Maps of the Fenland

Pages 291-306

A History of the County of Huntingdon: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1936.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.


In this section



What has always been known as 'the Fenland' is drained by the rivers Ouse, Nene and Welland and extends from a centre in Cambridgeshire into five other counties: Huntingdonshire, Suffolk, Norfolk, Northamptonshire and Lincolnshire. Maps of these counties have not been included in this list, since they would be too numerous and most of them have been catalogued already; but exception has been made for three of the earliest county maps, by Christopher Saxton, and for one map of Cambridgeshire (No. 20) which covers fens outside that county. The Lincolnshire fens lying outside Holland, or rather beyond a line drawn from Stamford to Boston, have been excluded as outside the province of this work.

The maps are arranged in four groups:—A, maps of the whole Fenland; B, maps of parts of the Bedford Level, of the Ouse, the Sands and so forth; C, maps of Marshland; D, maps of the South Lincolnshire fens. The arrangement is as far as possible chronological, but later editions and versions of a map are listed immediately after it (cf. Nos. 14–18). Where a map is only known in a copy, the copy is listed under its own date, not under that of the original (cf. Nos. 23, 24). The scale is given in every case as it appears on the map. On most of the early maps a rule is shown, with divisions for miles; in these cases the length of the rule and the number of miles is given in the entry, so that the scale can easily be ascertained. All measurements are given both in millimetres and in inches. Gunter's chains, which are used in the scales of some maps, are the same as modern chains, eighty to the mile. An inset on a map is shown within round brackets. Information which is not on a map, but supplied, is shown within square brackets.

The present list does not pretend to be exhaustive. Apart from maps only known to us in copies and those, now unknown, to which Dugdale and Badeslade had access, there must be others lying unnoticed in offices and private houses. Some of these, it is hoped, will be brought to light as a result of the publication of this list. It has not been possible to give some of the maps as thorough an examination as could be desired (cf. Nos. 21, 76, 100, 101). Notes have been supplied, but the events in the history of the Fenland to which many of the maps owe their origin are dealt with fully in the historical monograph by Dr. Darby and Mrs. Ramsden included in this volume. As most of the maps listed were examined in the British Museum, that institution has been given as their home; but many of them exist in other libraries. I wish to express my cordial thanks to Mr. E. T. L. Baker, Mr. H. R. Mallett, Major Gordon Fowler, Mr. G. M. G. Woodgate, Mr. D. L. Evans, Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, Mr. L. A. Curtis Edwards and Mr. H. L. BradferLawrence, whose kindness has enabled me to study several important maps.

