a park in the late 16th century. (fn. 161) Cultivation of the demesne by labourservice had presumably ceased by 1442 when the services owed by the men of Ashleworth were commuted. (fn. 162) In 1730 the demesne comprised c. 120 a. of pasture closes and orchards, c. 120 a. of meadow, and 28 a. of arable. (fn. 163) The main meadow of the demesne was 50 a. in the south-east of the parish, divided from the other meadow-land by drainage channels. There were also other strips of demesne meadow dispersed in the common meadows. (fn. 164)
There appears to have been a large proportion of free tenants on Hasfield manor from the 13th and 14th centuries. (fn. 165) There were also some copyholders, and five enfranchised copyholds sold in the early 17th century still owed heriots of 4s. to the lord of the manor. (fn. 166) There was still some copyhold land in the early 19th century. (fn. 167)
There were three main open fields in the parish in the 18th century: Lower Field in the north-west, which was apparently the Nether field of the 13th century, (fn. 168) Salmon field west of Corse Grove, and Windmill field west of Hasfield Court. (fn. 169) A fourth open field called Newlands mentioned in 1653 probably lay on the north of Corse Grove. (fn. 170) None of them was much larger than c. 30 a., and only the manorial demesne appears to have had more than a few acres in the fields. The Hyett estate had only 3 ridges amounting to c. a. in the 18th century, (fn. 171) another estate of c. 40 a. had only 5 a. in the open fields in 1724, (fn. 172) and the small estate centred on the later Woodside Farm in 1774 had only 3 a. (fn. 173) Much of the arable of the parish lay in closes: 3 a. of arable in Wickridge were mentioned in the late 13th century, (fn. 174) a house sold in 1351 had two crofts of arable adjoining it, (fn. 175) and in the early 16th century many of the closes south of Corse Grove appear to have been arable. (fn. 176) The closes near Corse Grove were afterwards converted to pasture, as were other arable lands in the parish during the 16th and early 17th centuries, (fn. 177) but there is some evidence that the trend was reversed during the first half of the 18th century: some pasture closes were converted to arable (fn. 178) and the arable of the manorial demesne increased from 28 a. to 48 a. c. 1740. (fn. 179) The total arable of the parish was, however, still only 125 a. in 1792. (fn. 180)
The meadow-land of the parish lay mostly in Widdenham and Winnalls and the Hay Meadow, large common meadows by the river. (fn. 181) Estimated at a total acreage of c. 850 in 1770, (fn. 182) they provided more meadow than was required by the men of Hasfield; in the 18th century a large proportion of the meadow was owned by outsiders. (fn. 183) The existence of a communal wharf on the Severn in the late 18th century suggests the carrying of the surplus hay in barges to be sold in Midland towns, which continued until the early 20th century. (fn. 184) Holdings of meadow lay in scattered strips of c. 1 a.; (fn. 185) the 37 a. of meadow belonging to the Hyett estate lay in 33 separate pieces in 1780. (fn. 186) Most of the holdings of meadow were apparently fixed, (fn. 187) but some pieces mentioned in 1639 were held in rotation, (fn. 188) and changeable meadow was mentioned in 1780. (fn. 189) In the 17th century a hayward was being paid by the parish for looking after the meadows, (fn. 190) and the Hayward's Swath in Widdenham apparently formed a part of his wages. (fn. 191)
The common pastures of the parish were Hasfield Ham and Corse Lawn, and the meadows after the hay-harvest. (fn. 192) The Ham occupied the whole area between the meadows, from which it was divided by the main drainage ditch, and the Tirley-Ashleworth road. (fn. 193) Two 13th-century agreements which gave rights in the commons to the men of Ashleworth show that the pasture, like the meadow, was ample for the needs of the inhabitants. (fn. 194) The whole area of the Ham might be flooded in winter, however, and all estates had pasture closes in the north of the parish. The Ham was used for pasturing cows, with some oxen; (fn. 195) a shepherd was mentioned at Hasfield in the 14th century, (fn. 196) but there appear to have been few sheep kept in the parish in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The average holding in the parish appears to have been fairly small: an estate with 3 houses in 1626 had 36 a. of land, (fn. 197) and 4 houses sold in the early 17th century each had only about 12 a. (fn. 198) In the 18th century most of the land of each estate lay in pasture closes, and most estates had also about 4 a. in the meadows and a few ridges in the common fields. The 100 a. Hyett estate lay mainly in pasture closes, with 37 a. of meadow, an arable close of 8 a., and a. in the common fields. (fn. 199) In the late 18th century c. 700 a. of the parish as against c. 900 a. of meadow, pasture, and common fields lay in severally owned closes. (fn. 200)
