Townships: Manchester (part 2 of 2)

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.

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'Townships: Manchester (part 2 of 2)', in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4, (London, 1911) pp. 230-251. British History Online [accessed 20 April 2024]

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Before the Conquest MANCHESTER was one of the dependencies of the royal manor of Salford. (fn. 1) Its position in 1086 is not quite clear, but shortly after, as the head of the barony, (fn. 2) it came into the possession of the Grelley family. (fn. 3) Descending in the male line till 1311, it passed on the death of Thomas Grelley to his sister Joan and her husband John La Warre. (fn. 4) For over a century it continued in this family, but in 1426, on the death of Thomas, Lord La Warre, became by his dispositions the property of his nephew Sir Reginald West, son of Thomas's half-sister Joan la Warre by her husband Sir Thomas, third Lord West. (fn. 5) The manor and its dependencies were in 1579 sold for £3,000 by the heir of the Wests to John Lacy, citizen and clothworker of London; (fn. 6) and Lacy in 1596 sold them to Nicholas Mosley, Lord Mayor of London in 1599. (fn. 7)

Grelley. Or three bendlets enhanced gules.

Dela Warre. Gules a lion rampant between eight cross-crosslets fitchy argent.

West, Lord La Warre. Argent a fesse dancetty sable.

The new lord of the manor was knighted in the same year and settled at Withington, acquiring this manor also and building the hall at Hough End. (fn. 8)

The manor descended regularly to his great grandson, Sir Edward Mosley, who, dying childless in 1665, bequeathed his manors to a cousin. (fn. 9) His widow, however, continued to hold Manchester till her death in 1680, (fn. 10) when, as the disposition made by Sir Edward had been set aside owing to litigation, and a division of the estates had been made, the manor went to a cousin Edward, who was succeeded in 1695 by his daughter Lady Bland. After her death in 1734 this manor passed to a second cousin, Sir Oswald Mosley, descendant of Sir Nicholas's younger brother, Anthony Mosley. (fn. 11) Sir Oswald was succeeded by his two sons, Oswald and John, and on the death of the latter in 1779 the manor went by bequest to a cousin, John Parker Mosley, created a baronet in 1781. Dying in 1798 he was followed by his grandson Sir Oswald, who in 1846 sold the lordship to the Corporation of Manchester for £200,000. (fn. 12) (Pedigree, p. 232.)

Mosley of Manchester. Sable a cheveron between three pickaxes argent.

A grant of free warren in all Thomas Grelley's demesne lands of Manchester was made by the king in 1249. (fn. 13)


The date of the creation of the borough—if there was any formal grant—is not known; in 1282 there were nearly 150 burgesses in the town, which had a borough court. (fn. 14) A market every Saturday and an annual fair on the eve, feast, and morrow of St. Matthew had been granted by the king in 1227. (fn. 15) The borough perhaps arose about the same time, but the earliest charter extant is that of 1301, by which Thomas Grelley granted and confirmed to 'his burgesses of Manchester' certain privileges and liberties. The burgesses were to pay 12d. a year in lieu of all services, but no land in the town fields seems to have been attached to a burgage. From this it may perhaps be inferred that the townsmen were traders and artisans, as in modern times. Provision was made for the sale of a burgess's land, burgage and goods. (fn. 16) The heir, on succeeding, was to give the lord some arms as relief. The reeve was to be elected and removed by the burgesses; it was his duty to be a witness of all acquisitions of land within the vill. Certain pleas were to be heard in the borough court, called the portman mote or law mote; but charges of theft were reserved to the lord's court. Suit to the lord's mill was required, and pannage for swine in the lord's woods; (fn. 17) the swine were, however, excluded from the park of Blackley. The fines payable to the lord for various offences were limited by the charter, in most cases to small sums; an exception was the fine of 20s. for wounding on Sunday. (fn. 18)