A. General Maps of the Fenland

1. 1576. British Museum. Northamton, Bedfordiæ, Cantabrigiæ, Huntingdoniæ, et Rutlandiæ . . . descriptio . . . 1576. C. Saxton descripsit. Scala miliarium, 10 [= 85 mm. or 33/8 in.] [In C. Saxton's Atlas of England and Wales.] 520×395 mm. or 20½×155/8 in.
[London,] 1579. fol.
B.M. —[Another issue. With the date altered to 1642.] (In The Maps of all the Shires in England and Wales . . . described by C. Saxton.) William Web: London, 1645. fol.
B.M. —[Another edition.] The County of Northampton . . . corrected . . . with many additions by P. Lea. (In The Shires of England and Wales, described by C. Saxton.)
Phillip Lea: London, [1699?] fol.
Gives an interesting but meagre representation of the Cambridgeshire Fens. As far as it related to the Fens, this map was copied in the various editions of Camden's 'Britannia' (1607) and of Speed's 'Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine' (1611). Owing in part to the dissolution of the monasteries and the many changes in the ownership of land which followed upon it, the Queen had to appoint in 1577 a new Commission of Sewers to superintend the upkeep of the Fenland drains and allocate the work to be performed and the taxes to be paid among the various landowners and parishes.
2. 1604. B.M. A Generall Plotte and description of the fenns and other grounds within the Isle of Ely and in the Counties of Lincolne, Northampton, Huntington, Cambridge, Suffolke and Norffolke . . . Miles, 8 [= 108 mm. or 4¼ in.] [Signed by the owner, in the lower right-hand corner:] Ro. Cotton. [MS. map, coloured.] 805×641 mm. or 317/8×25¼ in. [1604.]
A very accurate, artistic and important map. Gives much detail, including names of landholders, lodes, banks and single houses. The 'hards' are coloured green. Oriented with the north to the right. After 1600, when an Act was passed for the general drainage of the Fens, Sir John Popham, the Chief Justice, and other gentlemen became interested in the reclamation of land there. Sir Robert Cotton the antiquary, who lived at Conington on the edge of the Fens, and was a Commissioner of Sewers, collected maps of the Fenland such as this and No. 78. About 1604 William Hayward, who had made a map of Marshland in 1591 (see No. 77), was commissioned to survey the Fens. His report (1605) has been preserved, but his map (1604. See Nos. 23, 24) has disappeared. It is possible that this map is a reduced copy of his, especially as it seems, from internal evidence, to have been drawn between July 1603 and January 1605. Cotton's maps were often copies of contemporary originals, and this has copyist's errors, e.g. 'Kerrow' for Merrow. The Holland fens are almost blank.
3. 1632. A General Plott and description of the Fennes and surrounded grounds in the sixe Counties of Norfolke, Suffolke, Cambridge, with in the Isle of Ely, Huntington, Northampton and Lincolne . . . A scale of Miles, 7 [= 74 mm. or 3 in.] 550×432 mm. or 21½×17 in.
Sumptibus Henrici Hondii: Amstelodami, 1632.
B.M. Copied from No. 2, of which Hondius evidently had the use. He may have secured it through Henry Hexham, the 'Quartermaster,' who translated into English for Hondius the text of Mercator's 'Atlas' in 1632–33. There was close intercourse between Holland and the Fenland at this time and later, and the Dutch were the leading publishers of maps from 1570 to 1680. This map was included in the English edition of the 'Atlas' (1633). The chief alterations from the Cotton map were the addition of the drainage works made in Deeping Fen by the Earl of Exeter and the substitution of the name of Sir Henry for that of Sir John Willoughby. The royal arms of England and a dedication to the Earl of Bedford were also added. The obvious reason for the publication of the map was the contract entered into by Francis, 4th Earl of Bedford, by the 'Lynn Law' of 1630 to drain the 'marsh, fenny, waste and surrounded grounds' of the Fenland in return for 95,000 acres for himself and participants. Bedford possessed large estates at Thorney. In 1631 work was commenced, and in 1635–36 William Hayward made another survey of the fens for Bedford and his 'Adventurers.'
4. 1645. Regiones Inundatæ in finibus Comitatus Norfolciæ, Suffolciæ, Cantabrigiæ, Huntingtoniæ, Northamptoniæ, et Lincolniæ. A scale of Miles, 6 [= 63 mm. or 2½ in.] (In Guil. et Ioannis Blaeu Theatrum Orbis Terrarum sive Atlas Novus. Pars quarta.) 542×635 mm. or 21¼×25 in.
Apud Iohannem Blaev: Amsterdami, 1645. fol.
—[Another issue.] 1648. fol.
All B.M. —[Another issue.] Sumptibus G. Valk et P. Schenck: Amstelodami, [1683 ?]
These were all copied from Hondius' map. A similar copy was published by J. Janszoon in his 'Novus Atlas,' Amstelodami, 1646.
5. 1660. A Mapp of the Great Levell, representing it as it lay drowned. The Scale of Miles, 6 [= 55 mm. or 21/8 in.] [In Sir William Dugdale's MS. notes for his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes.' British Museum. Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 627.] MS. 380×330 mm. or 15×13 in. [1660 ?]
Reduced from Hondius' map of 1632, No. 3. Although Dugdale is best known as a herald and antiquary, his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning' is still a standard work of reference, as he consulted many manuscripts and maps which have since disappeared.
6. 1662. A Mapp of the Great Levell, representing it as it lay Drowned. The Scale of Miles, 6 [= 55 mm. or 21/8 in.] (In The History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes . . . By William Dugdale. p. 375.) 380×330 mm. or 15×13 in. Alice Warren: London, 1662. 4°.
B.M. From the MS. map in Dugdale's notes, Harl. MS. 5011, fol. 627.
B.M. —[Another issue.] W. Owen & P. Uriel: London, 1772. 4°.
Oriented, like all the early maps, with the north to the right.
7. 1642. B.M. [A Map of the Fens.] T. Cross sculp. 1642. [Scale, about 1 inch = 4 miles.] (In A Discourse touching the drayning the great Fennes . . . By Sir C. Vermviden.) 353×287 mm. or 14×11¼ in. T. Fawcet: London, 1642. 4°.
Vermuyden was engaged in draining the Cambridgeshire Fens from 1637 to 1653, with little intermission. This work, written in 1638, was printed by order of the Company to meet the objections of critics.
8. 1654. A generall description of the great Levell of ye Fenns extending it selfe in the Countyes of Northampton, Norfolke, Suffolke, Lincolne, Cambridge & Huntington & the Isle of Ely w:th the severall works described thereupon for draining thereof. Anno 1654. By Jonas Moore. A scale of Miles, 5 [= 97 mm. or 37/8 in.] MS. 1000×950 mm. or 393/8×373/8 in.
Fen Office, Ely. The Company of 1630, which had fallen upon evil days in 1637, was re-formed, with William, 1st Duke of Bedford, at its head, in 1649. In August 1650 they appointed Jonas Moore as Surveyor of the Great Level, and ordered £200 to be paid to him for 'a map of the Great Level.' This map is, therefore, his first known of the Fens, representing them as he found them before the new drainage works were begun; the works actually completed 1650–1654 are not shown. This is not, however, Moore's original map, but a copy—almost certainly the copy made for the Corporation in 1727 by Payler Smyth for a fee of 15 guineas. Many of the old drains, such as Bevill's Leam, Popham's Eau and Vermuyden's ('The New') Drain, are coloured red.
9. 1654. B.M. A true Mapp of ye great Levell of the Fens as itt now lyeth drayned, with ye great works, made at ye cost & charges, of . . . Wm. Earle of Bedford his participants & ye Adventurers, for ye perfect drayning thereof. Described by Ionas Moore. Miles 10 [= 126 mm. or 5 in.] 556×529 mm. or 217/8×20½ in.
[1654 ?]
This map, though finely engraved, shows no details except the drainage works, which it was probably designed only to show; the configuration of the district is deformed so as to bring all these on to the map. It is probably the map mentioned by R. Stonyclift in his 'Proposals and Inducements,' p. 9 (1726), as showing the work done by the Earl of Bedford and the Participants between 1650 and 1654, since it shows most of the drains made during that period. The Sixteen-Foot Drain (finished 1651) is represented as unfinished, but Tong's Drain (finished 1653) as completed. The date of the watermark of the paper is about 1650. As Moore was given permission by the Company in April 1654 to 'print and publish his map,' it may be dated, provisionally, at 1653–54. A unique map. It also contains the earliest examples of hill shading that I know.
10. 1660. [A manuscript map, without title, of the Great Level as it lay drained. Scale, Miles] 38 [=382 mm. or 151/8 in.] [On the back: The draught of the Map for the Great Levell. In Sir William Dugdale's MS. notes for his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes.' British Museum. Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 629.] MS. 380×292 mm. or 15×11½ in. [1660 ?]
Though drawn in Dugdale's hand, this map must be a copy of one by Jonas Moore, and has all the appearance of being a copy of an early draft of his great map of c. 1706 (No. 14). The only differences are that this map is very much smaller, has fewer details and omits certain drains and banks which were constructed later. It has the marginal scale-figures which are a noteworthy feature of Nos. 10 to 16. Many allotments of shareholders have been added in red ink. This shows that before the old Company was in part reconstituted as the Bedford Level Corporation (1663) many of the allotments of the adventurers had been fixed. The allotments are fewer than on No. 14, and bear no names or acreage. Moore went out to Tangier in 1663, and subsequently became Surveyor-General of the Ordnance.