The suitability of the soil of the parish for orcharding was noted in 1803. (fn. 201) Apple and pear trees were mentioned in the 13th century, (fn. 202) and 4 houses sold in 1627 all had orchards. (fn. 203) Apples and pears were specified in the portion of the Hasfield tithes which belonged to Deerhurst Priory in the Middle Ages, (fn. 204) and the conversion to orchard of some of the arable from which that tithe-portion arose was apparently one of the reasons that prompted the Rector of Hasfield to press his claim to the fruit tithes of that portion in 1627. (fn. 205) Two allotments made at inclosure in 179719 a. of pasture on Corse Wood Hill, and an acre of the former arable field of Newlands had both been converted to orchards about twenty years later. (fn. 206) There was a cider-mill at the Great House in 1678, (fn. 207) and Hasfield Court, Woodside Farm, and another house in the north of the parish had cider-mills in the 19th century. (fn. 208)
Inclosure affected 920 a. of the parish, comprising all of the commonable pasture, meadow, and open fields. John Parker, the lord of the manor, received c. 280 a., the rector c. 140 a., Benjamin Hyett c. 58 a., and another proprietor 28 a. There were over 50 others with allotments of under 20 a., of which the majority consisted of small parcels of meadow. (fn. 209) Inclosure brought little increase in the extent of arable: there was a total of 155 a. in 1801, (fn. 210) Thomas Fulljames's 200 a. estate had only 30 a. arable in 1826, (fn. 211) and the 300 a. of Hill farm, the main part of the manorial estate, had c. 70 a. in 1844, all of which lay in the area of the former open fields. (fn. 212) By 1901 the arable acreage of the parish was down to 73 a. (fn. 213) Flax was grown on Thomas Fulljames's estate in the early 19th century. (fn. 214) The land of the parish remained divided among c. 7 farms from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, with three larger farms, Hill farm, Woodside farm, and the Great House farm. (fn. 215) In the mid-20th century the farms were occupied mainly with dairying or stock-raising; there were only two or three fields of arable. Hill and Woodside farms had flocks of sheep.
In 1637 a several fishery in the Severn belonged to Hasfield manor. (fn. 216) A windmill was mentioned with the manor in 1654; (fn. 217) it presumably stood on the Barrow Hill and gave its name to the open field on the north-eastern slopes. (fn. 218)
There was an arrow-smith living at Wickridge in the late 13th century. (fn. 219) A blacksmith was mentioned at Hasfield in the early 16th century (fn. 220) and in 1608, (fn. 221) and a blacksmith's shop was mentioned in 1826 when it was occupied by James Bartlett (fn. 222) whose family remained village blacksmiths until the mid20th century. (fn. 223) There was still a blacksmith in the village in 1966, who made steel barge-hooks for thatching. (fn. 224) There was a carpenter in the village in the 14th century, (fn. 225) two masons in the late 17th century, (fn. 226) and two men described as carpenter and builder in the mid-19th century. (fn. 227) There was a tailor in 1327, (fn. 228) 5 tailors in 1608, (fn. 229) and a weaver in the early 18th century. (fn. 230) Shoemakers were mentioned in the 18th and 19th centuries. (fn. 231) In 1608 5 men were described as badgers, (fn. 232) and they probably occupied former squatter holdings on the waste which were insufficient to give them a livelihood. In 1831 11 families were supported by trades, and 40 by agriculture. (fn. 233) In the 1950's a small light-engineering factory was established in the former stables of the Old Rectory, and in 1966 employed c. 10 people. (fn. 234)
No manor court rolls are known to have survived for Hasfield. The court of the Pauncefoot manor was mentioned in the 13th century, (fn. 235) and was still being held c. 1700. (fn. 236) In the late 16th century the lords of Hasfield manor claimed to hold a view of frankpledge, (fn. 237) but in the early 18th century suit was owed to Westminster Abbey's hundred court at Deerhurst. (fn. 238)
