A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.
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ST. MARY BOURNE
Borne, Seynt Marye Borne (xvi cent.).
The village of St. Mary Bourne is 1 mile northwest of Hurstbourne station and lies near the eastern boundary of the parish, which contains the tithings of Binley, Egbury, Stoke, Week and Swampton, and consists of 7,745 acres, of which 5,821 acres are arable land, 1,002 acres are permanent grass and 594 acres are woods and plantations. (fn. 1)
The village stands on the River Bourne, a tributary of the Test, and at the south end of it, not far from the site of Port Way, an old Roman road from Sarum to Silchester, in a fairly central position in relation to the various tithings is the church, which is described in a manuscript of the 18th century as 'a Chappel of Ease belonging to the mother church of Hurstbourne.' (fn. 2)
South of the village is Upper Link, the residence of Mr. E. B. Black-Hawkins. The tithing of Swampton lies in a valley a mile north-west of St. Mary Bourne. It has since 1723 been the site of the parochial schools which for many years stood on what is known as Swampton Green. The Week, Wick or Wyke tithing is in the west of the parish and contains the several divisions of Upper, Middle and Lower Week. Further up the river north-west from Swampton is the hamlet of Stoke with Stoke House, the residence of Mrs. Addison. Great Wallop Hill Down, west of Stoke, preserves the name of a former lord of the manor.
Binley Hamlet is in the north and is reached by the Wadwick Road and Red Lane. Near it is Warwick (Wadewick, 1636) with the farms of Upper and Lower Warwick. Cobbett in his Rural Rides records a somewhat unfavourable impression of Binley: 'I never saw any inhabited place more recluse, yet into there the all-searching eye of the taxing Thing reaches. Its exciseman can tell it what it is doing even in the little odd corner of Binley, for even there I saw over the door of a place not half so good as the place in which my fowls roost "Licensed to deal in Tea and Tobacco." Poor half-starved wretches of Binley! (fn. 3)
Egbury lies east of Warwick and has an interesting prehistoric camp known as Egbury Castle, where Roman coins have been found.
The old gabled manor-house at Dunley, a tithing in Egbury, was at one time the residence of a branch of the Oxenbridge family. William, brother of Sir Robert Oxenbridge of Hurstbourne, lived at Dunley, and Edward, his son, is described as 'of Dunley.' (fn. 4) It is now the residence of Mr. F. A. Holman.
Some place-names of interest are Court Place, or Court Hayes, Rodeswode Mill, Badley, Bucketts Down and Colleslake (fn. 5) (xvi cent.), and Somersets (xvii cent.), so called from Edward Duke of Somerset, at one time lord of the manor. (fn. 6)
A number of flint implements have been found in this parish, (fn. 7) besides Roman remains. At Lower Week roof tiles and bricks lying on the surface indicate a Roman building; and much pottery has been dug out from what is thought to be a well. (fn. 8) At Lower Link Romano-British culinary ware, a denarius of Gordian (a.d. 238–244) and skeletons and urns were discovered. (fn. 9)
The commons of Swampton were inclosed in 1753. (fn. 10)
The tithings of ST. MART BOURNE, BINLEY (Bienlegh, xvi cent.); EGBURY (Eggebury, xvi cent.); WEEK (Wyke, Wick, Wyke), and STOKE (Stoce, Adstoke, x cent.) have always been included in the manor of Hurstbourne Priors (fn. 11) (q.v.).
