Manchester: The parish and advowson

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.

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, 'Manchester: The parish and advowson', in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4, (London, 1911) pp. 192-204. British History Online [accessed 25 May 2024].

. "Manchester: The parish and advowson", in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4, (London, 1911) 192-204. British History Online, accessed May 25, 2024,

. "Manchester: The parish and advowson", A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4, (London, 1911). 192-204. British History Online. Web. 25 May 2024,

In this section


The endowment of St. Mary's Church at Manchester is recorded in Domesday Book. (fn. 1) Rather more than a century later the rector is named. (fn. 2) In addition to the parish, there was a deanery of Manchester, and several of the early deans are known; (fn. 3) their position with regard to the parish church, however, is not ascertained; they may have been the chaplains in charge. (fn. 4) The original endowment was the plough-land in Newton referred to above; to this Albert Grelley the elder added four oxgangs from his demesne, supposed to be the land afterwards called Kirkmanshulme, which, though detached, was considered part of the township of Newton; (fn. 5) the church had also some land between Deansgate and the Irwell, known as the Parsonage land. In 1282 the value of the rectory was estimated as 200 marks, (fn. 6) though in the official taxation of nine years later it is given as less than half that sum, viz. £53 6s. 8d. (fn. 7) The value of the ninth of the sheaves, wool, &c., was returned as 60 marks in 1341. (fn. 8)

The patronage of the church descended with the manor until the confiscation of the college endowments in 1547; on the refounding by Mary it was assumed by the Crown. (fn. 9)

The church was made collegiate in 1421–2 by Thomas, Lord La Warre, the rector and patron, in honour of St. Mary, St. Denis, and St. George. (fn. 10) The tithes were appropriated to its maintenance, and the old manor-house and certain lands were given to increase the endowment, £3,000 being set apart for building a suitable residence on the site of the manorhouse. (fn. 11) The new foundation consisted of a warden or master, eight fellows or chaplains, four clerks or deacons, and six choristers. (fn. 12) In 1534 the revenue from lands was £40 5s. 3d., and from tithes £186 7s. 2d.; payments of £13 1s. 6d. had to be made, and the clear value therefore was £213 10s. 11d. The warden received £20, and each of the eight fellows or vicars £4, so that a large sum remained for the minor officers and the general expenses of maintenance. (fn. 13)

The college was dissolved in 1547 under Edward VI, and its lands were confiscated; (fn. 14) it was, however, refounded on the old lines by Mary in 1557, and parts of its lands in Newton and Kirkmanshulme which still remained in the Crown, as also the rectorial tithes, were given back to it. (fn. 15) As Mary's refoundations were again confiscated at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign (fn. 16) the position of Manchester College was doubtful; it was not actually seized by the Crown, though plundered indirectly, and in 1578 was formally refounded by the queen. (fn. 17) The name was changed to Christ's College; the warden and four fellows constituted the foundation, and were to appoint two chaplains or vicars to visit the sick, administer the sacrament and other divine services; also four laymen and four children skilled in music were to sing, say prayers, read chapters, and continue other divine exercises in the collegiate church. The warden was to receive 4s. for each day he was present and resident; each fellow 16d. each day he was present; (fn. 18) a chaplain 6¾d. a day, a chorister 4½d., and a singing boy 2¾d. The warden and subwarden were to have a house rentfree.

On account of various abuses it became necessary in 1635 to obtain a new charter, refounding the college; (fn. 19) and this charter—except during the Commonwealth, when Manchester, like other collegiate foundations, was suppressed (fn. 20) —continued in force until the foundation of the bishopric of Manchester in 1847, (fn. 21) when the church became the cathedral, and its warden the dean, other consequent changes being made.

The Commonwealth Surveyors in 1650 found the warden and fellows in nominal possession of lands in Deansgate, Newton, and Kirkmanshulme, of a total rent of £46, with the benefit of fines; the payment had recently been stopped 'by order.' The tithes were estimated at the clear value of £550; the greater part of these had also been detained. The warden, one of the fellows, and another minister were in charge of the parish church, being 'godly preachers.' (fn. 22)

With the growth of the town the value of the church lands constantly increased. They are now in the hands of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who, after making the regulated payments to the dean, canons, and others, and providing for the maintenance of the services, devote the remainder to various ecclesiastical purposes in the neighbourhood. (fn. 23)

The following is a list of the rectors, wardens, and deans:— (fn. 24)

Instituted Name Patron Cause of Vacancy
c. 1200 Albert de Nevill (fn. 25)
oc. 1291 William de Marchia (fn. 26)
oc. 1295 Walter de Langton (fn. 27)
1296 William Sygyn (fn. 28) The King res. Bp. Langton
18 Nov. 1299 Otho de Grandison (fn. 29) "
12 Apr. 1306 Geoffrey de Stokes (fn. 30) Thomas Grelley
24 Jan. 1313–4 Mr. John de Everdon (fn. 31) Sir John La Warre
28 Sept. 1323 Mr. Adam de Southwick (fn. 32) " res. J. de Everdon
24 Aug. 1327 John de Claydon (fn. 33) " d. A. de Southwick
21 Aug. 1351 Thomas de Wyke (fn. 34) Joan Dame La Warre. d. J. de Claydon
oc. 1390 Thomas Lord La Warre (fn. 35)
25 Nov. 1422 John Huntington, B. Decr. (fn. 36) T. La Warre res. T. La Warre
1459 Roger Radcliffe, LL.D. (fn. 37)
12 Dec. 1459 John Booth (fn. 38) Lord La Warre, &c. exch. R. Radcliffe
9 Nov. 1465 Ralph Langley (fn. 39) R. Hatfield, &c. prom. Bp. Booth
27 July 1481 James Stanley (fn. 40) T. Lord La Warre exch. R. Langley
22 July 1485 James Stanley (fn. 41) " d. J. Stanley
29 Oct. 1506 Robert Cliffe, LL.B. (fn. 42) The King prom. Bp. Stanley
29 July 1516 George West (fn. 43) Sir T. West d. R. Cliffe
2 Oct. 1528 George Collier, M.A. (fn. 44) Lord La Warre res. Geo. West
c. 1558 Lawrence Vaux, B.D. (fn. 45)
1560 William Birch, M.A. (fn. 46) The Queen
1562 Thomas Herle, B.D. (fn. 47) "
1578 John Wolton, B.D. (fn. 48) The Queen
1579 William Chadderton, D.D. (fn. 49) " prom. Bp. Wolton
1595 John Dee, D.Math. (fn. 50) " trans. Bp. Chadderton
1609 Richard Murray, D.D (fn. 51) The King d. Dr. Dee
1635 Richard Heyrick, B.D. (fn. 52) " dep. Dr. Murray
29 Aug. 1667 Nicholas Stratford, D.D. (fn. 53) The King d. R. Heyrick
1 May, 1684 Richard Wroe, D.D. (fn. 54) " res. N. Stratford
1718 Samuel Peploe, B.D. (fn. 55) " d. R. Wroe
25 Oct. 1738 Samuel Peploe, D.C.L. (fn. 56) " res. Bp. Peploe
7 March 1782 Richard Assheton, D.D. (fn. 57) " d. S. Peploe
12 July 1800 Thomas Blackburne, D.C.L. (fn. 58) " d. R. Assheton
8 March 1823 Thomas Calvert, D.D. (fn. 59) " d. T. Blackburne
10 July 1840 Hon. William Herbert, D.D. (fn. 60) The Queen d. T. Calvert
July 1847 George Hull Bowers, D.D. (fn. 61) " d. W. Herbert
7 Dec. 1872 Benjamin Morgan Cowie, D.D. (fn. 62) " res. G. H. Bowers
30 April 1884 John Oakley, D.D. (fn. 63) " prom. B. M. Cowie
28 Oct. 1890 Edward Craig Maclure, D.D. (fn. 64) " d. J. Oakley
25 July 1906 James Edward Cowell Welldon, D.D. (fn. 65) The King d. E. C. Maclure

The cathedral staff consists of the dean, four residentiary canons, who have rectories within the parish, and undertake the duties of the sub-dean, bursar, collector of rents, and registrar; twenty-four honorary canons and two minor canons, assisted by two clerks in orders, of whom one acts as precentor. (fn. 66)

Of the fellows and canons no account is given in this place, but as many of them were beneficed in the county, they are not altogether unnoticed.

The earlier rectors were often men of distinction, but pluralists and non-resident. It was to remedy this abuse that the college was founded, and to some extent it met the necessities of the case. The various chantries also helped to maintain an adequate supply of clergy; in particular, the foundation of Richard Bexwick for priests and schoolmaster in the Jesus chapel was made with this intention. (fn. 67) The first college possessed a library, which seems to have perished with it; (fn. 68) but another was in 1653 founded in the Jesus chapel and maintained by the town. (fn. 69) Just before the destruction of the college there appear to have been the warden, five priests, and four deacons on the foundation, 'all resident and observing their statutes'; also two curates, six chantry priests, and a fluctuating number of others—fifteen or more—who had casual offices or served the outlying chapelries. Thus for a population estimated at 6,000 'houseling people,' there were over thirty priests available. The church was decently furnished with plate, vestments, and other ornaments. (fn. 70)

The simultaneous abolition of college and chantries and the confiscation of the endowments made a vast difference. It is not exactly known how the Edwardine services were conducted, or what payments were made to the ministers. (fn. 71) In the Visitation list of 1548 twenty-two names appeared; ten of them reappeared in 1554, when six new names were added, two being those of the 'curates'—Ralph Birch and Hugh Ormishaw. In 1563 Thomas Herle, the warden, headed the list; he had two curates—Robert Prestwich and Edward Holt; five of the chapels of ease had curates in charge; there were four other names, two of which were soon erased, and another was described as 'decrepit.' The number of clergy therefore had been reduced to twelve, nine being effective. In the list of 1565 only those on the foundation were recorded—the warden, four chaplains, four deacons, and four (lay) choristers. The omission of any notice of the chapels of ease was perhaps a fault of the registrar's clerk; but it seems clear that the Pre-Reformation staff of thirty to thirty-four had been reduced to a dozen or less. Only two of the clergy of 1548 appear in the 1565 list, but some of the chapels of ease, if just then in use, may have retained the former curates. (fn. 72)

Though the gentry held, for a time at least, to the old ways, and though such wardens as Collier and Vaux were in life and doctrine an instructive contrast to their successors, (fn. 73) the people of the district rapidly accepted Protestantism, and that in its more pro nounced forms. The preaching of John Bradford may have had something to do with the change, though he was so little satisfied that he warned his audiences that 'because they did not readily embrace the Word of God, the Mass should again be said in that church, and the play of Robin Hood acted there.' (fn. 74) His letters and George Marsh's show that there were a certain number of resolute Protestants in the town in Mary's reign, (fn. 75) and some are stated to have been imprisoned in the college. (fn. 76)

The refoundation of the college by Queen Elizabeth gave the church a respectable body of Calvinistic divines, (fn. 77) but the wardenships of Dee and Murray again proved disastrous. One of the fellows, however, William Bourne, acquired a dominating position in the town; 'This is Mr. Bourne's judgement,' was sufficient for the people. (fn. 78) It is not surprising to learn that two of the chaplains in 1591 administered the sacrament without a surplice and that other irregularities were allowed; many of the people, it seems, preferred the churchyard to the church at sermontime. (fn. 79) The growing influence of Puritanism is seen in the stricter Sunday observance. (fn. 80) The new foundation of Charles I had no perceptible effect in neutralizing its prevalence. (fn. 81)

Under the Presbyterian discipline established in 1646 Manchester became the head of a classis, which included also the adjoining parishes of Ashton, Eccles, Flixton, and Prestwich-with-Oldham. (fn. 82) Four years later there seems to have been a regular staff of twelve ministers in the parish, of whom three were at the parish church and the others at the various chapels. (fn. 83) Just before the Restoration Richard Heyrick, Henry Newcome, and Joshua Stopford were in charge. (fn. 84)

After 1660 a tone a little more High Church gradually prevailed, so that by the end of the 17th century the clergy were strongly Jacobite, and remained so until after 1745. Bishop Gastrell about 1717 found that the warden and four fellows supplied all the turns of preaching, and the two chaplains read prayers and did all the other duty of the whole parish, receiving the surplice fees; a 'cathedral service' was performed by the four singing men, four choristers, and organist. (fn. 85) At this time and afterwards the building of new churches and the growth of Nonconformist congregations continually diminished the importance of the collegiate clergy; while the great increase of their wealth rendered a change of its distribution desirable, and this was effected in the least injurious mode by several Acts of Parliament. (fn. 86) From 1854 the various district chapelries have become independent parishes, the incumbents having the title of rector.