There were two churchwardens from the 16th century; (fn. 239) in the 18th century the rector appointed one of them. (fn. 240) Overseers' accounts survive from 1666. (fn. 241) The office of overseer was in the late 17th century held jointly with that of churchwarden. (fn. 242) The active poor were usually set to work repairing the roads and dikes of the parish, but in 1692 a smith's shop was built at the parish expense. The poor were lodged in a house in Wickridge, apparently that given to the parish by Margaret Horsham in the 16th century; (fn. 243) in 1812 the house was divided into several tenements. (fn. 244) From 1792 an annual subscription was paid to Gloucester Infirmary. In 1717 a pauper child was apprenticed, but only one parish apprenticeship, that of a girl in 1728, was recorded after the institution of Eleanor Parker's apprenticing charity in 1724. (fn. 245) Arrangements of 1783 for sending Hasfield poor to Winchcombe workhouse were, as with other parishes, never implemented. (fn. 246) The usual rise in the cost of relief in the late 18th century reached a peak in 1800, and thereafter there was a steady decrease. In 1836 Hasfield became part of the Tewkesbury Poor Law Union. (fn. 247) In 1935 it was transferred from the Tewkesbury to the Gloucester Rural District. (fn. 248)
The earliest documentary evidence of a church at Hasfield is the mention of a parson c. 1220. (fn. 249) The church was probably founded by the lords of Hasfield manor, and the Pauncefoots were patrons in 1311. (fn. 250) Although the church was apparently taxed in 1291 as a chapel in Deerhurst parish, of which Hasfield originally formed a part, (fn. 251) incumbents of the church were regularly referred to as rectors from 1317, (fn. 252) and Deerhurst Priory retained only a portion of the tithes. As late as 1530, however, the full parochial independence of Hasfield church was still apparently a matter of doubt. (fn. 253) In 1934 the rectory was united with the vicarage of Tirley. (fn. 254)
The advowson was retained by the Pauncefoots until sold with the manor in 1598 by Richard Pauncefoot, (fn. 255) and it passed with the manor to the Tracys, (fn. 256) and later to the Parkers. (fn. 257) The last presentation by the Parkers was in 1755, (fn. 258) and by 1787 the advowson had been sold to William Miller of Cheltenham, who presented his son, Saunders William Miller, in that year. (fn. 259) William Miller died in 1801, (fn. 260) and his son sold the advowson in 1828 to James Sevier. (fn. 261) Sevier presented himself to the living in 1833, (fn. 262) and after his death in 1881 Mrs. Sevier, presumably his widow, held the advowson. (fn. 263) It passed on her death c. 1906 to Mrs. Lillington, (fn. 264) and before 1912 to the Revd. F. Lillington. (fn. 265) By 1916 the advowson had been acquired by William Meath-Baker of Hasfield Court, (fn. 266) and after the union of the benefice with Tirley in 1934 the MeathBakers and the Lord Chancellor presented alternately. (fn. 267)
The rectory was endowed with 12 a. of glebe land, (fn. 268) and all the tithes except the portion payable to Deerhurst Priory. Most of the rector's tithes had been commuted for cash payments by 1704. (fn. 269) About 1550 the incumbent was involved in a tithe-dispute with two Ashleworth men, (fn. 270) probably over his claim to tithes of the animals pastured in Hasfield by Ashleworth tenants, (fn. 271) and in 1704 the rector received 11s. from the Vicar of Ashleworth for such tithes. (fn. 272) In 1637 the rector claimed the tithes of fruit from the lands which had formerly tithed to Deerhurst Priory, (fn. 273) and in 1704 these tithes were being collected by the rector. (fn. 274) Allotments amounting to c. 130 a. were given for the rector's tithes and glebe at inclosure in 1797. (fn. 275) In 1966 c. 20 a. of glebe in Hasfield still belonged to the rector and were leased to farmers. (fn. 276) The rectory was valued at 14 6s. 8d. in 1535, out of which 20s. was payable to Little Malvern Priory (fn. 277) which owned land in the parish. (fn. 278) The pension, mentioned in 1291, (fn. 279) was apparently still being paid to the Crown c. 1710. (fn. 280) The value of the living was 80 in 1650, (fn. 281) 120 in 1743, (fn. 282) and 380 in 1864. (fn. 283)
The rectory house was mentioned in 1639, (fn. 284) and in 1704 was described as a house of two bays with farm buildings adjoining. (fn. 285) It was rebuilt before 1792 by the rector, Saunders William Miller, (fn. 286) and again rebuilt in 1837 by James Sevier. (fn. 287) The house, which stands to the north of the church, is of stone in the Tudor style with two gables and bay windows. It was sold in 1957, and a new rectory built on a different site. (fn. 288)