The first four are not mentioned by name in the Saxon charters, but in a charter of King Edward the Elder (901–25) 10 hides in 'Adstoke' are expressly stated to belong to Hurstbourne. (fn. 12)
In 1535 the following are described as members of Hurstbourne:—the manor of Bourne, of the annual value of £28 16s. 11d.; the manor of Binley, of the annual value of £16 1s. 9d.; the manor of Stoke, worth yearly £19 10s. 6d.; the manor of Week, worth every year £16 1s. 2d.; and the manor of Egbury, of the annual value of £14 7s. 3¾d. and, again, in the particulars for grants of Hurstbourne to Sir John Gate in 1553 the same places are mentioned. (fn. 13)
In 1565 Sir Robert Oxenbridge, who had purchased Hurstbourne from the Crown in 1558, was ordered to show by what title he held 'the manors' of St. Mary Bourne, Week, Stoke, Binley and Egbury, and a suit was begun to decide whether the above were separate manors or whether the manor of Hurstbourne Priors included them. Judgement was finally given that from time immemorial they had been hamlets of the manor of Hurstbourne, and Sir Robert obtained a recognition of his title to them. (fn. 14)
The manor of WEEK or WYKE or WYKE DAUNDELY may probably be represented by the 2 hides which Richer, who is generally identified with Richer de Andely, the founder of the family of that name, was holding of the bishop at the time of the Domesday Survey. Alnod had held them before him probably in the time of King Edward. (fn. 15) If this is correct the manor followed the same descent (fn. 16) as Chilton Candover in the hundred of Mainsborough (q.v.), which was similarly held by Richer in 1086, passing with it from the Daundeleys to the Bayntuns by marriage in the middle of the 14th century. (fn. 17)
Sir Edward Bayntun died in 1544 (fn. 18) and the manor then passed in accordance with a marriage settlement of 1531 to his widow Isabel, who subsequently married Sir James Stumpe. (fn. 19) In 1546 Andrew Bayntun, son and heir of Sir Edward, granted the reversion of the manor after the death of Isabel to Sir Michael Lyster. (fn. 20) Sir Michael apparently conveyed it to Richard Fauconer, lord of Hurstbourne Fauconers (q.v.), for the heirs of the latter, Francis Yate, Alice Kingsmill and Margaret Sotwell, were jointly seised in 1562 of and in the immediate reversion of the manor of Week 'which Sir James Stumpe in right of Dame Isabel Stumpe, now his wife, holdeth for term of natural life.' (fn. 21) In that year Francis Yate gave up all his right in the manor to Richard Kingsmill and Alice his wife, and from that date Week Daundely has followed the same descent as Hurstbourne Fauconers (fn. 22) (q.v.).
Ralfde Mortemer held 1 hide in SWAMPTON (Suantune) at the time of the Domesday Survey in 1086, and before him, in the time of King Edward, Cheping, a Saxon landowner, had held it for life. (fn. 23) It should have reverted to the monks of St. Swithun's, Winchester, after the death of Cheping, but the king granted it with the rest of Cheping's possession to Ralf de Mortemer. (fn. 24) In the reign of Henry II Richard Labaanc granted to the nunnery of Godstow all his mother's dowry, i.e. 'Cnolle (Knowle in Kingsclere, q.v.) and Swanton which belongs to the same.' (fn. 25) This gift was confirmed both by Henry II and by Hugh de Mortemer, heir of the Domesday Ralf. (fn. 26) However, the abbey evidently did not remain in possession, as Swampton never appears in the rent rolls of its lands, and, according to the returns of 1346, the two halves of a knight's fee in Swampton were held respectively by Philip Daundely, successor in possession to John Daundely, and Robert de Eton, successor to Peter de Eton. (fn. 27) The Daundely property descended with the manor of Week Daundely (see supra), and it seems probable that the later manor of Swampton represented the estate owned by the Etons.
However, the history ot this property is not easy to trace. By the beginning of the 15th century it had presumably been divided between co-heiresses whose respective husbands (fn. 28) were returned as holders in 1428. One or more of these portions descended to the Skilling family, (fn. 29) one or more to the Bruning family, who in the 16th century were in possession of two-thirds of the manor of Swampton, while the Skillings were in possession of the other third. The whole was sold by the two families to Robert Oxen bridge, the two-thirds by the Brunings in 1576–7, (fn. 30) the other third by William Skilling in 1585, (fn. 31) and from this date the descent of the manor follows that of Hurstbourne Priors (fn. 32) (q.v.).
In 1553 CHAPMANSFORD was included in the lands sold to Sir John Gate. (fn. 33) Sir Robert Oxenbridge acquired this property from the Crown in 1558, and in 1589, by copy of court roll and 'in consideration of a great sum of money' he granted 'one messuage and five yard-lands called Chapmans Ford with one pasture called Standhurste and 4 coppices... and one water mill' to Geoffrey Poore and Elizabeth his wife and Robert their son. (fn. 34)
In 1602 there was a suit between Elizabeth, widow of Geoffrey, and Sir Robert Oxenbridge, who tried to eject her on the ground that she had broken her agreement to grind 'her own corn only and the corn of strangers not tenants of or within the said manor.' On the ground of age and poverty the widow won her case, and her son was allowed to remain in possession as before. (fn. 35) Fourteen years later Robert Poore 'of Chapmansford gent.' sold the capital messuage there to John and Geoffrey Poore. (fn. 36)
This property is now probably represented by Chapmansford Farm in the south of the parish, but the ford no longer exists, a bridge having been made at the direction of the Earl of Portsmouth in the middle of the last century. (fn. 37)
In the 14th and 15 th centuries, besides the holding in Stoke belonging to the Prior of St. Swithun's, Winchester, there were two small estates held by the Fauconer and Cotes families respectively. The former was probably appurtenant to the manor of Hurstbourne Fauconers (q.v.) and followed its descent. (fn. 38) The later descent of the other holding has not been traced.