Beyond this the town did not advance, no royal confirmation of its position as a borough being obtained. Hence in 1359, after a full inquiry, it was decided that Manchester was a market-town, but not a borough. (fn. 19) The duty or privilege of sending a representative to Parliament and the additional taxation imposed on boroughs were avoided. In one respect, perhaps, it declined in liberty, for its special portmote, once held four times a year under the lord's bailiff, had by the 16th century become amalgamated with the court leet. (fn. 20) It may, however, be urged that the court leet, instead of governing the ancient barony, had become nothing more than the borough court of the town of Manchester. (fn. 21)

The records of the court, extant from 1552, have been printed, (fn. 22) and afford a lively picture of the government and progress of the town. The courts were held twice a year; in October, when the officers were appointed for the twelve months, and at Easter. The number of the officers increased from time to time with the development of the town; new duties being found for them, and the increase of streets requiring more supervision. Those elected in 1552 were the borough-reeve, catchpoll, two constables, market-lookers for corn, for fish and flesh and for white meat; mise-layers and gatherers, sealers of leather, ale-conners, burleymen and scavengers for different portions of the town, affeerers and appraisers; fifty-nine in all. (fn. 23) A swineherd was appointed in 1567; (fn. 24) a beadle (fn. 25) for rogues appears in 1573, and in 1578 are found officers for wholesome bread, for fruit, for the conduit, for seeing the orders as to ales and weddings being executed, and for seeing that hats and caps were used on Sundays and holydays (fn. 26); but these special officers were not appointed every year.

The juries of the courts leet were constantly occupied with the sanitary conditions of the town. (fn. 27) The water supply was regulated. (fn. 28) Offensive trades were checked. (fn. 29) The streets were kept clear, (fn. 30) householders being required to repair the pavements, and encroachments by steps, porches or horsing-stones forbidden. (fn. 31) The markets and traders needed constant supervision (fn. 32); regrators and forestallers were punished, (fn. 33) standards for weights and measures provided and enforced, (fn. 34) improper qualities of provisions and goods noticed. (fn. 35) The morals and amusements of the inhabitants received attention; (fn. 36) rules were made for alehouses, (fn. 37) for the residence of unmarried women in the town, (fn. 38) for limiting the expenses of wedding-feasts (fn. 39); for stocks, dungeon, pillory and cucking stools (fn. 40); also for the public waits, (fn. 41) the practice of archery, (fn. 42) and the games of tip-cat and football. (fn. 43) An endeavour was made to prevent fires by ordering the stock of fuel to be kept at a distance from the dwelling. (fn. 44) A special night watch was appointed for the winter. (fn. 45) Swine were no longer allowed to wander about the streets; nor were fierce dogs to go unmuzzled. (fn. 46) As time went on it became necessary to pay deputy constables to see to the watching of the streets, (fn. 47) and in the 18th century a voluntary association existed for police purposes. (fn. 48) More trifling matters occasionally amused the jury. (fn. 49)

Thus without any great inconvenience or difficulty the government of the town was provided for by the manorial system (fn. 50) until the great increase of the population in the latter half of the 18th century made changes necessary. In 1792 a Police Act (fn. 51) was obtained for the better lighting, watching, and cleansing of the town; a rate of 1s. 3d. in the pound upon the rent of houses met the expenses, and the authority was vested in commissioners, including the borough reeve and constables for the time being, the warden and fellows of the collegiate church, and all owners and occupiers of houses of £30 a year value who chose to qualify. (fn. 52) Salford was joined with Manchester in this Act, but the meetings for the two townships were held separately. A special Act for the township of Manchester was obtained in 1790 for the better administration of the poor relief. (fn. 53) These Acts were followed by others for improving the water supply, (fn. 54) the streets and bridges, (fn. 55) and the administration of justice. (fn. 56) A town hall in King Street was built in 1822–5. By the Reform Act of 1832 Manchester was made a parliamentary borough, (fn. 57) and six years later the charter making it a municipal borough was granted. (fn. 58) A coat of arms was allowed in 1842.

The new borough included the townships of Manchester, Hulme, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Ardwick, Beswick, and Cheetham. After the purchase of Sir Oswald Mosley's rights as lord of the manor in 1846 the council was able to proceed unhampered in the improvement of the town, which became a city in 1853 (fn. 59) and a county borough in 1888. The boundaries have several times been enlarged, (fn. 60) with corresponding additions to the number of councillors, there being at present thirty wards with thirty-one aldermen and ninety-three councillors. (fn. 61) The mayor was entitled Lord Mayor in 1893. The area governed measures 19, 893 acres, nearly two-thirds that of the ancient parish.