Two early 14th-century incumbents, Richard of Longdon in 1311 and 1312 (fn. 289) and Adam Osgar for four years from 1317, had licences for absence to study. (fn. 290) Richard of Longdon was among those accused in 1314 of forcibly carrying off goods belonging to Deerhurst Priory. (fn. 291) John Porter (c. 1532-40) was also Vicar of Tirley. (fn. 292) In 1535 the rectory except the glebe was being farmed by John Hoskins, (fn. 293) and in 1540 the whole rectory was being farmed by the curate, William Inman. (fn. 294) Hugh Wall (1547-70) (fn. 295) lived in Oxfordshire in 1551, and the curate at Hasfield was found to be satisfactory at the visitation; (fn. 296) in 1563 Wall was resident at Hasfield. (fn. 297) William Baldwyn, rector in 1576, was said to have little knowledge of Latin or the scriptures, (fn. 298) but in 1593 was described as a sufficient scholar though no preacher. (fn. 299) In 1572 the churchwardens complained of Baldwyn's lack of hospitality at the parsonage. (fn. 300) Thomas Allanson, rector 1626-64, (fn. 301) was described as a preaching minister in 1650. (fn. 302) William Mosely, presented in 1728, held another cure in Bristol diocese, (fn. 303) and Charles Parker (1755-87), who was probably a member of the patron's family, was also Vicar of Tirley. (fn. 304) James Sevier, presented in 1833, was rector for almost 50 years, (fn. 305) and also became a considerable landowner in the parish. (fn. 306)
The church of ST. MARY, called St. Peter's in the 14th century, (fn. 307) comprises nave, chancel, north aisle, south porch, and west tower. The original fabric was probably 12th-century, and a tub-shaped font of that period survives. The south wall also appears to be of an early date. The tower, of three stages with diagonal buttresses, was built in the early 14th century; the upper stage has an embattled parapet probably of the 15th or early 16th century with gargoyles at the corners. There is a stair turret on the north side. Most of the church was built or restored in the 19th century. The north aisle was added in 1850 partly as a memorial to Thomas Fulljames (d. 1847), (fn. 308) some restoration was done c. 1879, (fn. 309) and a thorough restoration was carried out in 1895. (fn. 310) Most of the 19th-century work is in the Decorated style. The timber south porch, of the 14th or 15th century, may have been moved from the north doorway, and the straight lintel of the south doorway has a scratch-dial.
There are some old carved bench-ends in the nave, and a window in the south side contains fragments of 14th-century glass. In the north-east of the chancel is the altar tomb of Dorothy Pauncefoot (d. 1568), and there is a wall monument on the north of the chancel to Henry Browne (d. 1620). The carved wooden pulpit is of the 16th or 17th century, and in the churchyard in 1966 were a dug-out chest and a reading-desk given by Henry Browne (d. 1678). (fn. 311) On the south side of the tower there is a sundial, and also a stone inscribed 'H.W. 1719' which probably stands for Howell and Wadley, the churchwardens of that year whose accounts include payments for building materials and for plastering the tower. (fn. 312)
Two early 17th-century bells and two of 1832 were replaced by six new bells in 1901. (fn. 313) The plate includes a late 17th-century chalice and alms-dish and an early 18th-century flagon. (fn. 314) The registers begin in 1559. The rent of c. 6 a. of land, given to the parish during the 16th century, was usually used for church repairs, (fn. 315) and a rent-charge of 5s. given in Henry VIII's reign for repairs was being paid in 1865. (fn. 316)
John Pauncefoot, lord of Hasfield manor from 1558, was presented with his wife Dorothy in 1572 and 1573 for not attending church at Hasfield, (fn. 317) and they were listed as recusants in 1577. (fn. 318) In 1584 Pauncefoot was reported to have sheltered Thomas Alfield, a seminary priest, at Hasfield Court for nine months of the previous year. (fn. 319) Pauncefoot left England in 1584, remaining abroad until his death, and while in exile he translated a Roman Catholic condemnation of heresy into English. (fn. 320) His son Richard, who lived on the Hasfield estate until 1598, (fn. 321) apparently also remained a papist as he was presented three times in the 1590's for non-attendance at the Easter communion. (fn. 322) There were said to be no recusants at Hasfield in 1603, (fn. 323) and no later evidence of recusancy has been found.