The church of ST. PETER consists of a chancel 37 ft. 3 in. by 18 ft. 9 in., nave 65 ft. 3 in. by 17 ft., north aisle 5 ft. 11 in. wide, south chapel of three bays 37 ft. 11 in. by 17 ft., south aisle 7 ft. 6 in. wide, south porch and west tower 13 ft. 8 in. by 13 ft. 4 in.
These dimensions are taken within the building.
The building is one of the most puzzling in the county. No details earlier than the second half of the 12th century are now to be seen, but the thick west wall of the south chapel, cut away to adapt it to the capital of the third pier of the south arcade, clearly belongs to an older state of things. It must have formed part of a south transept or, what is more likely, a south tower, and a weathering on its west face shows that a south aisle of the same width as that now existing was standing at the time. The present chancel arch, which is of 12th-century masonry re-used early in the 14th, when the present chancel was added, probably stands on the line of the east wall of the early chancel, and any division which may have existed between this chancel and the nave must have been destroyed when the north arcade assumed its present form. This arcade is apparently all of one date, the end of the 12th century, except perhaps its eastern bay, and has diagonal tooling throughout on arches and piers. It is set out without regard to the south arcade, one pier of which, the third, seems to be of equal age with it. The two east bays of the south arcade belong to the first quarter of the 13th century, and are of wider span than the rest; the south tower can hardly have been standing after they were built. The three west bays of the south arcade seem to form one work, and have labels of the same section; their arches are of 13th-century date with vertical tooling, and the two western of the three piers are similarly tooled except for their capitals, which are of late 12th-century character, with the diagonal tooling of that date. The remaining pier, already noted as being of equal age with the north arcade, is diagonally tooled on all its masonry. The nave has clearly been shortened, probably when the present west tower was built in the latter part of the 15th century, in order to leave space for the usual procession path within the churchyard boundary, here formed by the road.
Early in the 14th century the present fine chancel was built and about 1350–60 the south chapel of the nave, taking up thesite of the south tower and 13th-century south chapel, was added. The north wall of the north aisle seems to have been rebuilt in comparatively modern times, and the west walls of both aisles are of the same date as the tower. The upper part of the tower suggests a rebuilding in the 16th or 17th century. As usual, galleries were put in at the west end and sides, and again removed at a subsequent period. The south porch is a comparatively modern addition. Much of the stonework has had to be renewed in modern times; the easternmost arch on the north side is all modern, and some of the windows are modernized, otherwise the church has undergone no drastic alterations.
The east window of the chancel has five lights under a traceried head of geometrical design, the tracery and mullions being modern. The jambs outside are double chamfered; inside they are splayed in two wave-moulded orders. The chancel is of three bays, and has, in the east and west bays, original two-light north and south windows, trefoiled, and with a quatrefoil in the head; the middle bay on the south contains a small doorway, and that on the north is blank. Under the first south window is a cinquefoiled ogee-headed piscina recess with a round basin partly cut away, and a narrow shelf above; the jambs are of two wave-moulded orders. The south doorway is also old; its jambs are double chamfered with broach stops at the foot, and the arch is two-centred with an ogee and bead label.
The chancel arch has square jambs and a round arch 1 ft. 9 in. thick of a single square order. It has on both sides a 12th-century label enriched with pellet ornament and designed for an arch of shorter radius. The masonry also is 12th-century work partly retooled with a claw chisel, and the present condition of the arch probably dates from the building of the chancel.