As might be expected from the importance of the place there were a number of chantry endowments, of which particulars are given in the record of their confiscation in 1547. The curates, i.e. the two fellows or chaplains who served the parish, had in addition to their college stipend the profits of the 'Obit lands,' given at various times by a number of benefactors, being in return bound to celebrate certain obits yearly for the souls of the donors. The rents amounted to 102s. 11½d. (fn. 87)

The chantry of St. James, founded by Ralph Hulme in 1507 from lands left by the first warden, John Huntington, had a clear income of £6 1s. 8d. (fn. 88) The 'new chapel' of St. John Baptist—later known as the Stanley or Derby chapel—begun by James Stanley, Bishop of Ely and formerly warden, and completed by his son Sir John Stanley, had an endowment of £4 2s. 8d. (fn. 89) This chapel, which has the small Ely chapel at its north-east corner, was used as the baptistry a century ago. The Trafford chapel or 'closet of St. Nicholas' had a chantry founded, it was believed, by Robert Grelley—possibly the lord of Allerton and Chorlton, living in the 14th century; the clear income was £5 9s. 7d. (fn. 90) In the same chapel was another chantry founded by the ancestors of Sir Edmund Trafford, the incumbent being known as 'the Lady priest'; the endowment being very small, 65s. net, the parishioners contributed a quantity of oats for him. (fn. 91) At St. George's altar there were two chantries, both founded by Robert Chetham; at one of them the priest was to celebrate Mass at six o'clock in the morning for the souls of the founder and his ancestors; the net endowment of this chantry was £6 2s. 7d., (fn. 92) and that of the second £5 0s. 8d. (fn. 93) Another chantry was that founded by William Radcliffe at the altar of the Trinity, with a net income of £5 3s. 2d. (fn. 94)

An important foundation, already mentioned, was that of Richard Bexwick at the Jesus altar. His intentions do not seem to have been carried out fully, but in 1547 two priests, one of them teaching a school, were maintained. (fn. 95)

There were gilds associated with the Jesus and St. George's chapels; (fn. 96) also a gild of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which may have been associated with the Lady chapel. (fn. 97) This chapel was at the east end of the church, (fn. 98) and there was an altar of St. Michael, probably at the east end of the south aisle of the quire. (fn. 99) The chapel of Salford Bridge does not appear to have had any special chaplain or endowment.

The grammar school, founded by Hugh Oldham in 1515, (fn. 100) and Chetham's Hospital and Library, founded under the will of Humphrey Chetham, who died in 1653, are described elsewhere.


Apart from the grammar school there does not seem to have been any endowed charity for the whole parish, but several of the townships have valuable estates. An inquiry was held in 1904, but it concerned only those portions of the parish which are outside the boroughs of Manchester and Salford, so that the latest detailed official report is that of 1826, in which year the following were the existing charitable endowments, apart from schools, (fn. 101) some of the funds having been lost. (fn. 102) For Manchester the charities of George Clarke, (fn. 103) George Marshall, (fn. 104) Ellen Shuttleworth, (fn. 105) Thomas Hudson, (fn. 106) Henry Dickenson, (fn. 107) John Alexander and Joshua Brown, (fn. 108) Thomas Percival, (fn. 109) Joseph Champion, (fn. 110) James Moss, (fn. 111) Walter and Margaret Nugent, (fn. 112) Edward Mayes, (fn. 113) Richard Holland and others, (fn. 114) Nicholas Hartley, (fn. 115) Ellen Hartley, (fn. 116) John Partington, (fn. 117) Robert Sutton, (fn. 118) Thomas Minshull, (fn. 119) Humphrey Oldfield, (fn. 120) Francis Cartwright, (fn. 121) Catherine Richards, (fn. 122) Jane Corles, (fn. 123) Roger Sedgwick, (fn. 124) Elizabeth Scholes, (fn. 125) Ann Butterworth and Daniel Bayley, (fn. 126) Meriel Mosley and others, (fn. 127) Daniel Shelmerdine, (fn. 128) Ellen Nicholson, (fn. 129) Catherine Fisher, (fn. 130) James Clayton, (fn. 131) Sarah Brearcliffe, (fn. 132) Thomas Henshaw; (fn. 133) for Blackley —Adam Chetham, (fn. 134) Thomas and John Traves; (fn. 135) for Didsbury, &c.—Sir Edward Mosley, (fn. 136) Thomas Chorlton, (fn. 137) Sergeant Boardman, (fn. 138) Ann Bland and Thomas Linney, (fn. 139) Edward Hampson; (fn. 140) and for Salford—Humphrey Booth the elder, (fn. 141) his grandson Humphrey Booth the younger, (fn. 142) Charles Broster, (fn. 143) Charles Haworth, (fn. 144) Robert Cuthbertson, (fn. 145) George Buerdsell, (fn. 146) Thomas Dickanson, (fn. 147) John Caldwell, (fn. 148) Alexander and Mary Davie, (fn. 149) and Samuel Haward. (fn. 150) The partial report of 1904 shows that many of the above stocks are still available, and that some new ones have been added; these were, excluding church (fn. 151) and educational and recreative endowments, (fn. 152) as follows:—For Didsbury—Sarah Feilden, for the poor; (fn. 153) for Heaton Norris—Sir Ralph Pendlebury, stocks producing £4,722 a year for children of this and some other townships, (fn. 154) Rev. Stephen Hooper, (fn. 155) Thomas Thorniley, (fn. 156) and Albert Edward Nuttall; (fn. 157) for Stretford—Emma Bate. (fn. 158)

Among the more recent endowments (fn. 159) for Manchester and Salford are those of William Smith for various hospitals, (fn. 160) Isabella Catherine Denby for orphan daughters of tradesmen, (fn. 161) the Barnes Samaritan Fund with an income of £2,624 for medical relief and nursing, (fn. 162) John and Emma Galloway for relief of the poor of Hulme, (fn. 163) George Pilkington £417 a year for bedding and clothing, (fn. 164) Thomas Porter, £3,500 a year for outfits of orphans, (fn. 165) and the Westwood almshouses. (fn. 166) There are some further endowments for education, (fn. 167) and some smaller benefactions. (fn. 168)