Borough of Manchester. Gules three bendlets enhanced or, a chief argent therein on waves of the sea a ship under sail proper.

The lord's mills had been secured to the grammar school by its founder in 1515, (fn. 62) and though the lord of the manor himself tried to break through the monopoly (fn. 63) it was maintained until 1758, when an Act of Parliament was passed allowing free corn milling. (fn. 64) The malt-grinding monopoly was retained, but the charge was limited to 1s. per load of six bushels; a sum which, owing to the rise in wages, eventually caused the privilege to be a loss to the school. (fn. 65) The tax upon grinding, though small, caused brewers to settle in Salford, Cheetham, and other adjacent townships outside the lordship of Manchester. (fn. 66)

The regulation of the markets and the profits of the tolls remained with the lord of the manor until the sale to the corporation. Though Sir Oswald Mosley built an exchange in 1729 with the design, in part, of providing better accommodation for traders, the markets continued in the open spaces accustomed until 1780, (fn. 67) when a determined effort was made by two merchants, Thomas Chadwick and Holland Ackers, to overthrow the lord's monopoly. They purchased Pool Court and Hyde Park, collections of poor and old cottages to the south-east of the exchange, and after clearing and preparing the ground, erected and opened a market there, which was at once utilized by the butchers. The lord of the manor, Sir John Parker Mosley, brought a suit, won it, and then compromised the matter with the projectors, as he desired to study the interests of the town. (fn. 68) The friction about the markets and other matters (fn. 69) which could only be dealt with satisfactorily by the inhabitants was the reason why Sir Oswald Mosley desired to sell his rights. (fn. 70) A Market Act obtained by the corporation in 1846 is considered to have abolished the old manorial markets, (fn. 71) though there have been attempts to enforce the ancient rights. In 1883 it was decided that the corporation must not charge tolls on goods sold, in addition to rent for stallage. (fn. 72) New market buildings have been erected, (fn. 73) a foreign animals wharf has been established at Old Trafford, and abattoirs in Water Street and other parts of the city.

A new town hall was begun in 1868 and opened in 1877; that of 1822 is now used for the reference library.

The gas, (fn. 74) water, (fn. 75) and electricity supplies are in the hands of the corporation, which also provides hydraulic power. The great scheme by which water is brought from Thirlmere, 96 miles distant, was tarted in 1890; the first instalment of 10,000,000 gallons daily was opened in 1894; the second in 1904, and three more, each of the same quantity, may be added as needed. (fn. 76)

A commission of the peace and separate quarter sessions were granted in 1839. The police force and fire brigade, as in other cities, are in charge of the corporation.

The Lord Mayor's charities have an income of over £3,500 and from those under the control of the council another £300 is distributed annually.

Street improvements, begun a century before the charter, have made continual progress. The sewerage of the district has been attended to, and for sewage disposal there are works on the Irlam and Chat Moss estates producing 4, 000 tons of concentrated manure annually. The water-carried sewage is dealt with in bacterial beds at Davyhulme. Baths and washhouses have been provided, and the Monsall Fever Hospital in Newton. Two cemeteries, at Chorlton with Hardy and adjoining Philips Park, Newton, are managed by the corporation.

An elaborate and far-extending electric tramway system has been established. (fn. 77) The ship canal has received the support of the council from the beginning, and is now subsidized and partly controlled by it.

Numerous parks and recreation grounds have been opened, Heaton Park, 660 acres, purchased in 1902, being a magnificent addition to them.

Libraries, (fn. 78) museums, (fn. 79) art gallery, (fn. 80) schools of art and technology (fn. 81) have been liberally provided; the education committee has secondary schools as well as elementary ones under its charge; and Victoria University has been actively encouraged. A school board was established in 1870. The local acts and byelaws to 1898 have been printed; they fill six volumes.