The north arcade of the nave has five and a half bays, the half being against the west wall, and the easternmost of narrower span than the others; the east respond is partly hidden by the organ casing, but the angle that shows is square in plan with three edge rolls (the outermost restored with cement); these have scalloped capitals and chamfered abaci. All the piers are square in plan with engaged corner shafts. In the first pier these have no capitals and bases, and the abacus, which is modern, is chamfered above and below. In the second pier the shafts have moulded bases (a hollow between two rounds) and scalloped capitals, of which the south-east is a triple scallop. The north-east and south-west have the faces of the scallops enriched with carving and the north-west is carved with stiff foliage; the abacus of this pier is a scroll mould. The shafts of the third pier have moulded bases as the last. The two eastern capitals are carved with vertical foliage, the other two are scalloped. The abacus is rounded above and has a hollow in a chamfer below. In the fourth pier the shafts have moulded bases, in the two south like the others, the moulding projects beyond the face of the pier to the face of the plinth; the two north bases do not project beyond the pier faces. Of the capitals the two eastern have ornamented scallops; the north-west has a large single scallop and the southwest is a restored scalloped one, the abacus being like that of the third pier. The fifth pier shafts have projecting moulded bases as the others, but the capitals are single scalloped or cushion caps; the abacus is plainer than the others, but has the hollow in the chamfered lower face. Of the arches the easternmost is modern; the others are old of a single chamfered order with a hollow chamfered label which is flush with the face above the arches; in the western half arch the chamfer is stopped off square above the abacus of the pier.
The south arcade has five bays; the responds and piers are square with angle shafts like those opposite, but in the east respond and the first two piers these shafts are filleted and clearly of 13th-century date; the east respond shafts have no capitals, and the base of the north shaft is a square block, while that of the south is moulded with three rounds; the abacus is a plain chamfered one. The first pier shafts have bases of three rounds, and moulded capitals of fully developed bell form. The second pier shafts resemble the first; while those of the third pier are plain rounds set on a chamfered edge. The capitals have scallops enriched with leaves, those to the north being more elaborate than the other two. The abaci of this and the fourth pier are rounded and hollowed like those on the north side. Behind the third pier springs the cross arch dividing the south chapel from the aisle. The southeast shaft of the fourth pier has enriched scallops like the others. The north-east capital is modern and the two to the west are single scallops or cushions; the south-east capital of the west respond is also like the last. The other has been restored, but it had enriched scallops. A south-west shaft can be seen against the west wall of the aisle, proving the respond to be a complete pier. The bases of the third and fourth piers and the west respond are of two rounds. The arches are pointed chamfered ones, like those opposite, but the hood moulds of the first two are deeply undercut like the abaci from which they spring, and those of the three western arches are rounded above and hollowed in a chamfer below.
The north aisle has a blocked east window (now hidden by the organ) of a single ogee trefoiled light of 14th-century date. The three north windows of the aisle are completely modernized; each is of two cinquefoiled ogee-headed lights. Between the second and third is a blocked doorway of a single chamfered order and with a four-centred arch under a square label. The wall has probably been rebuilt at a late date.
The south chapel has an east window of three cinquefoiled ogee-headed lights under an ogee arch filled with flowing tracery of mid-14th-century character; to the south of it inside is the remnant of an image bracket. The two south windows are similar in character to the east, but of two lights under traceried pointed heads. Between them are the mutilated remains of a large tomb recess, with an ogee arch formerly septfoiled, and with a moulded and crocketed label and carved foliage finial; to the west is part of a crocketed pinnacle. The arch from the chapel to the aisle has a chamfered south jamb with a moulded string at the springing and a two-centred arch edge-chamfered like the rest, the west face of which has been cut away where it joins the third pier of the arcade. The south doorway is of 14th-century date, but is now nearly all of modern repair. It has two continuous chamfered orders with broach stops above the threshold, and the label is large and plain. The window next it is 15th-century work of two cinquefoiled lights.
The arch from the nave into the tower is of two chamfered orders dying on the jambs, which are flush with the tower walls and have chamfered abaci partly modern and partly 12th-century work re-used. The west window in the tower is of early 16th or late 15th-century date and has three cinquefoiled lights under a traceried four-centred head with a moulded label. Above it is a plain rectangular light and over this a clock, all in the first of the two stages of the tower. The bellchamber is lighted by plain two-light square-headed windows; the parapet is embattled. In the west window are the arms of the see of Winchester in a garter impaled with a coat now lost; but the style of the work makes it probable that the arms were those of Bishop Fox. The south porch is of brick and timber, and probably of 17th-century date. The materials of the walling as usual are flint and stone, the north aisle walls and those of the tower and west ends of the south aisle having been cement faced outside; while the lower part of the north aisle wall is of brick and flint, and the parapet of the south aisle is modern.
The roof of the chancel is modern, of high pitch, plastered below and tiled above; while the nave has a flat-gabled roof, probably dating from the 16th century; it is plastered below and divided into six bays by moulded tie-beams, supported by curved braces; the purlins are also moulded. The roof of the south chapel and aisle is a flat lean-to, now boarded between the rafters, but once plastered. The principals are moulded and appear to be contemporary with the nave roof. The north aisle roof is modern.