  • 1. V.C.H. Lancs. i, 287. A speculation as to a possible change of site may be read in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxiii, 96–7.
  • 2. W. Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 331.
  • 3. Jordan, Dean of Manchester, occurs in 1177, when he was fined for some offence against the forest laws; ibid. 38. In 1193–4 he rendered account of £20 'for the service of Count John'; ibid. 78, 92, 97. Geoffrey, Dean of Manchester, attested a Grelley deed about 1200; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xvii, 42. G. Dean of Manchester, perhaps the same, occurs about 1240; Whalley Coucher (Chet. Soc.), ii, 601. See also Booker, Birch (Chet. Soc.), 231. Randle, the dean in 1294, was witness to a grant of land in Ancoats; Trafford deed quoted by Canon Raines. He was no doubt the same as Randle de Welhum, dean; Booker, Prestwich, 250.
  • 4. William Knight, archdeacon of Chester, held the deanery in 1534; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 224. In later times (it has been asserted) the dean's office was annexed to the rectory or wardenship, because the charter of Charles I speaks of the wardens as 'installed into the wardenship or deanship of that church.' In 1594, however, the rural dean was Thomas Richardson, and Bishop Bridgeman (between 1619 and 1636) reserved the deaneries of Manchester and Amounderness as preferments for his chaplains; Dansey, Horae Decanicae Rurales, ii, 375, 381.
  • 5. Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 57. The gift was made between 1154 and 1162 and was in free alms.
  • 6. Ibid. 249, 250.
  • 7. Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249.
  • 8. Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39. The details are thus recorded: Manchester, 22 marks; Salford with Broughton, 52s.; Cheetham, 10s.; Hulme by Manchester, 10s.; Chorlton, 10s.; Stretford, 46s. 8d.; Reddish, 52s. 4d. These sums, however, amount to less than 35 marks.
  • 9. The list of rectors and wardens gives evidence of this. Thomas West, Lord La Warre, died in 1554 seised of the manor of Manchester and the advowson of the church; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. The Crown seems to have exercised the patronage from the refounding of the college in 1557, and expressly claimed it in the charters of Elizabeth and of Charles I.
  • 10. Half a century ago it was supposed that the nave was the representative of the old parochial church of St. Mary, while the chancel was the new collegiate church.
  • 11. The ancient rectory house is supposed to have been in Deansgate, on the church land there.
  • 12. The erection of the college, with the appropriation of the rectory, is recorded in the Lichfield Epis. Registers, Heyworth, x, fol. 61. See also V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 167. Before the change was made the parishioners were summoned and gave their consent; Hollinworth, Mancuniensis, 40, 41. The king's licence (printed in Hibbert-Ware, Foundations, i, 38–40) was granted on 22 May 1421; and the Bishop of Lichfield's decree is dated 5 August 1421. On 9 May 1422 the rector-patron paid 200 marks for the royal licence to appropriate the rectorial tithes and possessions to the endowment of the new college; Raines, Wardens (Chet. Soc.), 13, 14. The pope's confirmation was obtained in 1426; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxiv, 11–20. All the members of the foundation were required to reside and keep hospitality. Two of the priests were to serve the parish, and all the rest were bound to keep the choir daily; Raines, Chant. (Chet. Soc.), i, 8.
  • 13. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 224. The site of the college was valued at 30s. a year. A rent resolute of 18d. was due to Lord La Warre for certain of the estates in Manchester; fees of £4 and £5 were paid to the seneschal and bailiff; and £2, £1, and £1 respectively were paid to the bishop and archdeacon of Chester and to Lichfield Cathedral.
  • 14. Edward was in this carrying out his father's designs. The college building, now Chetham's Hospital, was granted to the Earl of Derby, and other grants were probably made. The warden and fellows received pensions.
  • 15. Pat. 3 & 4 Phil. and Mary, pt. 11, 15 July 1557. George Collier was appointed warden or master, John Cuppage and Lawrence Vaux chaplains, and they were to choose the six other priests who were to be their fellow chaplains.
  • 16. By an Act passed in the first year of her reign.
  • 17. The charter is printed in HibbertWare's Manch. Foundations, i, 89–99. It recites that the college 'is deemed in the judgment of divers to be quite dissolved and so come into our hands, or else is not so effectually ratified and confirmed in all points as were to be wished.' Mary simply restored the old foundation; but Elizabeth reduced the staff of fellows and choristers, perhaps on account of the waste of revenues which had gone on. A vacant fellowship was to be filled by the election of the warden and surviving fellows. A notice of the tithe corn book of 1584 is given in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 170.
  • 18. The warden was, however, allowed three months' absence each year, without loss of revenue, and each fellow fifteen days each quarter.
  • 19. Hibbert-Ware, op. cit. i, 152–67, 402–12. The stipends were thus fixed: Warden £70, each fellow £35, chaplain £17 10s. and other accustomed profits, lay-clerk £10, and singing boy £5; to be increased or diminished according to the revenue. Residence was required, and fines were fixed for absence or neglect of duty. A number of interesting letters from Richard Johnson, one of the fellows, relating to the new charter, are printed in the Life of Humphrey Chetham (Chet. Soc.), 45–70.
  • 20. This was done under the Act suppressing deans and chapters, but its legality was questioned at the time. In 1649 'the chapterhouse door and the college chest were broke open and the college deeds were seized on by some soldiers and sent up to London'; Hollinworth, Mancuniensis, 123.
  • 21. See V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 96. The Act was 10 & 11 Vict. cap. 108. A preliminary Act was passed in 1840 (3 & 4 Vict. cap. 113), which sanctioned the proposals of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, made in 1838 (published in the Lond. Gaz. 25 Jan. 1839), for the creation of the see and the conversion of the church into a cathedral with dean and chapter.
  • 22. Commonwealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 4.
  • 23. A balance sheet of the account of the chapter estates is printed in the Manchester Diocesan Dir. The gross income is about £45,000, of which £1,400 is from the tithe rent charges, and over £34,000 from rents of lands. The expenses of management, taxes, &c., absorb over £5,000; the dean and canons £4,400; and the church services nearly £2,000; some £30,000 remaining for the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.
  • 24. Accounts of the wardens and fellows of Manchester have been compiled by the late Canon Raines, and printed by the Chetham Society (new ser. v, vi, xxi, xxiii). Of these full use has been made in the following notes. The confusion of Mancetter and Manchester has led to some errors both in Canon Raines's work and in the Cal. of Papal Letters.
  • 25. Lancs. Pipe R. 331. He is supposed to have acted as Robert Grelley's seneschal; ibid. 171. He granted to John de Byron a certain part of his land in the vill of Newton at a rent of £3 4s. and two wax candles of one pound each at the Assumption; Raines, Wardens, 4, quoting a Trafford deed.
  • 26. Pope Nicholas IV granted him, at the king's request, he being treasurer, a dispensation to hold Manchester and six other benefices, as well as the deanery of St. Martin's le Grand, and canonries in Salisbury, Chichester, and Wells, though he was only a subdeacon; he resigned one benefice, and was to resign others; Cal. of Papal Letters, i, 530. In 1293 he became Bishop of Bath and Wells, and died in 1302; Le Neve, Fasti (ed. Hardy), i, 135. He was much venerated, and miracles were said to be wrought at his tomb; Dict. Nat. Biog. In 1292 the Abbot of Merivale sued Hugh de Stanstead, rector of 'Manecestre,' for a debt; De Banco R. 92, m. 94. This was perhaps Mancetter.
  • 27. Bishop of Lichfield 1296 to 1321; Le Neve, op. cit. i, 549. In 1295 Boni face VIII at the king's request allowed his clerk Walter de Langton, deacon, papal chaplain, to hold a number of benefices and canonries, resigning some and accepting Manchester among others; Cal. of Papal Letters, i, 559. There is a notice of him in Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 28. In 1299 W. Bishop of Lichfield and formerly rector of Manchester agreed with William de Gringley, rector of Marnham, and the other farmers of the church of Manchester concerning moneys due to him, amounting to over £40; also 6s. which the Dean of Manchester received during the time of vacancy, and 10s. 6d. which the farmer of William Sygyn, rector in 1299, had received; Lich. Epis. Reg. Langton, i, fol. 4. The king presented his clerk Master William Segini del God to the rectory in 1296; Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 190. In 1297 the pope allowed his chaplain Master William Siguin to hold the rectory of Manchester, having resigned a benefice in Agen (France), and having canonries and prebends there and in Wells and Howden; he had been under age when first beneficed; Cal. of Papal Letters, i, 572.
  • 29. Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 4b, 8b.; on the day of his institution he had leave to be absent at the schools for two years, and a few months afterwards (29 Mar. 1300) the time was extended to five years. It is probable, therefore, that he never saw Manchester. Thomas Grelley, the lord of Manchester, was a minor in 1299, so that the king presented, as in the preceding vacancies; Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 440. In 1301 the pope made provision, at the request of Otho de Grandison, to his nephew Otho of a canonry and prebend of York, notwithstanding that he held canonries and prebends of Lausanne and Autun, the church of Manchester, and two others which he was to resign; Cal. of Papal Letters, i, 594. In the same year Otho was a clerk at Cambridge, and he and his men were the victims of an assault; Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 629. In 1304 he had the king's licence to go beyond the seas (ibid. 1301–7, p. 217), and does not seem to have returned to Manchester.
  • 30. The custody of the church (in sequestration) was granted on 31 Mar. 1306 to Geoffrey de Stokes, one of the king's clerks, and a fortnight later he was instituted to the rectory; Lich. Epis. Reg. Langton, i, fol. 10b. The reason for the sequestration is not expressed. Geoffrey de Stokes was rector of Gransden, Cambridge, in 1302, and resigned Wotton for Brightwell in 1304; Cal. Pat. 1301–7, pp. 63, 304.
  • 31. Lich. Epis. Reg. Langton, i, fol. 60b; he was a priest. In the survey of 1322 it is recorded that John de Everdon was rector, and in possession of the endowment, valued at 200 marks a year, consisting of eight burgages in Manchester, the vills of Newton, Kirkmanshulme, and appurtenances; Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), ii, 378. He held a prebend at St. Paul's and became dean in 1323; he died 15 Jan. 1336–7; Le Neve, op. cit. ii, 417, 311. He had held other benefices and canonries before coming to Manchester; Cal. of Papal Letters, ii, 23, &c.; Le Neve, op. cit. i, 586, 418.
  • 32. Lich. Epis. Reg. Northburgh, ii, fol. 99b; he was a clerk. He was rector of Rostherne in Cheshire from 1319 to 1323; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 437. He died 31 July 1327.
  • 33. Lich. Epis. Reg. Northburgh, ii, fol. 102; a priest. In June 1344 he had leave of absence for fifteen months; ibid, ii, fol. 11. He attested several local deeds; see Raines, Wardens, 8. He was rector of Swineshead in 1327; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 156b. Probably he resigned it for Manchester. In 1330 John XXII granted him the provision of a canonry at St. Paul's, with reservation of a prebend; Cal. of Papal Letters, ii, 321; Le Neve, op. cit. ii, 407. From a plea in the following year it appears he had owed £130 to John son of Roger La Warre; De Banco R. 286, m. 28d.
  • 34. Lich. Epis. Reg. Northburgh, ii, fol. 129; a chaplain. In the following January, being described as priest, he received leave of absence for study; ibid. ii, fol. 12b. He obtained leave of absence for a year or two at various later dates—1355, 1361, 1362, 1365, 1371, and 1380; ibid. ii, fol. 14b; v, fol. 7b, 9b, 24b, 33b; Raines, (op. cit. 10) records a similar licence in 1357, so that Wyke's residence at Manchester was but intermittent. In 1368 he had leave to absolve his parishioners until Easter, and to choose a confessor for two years; Lich. Epis. Reg. Stretton, ii, fol. 19. He is sometimes called 'the elder' to distinguish him from Thomas de Wyke the younger, rector of the adjoining parish of Ashton from 1362 to 1371.
  • 35. The date of his institution has not been discovered, but was probably about 1390; he had the bishop's leave of absence for two years, the church being let to farm; Lich. Epis. Reg. Scrope, vi, fol. 125b. He succeeded to the lordship of Manchester in 1398 on the death of his brother John, being then 'over forty years' of age; Inq. p.m. 22 Ric. II, no. 53. In 1363, being 'in his twentyfirst year,' he obtained the papal dispensation to be ordained priest and hold a benefice; Cal. of Papal Letters, iv, 31. From 1371 to 1373 he was rector of Ashtonunder-Lyne; he held a canonry at Lincoln from 1376 till his death in 1427, others at York from 1381 to 1397 and 1407 to 1427, at Southwell 1397; Le Neve, Fasti, ii, 161, 158; iii, 191, 209, 450. He was also rector of Swineshead in Lincolnshire in 1423; Raines, Wardens, 15. In 1390 Boniface IX, in consideration of his noble birth and at the request of Richard II, granted him a dispensation to hold another benefice with cure, he then having, in addition to the rectory of Manchester, the free chapel of Barthorpe in Lincolnshire and canonries at Lincoln and York; Cal. of Papal Letters, iv, 356. He resigned the rectory of Manchester in order that the college he founded in its place might begin its work without incumbrance. He would then be nearly eighty years of age.