11. 1662. B.M. The Map of the Great Levell Drayned. [Scale, Miles] 38 [=367 mm. or 14½ in.] (In The History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes . . . By William Dugdale. p. 416.) 375×289 mm. or 14¾×11¼ in. 1662. 4°.
B.M. From the MS. map in Dugdale's notes, Harl. MS. 5011, fol. 629.
B.M. — [Another issue.] 1772. 4°.
12. 1705. B.M. A Mapp of the Great Levell of the Fenns called Bedford Levell, with the Rivers and Outfalls thereof to the Sea. [Scale, Miles] 38 [= 358 mm. or 14 1/16 in.] 2 sh. 365×725 mm. or 14¼×28½ in. [London ? 1705 ?]
The Fen Office, which possesses the copper plates from which this map was printed, dates the map at 1663. The sheet covering the southern region is a copy of Dugdale's map (No. 11), but shows Denver Sluice and has two names changed from those on its model. Col. Archer's copy bears a MS. note describing briefly the works to be carried out under the 'Bedford Level Bill' [of 1663], and the positions of these works are marked in red. The sheet covering the northern region and 'the Rivers and Outfalls,' since it shows a much larger area than that covered by No. 11, including both Skegness and Holme in the north, and is engraved in a style characteristic of a later period, seems to be an addition to the southern sheet, made perhaps after 1700. The map is therefore composite; and we may reject Fordham's theory that it was published in 1684 as an index to No. 14, which covers a much smaller area. It has the marginal scale which is characteristic of Nos. 10 to 16. The long and honourable labours of the Earls of Bedford to reclaim the Fenland caused the Great Level to be renamed 'The Bedford Level' when the Bedford Level Corporation was established by Act of Parliament in 1663.
13. 1793. A Map of the Great Level of the Fens, Extending into the County's Norfolk, Suffolk, Northampton, Lincoln, Cambridge, Huntingdon and the Isle of Ely. [Scale, Miles] 39 [=355 mm. or 14 in.] (In An Historical Account of the Great Level of the Fens, called Bedford Level . . . By the late W. Elstobb.) 366×280 mm. or 143/8×11 in. W. Whittingham: Lynn, 1793. 12°.
B.M. Copied from No. 11, with many omissions. Elstobb, an engineer and surveyor, had been working on the Bedford Level forty years earlier.
14. 1706. A Mapp of ye Great Levell of ye Fenns extending into ye Countyes of Northampton, Norfolk, Suffolke, Lyncolne, Cambridg, & Huntington & the Isle of Ely, as it is now drained. Described by Sr Jonas Moore, Surveyr. Genll.; A scale of miles . . . 2 [= 100 mm. or 4 in.] 16 sh. 450×355 mm. or 17¾×14 in.
C. Browne: London, [1706 ?]
B.M. This map is generally dated 1684, on the strength of a statement by Gough (i, 197) that Moore's map was 'published in 1684 in 15 sheets.' But this map is in 16 sheets, so Gough must have had another edition in mind. In 1685 Moses Pitt published a little anonymous book (by Samuel Fortrey), 'History or Narrative of the Great Level of the Fens.' On the title page of that appeared the words 'With a large map of the said Level . . . by Sir Jonas Moore,' and these words are repeated in the list of contents of the book, with the addition 'and new printed and enlarged by Moses Pitt.' The Term Catalogue (ii, 126) also lists this map under 1685 as published by Pitt at 30s.; and later, in 1726, Richard Stonyclift refers to it in his anonymous 'Proposals and Inducements' as published by Pitt with the 'History or Narrative.' As for the publisher of the present edition, Christopher Browne, he published no map, as far as I can discover, before 1690, and nearly all his known maps were issued between 1701 and 1707. Moreover, when this map is examined, it shows that Browne's name was substituted on it for another, shorter name. Now in July 1705 the Corporation ordered Mr. Hope, the Register, to 'reprint and fitt up 28 large maps of the Levell,' one for each member of the council. This was done, and Hope presented the bill in 1707. The only 'large map of the Levell' then in existence was Moore's; and it is a remarkable fact that there are still several copies of Browne's edition of that map in the Fen Office. It is suggested, therefore, that this reprint was carried out in 1706–7 by Browne, who had somehow come into possession of Pitt's plates, but that he issued more than the 28 copies required for the Corporation. From the foregoing it seems clear that Pitt must have published an edition of the map in 1684–85; but no copy of it is now known. It must, in any case, have been an 'enlarged' edition of an earlier map by Moore, probably a revision of No. 10, and perhaps printed privately for the Company in 1663. The present map thus represents the fourth stage in evolution from the model of No. 11. It is the finest map of the Bedford Level ever published. Moore had died in 1679.
15. 1720. A Map of the Great Levell of the Fenns . . . Surveyed by Sr. Jonas Moor. I. Harris sculpt. A Scale of Miles, 37 [= 395 mm. or 15½ in.] (In Magna Britannia et Hibernia, etc. vol. 1, p. 232.) 403×294 mm. or 16 × 11¾ in.
M. Nutt & J. Morphew: London, 1720. 4°.
Reduced from No. 14, but still shows the allotments, acreages, and many of the adventurers' names.
16. 1789. B.M. To the Honourable the Corporation of Bedford Level this reduced map of that Level is inscribed by Charles Nalson Cole, etc. [Scale, Miles] 39 [= 740 mm. or 291/8 in.] 757×555 mm. or 29¾×217/8 in. C.N.C.: London, 1789.
In 1772 the Corporation, finding that no large map of the Bedford Level had been made since Moore's of 1684–85 (1706), ordered Cole, the Register, to 'procure Sir Jonas Moore's map to be reduced and the Districts under particular Acts inserted, and such other additions to be made as he shall judge necessary.' The task was not completed until 1789. The names retained on the map are in nearly every case those of the proprietors on No. 14.
17. 1829. B.M. To the . . . Governor, the Bailiffs, and Conservators of The Great Level of the Fens called Bedford Level, this map of the said Great Level and parts adjacent is ... dedicated by Samuel Wells, Register. Fen Office, 27 March 1829. A scale of statute miles, 10 [= 170 mm. or 6¾ in.] 790×810 mm. or 311/8×317/8 in. G. & I. Cary: London, 1829.
B.M. —[Another edition.] The Great Level of the Fens called Bedford Level. By Samuel Wells, etc. G. & J. Cary: London, 1829.
A modern map, with Moore's map, No. 14, superimposed. Gives the old allotments and the names of their holders. First published to illustrate Wells's important History of the Bedford Level.
18. 1878. Camb. Univ. Library. [Another edition.] The Great Level of the Fens called the Bedford Level, by S. Wells . . . Published with alterations and additions by . . . H. Wells. Scale of ... Miles, 10 [= 168 mm. or 65/8 in.] 790×815 mm. or 311/8×32 in.
Hardy Wells: London, 1878.
19. 1665. A Mapp of the Great Levell of the Fenns called Bedford Levell. The pricked Lines represent the New Rivers to be made in and about the Great Levell. By William Dodson Gent. T. Cross sculpsit. The scale of Miles, 10 [= 51 mm. or 2 in.] (In The Designe for the perfect Draining of the Great Level of the Fens, called Bedford Level . . . By Collonel William Dodson.) 270×214 mm. or 10½×8½ in.
R. Wood: London, 1665. 12°.
B.M. Dodson had been employed on the drainage works under Vermuyden.
20. 1699. B.M. Cambridge-Shire and the Great Levell of ye Fenns, extending into the adjacent Shires, according to Surveys as it is now drained, at ye Charges of ye . . . . . Earl of Bedford, and ye other Proprietors. By Sr. Jonas Moore, &c. Scale of Miles, 7 [= 72 mm. or 3 in.] (Cambridg.—Ely.) (In The Shires of England and Wales described by Christopher Saxton . . . with many additions and corrections by Philip Lea. pl. 2.) 485×400 mm. or 19×15¾ in.
Phillip Lea: London, [1699 ?] fol.
B.M. —[Another issue.] Thomas Bowles: London, 1733.
21. 1724. [A large coloured manuscript map, on vellum, of the Fenland from Earith northwards to the sea and from Downham in the east to west of Spalding. Without title or date. Oriented with the north to the right.] Miles, 6 [= 152 mm. or 6 in.] 930×800 mm. or 36½×31½ in. [1724 ?]
Camb. Univ. Library. The style and writing of this map, particularly the use of Gothic letters for the names of rivers, point to Thomas Badeslade as the draughtsman. But it represents the Fenland much as it was about 1600. Ely House, the Bishop's palace at Somersham, and the Benedictine convent at Chatteris are shown, as well as the mansions and names of several county families, such as 'Cottons' at Conington, 'Powlets,' 'Scott' and 'Welby' near Sutton, and 'Balam' at Elme. Marshland is portrayed as a group of large inclosed areas called 'Worme feild,' 'Sibley field,' 'West new feild' and so forth. The drains and banks of the Holland Fens are shown in great detail, but the latest work in the Cambridgeshire fens is London Lode (c. 1600). The spelling of some of the names betrays ignorance: e.g. 'Mere' for Moor, 'Ladwers' for Ladus and 'Somertome' for Somersham. The Cambridgeshire 'hards' are shown accurately. As the map shows no resemblance to any known map, we can only assume that it is a copy of a very old map, c. 1600, made by Badeslade, who added the scale and perhaps made small alterations. The Holland fens on No. 88 seem to have been copied from the original of this map.