There is a plain old oak altar table.
The font is one of the few resembling that of Winchester Cathedral to be found in Hampshire churches; only the bowl remains, the stem being a modern round one. The former is 3 ft. 6 in. square and has been already fully described. (fn. 39)
Near the font is a late 17th-century or 18th-century lectern with a four-sided desk, which revolves on a turned middle post. From it are suspended two chains, which served to secure the books resting upon it; these now are a prayer-book of 1776 and Bibles of 1701 and 1717.
A patch of old tiles is set in the floor west of the font.
There are the remains of several 17th-century texts, &c., over the spandrils of the arcades and a restored one at the west end of the south aisle.
There are five bells: the treble by Robert Cor, 1724; the second by the same founder, 1693; the third by John Cor, 1737; the fourth by Robert Cor, 1683; and the fifth also by Robert Cor, 1698.
The plate consists of a silver chalice and paten cover of 1588; a silver chalice, two patens, a flagon and a credence plate of 1847, given by Mr. Thomas Longman, of Lower Week, in 1848; and a plated alms dish.
The first book of the registers contains baptisms and burials from 1661 to 1799 and marriages to 1751; the second has baptisms and burials 1800 to 1812; the third marriages 1754–1770; the fourth marriages 1771 to 1812. There are also churchwardens' accounts from 1669.
St. Mary Bourne has from time immemorial been a chapelry dependent upon the mother church of Hurstbourne Priors (fn. 40) (q.v.).
There are numerous Nonconformist chapels in the parish: a Baptist chapel at Swampton, rebuilt in 1879; a Primitive Methodist chapel, built in 1859; and another at Stoke, built in 1864. A Wesleyan chapel was rebuilt in 1886, and there is another at Dunley. The 'Old Book Chapel' originally used by the Primitive Methodists is now called the St. Mary Bourne Band of Hope Mission Room. The Salvation Army hold meetings there and in the buildings behind known as Workman's Hall. (fn. 41)
The Binley Mission Room (unsectarian) was built in 1882 on land given by Miss Longman, daughter of the late Mr. John Longman of Warwick. (fn. 42) The present school was built in 1860 on land given by the Earl of Portsmouth, and a north wing was added in 1878; it was originally a National school, but was made a Board school in 1875. (fn. 43)
By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 27 March 1907 the charities after-mentioned were consolidated under the title of 'The United Charities,' and placed under the administration of the body of trustees thereby constituted; namely, the charities of:—
1. William Batchelor, founded by will, about 1797, trust fund consisting of £55 9s. 5d. consols;
2. Robert Longman, will in 1813, £110 19s. 1d. consols;
3. Hannah Longman, will proved at Winchester 15 September 1838, trust fund £49 18s. 4d. consols;
4. Thomas Sutton, gift in 1844, £33 6s. 10d. consols;
5. William Longman, gift about 1844, £110 19s. 1d. consols;
6. Robert Holdway, for poor, will proved at Winchester, 27 October 1855, £300 consols;
7. Thomas Longman, will proved 26 October 1858, £208 12s. 2d. consols;
8. John Moore, founded by deed, dated 23 July 1878, trust fund £104 8s. 9d. consols;
9. John Longman, will proved 22 April 1879, £210 7s. 5d. consols;
10. Mary Ann Holdway, will proved 17 November 1880, £498 15s. consols;
11. Henry Beckley Vincent, will proved 30 April 1886, £200 consols; and
12. Anne Elizabeth Longman, will proved 11 February 1904, trust fund consisting of £201 19s. 5d. Tasmanian 3½ per cent, stock.
The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees, producing £54 a year, which is distributed usually one-half in sums of 2s. 6d. to 8s. and the other half in coal.
In 1855 the above-mentioned Robert Holdway by his will likewise left £200 consols for the benefit of the parish school. The stock is also held by the official trustees.
The Holdway Almshouse Charity, founded and endowed by Sarah Holdway, by deeds, dated respectively 4 May 1864 and 12 August 1874, consists of four cottages under one roof with gardens, and £718 2s. 9d. Queensland 3½ per cent. Inscribed Stock and £718 2s. 4d. Victoria 3½ per cent. Inscribed Stock in the names of James Eyles and two others, producing yearly £50 5s. 4d.
The charity is regulated by scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 22 November 1904. The inmates are required to be poor widows or spinsters of not less than fifty-five years of age, who receive 4s. a week.