  • 36. Lich. Epis. Reg. Heyworth, ix, fol. 112; on 23 Nov. 1422, at the manor of Swineshead, Thomas La Warre presented Mr. John Huntington to be instituted to the wardenship of the collegiate church of Manchester, viz. of one college, with master or warden, chaplain, and eight fellow chaplains, four clerks, and six choristers; two days later Huntington was admitted, all episcopal rights and customs and the pension of 40s. being reserved. The new warden, who was rector of Ashton, resided in Manchester; his great work was the building of the quire of the church. He was buried in this part of the building. His life is told by Raines, op. cit. 16–23. He died 11 Nov. 1458, and by will of 1454 left his lands in Manchester and Salford towards the building of the new work of the chancel of the church of our Lady of Manchester by him begun. His Chesterfield property he left to his kinswoman Elizabeth Barret. The testator's directions were not carried out fully, for lands in Nether Alport came into the possession of the Hulme family, and it was not until 1507 that a settlement was made by arbitration. The feoffees were then directed to receive £5 a year for a chantry priest to be nominated by Ralph Hulme and his heirs, to pray for the souls of John Huntington and others. The warden also acquired land in Hanging Ditch for an almshouse, but his intention was not fulfilled. Warden Huntington's last will is printed in Wills (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 17, and Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. iii, 144. For his memorial brass still remaining, see ibid. ii, 92. During his wardenship there was a stormy incident. One of the clerks, Thomas Barbour, had given offence to the Booths and others, who attempted his arrest in church. The people protecting him, the Booths summoned Sir John Byron and others of the gentry, who with their men to the number of 500, all armed, laid siege to the warden's house. The clergy dare not enter the church, which remained closed. See the warden's petition in Manch. Fellows (Chet. Soc.), 14.
  • 37. There is no record of this warden's appointment, but on 22 Feb. 1458–9 a writ was issued to allow Sir Richard West to present to the church; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 177. Dr. Radcliffe was Canon of York in 1456 and of St. Paul's in 1458, Archdeacon of Sarum in 1465, and Dean of St. Paul's in 1468, holding these dignities till his death in 1471; Le Neve, op. cit. iii, 203; ii, 383, 625, 313.
  • 38. Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. 97, 97b; an exchange was made by which Roger Radcliffe became rector of Adbolton, John Booth resigning. The patrons of Manchester were Sir Richard West Lord La Warre (lord of Manchester), and Thomas Uvedale, John Whittokesmede, Richard Cooke, and Thomas Baille, feoffees of the lordship to the use of Lord La Warre. For the patronage at this time see Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 177. John Booth son of Sir Robert Booth of Dunham, who had been rector of Leigh, held many ecclesiastical dignities, finally becoming Bishop of Exeter, 1465 to 1478; Le Neve, Fasti, i, 376, &c.
  • 39. Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. 102; the patrons for that turn were Richard Hatfield and Nicholas Statham, by grant of Lord La Warre and the feoffees named in the last note. Ralph Langley was also rector of Prestwich, 1445 to 1493. He is said to have given the first chimes to Manchester Church. He had a dispute with his predecessor in respect of certain goods claimed by the bishop; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 34, m. 30.
  • 40. Lich Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. 113b; Warden Langley took the prebend in St. Paul's vacated by James Stanley, who had held it since 1458. The new warden was also Archdeacon of Chester, 1478 to 1485, and held the family rectory of Winwick; see Le Neve, op. cit.
  • 41. Lich. Epis. Reg. Hales, xii, fol. 120; he was a clerk. He became rector of Winwick in 1493, and was also rector of Walton on the Hill and Rostherne; he was Dean of St. Martin's le Grand, and Archdeacon of Richmond (1500); he became Bishop of Ely in 1506, and died in 1515. In the Stanley family poem he is called 'a proper man,' but regret is expressed that he became a priest instead of a soldier, not having the gift of continence. His illegitimate son, Sir John Stanley of Hanford in Cheshire, was a soldier of distinction, and became a monk at Westminster; Earwaker, East. Ches. i, 245–50. The bishop was fond of cockfighting down to the later years of his life; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 63. For a defence of his character see the Rev. E. F. Letts in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vi, 161, &c. He died at Manchester and was buried there; his memorial brass remains in the cathedral. There are notices of him in Dict. Nat. Biog. and Cooper, Athen. Cantab. i, 16.
  • 42. Lich. Epis. Reg. Blyth, xiii–xiv, fol. 55; the king presented because the patron had not then taken livery of his lands. Robert Cliffe had in 1496 studied the civil law at Oxford and Cambridge for eight years; Grace Bk. B. (Luard Mem.), 99. He had been rector of Winwick from 1485 to 1493, and after leaving Manchester held benefices in Cambridgeshire; see Cooper, Athen. Cantab. i, 66, 67, for his later career. The Lichfield registers state that the wardenship was vacated by his death, but this appears to be an error, as letters from him written at Cambridge are printed in Raines, Wardens, 47–50; they are endorsed 'Mr. Warden's letters about the tithe of the Moor, 11 Hen. VIII,' and speak of an approaching meeting of Parliament. The endorsement may be erroneous, as Parliament did not meet in 1520. He was adverse to the king's divorce from Queen Katherine; Cooper, Ann. of Camb. i, 338 (quoting Burnet's Records, I, ii, no. 22).
  • 43. Lich. Epis. Reg. Blyth, xiii–xiv, fol. 59b. George West was probably a child at his appointment, and is not even described as 'clerk.' After his father's death (1525) he appears to have refused to proceed to holy orders, gave up the wardenship in 1528, married and became the ancestor of the Earls De La Warr, and was made a knight in 1533. He had also the church of Shepton Mallet, which he resigned at the same time as Manchester; L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, 2119. He died in 1538; see Raines, op. cit. 52–5; Collins, Peerage (ed. 1779), v, 390.
  • 44. Lich. Epis. Reg. Blyth, xiii–xiv, fol. 64b. George Collier was M.A. at Oxford 1510, and perhaps rector of Wickwar, Gloucestershire, before 1535; Foster, Alumni Oxon.; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), ii, 492. He was warden when the college was dissolved in 1547, and retired into Staffordshire during the reign of Edward VI, being an adherent of the ancient faith; he returned to Manchester in the next reign, and died there. Tradition described him as a man 'of great bounty and hospitality'; Raines, op. cit. 55–62. At the beginning of 1555 he was one of those deputed to persuade John Bradford to recant; Foxe, Acts and Monuments (ed. Cattley), vii, 182. In August 1556, before the formal restoration of the college, he described himself as warden in granting probate of a will at Manchester; Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 149. His granting probate shows that he was Dean of Manchester. The inventory taken after his death is dated 12 July 1558; he had property at Stone in Staffordshire, and Robert Collier of Darlaston owed him £42; Wills (Chet. Soc. new. ser.), i, 18–22.
  • 45. No payment of first-fruits is recorded. A full biography is prefixed to Mr. T. G. Law's edition of his Catechism (Chet. Soc. new ser. iv). Vaux or Vause was of the Blackrod family of the name, and born about 1520; educated at Manchester and Oxford; B.D. (Corpus Christi College) 1556; and made fellow of Manchester College. His career during the reign of Edward VI is unrecorded, but as an adherent of the old religion he probably retired into private life like the warden. The tradition of the next century allowed him to have been 'a man well beloved and highly honoured by many in Manchester, yea by the generality; and this was one reason why many thereabout were lother to be reclaimed from Popery than about Rochdale'; Hollinworth, Mancuniensis, 81. On learning the changes made by Elizabeth, Vaux at once made up his mind, consigned the muniments of the college and part of the plate to Alexander Barlow and Edward Standish of Standish, and left Manchester. After a short time he escaped to Louvain, but returned secretly to England in 1565 and ministered in Lancashire for a short time, publishing the papal prohibition of attendance at the statutory services. He was again at Louvain in 1567, and in 1572 became a canon regular in St. Martin's there. In 1580 he was sent by the pope into England, but was captured at Rochester. He was examined by the Bishop of London and committed to the Gatehouse Prison at Westminster, where he was in 1583 described as 'an old massing priest, a Lancashire man born.' He was afterwards removed to the Clink in Southwark, and probably died there in 1585; there was a story current that he had been starved to death, and he is therefore sometimes called a martyr. His Catechism was published in 1567, and reissued frequently; and he wrote some other works. See further in Wood, Athenae; Raines, Wardens, 62–70; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Catholics, v, 565; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 364; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. iii, 184.
  • 46. He paid first-fruits 22 Aug. 1560; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 409. He was of St. John's College, Cambridge, and then fellow of Corpus Christi, 1548; a Protestant, ordained by Bishop Ridley, he had a licence to preach throughout the kingdom from Edward VI in 1552, but retired into private life or went abroad in Mary's reign. Reappearing on the accession of Elizabeth he was presented to Gateshead and Manchester: the latter benefice, however, he quickly resigned, being unwilling, it is said, to agree to its spoliation. He died in 1575, being then rector of Stanhope in Durham; Raines, op. cit. 70–5, where his will is given; and 193; also Cooper, Athen. Cantab. i, 562.
  • 47. First-fruits paid 27 May 1562; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. ii, 409. He was a Cambridge man, and seems to have been appointed fellow of Manchester at the beginning of 1559, being made a canon of Worcester in 1561. He was a typical dignitary of the time, alienating the estates of his church for the benefit of those in power or his own family; a lease made by him to the queen in 1576 was specially mentioned in Elizabeth's charter. Archbishop Parker in 1566 recommended him as 'a grave, priestly man,' for promotion to the bishopric of Bangor. In the same year Herle complained that some of his difficulties in collecting tithes came from the action of Lawrence Vaux—deprived (he said) 'for Papistry and holding of most erroneous opinions against the Catholic faith'—in giving the college deeds into the custody of Alexander Barlow. One result was a 'great hindrance to the true, sincere, and Catholic religion,' because the warden and fellows were not able to pay preachers who might teach the people 'their duties towards God and the Queen's most excellent Majesty'; Vaux, Catechism (ed. Law), 19, 20 (introd.). Herle had to resign, or was deprived, in order to allow the refounding of the college in 1578. He died nine years later, holding canonries at Worcester and Chester, and the vicarage of Bromsgrove; Raines, op cit. 75–84, where various particulars of his leases and grants are given.
  • 48. He was appointed warden under the new charter, and was next year advanced to the bishopric of Exeter, so that his tenure was brief, and he probably did not reside. He was born in Whalley and sent up to Oxford (B.A. 1555), but fled to the Continent to join the Protestant exiles. Returning on the death of Mary, he was made canon of Exeter in 1560 and rector of Spaxton in 1563. As Bishop of Exeter he actively persecuted the adherents of the ancient faith—to whom his own son joined himself—as well as the more extravagant Protestant sects, the Family of Love and others, showing himself a zealous servant of the queen. He died in 1594. He published several works, one of which was reprinted by the Parker Society. See Raines, op. cit. 84–8; Wood, Athenae; Dict. Nat. Biog.; F. O. White, Eliz. Bishops, 259–63.
  • 49. He was the son of Edmund Chadderton of Nuthurst; educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, and became fellow of Christ's College, Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, and Master of Queens' College. He was a Protestant of the Puritan type, being chaplain to the Earl of Leicester in 1568. In the same year he became Archdeacon of York, and in 1579 was made Bishop of Chester, the wardenship of Manchester being added in commendam. He was a bitter persecutor of the adherents of the ancient religion, and being placed on the Ecclesiastical Commission for the North, resided at Manchester as a convenient centre for directing operations. He actively encouraged the Puritan preaching-exercises in the Manchester district, but on his removal to the see of Lincoln in 1595 he was obliged by the queen to repress them there. He died in 1608. Hollinworth (op. cit. 89) calls him 'a learned man and liberal, given to hospitality, and a more frequent preacher and baptiser than other bishops of his time; he was resident in Manchester till the daily jarrings between his attendants and some inhabitants of the town, occasioned probably by pride and stiffness on one or both parts, occasioned him to remove his habitation to Chester.' See Raines, op. cit. 89–101; F. O. White, Eliz. Bishops, 264–69; Foley, Recs. S.J. ii, 117–30; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Cooper, Athen. Cantab. ii, 482. His portrait is given in Hibbert-Ware's Manch. Foundations, i, 101.