ALPORT, an ancient park of the lords of Manchester, (fn. 82) was in 1430–6 given by Sir Reginald West, Lord La Warre, to John Huntington, warden of the collegiate church, (fn. 83) and by the latter's trustees was after a long interval assigned to the support of a chantry priest. (fn. 84) On the confiscation of the college and chantry estates the Crown granted the land to Edward, Earl of Derby, (fn. 85) and it was sold in 1599 to the Mosleys. (fn. 86)


ANCOATS was considered a hamlet in 1320. (fn. 87) Robert Grelley about 1200 granted two oxgangs of his demesne to Ralph de Ancoats, to be held by a rent of 6s. 8d. yearly. (fn. 88) Afterwards it was divided; one half was held by the Byrons of Clayton, (fn. 89) and was sold to Oswald Mosley at the beginning of the 17th century, while the other half was held by the Traffords, (fn. 90) and sold about 1610 to a Kenyon. (fn. 91)

Anthony Mosley, father of the purchaser of Ancoats, was the younger brother of Sir Nicholas, and associated with him in the cloth business, looking after the Manchester trade when the other removed to London. He died in 1607, and is commemorated by a monumental brass in the cathedral. (fn. 92) Oswald, his son and heir, the first Mosley of Ancoats, died in 1630; he also has a brass in the cathedral. (fn. 93) His heir, his eldest son Nicholas, was still under age, but came into court in 1633 to do his suit and service to the lord of the manor. (fn. 94) He took the king's side during the Civil War, deserting Manchester for the time. His lands being thereupon sequestered by the Parliament he compounded in 1646 on a fine of £120, his estate in Ancoats, Clayden, and Beswick being of the clear annual value of £60; he had taken the National Covenant and the Negative oath. (fn. 95) He took a conspicuous part in the Manchester rejoicings at the Restoration, (fn. 96) but though an Episcopalian and a justice of the peace he did not join in the subsequent persecution of the Nonconformists. (fn. 97) He had three sons; from Nicholas, the youngest, the present Sir Oswald Mosley descends.

Sir Edward Mosley, who died in 1665, had directed that £7,000 should be invested in land for the benefit of his cousin Nicholas; but this had not been done in 1672, when Nicholas died, leaving his eldest son Oswald as heir. A division of Sir Edward's estates being agreed upon, Oswald received in lieu of the £7,000 the reversion of the manors of Rolleston and Manchester, and in 1695, on succeeding to the former on the death of Sir Edward's widow, he went to reside there, and died in 1726. (fn. 98) His son and heir, Oswald, was created a baronet in 1720, and in 1734, on the death of Lady Bland, succeeded to the lordship of Manchester. This involved him in many disputes. In 1693, acting for Lady Bland, he had claimed a duty of 2d. per pack on all goods called Manchester wares, but was defeated; and a later claim to set up a malt mill was defeated by the feoffees of the grammar school. (fn. 99) His eldest son Sir Oswald succeeded in 1751, and wished to sell the manor of Manchester, but was unable to do so owing to a settlement he had made. (fn. 100) On his death in 1757 the manor, with Ancoats, passed to his brother John, a clergyman of eccentric habits, who died unmarried in 1779, when the baronetcy expired. (fn. 101)

In accordance with the dispositions made by the last Sir Oswald the estates then went to a second cousin, John Parker Mosley, created a baronet in 1781. He was the youngest son of Nicholas Mosley, a woollen draper of Manchester, who was son of Nicholas Mosley, an apothecary in London, already mentioned as the youngest son of Nicholas Mosley of Ancoats. The new lord of Manchester, Ancoats, and Rolleston had been established as a hatter in Manchester, but a passion for cockfighting and other dissipations almost ruined him. Steadied by his danger he entered on a new course of life and prospered. He was about forty-seven when he succeeded to the estates, and was speedily involved in the disputes as to the markets already described, but established his right. In 1786 he was High Sheriff of Lancashire, and on this occasion was accompanied from his seat at Ancoats by an immense retinue of his friends and neighbours. After this, however, the house was deserted, its owner returning to Staffordshire; (fn. 102) and it was sold to George Murray.