22. 1723. B.M. A Mapp of the great Level of ye Fenns called Bedford Level . . . by T. Badeslade. S. Parker sculpt. 1723. A scale of miles, 10 [= 88 mm. or 3½ in.] (In The History of the . . . Port of King's-Lyn, etc. p. 26.) 390×320 mm. or 15¼×12½ in. R. Standfast: London, 1725. fol.
B.M. —[Another issue.] L. Davis, C. Reymers & B. White: London, 1766. fol.
Based, with many alterations, upon No. 11, but shows the northern coast districts. Badeslade was a surveyor, map-maker, publisher and writer of great energy and originality, to whom we owe some excellent road-maps of England. His 'History of the . . . Port of King's Lyn' is as important for the history of the Fenland as Dugdale's 'History of Imbanking and Drayning.' It gives a detailed account of the many and diverse schemes for the drainage and irrigation of the Fenland which were put forward between 1630 and 1724. Badeslade believed that nothing useful could be effected until the course of the Ouse had been deepened and straightened. He had access to important early manuscripts dealing with the Fens and to maps like Hayward's of 1604 (see No. 23).
23. 1724. B.M. A Plan and description of the Fenns . . . Survey'd by W. Hayward . . . 1604. Copied by T. Badeslade, 1724. S. Parker sculpt. A scale of miles, 10 [= 88 mm. or 3½ in.] (In The History of the . . . Port of King's-Lyn, etc. p. 68.) 390×320 mm. or 15¼×12½ in. 1725. fol.
B.M. —[Another issue.] 1766. fol.
No copy of Hayward's original map is now known (see No. 2). It can, however, be reconstructed from this map and from the copy made at second-hand by Payler Smyth in 1727 (No. 24). This map has additions and alterations by Badeslade. Oriented with the north to the right.
24. 1727. Fen Office, Ely. A Generall Plotte and Discription of the Fennes and other Grounds within ye Isle of Ely, and in the Counties of Lincoln, Northampton, Huntington and March . . . Compassed by Mr. Wm. Hayward Anno 1604 . . . An Exact Copy . . . from ye Originall By Mr. Payler Smyth Anno Dom. 1727 . . . A Scale of Milles Furlongs and Perches An° 1618 . . . Milles, 6 [= 157 mm. or 61/8 in.] MS. 1315×960 mm. or 52×37½ in.
The map here copied by Smyth was not Hayward's original, but a very faulty copy of it, made probably in 1618 for Sir John Peyton of Doddington (who was a friend of Cotton's—see No. 2). The composite arms of a member of the Peyton family appear on this map, and were presumably upon Smyth's model. The Fen Commissioners paid Smyth 15 guineas for making this copy. Hayward was still surveying for the Commissioners in 1636. His map of 1604, with that of 1591 (cf. No. 77) and the original of No. 21, may have perished when the Fen Office in the Temple was burned in 1666. This map has been reproduced by the Ordnance Survey. Oriented with the north to the right.
25. 1751. B.M. A Map of the Great Level of the Fens, together with the Rivers that pass thro' the said Level into the Bay call'd Metaris Aestuarium. [By Nathaniel Kinderley the Elder.] W. H. Toms sculp. A Scale of Miles, 20 [= 78 mm. or 3 in.] (In The Ancient and Present State of the Navigation of the Towns of Lyn, Wisbeach, etc.) 205×158 mm. or 8×6¼ in. J. Noon: London; J. Hollingworth: Lyn, 1751. 8°.
B.M. Nathaniel Kinderley the Elder was an engineer ahead of his time, who from 1720 agitated for cuts in the Nene below Wisbech and in the Ouse above King's Lynn. His proposals met with much opposition both in Wisbech and King's Lynn, but the Wisbech cut, called after him Kinderley's Cut, was made in 1773, and the Eau Brink Cut in 1821. This map was reissued in the edition of Dugdale's 'History of Imbanking and Drayning' which was published at Lynn in 1792.
26. 1779. B.M. [Another edition.] To the Hon.ble Corporation of the Bedford Level. A Map of the Great Level of the Fens . . . Drawn by Kinderly, corrected by M.J.A[rmstrong]. S. Pyle sculpt. Published . . . 1779 by M. Booth, Norwich. Scale of Miles, 10 [= 39 mm. or 1½ in.]. (In History and Antiquities of the County of Norfolk. vol. 5.) 200 × 157 mm. or 77/8 × 6¼ in. M. Booth: Norwich, 1781. 8°.
This map should show Kinderley's Cut, but does not.
27. 1766. B.M. A Map of the Fenn-Rivers and of the New Cutts propos'd in the following Scheme: for the effectual draining of those Fenns, and restoring Lynn Harbour . . . S. Parker sculpt . . . A scale of Miles, 10 [= 44 mm. or 1¾ in.]. (In The History of the . . . Port of King's-Lyn, etc. p. 99.) 191×303 mm. or 7½×12 in.
L. Davis, C. Reymers & B. White: London, 1766. fol.
Not in the first edition of this work.
28. 1793. A sketch or map of Bedford Level, and country adjoining, showing the divisions, rivers, drains &c. with the proposed new cut, from Eau Brink to Lynn. Scale of Miles, 10 [= 47 mm. or 1¾ in.] 320×220 mm. or 125/8×8¾ in.
Camb. Univ. Library Bound with 'Reasons in support of the Bill for making a new Cut.' Between 1775 and 1819 there was constant controversy on the advantages of making a cut to alter the course of the Ouse between Eau Brink and King's Lynn. The people of Lynn opposed the Cut, but the reports of notable engineers like Golborne, Watté, Mylne and Hodskinson were all in favour of it. The first Act ordering the construction of the Cut was passed in 1795, but the Cut was not completed until 1821.
29. 1794. B.M. [Another issue.] A Sketch or Map of Bedford Level, and Country adjoining . . . S. I. Neele sculpt, etc.
[1794 ?]
30. 1810. B.M. A Plan of the Bedford Level with the intended new lines of Drainage, 1810. Scale of Miles, 10 [= 93 mm. or 35/8 in.] (In Report and Estimate on the Improvement of the Drainage and Navigation of the South & Middle Levels of the Great Level of the Fens, in consequence of a reference from the Honourable Corporation of the Bedford Level . . . 1809. By John Rennie.) 390×410 mm. or 152/8×16⅓ in. S. Blackader: London, 1810. 4°.
Recommends the Eau Brink Cut and the straightening and scouring of the Ouse up to Earith. Several new proposed Cuts are shown, including one from Whittlesea Mere to Popham's Eau. John Rennie was the greatest engineer of his time, and had already done much good work in the Lincolnshire Fens.
31. 1827. B.M. Map of the Level of the Fens called Bedford Level, as divided into North, Middle, & South Levels. Scale of Miles, 10 [= 55 mm. or 21/8 in.] (In An Historical Account of the ancient Town and Port of Wisbech . . . By William Watson. p. 50.) 243×195 mm. or 95/8×7¾ in. H. & J. Leach: Wisbech, 1827. 8°.
The 'Ouse Cut' below Ely was made in 1827.
32. 1840. B.M. Sketch of the Bedford Level. Scale, Miles, 10 [= 38 mm. or 1½ in.] 238×285 mm. or 93/8×11¼ in.
[1840 ?]
33. 1840. B.M. Map of the Level of the Fens, called Bedford Level. Scale of Miles, 10 [= 53 mm. or 21/8 in.] (In Regulations and Orders of the Governors, Bailiffs and Conservators of the Bedford Level Corporation . . . By Samuel Wells, etc.) 188×202 mm. or 73/8×8 in. Mills & Son: London, 1840. 8°.
34. 1842. Camb. Univ. Library. Bedford Level. Plan of the Middle Level and parts adjacent with the lines for the proposed improved drainage. Referred to in Mr. Walker's report dated 28th August 1842. Scale 1 in. to 1 mile. 990×542 mm. or 39×213/8 in.
35. 1842. B.M. Plan of part of the Bedford Level and lands adjacent, subject to the Eau Brink Tax. J. G. Lenny, Surveyor . . . 1833. Scale of chains, 160 [= 145 mm. or 5¾ in.] 6 sh. 1120×860 mm. or 44×34¼ in. R. Cartwright: London, 1842.
A large, detailed map made for purposes of taxation.
36. 1849. B.M. Fens of the Bedford Level and Lincolnshire. Scale of Miles, 15 [= 76 mm. or 3 in.] (In The History of Wisbech, and the Fens. By Neil Walker and Thomas Craddock. p. 3.) 202×210 mm. or 8×8¼ in. R. Walker: Wisbech, 1849. 8°.
37. 1852. Map showing the Land to be Reclaimed from the Norfolk and Lincolnshire Estuary, also that which has been reclaimed from time to time: Part of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire and Bedford Level, with the drainage improvements in the Middle Level of the Fens. Engraved at the Ordnance Map Office. [Scale 1 inch = 1 mile.] 920×1195 mm. or 365/8×47 in.
Fred Harding, Surveyor: Lynn, 1852.
Camb. Univ. Library. A very fine map, showing the size of the areas reclaimed and the dates of reclamation. The 'Marsh Cut' at the estuary of the Ouse was made in this year.
38. 1875. B.M. Map of Fens. Scale, 1 Inch to a Statute Mile. (In Reminiscences of Fen and Mere. By J. M. Heathcote.) 132×142 mm. or 5¼×55/8 in.
Longmans: London, 1876. 8°.
A photographic reduction of a larger map entitled 'Plan of Middle Level' and dated 1875, which is unknown to me. Includes more than the Middle Level.
39. 1877. B.M. Geological Map of the Fenland, by Sydney B. J. Skertchly. Scale, 1 inch =4 miles. (In Memoirs of the Geological Survey, England and Wales. The Geology of the Fenland. By S. B. J. Skertchly.) 338×460 mm. or 133/8×181/8 in.
Longmans: London, 1877. 8°.
Valuable as showing the soils, peat and 'hards.'
40. 1878. B.M. The Fenland. Scale of Miles, 8 [= 50 mm. or 2 in.] (In Fenland Past and Present. By S. H. Miller . . . and S. B. J. Skertchly.) 340×468 mm. or 133/8×18½ in.
Longmans: London, 1878. 8°.
41. 1890. B.M. Map of the Fenland. English Miles, 10 [= 37 mm. or 1¼ in.] (In The HandBook to the Fenland . . . By Samuel H. Miller.) 220×306 mm. or 8 11/16×12 1/16 in.
Simpkin, Marshall: London; Leach & Son: Wisbech, [1890.]