  • 50. Educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and Louvain, he acquired great fame as a mathematician and astronomer. He was one of the original fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1546, and received benefices in the time of Edward VI, proved himself orthodox to the satisfaction of Bishop Bonner, and held his benefices for thirty years, when he was deprived on an informality, having, as Canon Raines supposes, never resided on them, his ordination even being a matter of dispute; he was, however, called 'clerk' on his presentation to Manchester. He had a great library, and was addicted to the study of astrology and magic, to which he owes his popular celebrity; in this matter, if he imposed upon others, he was himself greatly deluded, as in his supposed transmutations of metals, and intercourse with spirits. In Lancashire, says Hollinworth (op. cit. 99, 100), he discouraged the practice of unlawful exorcism and rebuked a conjurer; 'he was very sober, just, temperate in his carriage, studious, yea an observer of public and private devotions,' but 'had the unhappiness to be much vexed by the turbulent fellows of the college.' He consequently removed to Mortlake, and died, after much suffering from poverty, in 1608. At Manchester he contrived to introduce the church organ in 1600. Some of his MSS. are in the Chetham Library. See Raines, op. cit. 101–10; Autobiographical Tracts of Dr. John Dee (Chet. Soc.); Dee's Diary (Camden Soc. and ed. J. E. Bailey); Dict. Nat. Biog.; Hollinworth, Mancuniensis, 96–100; Cooper, Athen. Cantab. ii, 497– 506. For a complaint as to the condition of the church under his wardenship see Pal. Note Bk. i, 45–8. After Dr. Dee's death the wardenship should have been given to one of the fellows of Elizabeth's foundation—William Bourne, B.D., of St. John's College, Cambridge. He was 'zealous against every error, especially against Popery; seldom or never did he ascend the pulpit but he struck at some Popish doctrine or practice before he came down. He dissented little or nothing from the discipline used in Scotland,' but thought some holy days should be observed. He was in great credit with the people, and did his best to procure ministers to every chapel in the parish. The promise made about the wardenship was broken, partly on account of his nonconformity and partly by the power of the Scottish party at court; Hollinworth, op. cit. 103–8. He was ordained without any subscription, appointed fellow about 1603, and died in 1643; see the account of him in Raines, Manch. Fellows (Chet. Soc.), 85–95.
  • 51. He was son of Sir Charles Murray of Cockpool, near Annan, and a courtier of James I, by whom he was promoted to a number of ecclesiastical benefices in England. Hollinworth (op. cit. 108–11) describes him as 'of honourable descent, competently learned, zealous for the dignity of his place as warden, but not laudable otherwise,' being 'a great pluralist,' and 'a mighty hunter of other ecclesiastical dignities and benefices,' Further, 'in his time the choir part of the church grew very ruinous; the revenues of the college were leased out by his means.' He refused, on receiving the wardenship, to take the oaths prescribed by the charter of foundation, and therefore was never legally warden, and this it was, together with his waste of the revenues of the college, that led to the granting of the new charter by Charles I, after inquiry by a special commission in 1635. Herein it is recited that the revenues had dwindled away, either 'by carelessness and absence, or covetousness of the warden and fellows'; that the church was in a dangerous condition; that the warden, having avoided taking the oath 'concerning the not receiving of any rents of the college, except for the days on which he was present,' was only a usurper, and had been removed from his place; and that the college itself 'truly had none or else a very uncertain foundation.' He was created a baronet in 1625, and died in 1636, without issue. See Raines, op. cit. 112– 22; G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, ii, 292.
  • 52. He was a first cousin of Robert Herrick the poet; born in 1601, educated at Merchant Taylors' School and at St. John's College, Oxford; M.A. 1622; elected fellow of All Souls' in 1624. The reversion of the wardenship of Manchester was purchased for him of the king by Sir William Heyrick, his father, in consideration of an advance of £8,000. He readily adopted Presbyterianism, led in establishing the Classis, took part in the Westminster Assembly of Divines, and promoted the intolerant 'Harmonious Consent' of 1648. During the suppression of the college £100 a year—raised to £120—was allowed to Warden Heyrick; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 106, 107; ii, 21. To Richard Hollinworth £104 was allowed; ibid. ii, 55, 76. Heyrick was not opposed to the monarchy, and on the Restoration professed his loyalty to Charles II, and was allowed to retain the wardenship without conformity, it being apparently regarded as a purchase from the Crown. He published several sermons. His library was valued at £160. See Raines, op. cit. 122–39; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Wood, Athenae; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vii, 134; xiii, 103; Crossley in Worthington's Diary (Chet. Soc.), ii. 237. There is a pedigree in Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 138. For epitaph see Hibbert-Ware, Manch. Foundations, i, 372. Had Heyrick been expelled from the wardenship in 1662 he would probably have been succeeded by Dr. Edward Wolley, a devoted Royalist, who had had a patent for the dignity from Charles I, and was afterwards appointed to the bishopric of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh; Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 1142.
  • 53. He was educated at Trinity College, Oxford, of which he became a fellow in the Commonwealth period; M.A. 1656; D.D. 1673. There is a portrait of him in Hibbert-Ware's Manch. Foundations, ii, 5. He conformed to episcopacy at the Restoration, and had various benefices and dignities, resigning Manchester on becoming vicar of St. Mary Aldermanbury in London. The strength of the Presbyterians in the Manchester district, and a troublesome lawsuit with the Trafford family regarding the tithes of Stretford, are thought to have influenced him in resigning. He adhered to the Whig party, and on the Revolution was made Bishop of Chester and Rector of Wigan. At Manchester he restored the use of the surplice, antiphonal singing by the choir, and the reception of the communion at the altar rails; 'he was very laborious and extraordinarily charitable, affable, and humble in his place, and generally beloved.' See Raines, op. cit. 139–47, where there is a list of his works; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Wood, Athenae. It should be explained that though Heyrick himself did not conform, the surplice was used in the church after the passing of the Act of Uniformity; see Newcome, Diary (Chet. Soc.), 120. The churchwardens' accounts of 1664 record a payment for washing the surplices.
  • 54. Act Bks. at Chester Dioc. Reg. He was born at Radcliffe; educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, of which he was elected fellow; M.A. 1665; D.D. 1686. In 1675 he was elected fellow of Manchester, and became exceedingly admired in the district, the epithet 'silvertongued' distinguishing him. Several of his sermons were published. He had some other church preferment. In politics he was a Whig, and thus was untouched by the Revolution and the Hanoverian succession. He died 6 January 1717–18. See Raines, op. cit. 148–57; Dict. Nat. Biog.; also Pal. NoteBk. ii, 1, 33 (with portrait). He lived in Deansgate in 1683; Ct. Leet Recs. vi, 231.
  • 55. He was educated at Jesus College, Oxford; M.A. 1693. There is a portrait in Hibbert-Ware, op. cit. In 1695 he became rector of Kedleston and in 1700 vicar of Preston. He was a latitudinarian in religion and a Whig in politics. His courage in praying for King George in 1715 during the Jacobite occupation of Preston is said to have led to his promotion to Manchester. The appointment was resisted on the ground that the statutes required the B.D. degree in the warden, and that his obtaining such degree from the Archbishop of Canterbury would not suffice. At Manchester he was unpopular with the fellows of the collegiate church, who were High Churchmen and Jacobites, and he was in antagonism to the bishop's also (Dr. Gastrell). On the bishop's death, however, Peploe was in 1726 promoted to Chester, retaining the wardenship till 1738. As warden and as visitor he was harsh and unpopular. He published some sermons. See Raines, op. cit. 157–66; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 56. The church papers at Chester begin with this warden. He was presented by the king on 'the death of Richard Wroe, S.T.P., last warden,' the in commendam tenure of Bishop Peploe being ignored. He was the only son of Bishop Peploe; educated at Jesus and Wadham Colleges, Oxford; B.C.L. 1726; D.C.L. 1763. There is a portrait in Hibbert-Ware, op. cit. He held various ecclesiastical preferments—vicar of Preston, rector of Tattenhall, Canon of Chester, Archdeacon of Richmond, and Chancellor of the diocese. He shared his father's religious and political views, so that his father's opponents became his also, and it was not until after the suppression of the 1745 rebellion that he became more friendly with the other clergy of his church; he does not appear to have resided regularly in Manchester. He is described as a gentle and liberal man, 'remarkable for his attendance on public worship,' and preserving 'the gravity and decency of the clerical character.' See Raines, op. cit. 166–71.
  • 57. He was a son of Ralph Assheton of Downham, and was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, of which he was elected a fellow; M.A. 1751; D.D. 1782. He was rector of Radcliffe and Middleton in 1757, but resigned the former; he retained the latter till his death in 1800. See Raines, op. cit. 171–6.
  • 58. He was a son of Thomas Blackburne of Orford, and educated at Brasenose and Trinity Colleges, Oxford; M.A. 1794; D.C.L. 1801. He was curate of Thelwall in 1782, vicar of Weaverham in 1796; these he held till 1806. The wardenship is said to have been granted at the request of his elder brother John, for forty-six years knight of the shire. He resided at Thelwall Hall near Warrington. See Raines, op. cit. 176–8; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 749.
  • 59. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and became fellow; M.A. 1800; D.D. 1823. There is a portrait of him in Hibbert-Ware, op. cit. ii, 172. He was Norrisian Professor, 1815 to 1824, and preacher at Whitehall in 1819, thus attracting the notice of Lord Liverpool, who afterwards presented him to the wardenship. In 1819 also he took the surname of Calvert instead of Jackson, in memory of a friend who had left him a fortune. He published some sermons. He was a strong opponent of Catholic Emancipation, but otherwise 'gentle in ruling, wise in counsel, charitable in word and deed.' See Raines, op. cit. 178–83; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 60. He was a son of Henry, Earl of Carnarvon; educated at Exeter College, Oxford, but removed to Merton; M.A. 1802; D.C.L. 1808; D.D. 1841. He tried a parliamentary career, 1806 to 1812, but in 1814 was presented to the rectory of Spofforth, which he held till his death. He was a Whig in politics, and a High Churchman of the old Arminian school in religion, but nevertheless assisted the Bible Society; he supported the Ten Hours Bill of 1844. He published some poems and other works, and was a botanist of repute. He died in 1847, shortly before the passing of the Act which made Manchester Collegiate Church a cathedral; but after the Act of 1840 he had usually been styled Dean of Manchester. See Raines, op. cit. 183–92; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 61. He was of Clare College, Cambridge; B.D. 1829; D.D. 1849. He was rector of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 1831 to 1848, and actively concerned in the foundation of Marlborough and Haileybury Colleges. He died in 1872; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 62. He was of St. John's College, Cambridge, graduating as senior wrangler in 1829, and being elected fellow; D.D. 1880. He held university and other appointments, and was vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry from 1857 to 1873. In 1883 he was made Dean of Exeter. He published various sermons, &c. He died in 1900; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 63. He was of Brasenose College, Oxford; M.A. 1859; D.D. 1881. He published one or two works and was vicar of St. Saviour's, Hoxton, from 1867 to 1881, when he was advanced to the deanery of Carlisle; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 64. He was of Brasenose College, Oxford; M.A. 1858; D.D. 1890. He became vicar of Habergham Eaves in 1863 and of Rochdale in 1877. He died 8 May 1906.
  • 65. Formerly fellow of King's College, Cambridge; M.A. 1880; head master of Harrow School, 1885; D.D. 1898; Bishop of Calcutta 1898–1901; canon of Westminster 1901.
  • 66. By an Act of 1850 (13 & 14 Vict. cap. 41) the dean has cure of souls in the fragment of the ancient parish which is still served by the cathedral in its parochial aspect, and has the assistance of the chaplains or minor canons. The residentiary canons are rectors of four parishes, formed out of the old parish— St. Andrew, Manchester; St. Matthew, Manchester; St. George, Hulme; and St. Philip, Salford. While the dean is presented by the Crown the canons are collated by the bishop. The Act named was preceded and accompanied by a sharp local controversy. An important contribution was one by Thomas Turner, in the form of a letter to the Bishop of Manchester; the second appendix contained translations of the licence of Henry V, the petition of the parishioners, and the charter of the Bishop of Lichfield in 1421; also of the charters of Philip and Mary, Elizabeth, and Charles I; with other documents. He showed that practically the whole endowments (as restored by Queen Mary) were rectorial, and that Lord La Warre's additional gifts were of small extent.
  • 67. Richard Bexwick's foundation was originally for four priests to do divine service, assist the warden, keep the choir, be present at matins, mass, evensong, &c. as it was found that the parish, with '7000 housling people and more resident,' could not be sufficiently served by the warden and fellows without further help. Richard Bexwick was 'an especial benefactor,' having given a suit of vestments worth £45, and built a chapel and one side of the choir at a cost of 300 or 400 marks; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 81–3; ii, 233.