Ancoats Hall is described by Aikin in 1795 as 'a very ancient building of wood and plaster, but in some parts rebuilt in brick and stone.' It stood at the end of Ancoats Lane (now Great Ancoats Street) facing north-west, and at the back of the house the grounds sloped down to the banks of the River Medlock in a series of terraces, from which there was a lovely view over green well-wooded country. The house was of two stories with attics, and the front consisted of three gables with a square tower in the centre, constructed also of timber and plaster, and with a hipped roof. Aikin further remarks that it was the back part of the house that was chiefly rebuilt, but some rebuilding of the west wing had been done before the end of the 18th century. Britton, writing in 1807, speaks of Ancoats Hall as a venerable house, the oldest part of which consisted of timber and plaster, 'the first, disposed of various figures, forms a sort of skeleton, and the latter is employed to fill up the interstices. The upper stories overhang the ground floor, and the great windows project before the face of the building.' The house was built early in the 17th century by Oswald Mosley, (fn. 103) and it stood till the beginning of the last century, when it was taken down in or about 1827 by its then owner, Mr. George Murray, and the present structure erected. It is a rather interesting brick building of an early type of 19th-century Gothic, and since 1877 has been used as an art museum. In 1895 it became the head quarters of a university settlement, which was amalgamated with the museum in 1901. The hall now stands in squalid surroundings, and the gardens at the back, which existed for many years after the rebuilding of the house, have entirely disappeared.

The Mosley leases for 9,999 years were a peculiarity of the district. (fn. 104)

With Ancoats was connected the family of Oldham, (fn. 105) from which sprang Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, who as founder of the grammar school is justly considered one of Manchester's chief benefactors. He was educated at Oxford, graduating also at Cambridge, (fn. 106) and became chaplain to Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII, receiving numerous dignities and benefices and being made Bishop of Exeter in 1504. He died on 15 June 1519, and was buried in the chantry chapel he had built for himself in Exeter Cathedral. (fn. 107) A pedigree was recorded in 1664, at which time one branch of the family had an estate in Crumpsall. (fn. 108)

Oldham. Sable a cheveron or between three owls argent, on a chief of the second as many roses gules.

Edmund Entwisle of Entwisle, who died in 1544, had some land in Ancoats. (fn. 109)


GARRETT was formerly the seat of a branch of the Trafford family, (fn. 110) and was sold in 1595 to Oswald Mosley, a younger brother of Sir Nicholas and Anthony. (fn. 111) His son Samuel sold it, but it can be traced in the records down to 1683. (fn. 112) Soon afterwards it was acquired by the Minshulls of Chorlton, and again sold in 1775. A curious story is told of the place. (fn. 113)

Garrett Hall stood on the north bank of the River Medlock close to where it is joined by Shooter's Brook. The house was a black and white timber mansion on a stone base, said to have been similar in style to Hulme Hall, and built on four sides of a quadrangle. The principal front faced south towards the Medlock, which here flowed in a series of curves through a large meadow, and is described as 'extremely picturesque with numerous gables and tall chimneys.' The house, whose position was originally one of defence at the junction of two streams, was surrounded by a park through which Shooter's Brook ran on the north side. It appears to have fallen into decay and to have been let in tenements before the end of the 18th century, but is said to have been standing entire in 1824. One wing was in existence forty years later, and a fragment of the house which could till recently be seen at the back of the north side of Granby Row was not demolished till May 1910. Long before the hall disappeared it was closed in by other buildings, and all traces of the park and original surroundings had long been lost. (fn. 114)


CLAYDEN appears to represent the four oxgangs of demesne land bestowed about 1160 on Wulfric de Manchester by Albert Grelley senior, at a rent of 5s. (fn. 115) In later times it was held by the same rent by a family surnamed Clayden, perhaps descendants of Wulfric. (fn. 116) A portion was owned by the Hopwoods of Hopwood, and derived from them the distinguishing name of Hopwood Clayden. (fn. 117) The district was sometimes considered as partly in Newton. (fn. 118) The name is perhaps preserved in Gleden Street, Holt Town.