B. Maps showing parts of the Great Level arranged, roughly, alphabetically under Middle Level, Nene River and Wisbech, North Level, Ouse River and South Level. In 1697 the Bedford Corporation divided the Bedford Level into the South, the Middle and the North Level, and in 1753 the North Level was separated from the rest by Act of Parliament

42. 1842. Camb. Univ. Library. Middle Level, Drainage and Navigation. Plan. Scale of Miles, 4 [= 100 mm. or 4 in.] 740×692 mm. or 291/8×27¼ in. [1842 ?]
43. 1862. B.M. A Map shewing the Deluge of the Fens by the destruction of the Middle Level Outfall Sluice on the 4th May 1862. Scale of 1 mile [= 75 mm. or 3 in.] 698×290 mm. or 27½×11½ in. E. Stanford: London, 1862.
43a. See Addenda at end.
44. 1657. Descriptio om[n]ium metarum et bundarum pro Hundreda de Wisebech infra Insulam Eliensis in Comitatu Cantabrigie . . . Descriptio . . . renouata fuit p Johannē Johnson seniorem . . . 1597 et renouata per Thomam Watts . . . 1657 . . . [Miles] 5 [= 218 mm. or 8½ in.] MS. 712×870 mm. or 28×34¼ in. 1657.
Wisbech Museum. An important early map bearing Latin inscriptions. It has been redrawn twice, and may be regarded as the work of John Johnson in 1597. The original map and the inscriptions may, however, date from about 1540. The village churches are represented by sketches which seem to show them as they were about 1597. See Addenda at end.
45. 1721. B.M. [A map of the course of the River Nene from Wisbeach to the sea, showing the old banks on each side of the river and the marshes from Walton Marsh to Walpole Marsh. Scale, approx. 1½ in. = 1 mile.] 400×290 mm. or 15¾×117/16 in. [1721 ?]
Without title or date.
46. 1726. A Map of the North Level &c. and of the Marshes. A Drain is propos'd to be made through to convey the Waters that now overflow yt Level &c. to Sea. To which are added some particulars explaining Capt. Perry's Report, on his view lately taken of the Drains, Sluces, & Outfalls. A Scale of Miles, 9 [= 81 mm. or 31/8 in.] 330×256 mm. or 13×101/8 in. [1727.]
B.M. Published with Captain John Perry's 'To the Gentlemen Landowners in Parts of South Holland in the County of Lincoln,' London, 1727, although it is also found inserted in 'An Essay on Draining: more particularly with regard to the North Division of the Bedford Level,' 1729, as a useful illustration.
47. 1749. B.M. An Actual Survey of the North Level part of the Great Level of the Fens call'd Bedford Level. Also of Crowland, Great Porsand, and part of South Holland . . . and of Wisbeach North-side in the Isle of Ely . . . taken Augt. 1749 by Jno Wing . . . Nathl. Hill Sc. . . . A scale of three miles [= 99 mm. or 37/8 in.] 705×520 mm. or 27¾×20½ in. [1749.]
This map was made by order of the Bedford Level Corporation. The North Level was separated from the Bedford Level by Act of Parliament in 1753.
48. 1767. A Map of the River Nene and Bay from Wisbeach to the Eye, taken in 1767, by Mr. Golborne. Vere sculp. Scale of Miles, 3 [= 138 mm. or 5½ in.] (In The Report of J. Golborne, engineer concerning the drainage of the North Level of the Fens . . . 1769.) 667×295 mm. or 26¼×115/8 in. [1767.]
Camb. Univ. Library. Golborne was the engineer in charge of the construction of Kinderley's Cut in 1773, and also surveyed for the Eau Brink Cut. This is an unusually good map of the Nene Estuary.
49. 1777. An actuall survey and Map of the Sands from the Great Dam made across the Old Channel at the south end of Kinderley's Cut to a Line from Hayes's Corner of the Lower Beacon . . . Being part of the Sands as are vested in the Honble. the Bedford Level Corporation by an Act of Parliament passed the 13th of Geo. the III . . . taken a.d. 1777 by Jno. Watté. Scale of Gunter's Chains, 80 [or 1 mile] [= 202 mm. or 8 in.] MS. 1420×1760 mm. or 55¾×69¼ in.
Fen Office, Ely. A very fine, coloured map. The 'Sands,' most of which were afterwards reclaimed, were given in 1777 not to the North Level, but to the Bedford Level Corporation as having a prior right.
50. 1777. B.M. A Map of the Sands as are vested in the Bedford Level Corporation . . . Reduced from the large Map of an actual Survey taken by J. Watté. A scale of Miles . . . 2 [= 135 mm. or 53/8 in.] 466×588 mm. or 183/8×23¼ in. 1777.
Reduced from No. 49.
51. 1801. G. M. G. Woodgate, Esq., Leverington House, Wisbech. A Map of all the Land in Leverington and Leverington Parsondrove lying between the Old Roman Bank and Murrow Bank except such land as lyes on the South side the White Engine Drain part of Harrold and Gorefield Fen. A Scale of Chains, 10 to an Inch . . . Abraham Leahair Surveyor 1801. 1142×623 mm. or 45×24½ in.
A manuscript map, very artistically drawn and coloured. Shows all the holdings, numbered 1 to 823, as well as houses, windmills, lanes, dykes, banks, droves and parish boundaries. This is an inclosure map, for in 1801 Leverington and Parson Drove were inclosed by Act of Parliament.
52. 1813. B.M. A Plan of the River Nene and North Level and part of South Holland, with the Proposed Lines of Drainage into Wisbeach Upper Eye at Crab Hole. By John Rennie . . . Scale of Miles, 5 [= 166 mm. or 6½ in.] 942×514 mm. or 371/8×20¼ in. Neale: London, 1813.
B.M. —[A reduction of the map.] Scale of Miles, 5 [= 40 mm. or 15/8 in.] (In An Historical Account of the Ancient Town and Port of Wisbech . . . By William Watson. p. 56.) 230×191 mm. or 9×7½ in. H. & J. Leach: Wisbech, 1827. 8°.
53. 1723. A Map of the River of Great Ouse . . . Surveyed by T. Badeslade . . . 1723. Parker sculpt. A scale of miles, 15 [= 44 mm. or 1¾ in.] (In The History of the . . . Port of King's-Lyn, etc. p. 6.) 382×310 mm. or 15×12¼ in. 1725. fol.
B.M. — [Another issue.] 1766. fol.
54. 1724. A Map of Lynn-Haven, & of the River Ouse to Germans, made by T. Badeslade a.d. 1724. [Scale, approx. 2¾ miles = 85 mm. or 33/8 in.] (In The History of the . . . Port of King's Lyn, etc. p. 15.) 198×200 mm. or 7¾×77/8 in.
B.M. 1725. fol.
B.M. — [Another issue.] 1766. fol.
This was the first of many maps (cf. Nos. 55–64) drawn in connection with plans to shorten the course of the Ouse above King's Lynn, and does credit to Badeslade's foresight. See note to No. 28 and Maps 28–30. The original manuscript map, in the possession of the present writer, is very much larger than the engraved version, measuring 63×24 in.
55. 1725. A Survey of the Ouse from its Springhead to Northamptonshire, and its Influx into the Sea below Lynn . . . T. Badeslade delin. S. Parker sculpt. Miles, 20 [= 48 mm. or 17/8 in.] (In The History of the . . . Port of King's Lyn, etc.) 313×130 mm. or 12¼×51/8 in. 1725. fol.
B.M. — [Another issue.] 1766. fol.
56. 1735. B.M. Lyn River. [A manuscript map of the River Ouse from Buckingham to King's Lynn, showing the fens east of the river.] 10 Miles [= 35 mm. or 13/8 in.] (In Reasons Humbly offer'd to the Consideration of the Publick; shewing . . . the Work now executing . . . to recover . . . the Navigation of the River Dee . . . from Instances of the Ruinous Effects . . . at Lynn, etc.) [By Thomas Badeslade.] 183×325 mm. or 7¼×12¾ in. 1735. 4°.