  • 68. Cardinal Langley in 1437 bequeathed the Flores Bernardi to the college of Manchester; Raines, Chant. (Chet. Soc.), i, 121. A later bequest of books to the college library was made by Henry Turton, one of the fellows; Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 13.
  • 69. Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. (ed. Earwaker), iv, 91–100, &c Raines, Chant. i, 50–2; N. and Q. (ser. 5), viii, 61, 81.
  • 70. Raines, op. cit. i, 7–22; a full account is given of the revenues, expenditure, and vestments, &c. For the clergy not on any of the foundations see Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 11, 12. The Visitation list of 1548 omits the clergy of the college, then dissolved, but some of them were probably resident in the town; their names are given in Chant. i, 19, 20. The 'ornaments' remaining in 1552 are recorded in Ch. Goods (Chet. Soc.), 4; they included 'certain ornaments for the sepulchre,' but no organ is named. There were five bells in the steeple, which are said to have remained in use until 1706. Some were sold to Didsbury chapel; ibid. 8.
  • 71. The only authority is Hollinworth, who states that the Earl of Derby, having obtained the college, &c., 'was careful, as our fathers have told us, to provide very well for three or four ministers officiating in the church'; Mancuniensis, 63.
  • 72. These details are from the Visitation lists preserved at Chester. John Glover, a 'deacon' of the old college, still appeared in 1565, and Robert Prestwich's name occurs in the lists of 1548, 1563, 1565; his absence in 1554 may mean that he was a Protestant, but he had been one of the chantry priests.
  • 73. In all nine fellows and deacons of the college were named in 1548. The story of Vaux has been given above; that of John Cuppage, his friend, is in many ways similar; he refused to appear at the Visitation of 1559, suffered persecution for adhering to the old faith, and is supposed to have died in Salford prison about 1584; Vaux, Catechism, 75–8, 84 note (introd.). In 1559 four of the fellows—Edward Pendleton, Robert Prestwich, Richard Hart, and Richard Ford—appeared, but Hart refused to subscribe; Prestwich was warned against frequenting taverns; Ch. Goods, 7 (quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. x, 101); Gee, Eliz. Clergy, 81. In 1562 Vaux, who had been ordered to live in Worcestershire, and Hart in Kent or Sussex, were 'thought to behave themselves very seditiously and contrary to their recognizances, secretly lurk in Lancashire and are thought to be maintained there by rulers and gentlemen of that county'; ibid. 181. In 1574 three of the old clergy (1548) were receiving pensions—John Cuppage, Edward Pendleton (then vicar of Eccles), and Robert Prestwich; of the rest Collier, Johnson, Ryle, Woodall, and Wolstoncroft had died be fore the accession of Elizabeth, and Ralph Hunt and James Barlow died about 1571; Ch. Goods (quoting Spec. Com. 16 Eliz. no. 3258). John Glover, as above shown, also conformed under Elizabeth. In 1570 Roger Cooksey, clerk, made claim to an annuity of £6 13s. 4d., for service and prayer, against Thomas Herle, warden, Richard Hall, paymaster, and Edward Holt, receiver; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 389. At an inquiry in 1571 Warden Herle confessed that he had been absent for two years and more, having a dispensation. Neither he nor the fellows were bound to preach. The only ornament the church possessed was a broken chalice; the building was in decay and the 'painted pictures' had not been defaced. Nicholas Daniell, one of the fellows, averred that Edward Holt, another fellow, kept an alehouse and frequented such places, being a drunkard. Richard Hall, another fellow, practised medicine, 'and when he should serve God he runneth after his physic and surgery'; Raines, Wardens, xv. The Bishop of Chester refused Hall's pension in 1581; Acts of P.C. 1581–2, p. 266. A little later it was stated that the clergy had been beaten and one of their preachers attacked and wounded. The loss of the old hospitality was a grievance with the tenants; Newton Chapelry (Chet. Soc.), ii, 51.
  • 74. Hollinworth, Mancuniensis, 75.
  • 75. Foxe, Acts and Monuments (ed. Cattley), vii, 196, 204, 60, 66.
  • 76. Hollinworth, op. cit. 79; 'their names, as tradition saith, were Ridlestones, Wharmbies, &c.'
  • 77. The Elizabethan fellows of 1578 were John Molins, D.D., Alexander Nowell, D.D.—both exiles for religion in Mary's time; the latter became Dean of St. Paul's—Thomas Williamson, and Oliver Carter, B.D.; the last-named had been a fellow under Herle's wardenship and is noticed in Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 78. Hollinworth, op. cit. 105; see an earlier note.
  • 79. W. F. Irvine in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiii, 64–9. It is stated that the surplice was not used in the church for upwards of forty years, i.e. from about 1590 onwards; Funeral Certs. (Chet. Soc.), 77. At the Visitation of 1598 the churchwardens were ordered to provide a surplice and Book of Common Prayer; they had all eaten flesh in Lent and days forbidden. In 1608 Bourne was presented for not wearing the surplice; some persons communicated standing. In 1622 Henry Holland of Denton was 'suspected of Brownism.' Many persons refused to stand at the Creed and bow at the name of Jesus. Nevertheless the organ playing is mentioned; Visit. P. at Chester.
  • 80. Up to 1578 'Sundays' and holidays were the usual times for practising archery; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 196. In 1611 dealers in fruit, pedlars, and other street traders were forbidden to sell on 'the Sabbath day'; ibid. ii, 264. In 1634 four men were paid for 'watching packs' on Whitsunday, to see that none should be brought into the town on that Sabbath day; Manch. Constables' Accts. ii, 7. Perhaps it was due to the same spirit that players were ordered to leave; ibid. ii, 33, 34, 36. For the state of the church see Cal. S.P. Dom. 1633–4, p. 523.
  • 81. The careers of the new warden and of William Bourne, one of the fellows, have been described above. The other fellows of 1635 were Samuel Boardman, Richard Johnson, and Peter Shaw, first elected in 1629, 1632, and 1633 respectively. Of these Richard Johnson, though a Calvinist in doctrine, was the nearest approach to the 'moderate Churchman' of to-day, and suffered insults and imprisonment for his loyalty to the king during the Civil War; he lived to hold his fellowship again; Raines, Fellows, 114– 15. Another noteworthy fellow chosen in 1643 was Richard Hollinworth, of Magdalene College, Cambridge, author of the Mancuniensis frequently quoted in these notes; ibid. pp. 138–71; Dict. Nat. Biog. The Hollinworth family was of old standing in the town. Robert Hollinworth held a burgage and a half in 1473; Mamecestre, iii, 491. In 1502 James, son of Thomas, son of Thomas, son of John Hollinworth, claimed two messuages as heir of his grandfather; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 92, m. 4; also Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. 10 Hen. VII. For the parentage of Richard Hollinworth see Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 188–9; and for his works, C. W. Sutton in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vi, 138.
  • 82. The records of this classis have been printed by the Chetham Society (new ser. xx, xxii, xxiv) with notes by the editor, Dr. W. A. Shaw.
  • 83. Commonwealth Ch. Surv. 5–13.
  • 84. Pal. Note Bk. i, 155, where there is a notice of Stopford, as also in Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 85. Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 57. There were eight churchwardens and sixteen sidesmen. The Traffords had by prescription the right to nominate the parish clerk; this was recognized in the Act of 1850. Bishop Nicolson in 1704 found that the warden lived in town, but all the fellows on their cures at some little distance. The fellows preached by turns, forenoon and afternoon, on Sundays, and the warden on some solemn days; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 187.
  • 86. Of the later fellows of the college mention must be made of Richard Parkinson, of St. John's College, Cambridge; M.A., 1824; D.D. 1851. He was perpetual curate of Whitworth from 1830 to 1841 and elected fellow of Manchester in 1833, becoming a canon on the change in 1847. He was one of the founders of the Chetham Society, and exercised great influence in Manchester and the district. He was in 1846 appointed principal of St. Bees College, where he remained till his death in 1858; but his retention of the canonry aroused much bitter feeling against him as a non-resident pluralist, and led to the passing of the Rectory Act of 1850, by which the canons were attached to churches in Manchester parish. See Raines, Fellows, 361–82; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 87. Raines, Chant. i, 22–4; where particulars of the donors and their gifts are recorded.
  • 88. Raines, Chant. i, 25–8; Notitia Cestr. ii, 59–62, notes. The circumstances of the foundation are narrated in the account of Warden Huntington already given. The endowment consisted of 26 acres in Alport and three burgages in the town. The chantry priest in 1534 was John Bexwick (Valor Eccl. [Rec. Com.], v, 225), and in 1547 Nicholas Wolstonecroft, who paid his firstfruits in 1543 (Lancs. and Ches. Recs. [Rec. Soc.], ii, 408), and is named in the list of clergy at the Visitation of 1554. In the chapel was an 'Image of Pity,' with the announcement of an indulgence or pardon of 26,000 [years] and twenty-six days on reciting five Paternosters, five Aves, and a Credo; Hollinworth, 55. The lands of this chantry were in 1549 bestowed on the Earl of Derby for a payment of £268 3s. 4d.; Pat. 3 Edw. VI, pt. 11.
  • 89. Chant. 28–31. The lands were at Bollington and Lyme in Cheshire. The chapel possessed a chalice and three old vestments. Thomas Johnson was the priest in 1534 and 1547.
  • 90. Ibid. 31–5. The endowments consisted of three burgages in Manchester and tenements at Grindlow Cross. The ornaments consisted of a chalice, vestments, and altar cloths. In 1320, when Robert Grelley was living, one Henry de Salford, chaplain, paid to the lord of Manchester a rent of 20s. for Grindlow, and 2s. 4d. for Blackacres; a note—perhaps of the 16th century—states that these were the lands of St. Mary's chantry; Mamecestre, ii, 279. From deeds printed in Canon Raines' notes it appears that the patronage of the chantry was in 1428 in dispute between Sir Edmund Trafford and Thomas Booth of Barton the elder, it having been the right of 'the heir of Bexwick'; De Trafford D. no. 86; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 2, m. 9d. On the death of Thomas Whitehead, Reynold Hobson became chantry priest in 1506 on the presentation of Sir Edmund Trafford (De Trafford D. no. 70), and was in 1508 succeeded by Henry Ryle, perhaps the same who was serving in 1534, though he seems to have resigned in 1514. On the resignation of Charles Gee, Edmund Trafford presented another Henry Ryle in 1542 (Act Bks. at Chester; Lancs. and Ches. Recs. ii, 407), and he was serving in 1547; he was summoned to the visitation in 1554. The chapel was long used as the burial-place of the Trafford family. For grants of the lands of Trafford's chapel see Pat. 32 Eliz. pt. 13; 4 Jas. I, pt. 25; also Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 382.
  • 91. Chant. 36–40. From deeds there given the chantry seems to have been founded or refounded early in the 15th century, but there has been preserved a gift to Matthew de Sholver, chaplain, and his successors celebrating the Mass of St. Mary at St. Nicholas' altar, which may be dated about 1300; Norris D. (B.M.), no. 951. In 1429 Thomas son of Thomas del Booth of Barton claimed to present to 'the chantry of the Blessed Mary at the altar of St. Nicholas,' against John de Bamford Henry de Trafford, and Hugh de Scholes, chaplain; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 2, m. 9b; see also the preceding. The endowment was derived from burgages in St. Mary Gate, Todd Lane, and Deansgate; the priest celebrated with the ornaments of the other chantry. John Reddish seems to have been the chaplain in 1431, James Smith in 1498 and 1525, John Dickonson in 1532 and 1535, William Ashton (or 'Hache') in 1547.
  • 92. Chant. 40–5. The endowment was derived from burgages in Market Street Lane, Millgate, and Deansgate; there was no plate. From a deed printed in Raines' notes it appears that the chantries were founded in 1501, the priest to be 'one of the priests of the Guild or Brotherhood of our Blessed Lady and St. George of Manchester, to be founded in the College Church of Manchester'; the hour of six o'clock was fixed by the founder. John Brideoak was the cantarist in 1534 and 1547. This chantry was partly endowed by the founder's wife—Isabel daughter of Richard Tetlow—out of her father's estate.
  • 93. Ibid. 46–8. The endowment included Domville House in Salford, and other burgages and lands in Salford, Worsley, and Spotland. From the will of the founder's widow, it is clear that Hugh Marler was the incumbent in 1523. Robert Byrom was there in 1534 (Valor Eccl. [Rec. Com.], v, 226) and Edward Smith in 1547. In addition to making regulations for the two chantries Isabel Chetham by her will left a pair of silver beads to our Lady of Manchester, 5 marks to the repair of the church, and 26s. 8d. to the building of Irk Bridge. Of the Gild of St. George nothing further seems to be known. The chapel was built by William Galey, who died in 1508, and part of the endowment was left by him, viz. a house in Market Street Lane occupied by Robert Chetham, and no doubt part of the endowment of the former chantry. See Raines, loc. cit. in the notes, and Hollinworth, Mancuniensis, 55. For the Galey family see Mamecestre, iii, 489; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 162; Manch. Ct. Leet Recs. ii, 8, 77. For disputes as to the chantry lands in the Acres and elsewhere see Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 224, 265; Duchy Plead. iii, 30.
  • 94. Chant. 49–54. The income was derived from burgages and shops in Market Street, Hanging Bridge, Smithy Door, Hanging Ditch, and Collyhurst Fold ('foyte'). There was no plate. Hugh Brideoak was priest in 1534 and Roger Ireland in 1547; William Woodall succeeded before 1548. This chantry seems to have been founded by William Radcliffe of Ordsall, who died in 1498. In the following year Elizabeth widow of John Radcliffe of Ordsall bequeathed to the chaplain celebrating at Trinity altar a mass book with cover and clasps, a cruet of silver with I.R. on the cover, two towels, a vestment of green and white velvet with bulls' heads on the orphreys, and 3s. 4d., to buy a sacring-bell; Raines, in the notes. The chapel is now the outermost aisle of the nave on the north Hollinworth (op.cit. 47) describes the 'very rich window' and gives the verses inscribed on it 'in worship of the Trinity.'