Grants by Albert Grelley to Robert de Bracebridge (fn. 119) and by Robert Grelley to Ace the clerk are on record. (fn. 120)

The origin of the name Gaythorn is obscure. The place seems to have been owned formerly by the Chethams. (fn. 121)


COLLYHURST was part of the waste. (fn. 122) The townsmen had various rights of pasturage there, (fn. 123) and when the Mosleys acquired the lordship took care to assert them, Rowland Mosley, the son of Sir Nicholas, compounding the disputes by a payment of £10 a year to the poor of Manchester, (fn. 124) payment being made till a century ago. (fn. 125) Francis Mosley, a younger son of Anthony of Ancoats, was settled on an estate at Collyhurst, (fn. 126) which descended on his death in 1662 to his granddaughter Anne, daughter of his son Nicholas, who died in 1659. (fn. 127) Both Nicholas and his father had had their estates sequestered for their fidelity to Charles I. (fn. 128) The heiress carried the estate in marriage to Robert Lever of Alkrington. (fn. 129)

Various districts of Manchester are named in the rentals of 1322 and 1473, some of which are now forgotten, e.g. Ashley, Choo, Clements Croft, Dancroft, Hobcroft, Kyperfield, and Riding Brook. (fn. 130)

Many of the neighbouring gentry held burgages and lands in the township of Manchester, (fn. 131) and there were also a number of the townsmen who acquired wealth and distinction. Some of them are noticed in the accounts of estates they acquired elsewhere; (fn. 132) of the rest may here be named Barlow, (fn. 133) Beck, (fn. 134) Beswick, (fn. 135) Bibby, (fn. 136) Bowker, (fn. 137) Boterind, (fn. 138) Gee, (fn. 139) Goodyear, (fn. 140) Hunt, (fn. 141) Laboray, (fn. 142) Pendleton, (fn. 143) with several note worthy offshoots; (fn. 144) Radcliffe (fn. 145) —several families, including those of the Conduit (fn. 146) and of the Pool; (fn. 147) Tetlow, (fn. 148) Tipping, (fn. 149) and Willott. (fn. 150) In some other cases the inquisitions have been preserved. (fn. 151) The only freeholders returned in 1600 were John Marler, Richard Haughton, Lawrence Langley, and William Barlow. (fn. 152) A pedigree of 'Ridge of Manchester' was recorded in 1665. (fn. 153)

The local surname was in use in the 13th and 14th centuries, but no connected history can be given of the family or families using it. (fn. 154)

The parish church has been described already and its history related. No other church for the Established worship was erected in the township till the beginning of the 18th century. In 1708 an Act was obtained for building a new church; (fn. 155) this was erected on a portion of Acres Field, and the Act provided for the continuance of the fair on part of the ground, while allowing the remainder of the land to be built upon. The rector's income was to be derived from pew-rents, and though baptisms, marriages, and burials were allowed, the fees and the registration pertained to the old church. (fn. 156) The Bishop of Chester was to appoint the incumbent; the patronage is now enjoyed by the Bishop of Manchester as his successor. (fn. 157) It was called St. Ann's, in compliment to the reigning monarch and to Ann, Lady Bland, lady of the manor, who resided at Hulme Hall, and took an active part in the work. (fn. 158) The building was begun in May, 1709, and consecrated on 12 July 1712. A district was assigned to it in 1839. (fn. 159) St. Ann's is a good type of the classic town church of its day, rectangular in plan with an apsidal east end and a west tower. It is built of red sandstone which has weathered so badly that the exterior has had to be almost wholly refaced in recent years. (fn. 160) Externally the building is of two stories with two tiers of large round-headed windows on each side having moulded sills, architraves, and keystones, but without impost mouldings, the upper windows lighting the galleries, and the wall being divided at half its height by a shallow entablature supported by very flat coupled Corinthian pilasters. In the upper stage the pilasters are without capitals and support a cornice only, above which is a square parapet formerly with balusters and ornamented with urns and vases, but now quite plain. There are entrances at the west end of the nave facing north and south, with pediments supported by coupled Corinthian columns, and the apse has fluted pilasters of the same order its full height with an entablature of good proportions the frieze of which is enriched with carved ornament. The tower is of three stages, the upper having a round-headed louvred belfry window flanked by coupled pilasters on each side. Below is a clock. The tower now terminates in a cornice and balustraded parapet, but originally had a curious cupola of three stages surmounted by a vane. This was removed in 1777, as it appeared to be in danger of falling, and was replaced by a steeple, which, however, stood only for a short time, the tower on its removal assuming its present appearance. Externally the general architectural effect is one of extreme flatness, hardly relieved by the apse and porches. (fn. 161) The interior preserves its galleries, but the original square columns have been made circular, and a general restoration in 1837 and subsequent improvements have made the interior one of much dignity. There is a good oak pulpit with inlaid panels and simple detail. The font was the gift of Francis Lathom of London, 1711. There is one bell, which bears the inscription, 'I to the church the living call, and to the grave do summon all. A. R., 1769.'