57. 1767. B.M. A Plan of the Harbour of Lynn, extracted from a large Plan survey'd and drawn by Mr. Bell and engraved by T. Jefferys. A Scale of . . . 1 Mile [= 149 mm. or 57/8 in.] (In A Report upon the Harbour of King's Lynn . . . By John Smeaton.) 455×365 mm. or 18×14½ in. [1767.] 4°.
Shows the Ouse in detail from above South Wootton to above Clenchwarton. Smeaton was one of the first of the great engineers to be called in to report on the complex problems of drainage, irrigation and navigation on the Ouse.
58. 1777. B.M. A Sketch of the River Ouse from Erith to Lynn, with a Section of the Channel shewing the obstructions which prevent the draining of the Bedford Levels. Scale, Miles, 8 [= 103 mm. or 41/8 in.] (In Observations on the Means of better Draining the Middle and South Levels of the Fenns. By Two Gentlemen who have taken a View thereof.) 412×260 mm. or 16×10¼ in. T. Evans: London, 1777. 4°.
59. 1791. B.M. A Sketch or Map of Lynn Haven, and of the River Ouse to St. Mary Magdalen, showing the Proposed New Cut. [Scale, approx. 1 mile to 24 mm. or 7/8 inch.] (In The Report of John Watte . . . for the better Drainage of the South and Middle Levels . . . and amending the Outfall . . . by a New Cut . . . from Eau-Brink to Lynn.) 485×365 mm. or 191/16×143/8 in. [Wisbech, 1791.] 4°.
60. 1794. B.M. Plan of the Outfall of the River Ouse, explanatory of Mr. Hodskinson's Report on the Intended Cut at Eau Brink . . . Furlongs, 24 [=78 mm. or 31/8 in.] 490×242 mm. or 19 5/16×9½ in. [1794 ?]
61. 1794. A Map of the River Ouse from the town of St. Ives . . . to its Outfall into the Bay below the Port of Kings Lynn Shewing the several Navigable Rivers falling into the same . . . also the proposed New Cut to alter the Course of the said River to carry it across the Lands from a Place called Eau Brink to join . . . the said River . . . above the Harbour of Lynn. Scale of Miles, 4 [= 98 mm. or 37/8 in.] MS. 1280×665 mm. or 50½×26½ in. [1794 ?]
Camb. Univ. Library. The map has an inset of the proposed Eau Brink Cut and of the Ouse. Scale of chains, 80 [= 87 mm. or 33/8 in.]
62. 1794. H. L. Bradfer-Lawrence, Esq., Nth. Wootton, King's Lynn. A Map of the River Ouse from the Town of St. Ives . . . to its Outfall in . . . King's Lynn Shewing the several Navigable Rivers . . . also the proposed New Cut . . . Scale of Miles, 4 [= 98 mm. or 37/8 in.] (That Part of the River Ouse from St. Germans to King's Lynn with the Line of the Intended New Cut. The above Line and Dimensions of the Cut is a true reduced Copy of the Plan as Drawn and Settled by Sir Thomas Page and Mr. Mylne. [Signed:] Thomas Cubitt. Jno. Watté. Scale of Chains, 60 [= 82 mm. or 3¼ in.]) 1560×620 mm. or 61¼×24¾ in.
[1794 ?]
A slightly altered copy of No. 61.
63. 1804. B.M. Plan of the Intended New River or Cut, from the River Ouze near Eau Brink, to rejoining the Old Channel of the Ouze near Kings Lynn. November 1804. 6000 Feet [= 149 mm. or 57/8 in.] 467×166 mm. or 183/8×6½ in. 1804.
A new, amended, Act of Parliament for the construction of the Eau Brink Cut was passed in 1804.
64. 1809. Plan of the River Ouse from German's Bridge to Lynn in Norfolk. Publd. . . . 1809 by R. Phillips, etc. [Scale, about 2¾ miles = 60 mm. or 23/8 in.] (In General View of the Agriculture of the County of Cambridge . . . By the Rev. W. Gooch. p. 211.) 198×120 mm. or 7¾×4¾ in.
Camb. Univ. Library. Richard Phillips: London; Deighton, Nicholson, Barrett, etc.: Cambridge, 1811. 8°.
Reissued in the 1813 edition of this work.
65. 1819. Plan of the Eau Brink River and part of the River Ouse with the proposed New Bridge, Public Roads and Drains communicating therewith. 1819. Scale of Chains, 40 [= 112 mm. or 4½ in.] 1290×740 mm. or 50½×291/8 in.
Charles Barcham: Lynn, 1819.
Camb. Univ. Library. This large map was produced when work was at last commenced on the Eau Brink Cut. It shows the holdings, with the names of the owners, on both banks of the river.
66. 1827. B.M. Map of the Old Course of the Rivers Ouse & Nene. Scale of Miles, 10 [= 50 mm. or 2 in.] (In An Historical Account of the Ancient Town and Port of Wisbech . . . By William Watson. p. 20.) 232×195 mm. or 91/8×7½ in. 1827. 8°.
67. 1920. Camb. Univ. Library. River Ouse: map of the watershed . . . [Signed] Richard F. Grantham. Rateable area under the Ouse Drainage Order, 1920 Fenland [and] above Fenland. Scale, 4 miles to 1 inch. 686×518 mm. or 27×20½ in. [1920.]
68. 1758. B.M. An exact and accurate Plan of the East part of the South Level of the Fens situate between the River Ouse and the Hundred Foot River. Surveyed a.d. 1758 by Richard Robinson. A scale of chains, 100 [= 105 mm. or 4 15/16 in.] 3 sh. 500×500 mm. or 19¾×19¾ in. [1758.]
Shows all the holdings, numbered.
69. 1767. A Map of the Fens under Benwick Act. [A manuscript map showing part of the Bedford Level between Whittlesea Dike and the River Nene. Scale, 6 chains to 1 inch.] MS. 805×680 mm. or 31¾×26¾ in. [1767 ?]
Camb. Univ. Library. This was possibly drawn to illustrate an Act for the drainage of Benwick White Fen, passed in 1767.
70. 1775. Camb. Univ. Library. A survey of the Fen lands of Swaffham Prior, Swaffham Bulbeck, Horningsea, Fen Ditton, Quoi and Bottisham under a Draining Act 1775. A Scale of Gunter's Chains, 20 [= 93 mm. or 3¾ in.] MS. 1325×980 mm. or 52×38½ in.
71. 1827. B.M. This Map of the Isle of Ely is . . . inscribed to the . . . Bishop of Ely by . . . Wm. Watson. Scale of Miles, 10 [= 75 mm. or 3 in.] (In An Historical Account of the Ancient Town and Port of Wisbech . . . By William Watson. p. 64.) 227×194 mm. or 9×75/8 in. 1827. 8°.
72. 1870. [Map of part of Cambridgeshire from Witcham and Witchford in the north, Over in the south, Waterbeach in the east, Mepal and Earith in the west, showing names of fen lots, with numbers.] Scale of Chains, 160 [= 135 mm. or 53/8 in.] 597×890 mm. or 23½×35 in. [1870 ?]
Camb. Univ. Library. Probably prepared for purposes of Bedford Level taxation; it shows most of the holdings.
73. 1922. Ouse Drainage Board Map of Area. [Signed:] G. E. Mathews, Engineer. Scale of Miles, 30 [= 190 mm. or 7½ in.] 670×545 mm. or 263/8×21½ in. [1922.]
Camb. Univ. Library. Based on the quarter-inch Ordnance Survey map. Shows all the districts, numbered and coloured, which paid rates to the Ouse Drainage Board.
74. 1786. B.M. A Chart of the Beautiful Fishery of Whittlesea Mere, and of such Navigable Rivers with which it has communication, from their Spring Heads to their Influx into the Sea . . . By John Bodger. Scale of Feet, 2000 [= 75 mm. or 3 in.] (A Map of the Country surrounding Whittlesea Mere. Hatchett sculpt. 20 Miles [= 35 mm. or 13/8 in.]) 653×460 mm. or 25¾×181/8 in.
John Bodger: Stilton; Debrett, Boydell: London, 1786.
With letterpress, 'Historical Account,' giving many interesting facts about Whittlesea Mere.