  • 95. Some particulars have been given in a previous note; see also Chant. 48–52, where are printed several deeds relating to the foundation; e.g. the licence of James Stanley, as warden, to the Gild of St. Saviour and the Name of Jesus to receive all oblations and emoluments offered to the image of the Saviour in the chapel recently built at the south side of the collegiate church; an agreement of 1509 as to the position of the Bexwick chaplains in the choir and in the college, showing that they were to share in all things, except the stipend; a deed by which Isabel daughter and sole heir of Richard Bexwick and widow of Thomas Beck (to whom the chantry was sometimes attributed) conveyed the Jesus chapel in 1562 to Francis Pendleton and Cecily his wife, daughter of Isabel, and others. A case respecting the endowment of this chantry is given in Duchy Plead. ii, 82. The revenue was £4 1s. 4d. in 1534, when James Barlow was chantry priest; at that time 18s. 8d. was by the founder's will distributed at his obit to the clergy and the poor; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 225. Robert Prestwich was the cantarist and Edward Pendleton the schoolmaster in 1546, when the revenue was £8 12s. 3d.; Chant. 246–7. The chapel had at the south-east corner a smaller chapel, now destroyed, in which were buried the remains of William Hulme, the founder of the Hulme exhibitions at Oxford.
  • 96. See the preceding notes. In the chapel of St. George was a statue of the saint on horseback; Hollinworth, op. cit. 47. Later it was known as the Radcliffe chapel.
  • 97. It held burgages in the town in 1473; Mamecestre, iii, 506. For the Gilds see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. x, 1–24.
  • 98. Afterwards called the Byron or Chetham Chapel.
  • 99. St. Michael's altar is named in the will of Henry Turton, cited above; Piccope, Wills, ii, 12. 'The east window of the south aisle had Michael and his angels; the nine orders of angels, fighting with the Dragon and his angels'; Hollinworth, op. cit. 46.
  • 100. a V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 578.
  • 101. The scholastic endowments were for schools at Ardwick, Blackley, Crumpsall, Didsbury, Gorton, Heaton Norris, Levenshulme, and Newton. The benefactions for Crumpsall and Newton are still available. Anne Hinde in 1723 left lands in Salford and Manchester for the instruction of ten poor children of Manchester and ten of Salford, half boys and half girls. They were to be taught to write and read (up to a chapter in the Bible), and they must learn the Church Catechism. Green clothes were to be provided for them; hence this was known as the 'Green Gown' Charity. The land in Salford was sold for £1,967 10s., the New Bailey prison being erected on it. In 1838 the houses in Fennel Street were sold to the Corporation of Manchester for £2,600. The income in 1826 was almost £200, which sufficed for the education and clothing of fifty-seven children. The income (from consols) is now only £114 2s. 8d., and is spent on education and clothing by the trustees. St. Paul's (Turner Street) Charity School was founded in 1777. The present income is £40 2s. Richard Lichford in 1710 left a rentcharge of £5 on Cooper's tenement in Blackley to pay a schoolmaster in that township. This is still in operation. Elizabeth Chetham in 1689 gave £20 for the teaching of children in Moston and Newton to read the Bible. The income is now £1. At Heaton Norris there were in 1826 two charity school foundations—one by John Hollingpriest, 1785, the other by public subscription. The latter has been lost; the former has an income of £24 2s. 4d., paid to schools in the township. Margaret Usherwood in 1742 left the residue of her estate for the education and clothing of six poor children of Chorltonwith-Hardy; this was in 1826 represented by £160 in the hands of Robert Feilden, who paid £8 as interest. The capital is now invested in a Manchester Corporation bond, producing £4 12s. a year, applied for the benefit of children of the township.
  • 102. John Whitworth in 1623 left £20, and William Drinkwater in 1688 left £100 for the relief of the poor; Mary Chorlton in 1706 left £50 to provide apprenticeship fees; and the Rev. John Clayton in 1772 gave £30, which was to be lent without interest. These had been lost before 1826. John Barlow of Pott Shrigley in 1684 charged his estate with £6 a year for apprenticeship fees of poor boys in Shrigley and Manchester alternately; but in 1826 it could not be ascertained that Manchester had ever benefited by it. William Baguley in 1725 left £200 for the founding of a charity school for poor children in Manchester; chief rents amounting to £8 1s. 4d. were purchased, and a schoolmaster had received part at least down to his death in 1821. In 1826 there were no trustees to claim the rents and appoint a master, and it would seem that the charity had thus become defunct. Elizabeth Bent in 1773 left £300 for a school in the Old Churchyard, and three sums of £50 each for poor housekeepers of Manchester, Cheetham, and Prestwich. The capital appears to have been lost in 1801 by a defaulting solicitor. John Gilliam in 1632 gave £20 for the poor of Newton, and 12s. was paid by the steward of Edward Greaves until about 1824; but the Culcheth estate had about 1790 been sold to Samuel Barker and his brother, unburdened as they said, and in 1826 all payment had ceased. Sarah Taylor in 1680 left £20 for the minister of Gorton Chapel, and £20 for the poor. A voluntary payment of £1 a year in respect of the latter legacy was made in 1826, but has ceased.
  • 103. Founded in 1636; see the account of Crumpsall. The present income is £3,326, and is distributed by the Lord Mayor in conjunction with some other charities, as below, through the City Treasurer as almoner. The whole is distributed partly in goods—blankets, shawls, flannels, and sheets—and partly in cash, at the mayor's discretion, to about 9,000 recipients who are recommended by ratepayers and approved. Money is also given to hospitals and benevolent societies. These and similar details of the existing charities are taken from the Official Handbook for Manchester and Salford, issued annually.
  • 104. George Marshall in 1624 left his lands for the benefit of the poor of Manchester. In 1826 it was stated that the property had been sold to the Commissioners, and was represented by £2,250 consols; the interest was added to Clarke's Charity. The present income is £66 18s. 4d. which is distributed by the Lord Mayor as the last.
  • 105. In 1695 she left £50 for linen cloth for the poor of Deansgate; in 1826 the capital was invested in Government stock, producing £2 4s. 8d. This now forms part of the Lord Mayor's charities, the income being £2 14s. 10d.
  • 106. He in 1787 left £500 for Charles Kenyon, 'supposed to be beyond the sea; in America,' on condition that he should return within five years and prove himself to be the son of one Esther Kenyon; otherwise the interest was to be paid to the borough-reeve in augmentation of his charitable funds. The inquiry of 1826 appears to have been the means of recovering this charity, for the interest had not been paid for some years. The present income is £29 8s. 8d., which is added to the Lord Mayor's charities.
  • 107. He left the interest of £100 for the poor of Manchester; his executors purchased an estate in Saddleworth called Mere Stone Height, a rent of £5 being charged on it in respect of the interest. This was in 1826 distributed by the churchwardens. The £5 is still received, and is distributed by the churchwardens and overseers in bread, bedding, and clothing.
  • 108. John Alexander in 1688 gave some land in Gorton called the Marshes for the use of the poor, and about 1751 the churchwardens and overseers spent £100 left by Joshua Brown in 1694 on improving the land. In 1826 the estate consisted of 6¼ acres (customary measure of 7 yards to the perch), let at £30 a year. The present income is £326 3s., which is distributed as the last-named charity.
  • 109. For the benefactor's family see the account of Royton. Thomas Percival left £150 in 1693, and it was laid out in the purchase of land in Royton, measuring nearly 10 acres customary measure, and let in 1826 at £28; there was coal under the land. The present income is £65 10s., and this is distributed in the same manner as the two preceding charities.
  • 110. By his will of 1684 he left £100 to provide twelve penny loaves of wheat bread to be distributed to poor inhabitants of Manchester on St. Thomas's Day. In 1826 it was represented by a charge of £7 1s. 6d. on the rates. The present income is only £4 5s. 4d., which is given in bread by the churchwardens and overseers.
  • 111. By his will (1705) he left £100 to purchase lands, the income from which was to be spent on 'five gowns for five aged men' living in Manchester, 'to be of a housewife's kersey of a sad blue colour, and to be given on Christmas Day morning before prayers in the south porch of parish church of Manchester.' In 1826 this was represented by a rent-charge of £5 5s. on the capital messuage called Hope in Eccles. This sum is still received and spent in clothing by the churchwardens and overseers.
  • 112. For these benefactors see the account of Moston. Walter Nugent and Margaret Nugent his mother in 1609 settled two chief rents of 20s. each for the buying of turves for the poor. In 1826 one of the rents was found to be charged on property held by Clarke's trustees, and the other on a house, 38, Smithy Door, owned by T. C. Worsley of Platt; on the latter the rent-charge had not been paid for many years, but resumption was promised. The income is now £4; it is added to the Clarke and other charities of the Lord Mayor.
  • 113. In 1621 he left £120 for the poor, the income to be distributed in money or victuals. Land in Millgate and Miller's Lane was purchased, the present Mayes Street indicating its position, and on it the overseers long afterwards erected buildings called the Almshouses, occupied by six poor women. An Act was passed in 1794 allowing the trustees to sell or lease the land, thus enabling the estate to be improved. The rents in 1826 amounted to nearly £430, subject to a chief rent of 13s. 10d. to William Hulton. The present income is £479, which is distributed by the trustees in food or money. For an account of the almshouses see Ct. Leet Rec. vi, 139 n.; and Procter, Bygone Manch. 80.
  • 114. Richard Holland in 1622 gave £100, and others about the same time gave sums amounting to £58 3s.; and these with other moneys were in 1681 laid out in building the Almshouses recorded in the last note. It seems therefore that these sums have been merged in the Mayes Charity.
  • 115. Nicholas Hartley gave £50 for the poor of Manchester, and his brother and executor John in 1628 gave a house and land in Moston, as representing the £50. John Hartley, grandson of the former John, was a trustee in 1692. In 1826 the land, &c., was tenanted by Samuel Taylor, it lying near his residence, at a rent of £15 15s. The present income is £126, which is distributed by the trustees in money gifts.
  • 116. Ellen widow of Nicholas Hartley in 1626 gave a burgage in Market Stead Lane for the relief of poor persons dwelling in Manchester. It was sold in 1822, under the Act for widening Market Street, and the purchase-money, £1,370, invested in Government stock. This now produces £45 6s., and the Lord Mayor and deputy-mayor, who act as trustees, distribute the income on Christmas Eve in half-crowns to poor aged people, chiefly on the recommendation of the police superintendents. Anne Collier in 1848 augmented this charity by a gift producing an additional £17 2s. 9d.
  • 117. By his will of 1677 he left £100 to be invested in land for the benefit of the poor. Lands called Mythom, Delf Hills, &c., in Little Lever were purchased, on which a rent-charge of £5 was made, representing the interest on the £100. In 1826 the lands were held by Matthew Fletcher, who was unaware of his liability to pay the £5 a year, but undertook to discharge it. The money is still paid, and is distributed by the Lord Mayor in the same manner as the Hudson Charity above described.
  • 118. He bequeathed £200 in 1687 to provide 'an outward or uppermost garment' to each of twenty-four or more poor and aged housekeepers, &c., of Manchester, and gave land at Abbey Hey in Gorton—or a charge of £10 on it—to provide clothing for another twenty-four. Land in Sholver in Oldham was purchased, and in 1826 rents of £10 each were received from Gorton and Sholver. The £20 is still paid, and is given in clothing by the trustees.
  • 119. In 1689 he conveyed to trustees a tenement at the corner of Hanging Bridge and Cateaton Street (subject to a chief rent of 12d.) for the apprenticing of poor boys; 50s. was to be given with each boy, as well as 10s. towards providing him with clothes. The rent in 1826 was £51, but was irregularly paid, and the premises required rebuilding. The present income is £153, which is applied by one of the minor canons and other trustees.
  • 120. Humphrey Oldfield in 1690 left £20 to the poor of Manchester, and £50 to the poor of Salford. The capital was in 1826 in the hands of the Rev. Thomas Gaskell, who distributed £3 10s. yearly according to the benefactor's wishes. The same sum is still yearly given by the trustees.
  • 121. By his will in 1708 he gave £420 to provide 20s. for a sermon by 'a true and orthodox minister of the Church of England' every New Year's Day; the rest of the interest was, as to two-thirds, to be lent without interest 'to poor honest men, well-principled in the doctrine of the Church of England,' in order to start them in business; and as to the other third, to apprentice poor housekeepers' children. Lands were purchased in Oldham (Barrowshaw), and Chadderton, and certain chief rents. In 1826 the founder's instructions were still adhered to, but at present the income, £76 15s. 4d., is by the trustees devoted to education.