The plate comprises twenty-five pieces, eight belonging to the 17th century, fourteen to the 18th, and three to the 19th. The earliest is a complete set consisting of two chalices, two cover patens, two credence patens, a large flagon, and an almsdish of 1697, all with the mark of John Bathe. The flagon is inscribed, 'Ex dono Johannis Sandiford,' the cover patens, 'S. Ann's Church, Manchester,' and the almsdish, 'St. Ann's Manchester.' The other pieces are without inscription. The 18th-century plate comprises a tankard of 1701, inscribed 'St. Ann's Ch. M.'; a plate and two tankards of 1716, all inscribed, 'Given to St. Ann's Church by Mr. Edward Mosley, son of Oswald Mosley, Esq., of Ancoats in the parish of Manchester 1714'; (fn. 162) a small cup and cover paten of 1743; and a set formerly belonging to St. Mary's Church, consisting of two chalices, two cover patens, a credence paten, two flagons, and an almsdish, of 1756. The almsdish is inscribed 'The gift of Catherine Fisher widow, 1756,' and the credence paten has the following inscription: 'Dei gloriae et honori populi commodo et saluti ecclesia Sanctae Mariae pro lege lata A.D. 1753. Suscepta Festo Sancti Michaelis A.D. 1756 consecrata. Quo die hoc argenteum cum duobus calicibus lagenis et patinis ad eucharistiis perpetuo celebrandum guardiani et Socij Col. Christi in Mancr. jure patronatus gaudentes dederunt.'

St. Ann's Church, Manchester

There are also three chalices of 1841 made by Elkingtons, inscribed 'St. Ann's Church, Manchester. Rev. H. W. McGrath, M.A., Rector, 1841.' (fn. 163) The registers begin in 1736. (fn. 164)

The next church was built under an Act (fn. 165) obtained in 1753 by the warden and fellows of the collegiate church, after the old political animosities had decayed. It stood upon their land called the Parsonage Croft, lying between Deansgate and the Irwell, and was called St. Mary's. It was consecrated in 1756, and the incumbents, styled rectors, were presented by the warden and fellows. It was a plain classic building, with a spire 186 ft. high, which in its time was greatly admired. (fn. 166) There was a graveyard round the building. This church was pulled down in 1890, and the site is now an open grass-covered square. (fn. 167) The district, assigned in 1839, (fn. 168) has been annexed to St. Ann's.

St. Paul's, a plain brick edifice with a stone tower, was built on the eastern border of the town at the corner of Turner Street and Tib Street in 1765; (fn. 169) it was in 1878 replaced by the present St. Paul's, New Cross. (fn. 170) St. John's (the Evangelist) was built in 1769 in the Gothic of the time by Edward Byrom of Kersal, whose Manchester residence was close by; a graveyard is attached to it. (fn. 171) The tower was finished in May, 1770, and contains a ring of eight bells by Lester and Pack of London, 1768–9. St. James's, behind the Infirmary, was consecrated in 1787; in 1816 its congregation was 'the most numerous of any of the Established churches,' except the old church. This church also had a burial ground. (fn. 172) St. Michael's, Angel Street, on the way to Collyhurst, is a plain brick building, with burial ground attached, consecrated in 1787; the church was consecrated two years later. (fn. 173) St. Clement's, Lever Street, has now disappeared; it was opened in 1793 by licence. (fn. 174) St. Peter's, begun in 1788, consecrated in 1794, and demolished in 1907, was a small classic building, near the present town hall. (fn. 175) The patronage of all these churches, except, of course, St. Clement's, is vested in the dean and canons of Manchester.