C. Maps of Marshland in Norfolk, containing Emneth, Walsoken, Walpole, Terrington, Tilney and Clenchwarton

75. 1574. B.M. Norfolciæ Comitatus . . . descriptio . . . 1574 . . . C. Saxton descripsit. Cornelius Hogius sculpsit. Scala miliarium, 10 [= 85 mm. or 33/8 in.] [In C. Saxton's Atlas of England and Wales.] 495×335 mm. or 193/8×131/8 in.
[London,] 1579. fol.
Reissued, with the date changed to 1642, in 'The Maps of all the Shires in England and Wales,' by W. Web in 1645; and, with many additions, in P. Lea's 'The Shires of England and Wales,' c. 1699. It shows the Marshland and circumambient rivers on a small scale.
76. 1590 Wisbech Museum. Descriptio illius partis comitate Norfolc—occidentale—Ripa owse patria tota de Marshlade continens, etc. [A large coloured MS. map of Marshland and the surrounding country, without date or name of author, drawn on vellum. Scale about 2½ inches to the mile.] 835×750 mm. or 33×29½ in. [1590 ?]
This important map is not only crudely drawn but very faded. Apart from the title, it bears two inscriptions in Latin. One explains the different colours used to represent droves, dykes, greens, buildings and common ways (which are yellow); but in some cases the colour does not seem to have been put in, while in others it has completely faded. The other inscription refers to the Bishop of Ely's manor at West Walton, the dues, fisheries, and windmills he had there, and the rights which he shared with the Duke of Norfolk. All of these, according to the inscription, had passed to the queen. Actually, the Bishop of Ely's manor at West Walton passed to the Crown in 1581. From its style the map may have been drawn any time between 1550 and 1600. As many of the names are in Norman-French or Latin and the map was found in a bundle of legal papers, it may have been a legal document connected with one of the numerous complaints of the inhabitants of Marshland. The north is to the left. There is a scale, but no figures to explain it, and the borders of the map are graduated in divisions of the same length as the scale unit—perhaps anticipating Jonas Moore's marginal scale. The close resemblance between this map and that drawn by Hayward in 1591 (No. 77) in all points, including the titles and the explanations of colours used, raises the question which was first. Hayward's map is far better drawn and coloured, and shows many more place-names. Each map shows two or three features independently, and employs words differently. On the whole it seems likely that this rather rudimentary map was used by Hayward, who revised and extended it to include the Fenland as far south as Ely.
77. 1591. The description of that parte of Norfolke wch. lieth on ye West side of ye river Ouse: Wherein is contained the Countrie of Marshlande being severed from the reste (lyinge more into the South) with a red line . . . Guilielmus Haiwarde descripsit 1591. The Scale . . . Furlonges 24 [= 200 mm. or 77/8 in.] MS. 1510×760 mm. or 59×30 in. [1680 ?]
Camb. Univ. Library. This beautifully drawn and coloured map is not Hayward's original drawing, but a copy, for the paper dates from 1680–1700 and the writing is in a 17th-century hand. For Marshland the map follows its model (No. 76), but it also shows the Fenland as far south as Ely. The north is now to the right. A copy of the earliest known work by Hayward, who was still surveying in the Fens in 1636. The original may have perished when the Fen Office was burned in 1666. See Addenda at end.
78. 1610. B.M. [A coloured MS. map of Marshland.] The Scale of Perch . . . 720 [= 100 mm. or 4 in.] 718×454 mm. or 285/8×18 in. [1610 ?]
In the Cotton Collection. Has no title, date, or name of author, but is a copy of Hayward's map of 1591, somewhat smaller than the copy of c. 1680 (No. 77). The southern Fenland is omitted. It resembles the later copy so closely in all details that both must be exact copies of the lost original, which was perhaps used to illustrate the 'Great Law of Marshland,' 1610. The style of the cartouche, the spelling of some names, and the name 'Groninga lake' for Giningale Lake, point to a Dutch artist.
79. 1660. The Map of Marshland in Norfolk. Scale of Perches, 600 [= 53 mm. or 21/8 in.] [An engraved proof copy of a map copied, with few changes, from Hayward's of 1591 (No. 77), bearing MS. corrections in red ink and inscribed on the back: Marshland, for London, have another in Norff. In Sir William Dugdale's MS. notes for his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes.' British Museum. Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 630.] 370×310 mm. or 143/8×12¼ in. [1660?]
80. 1662. B.M. The Map of Marshland, in Norfolk, wch containeth only . . . Emneth, Walsoken, Walton, Walpole, Tirington, Tilney and Clenchwarton . . . Scale of Perches, 600 [= 54 mm. or 21/8 in.] (In The History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes . . . By William Dugdale. p. 244.) 370×314 mm. or 14½×12¼ in. 1662. 4°.
B.M. From the map in Dugdale's MS. notes, Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 630. —[Another issue.] 1772. 4°.
81. 1710. B.M. [Another edition.] A Map of Marshland in Norfolk. By Sr. Wm. Dugdale, with Additions and Amendments. The Scale of Perches, 600 [= 53 mm. or 21/8 in.] (In Some Papers Relating to the General Draining of Marshland . . . By Peter Bateson.) 370×315 mm. or 14½×12½ in. 1710. 4°.
The chief 'Amendment' is the insertion of 'The New Cut as Designed' from the Smeeth Fen to the Ouse below King's Lynn. Bateson was a friend and fellow surveyor of Badeslade's, and shared his views on the drainage of the Fens. This map was reissued in vol. iv of Parkin's edition of Blomefield's 'History of Norfolk,' 1775.
82. 1796. Marshland Reduced and Delineated from a Survey in the possession of T. Bagge, Esq. 1796. Furlongs [8 = 51 mm. or 2 in.] 866×613 mm. or 341/8×241/8 in.
H. L. Bradfer-Lawrence, Esq., North Wootton, King's Lynn. In 1796 an Act was passed for the inclosure and drainage of Marshland Fen and the Smeeth; Tilney and Islington were also inclosed. The basis of this map was undoubtedly No. 77, but many alterations and additions were made to bring it more or less up to date, and it covers a larger area to the west as well as showing the estuaries of the Ouse and Nene. The names of some contemporary proprietors are given. Marshland Fen is shown as 'inundated.' Catalogued from the Ordnance Survey reproduction.
83. 1799. A Map of the Countrey of Marshland and the Adjacent Fens. [Signed:] Willm West. 1799. A scale of . . . Miles, 2 [= 90 mm. or 3 9/16 in.] 786×527 mm. or 31×20¾ in. 1799.
H. L. Bradfer-Lawrence, Esq., North Wootton, King's Lynn. Almost an exact copy of the Cotton copy (No. 78) of Hayward's map of 1591. Some of the Dutch spellings on the model are corrected, but 'Groninga lake' and the names of the Jacobean proprietors on the Cotton map are retained. 'Chauntrie Loade,' however, is changed to 'Chancel Dike,' though it really should be 'Chancellor's Lode.' One or two places not on the enterprising Mr. West's model are shown N.E. of Wisbech, such as the 'Fan Tail Water Engine.' Catalogued from the Ordnance Survey reproduction.
84. 1636. The Plott of the Marshes belonging to Walsoken, Walton & Walpoole in Com.: Norffc. taken in Septem. A°. 1636. Per Richardū Smith. Scale 40 [perches = about 25 mm. or 1 in.] [MS. coloured. 8 sheets, joined.] 1390×610 mm. or 543/8×24 in.
P.R.O. M.R. 142. Oriented with the north to the left. The Horseshoe is at the right edge, the Cross Keys at the left, Walpole St. Peters at the top and the Shire Gate at the bottom. The 'New Sluce' is shown at the Horseshoe, the 'New Drayne' running N. from the Four Gates, and the 'Wisbech New River' running N. from the Horseshoe. The acreage of each area is given. A valuable map.
85. 1826. Map or Plan of the Survey and Levels taken in the Country of Marshland. By order of His Majesty's Commissioners of Sewers for the County of Norfolk. By J. Utting, Surveyor. 3 Miles [= 190 mm. or 7½ in.] 940×635 mm. or 37×25 in.
G. M. G. Woodgate, Esq., Lynn Regis, 1826.
Leverington House, Wisbech.
Has a table of references to the drainage engines.