  • 122. In bequeathing Strangeways to Thomas Reynolds in 1711, she directed that £100 a year out of her houses in Manchester should be given to help widows of decayed tradesmen of Manchester, and to apprentice their sons. In 1797 Lord Ducie gave a piece of ground (High Knolls, &c.) for a poor-house at £100 rent, which represented the above charge, for the churchwardens gave Lord Ducie a receipt for £100 in respect of the Richards Charity, and he gave them a receipt for the like sum as rent. The capital was gradually increased by accumulation of interest, the £100 being only partly expended in the year, and the sum yearly available is now £117 18s. 8d., which is paid in annuities to widows, &c., at the discretion of the Dean of Manchester (as successor to the warden) and the Earl of Ducie.
  • 123. By her will of 1732 she gave £55 for loaves on Sundays, &c., to poor persons frequenting divine service at the Collegiate Church. The present income is £4, which the minor canons distribute to the poor in bread and money.
  • 124. In 1733 he directed his son Roger to lay £200 out in lands and to distribute to poor persons not receiving relief £10 a year of the proceeds. In 1826 the rentcharges which had been purchased amounted in all to £8 3s. 9d. The present income is £18 7s. 9d., which is distributed by the Lord Mayor in conjunction with Clarke's Charity.
  • 125. By her will of 1734 she provided for a charity sermon on St. John the Baptist's Day, at which the interest of £150 should be distributed to twenty poor housekeepers; an additional sum was left for Chapel-en-le-Frith. The gross income at present is £12 19s. 11d., of which part is given to the place last named.
  • 126. Anne Butterworth in 1735 left £500 for apprenticing the children of poor ministers, tradesmen, &c., being Protestant Dissenters; and Daniel Bayley in 1762 gave £100 for the like purposes. By the investment of surplus income the capital had grown to £3,066 consols in 1826, when, though the trustees were members of either Cross Street or Mosley Street Chapel, the beneficiaries, being Protestants, might be either of the Established Church or Dissenters. The income now amounts to £200 9s. 1d., and is spent by the trustees in apprenticing children.
  • 127. Dame Meriel Mosley in 1697 gave £50 for poor persons attending the Protestant Dissenters' Chapel in Manchester: subsequent benefactions within a century raised the capital to £400. The income now amounts to £23 19s. 3d., and is distributed by the trustees among the poor attending Cross Street Chapel.
  • 128. In 1801 he left 120 guineas, the interest to be given to 'the poor, sick, and distressed members of the church assembling and communicating at the ordinance of the Lord's Supper in Mosley Street Chapel.' This chapel has now been transferred to Chorlton, and the interest— a rent-charge of £7 0s. 2d.—is paid by the trustees accordingly.
  • 129. By her will of 1742 she left £120 for the poor. The trust has been surrendered to the corporation, and £6 a year is distributed annually on New Year's Eve to ten poor aged women; vacancies in the list are filled up by the Lord Mayor.
  • 130. Catherine Fisher in 1752 gave certain houses, &c., to trustees to secure the payment of money and weekly gifts of bread to poor housekeepers of Manchester and Salford who should 'attend divine service of the Church of England on every Lord's Day.' The present income is £24 4s. 4d., given by the trustees in bread and money; 50s. goes to Salford.
  • 131. He left £400 for bedding and bedclothes for poor working inhabitant housekeepers, to be distributed on St. Thomas's Day. The churchwardens and overseers now distribute the income, £11 11s., in bedding.
  • 132. She died in 1803, having in 1792 given £3,000 on trust for the relief of fifteen old housekeepers of Manchester and Salford. The income is now £97 10s., and is distributed by the trustees.
  • 133. He was a hat-maker at Oldham, and died in 1810, having left £40,000 for a blue-coat school at Oldham, and £20,000 for a blind asylum at Manchester, forbidding the money to be used in the purchase of land. In consequence of this provision nothing had been done in 1826 towards carrying out the testator's object, but the money was accumulating at interest. A blind asylum was in 1837 built at Old Trafford.
  • 134. In 1625 he gave a messuage and land in Blackley for the minister of the chapel (one-third), and the poor of the township (two-thirds). A poor-house was afterwards built on part of the land. The present income is £23 12s., which is given to the preacher at Blackley and to the poor.
  • 135. This arose from two sums of £20 each given in 1721 and later, half the interest to be given to the minister of Blackley Chapel and half to the poor. The income, £1 6s. 9d., is now given by the trustees to the poor.
  • 136. In 1695 he charged his manors of Withington and Heaton Norris with £4 for the poor of the two townships, and £4 for Didsbury School. In 1826 both rent-charges were paid by Robert Feilden out of lands formerly part of the manor of Withington. Colonel Robert Feilden of Bebington, grandson of the preceding, in 1874 disputed his liability, and dying soon afterwards his estate at Didsbury was sold, and the charity was lost.
  • 137. In 1728 he charged his lands at Grundy Hill in Heaton Norris with the payment of £5 yearly, of which £1 was to go to the schoolmaster at Barlow Moor End, and £4 was to be given in bread to the poor each Sunday in Didsbury Chapel. This is now incorporated with the following.
  • 138. In 1768 he left £50 for a bread charity similar to the preceding, and the two appear always to have been administered together. The total income, £6 18s. 8d., is given in bread at the churches of St. James, Didsbury; St. Paul, Withington; and St. John the Baptist, Heaton Mersey.
  • 139. Dame Ann Bland and Thomas Linney gave £100 each for the poor of Didsbury and district. Twyford's Warth was purchased, and the rent, £13, was in 1826 distributed according to the founders' wishes. The rent is now £7 10s., of which half is distributed in the township of Didsbury, and half in that of Withington, in accordance with customary practice.
  • 140. He in 1811 left £400 to pay certain legacies, and to use the interest of the remainder to pay £1 to the preaching minister of Didsbury, £1 to the schoolmaster, and £1 to the singers. In 1826 the said remainder (£100) was in the hands of Robert Feilden, who paid £5 as interest. The above-named Colonel Feilden desired to repudiate liability for this also, but was obliged to admit it. His representatives after 1874 succeeded in evading it.
  • 141. For an account of the Booths see the townships of Salford and Moston. The income of the elder Humphrey's foundation now amounts to £17,000 a year. In 1630 he gave land by the road from Manchester to Shooter's Brook (now at the junction of Piccadilly and Port Street), and three closes called Millward's Croft (or Mileworth Croft, also called, it appears, the Tue Fields, at the junction of Great Bridgewater Street and Oxford Street), all in Manchester, for the relief of 'poor, aged, needy, or impotent people' of Salford. In 1776 an Act of Parliament was obtained enabling the trustees to grant building leases, &c. In 1826 the money was disbursed by constables and churchwardens of Salford in weekly doles, in gifts of linen and in blankets.
  • 142. In 1672 he left a house, &c., in the Gravel Hole (Gravel Lane), land near Broken Bank (the Chequers), and land with a well called Oldfield Well for the repair of Salford Chapel; the overplus to be distributed to the poor at Christmas in the same manner as his grandfather's charity. The present income is £1,000.
  • 143. He left £100 (in or before 1787) for the purchase of a rent-charge; half the income was to be given to the poor in coals, and the other half spent on clothing poor children. With interest the fund accumulated to £150, which was added to the elder Booth's fund, the trustees paying £7 10s. as interest. This sum is still paid.
  • 144. In 1636 he gave £10 for the benefit of the poor; in 1826 the capital was intact, and 10s. a year was paid to the churchwardens and constables, who laid it out on clothing. It appears to have been lost since.
  • 145. He left, by his will of 1683, £100 for the poor, apparently as an augmentation of the Booth Charity; land in Droylsden was purchased, from which in 1826 a rent of £5 was derived, spent on blankets. The same rent is still received.
  • 146. In 1690–3 he gave a messuage, &c., in Fore Street (or Chapel Street) for the benefit of the poor, the distribution being entrusted to the borough-reeve and constables. The present income is £572.
  • 147. In 1697 he bequeathed a messuage, &c., in Salford for the provision of 'eight coats for eight poor old men of the town of Salford, such as should constantly frequent the church; the same to be made new and ready on Christmas Day yearly, with such badge upon the same as the feoffees should think fit.' The estate was released in 1711. About 1801 the land was leased out in parcels at a total rental of £42 15s.; the present income is £500.
  • 148. By his will of 1744 he left half the moiety of the residue of his estate for the poor, to be expended in shirts and shifts, and the balance in coal; but £50 of it was to go to the endowment of 'the officiating clerk in the chapel at Salford.' In the result £100 was received by the trustees, and in 1826 half the interest (viz. £2 5s.) was paid to the clerk, and the other half given to fourteen aged poor persons as directed. The present income is £3.
  • 149. Alexander Davie gave a rent-charge of £2 10s. on lands at Sandywell, and Mary Davie left £50 for a bread charity. In 1826 £5 was received, to which the £5 from Haward's Charity was added, and forty-eight penny loaves were given each Sunday after service at Trinity Chapel. The £5 is still received.
  • 150. This charity chiefly concerns Oldham, but £5 is paid out of it to Salford; for the benefactor see Pal. Note Bk. iii, 89. The Manchester Charities of Catherine Fisher, Humphrey Oldfield, and Sarah Brearcliffe are in part available for Salford.
  • 151. St. Paul's Church, Chorlton-withHardy; Old Methodist Chapel, Levenshulme; Wesleyan Chapel, Stretford; Brookfield Parsonage, Gorton (Unitarian); Mission Room, Heaton Norris; Albert Park Wesleyan Chapel, Didsbury; Christ Church, Heaton Norris; St. Matthew's, Stretford; Christ Church, Denton.
  • 152. Hulme Grammar School, Withington; Recreation Ground, Heaton Norris; Mechanics' Institution and Schools, Levenshulme; Christ Church School, Moss Side; Library and Technical Institute, Stretford; Library, Denton; School and Mechanics' Institute, Droylsden; School, Gorton (Richard Taylor).
  • 153. Founded in 1835; the income (£2 12s. 4d.) is distributed in coals by the Rector of St. James's, Didsbury.
  • 154. By his will of 1861 Sir Ralph left his residuary estate to certain persons, telling them that he had intended it for a charitable purpose, but was prevented by a legal difficulty. A long lawsuit followed, and by costs and payments to next-of-kin the residue was reduced from £120,000 to £78,000 by 1872. It then became possible to carry out the design of the testator for the education of orphan children. In 1879 the charity was formally established. The orphans must be the children of parents residing (for a time at least) in Heaton Norris, Reddish, or Burnage, or in certain of the neighbouring townships in Cheshire. No clergyman, dissenting minister, or Roman Catholic is eligible as governor; the teaching is to be 'strictly moral, religious, and scriptural, and unalterably based upon Protestant principles.' The orphanage is in Heaton Norris; about 250 children are assisted annually.
  • 155. By his will, dated 1897, he left £50 for the purchase of coal at Christmas for the poor of Heaton Mersey Independent Chapel.
  • 156. By his will of 1886, proved 1900, he gave £200 for the maintenance of the mausoleum, &c., and the residue for the clothing of poor persons attending St. John's Church, Heaton Mersey.
  • 157. By his will of 1892 he left £200 for the benefit of the sick poor of Heaton Mersey, and £50 for the provision of a Christmas treat for aged persons of the same place.
  • 158. In 1838 she bequeathed £300, onehalf the interest for the Sunday school at St. Matthew's, Stretford, and the other half for poor persons who were communicants at that church; this is given in bread.
  • 159. See the Manchester and Salford Official Handbook.
  • 160. The benefactions, dating from 1866 to 1874, amount to £110 a year, and are administered by the corporation.
  • 161. This was founded in 1847; the income of £139 19s. is administered by the Lord Mayor and three senior aldermen.
  • 162. Administered by trustees. The founder was Robert Barnes, a cotton spinner; born in Manchester in 1800 he died at Fallowfield in 1871, having long devoted himself to works of charity. He was mayor of Manchester in 1851. In religion he was a Wesleyan, his family having been connected with Great Bridgewater Street Chapel.
  • 163. This was founded by their children in 1895; the income, £28 12s. 10d., is administered by the Overseers of South Manchester. John Galloway was head of a great engineering concern in Hulme.
  • 164. The churchwardens and minor canons administer this fund, which dates from 1858. For a notice of the benefactor, who died in 1864, see The Old Church Clock (ed. J. Evans), pp. xc, 240.
  • 165. This was established in 1878; a board of governors has the management.
  • 166. This dates from 1877. It was founded by John Robinson, of the Atlas Works and of Westwood near Leek, in memory of his daughters. The income, £229 10s., is administered by trustees.
  • 167. Alderman Benjamin Nicholls, who died in 1877, bequeathed £3,400 a year for education. Peter Spence in 1879 left £5 4s. a year for the Manchester Sunday School Union. A. Alsop in 1826 and E. Alsop in 1838 left sums producing £89 for education at Blackley. The Byrom Fund, 1859, gives £120 a year for industrial schools at Ardwick. Elizabeth Place in 1855 left £42 a year for industrial schools.
  • 168. Admiral Duff in 1858 left £34 15s. a year for 'Protestant Scripture readers . . . members of the Church of England.' The Manchester Charity for the Protection and Reformation of Girls and Women in 1881 entrusted an income of £11 12s. 4d. to the Town Council for distribution. The Rev. N. Germon in 1883 left £10 14s. 8d. a year for the poor; T. Kingston in 1887, £2 10s. 5d. for nursing; T. Mottershead in 1890, £6 7s. 6d., equally between education and the poor; — Wray in 1865, £4 for clothing.