Six Protestant nonconformists recorded at Hasfield in 1676 (fn. 324) were probably members of the Quaker community which existed there at the time. (fn. 325) One of the Hasfield Quakers, Richard Wall, a mason, suffered persecution, (fn. 326) and is said to have sailed to America in 1682, presumably with William Penn's expedition, and to have become one of the founders of the town of Cheltenham, Pennsylvania. (fn. 327) A collection of the writings of another Quaker born at Hasfield, Mary Edwards, was printed in 1720. (fn. 328) There were still Quaker families in the parish c. 1710, (fn. 329) but the community had apparently died out by 1743 when it was said that there were no nonconformists at Hasfield. (fn. 330)
A Hasfield man was presented for teaching a school without a licence in 1636. (fn. 331) Margaret Parker, probably a daughter of John Parker, lord of Hasfield manor (d. 1692), (fn. 332) left 40 at her death in 1724 to be used by the rector for the education of poor children in the parish. (fn. 333) The money was used to buy land in Redmarley D'Abitot which was producing an annual rent of 2 in the mid-18th century, when a mistress was being paid to teach c. 8 children to read. Each child then received about 8 weeks' teaching in the year, but by the end of the century longer periods of instruction were given. (fn. 334) Any surplus of the charity income was to be used to buy religious books, and in 1790 two New Testaments were purchased. (fn. 335) In 1818 the land was bringing in 5 a year, from which a teacher was paid 4d. a week for each child taught; (fn. 336) in 1833, when the school had become a Sunday school, a master received the whole rent of 8 and voluntary contributions for teaching c. 60 children. (fn. 337) By 1847 the Sunday school had been linked with the National Society, and at that time there was also a dame school in the village which was attended by about half of the Sunday school pupils. (fn. 338) The Sunday school became a day school in 1850 when a schoolroom was built. (fn. 339) The average attendance was 29 in 1908, (fn. 340) and about the same in 1933 when the school was closed. (fn. 341) The schoolroom and adjoining teacher's house were bought by the parish for social activities, and were later rented as a private house. (fn. 342)
Eleanor Parker, probably a daughter of John Parker (d. 1692), (fn. 343) gave 100 in 1724 for apprenticing and clothing poor children. (fn. 344) Receipt of 12, the interest for 3 years, from one of the Parker family was recorded by the Hasfield overseers in 1735, (fn. 345) but payment of the interest was discontinued after 1742, (fn. 346) and in 1828 the charity was regarded as lost. (fn. 347) A house and 2 a. given to the parish in the 16th century, probably by Margaret Horsham, and c. 3 a. of meadow given in the same period by Richard Horsham, Richard Lane, Thomas Heke, and John Surman (fn. 348) were regarded in 1683 as gifts to the poor, (fn. 349) but later there seems to have been confusion about the purposes of the gifts. The house was always used for the poor, (fn. 350) but in 1704 alms for the poor was only one of various uses mentioned for the rent from the parish meadow-land, which was then being used wholly for church maintenance. (fn. 351) At inclosure in 1797 an allotment of c. 3 a. was made to the poor for the lands given by Richard Horsham, Lane, and Heke and for land purchased by the parish in Elizabeth's reign. (fn. 352) In 1812, however, the profits of the allotment and of the 2 a. adjoining the parish house were being used for repairs to the church, (fn. 353) and in 1828 the charity commissioners apparently regarded all the land acquired by the parish in the 16th century as given for the upkeep of the church. (fn. 354)