D. Maps of the South Lincolnshire Fens. Individual Fens are placed last, in alphabetical order

86. 1550. [A large coloured MS. map of the fens lying between Crowland and Market Deeping in the south and Donnington and Horbling in the north. Endorsed: Holland Fenn. Scale, 1 mile = about 47 mm. or 17/8 in. On sheepskin.] 790×914 mm. or 31×36 in. [1550 ?]
P.R.O. M.P.C. 100. Without title or date, and very faded. The fenland, with Clow in the middle, is coloured green, the rivers and drains blue, a road from Market Deeping to Billingborough yellow, and the numerous villages east and west (East Deeping, Baston, Langtoft, Thurlby, Bourne, Rippingale, Milthorp, Poynton, Quadring, Dunsby, Rigbolt, etc.) are drawn in MS. style and coloured cream and red. Bridges are shown. Many faded inscriptions would repay close study. Possibly drawn after the dissolution of monasteries to show fenlands formerly belonging to Crowland Abbey. Oriented to the north.
87. 1576. Lincolniæ, Notinghamiæ comitatuu . . . descriptio . . . 1576. C. Saxton descripsit. R. hogenbergius sculpsit. Scala miliarium, 10 [= 65 mm. or 2½ in.] [In C. Saxton's Atlas of England and Wales.] 530×405 mm. or 207/8×161/8 in.
[London.] 1579. fol.
B.M. Reissued, with the date altered to 1642, in W. Web's 'The Maps of all the Shires in England and Wales,' 1645; and, with many additions, in P. Lea's 'Shires of England and Wales,' c. 1699. Shows the Drains of Holland on a small scale.
88. 1660. [A manuscript map of South Holland, showing the Fenland with dykes and sewers in detail. Unsigned and undated. In Sir William Dugdale's MS. notes for his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes.' British Museum. Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 632.] 600 [perches = 38 mm. or 1½ in.] 380×330 mm. or 15×13 in. [1660 ?]
The north-western part of the original of No. 21 seems to have been used as a basis for this map.
89. 1660. [A proof copy of the same, bearing manuscript corrections in red ink. In Harl. MS. 5011, fol. 639.] [1660 ?]
90. 1662 B.M. The Map of South Holland. [Scale of perches] 600 [= 38 mm. or 1½ in.] (In The History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes . . . By William Dugdale. p. 219.) 375×326 mm. or 14¾×13 in. 1662. 4°.
From the MS. map in Dugdale's notes, Harl. MS. 5011, fol. 632.
B.M. —[Another issue.] 1772. 4°.
91. 1723. B.M. A Map of the Levels in Lincoln Shire commonly called Holland. Described by Wm. Stukeley, 1723. English miles, 4 [= 67 mm. or 2¾ in.] 475×600 mm. or 19×23¾ in. [London,] 1723.
Marks the spot where 'hereabouts K. John lost his carriages A°. 1216.' The map is probably not original, but I have not found its source. Captain Perry was busy at this time improving the drainage of the Holland Fens, and one Mr. Cushee made a map of them.
92. 1799. B.M. A Map of the South Drainages of Lincolnshire. Neale sc. British Statute Miles, 5 [= 40 mm. or 1½ in.] (In General view of the Agriculture of the County of Lincoln.) 220×300 mm. or 8¾×11¾ in. [London, 1799.]
Shows South Holland, Deeping Fen, Low Holland Fen, East Fen and West Fen, where John Rennie was then carrying out drainage operations.
93. 1795. B.M. [A map, without title or date, of the Marshes between Holbeach Sluice and Spalding Channel, showing the 'Proposed New Bank' at Spalding Channel.] 50 Chains [= 94 mm. or 3 11/16 in.] 185×235 mm. or 7¼×9¼ in. [1795 ?]
94. 1660. The Map of Deping Fen, enlarged from the printed Map of I. Hondius. Miles, 7 [= 53 mm. or 2 in.] [In Sir William Dugdale's MS. notes for his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes.' British Museum. Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 646.] MS. 380×330 mm. or 15×13 in. [1660?]
An error for H. Hondius. See No. 3. No names are given on the map.
95. 1660. The Map of Deping Fenne. 540 [perches = 67 mm. or 25/8 in.] [In Sir William Dugdale's MS. notes for his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes.' British Museum. Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 644.] MS. 382×330 mm. or 15×13 in. [1660 ?]
Quite different from No. 94. Shows much detail.
96. 1662. B.M. The Map of Deeping Fenne. [Scale of perches] 540 [= 66 mm. or 2¾ in.] (In The History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes . . . By William Dugdale. p. 194.) 375×322 mm. or 14¾×12¾ in. 1662. 4°.
B.M. From the MS. map in Dugdale's notes, Harl. MS. 5011, fol. 644.
B.M. — [Another issue.] 1772. 4°.
97. 1763. B.M. A Map of Deeping Fen in the County of Lincoln. The several Lands and Commons, surveyed by Vincent Grant, about 1670, the several Rivers & Drains are carried down to their Outfalls, by Jos. Featherstone. 1763 . . . Five Miles [= 115 mm. or 4½ in.] 506×401 mm. or 197/8×15 13/16 in. 1763.
Dedicated to the 'Adventurers and Participants for the Draining of Deeping Fen.' The reclamation of the Holland Fens was completed in 1767.
98. 1660. [A coloured manuscript map, unsigned and undated, of the north part of Kirton Wapontake in Lincolnshire, showing the fens, dykes and roads. Scale, about 2 m. to 1 in. In Sir William Dugdale's MS. notes for his 'History of Imbanking and Drayning of Divers Fenns and Marshes.' British Museum. Harleian MS. 5011, fol. 642.] 205×300 mm. or 8¼×11¾ in. [1660 ?]
99. 1600. P.R.O. D.L. 43/6/33. Sutton & Gedney. A Plott. [A small, rude manuscript diagram of the Lincolnshire Fenlands belonging to Sutton, Lutton and Gedney, c. 1600. Scale, 1 mile = about 70 mm. or 2¾ in.] 408×280 mm. or 16×11 in. [1600?]
100. 1740. A Book of Maps of Sutton and Lutton Marshes . . . belonging to William Newland Esquire. Exactly Survey'd by Joseph Smith of Fleet in 1739 and 40. 7 maps. MS. 1740.
H. L. Bradfer-Lawrence, Esq.,
North Wootton, King's Lynn.
I have not had an opportunity to work out the scales of these maps.
101. 1787. A Map of Sutton Sea-Bank from Peters Corner to Jelleys Corner with the Course of Wisbeach Channel . . . By Jno. Grundy of Spalding, 1787. 720×480 mm. or 30¼×19 in. 1787.
H. L. Bradfer-Lawrence, Esq.,
North Wootton, King's Lynn.
Grundy was a well-known Lincolnshire engineer and surveyor, who was in part responsible for having Kinderley's Cut made. I have not had an opportunity to work out the scale of this map.

Descriptive Bibliographies

102. 1908. Descriptive List of the Maps of the Great Level of the Fens, 1604–1900. By Sir Herbert George Fordham. (From Communications to the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1905–08.) Cambridge, 1908. 8°.
A list of 27 engraved maps, with lengthy notes.
103. 1934. Fenland Survey Exhibition. Early Maps and Air-Photographs. By the Fenland Research Committee. pp. 31. Heffer: Cambridge, 1934. 8°.
This enterprising exhibition, held at Cambridge, gave a great stimulus to the study of maps of the Fenland. Many of the maps shown were county maps.
104. 1934. Early Maps of the Fen District. By Edward Lynam. [From 'The Geographical Journal,' November 1934.] London, 1934. 8°.
Notes on the maps of William Hayward and Jonas Moore, Nos. 2, 3, 9, 23, 24.


43a. 1550. Public Record Office. M.P.C. 54. [A large coloured MS. map of fenlands in the later North Level in West Cambridgeshire. Endorsed, wrongly: Holland Fenn. Scale, 1 mile = about 50 mm. or 2 in. On vellum.] 610×852 mm. or 24×32½ in. [1550 ?]
Without title or date, and very faded. The fenland, coloured green, forms a rectangle with Crowland and 'The Erle Drove' at the northern corners, Peterborough and Coldham at the southern. The course given for the Nene seems to indicate a date before the construction of Morton's Leam (c. 1480); but that is unlikely. The north to the right.
44. The map has Walpole and Crowland in the northern corners, Upwell and the Nene (Catt's Water) in the southern, with Trockenholt in the north centre. The Latin inscriptions refer to the local rights of the Abbots of Thorney, the history of Endewick or Trockenholt Hermitage and the boundary between Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire. Possibly redrawn to show the area of new drainage operations in 1597. Roads are shown. Reproduced by the Ordnance Survey in 1935.
77. The words of the title between 'red line' and Hayward's name are worth printing, both for their interest and because they seem to be an exact translation of the Latin title of No. 76, as far as that can be deciphered. They are:—
'In Marshlande are accounted onlye 7 townes: viz. Emneth, Walsoken, Walton, Walpole, Terington, Tilnye and Clenchwerton: St Jhons being parte of ye Parish of Terington: and St Lawrence and Islington partes of Tilnye. Olde Lin (containinge West lin and north lin) is also within ye rynde of Marshland, yet hath it no intercom[m]on with the other 7. There are generally described all high waies, droves, grenes, Seabankes, banks of charge, Sewars, churches and buildings. The waies and lesser sorte of droves are coloured yellowe the bankes greenes and greate sort of droves are greene wth this difference yt ye bankes (being also for ye most pt particons of townes) are but of ye breadth & bignes of high waies: the Rivers & Sewers are blew; and all the Buildinges redde.'