St. George's Church, formerly distinguished as 'in the Fields,' stood upon part of the site of Oldham Road Station. It was a brick building, opened speculatively in 1798, but not succeeding was transferred to Lady Huntingdon's Connexion; it was restored to the establishment and consecrated in 1818. (fn. 176) In 1877 it was rebuilt in Oldham Road. The Bishop of Manchester has the patronage.

St. Matthew's, Campfield, (fn. 177) and St. Andrew's, Ancoats, (fn. 178) were built in 1825 and 1831 respectively, out of the Parliamentary grant for church building; the dean and canons of Manchester are patrons. They also present to All Souls', Ancoats, consecrated in 1840. (fn. 179) In this year another church in Ancoats was consecrated—St. Jude's, built in 1821 by the 'Tent Methodists,' (fn. 180) and sold by them in 1835; (fn. 181) it was rebuilt in 1866. St. Simon and St. Jude's in Granby Row was consecrated in 1842; the Bishop of Manchester was patron of this church, (fn. 182) and is still of St. Thomas's, Red Bank, 1844. (fn. 183) The other modern churches are:—St. Barnabas, near Oldham Road, consecrated 1844; (fn. 184) St. Philip's, Ancoats, 1850; (fn. 185) St. Oswald's, Collyhurst, 1855; (fn. 186) St. John, the Evangelist's Miles, Platting, 1855— twenty-five years ago famous for a Ritualistic controversy, the incumbent, the Rev. Sidney Faithorne Green, ultimately losing his benefice; (fn. 187) patron Sir A. P. Heywood; St. Catherine's, Collyhurst Road, 1859; (fn. 188) St. Peter's, Oldham Road, 1860; (fn. 189) the Albert Memorial Church, Collyhurst, 1864; (fn. 190) St. James the Less, near Great Ancoats, 1870; (fn. 191) St. Martin's Ancoats, 1873; (fn. 192) St. James's, on the site of Collyhurst Old Hall, 1874, (fn. 193) patron the representative of the Rev. C. N. Keeling, first rector, who died in 1907; and St. Saviour's, not yet consecrated, patron the Crown and Bishop of Manchester alternately. Where not otherwise stated the patronage is in the hands of various bodies of trustees. The incumbents are all styled rectors. St. Philip's and the Albert Memorial have mission halls.

From the Revolution down to the end of the 18th century, a non-juring congregation—the True British Catholic Church—existed in Manchester. Dr. Thomas Deacon, who died in 1753, was one of its bishops, (fn. 194) and Mr. Kenrick Price, a tea dealer, who died in Liverpool in 1790, was the last. (fn. 195)

The Church Congress held its meetings in Manchester in 1863, 1888, and 1908.

Methodism was early introduced into the town. Wesley was able to preach here in 1733, the Rev. John Clayton, afterwards an opponent, having been one of the early 'Methodists' of Oxford. (fn. 196) Methodism in the ordinary sense began to take root about 1747, a room near Blackfriars Bridge being used for meetings; Wesley preached at the market cross. A chapel was built in Birchin Lane at the back of High Street about 1750, (fn. 197) but was abandoned for the larger chapel in Oldham Street, built in 1780. (fn. 198) The Conference was held in Manchester in 1765, and sixteen times since. (fn. 199) A second chapel was built in Great Bridgewater Street in 1800, (fn. 200) and a third in Swan Street, Shude Hill, in 1808. The New Connexion built a chapel in High Street, (fn. 201) but afterwards were content with a smaller one in Oldham Street, opened in 1807. The Primitive Methodists built one in Jersey Street in 1824. (fn. 202) Others were built as the town developed, but some have been abandoned, owing to the displacement of population, and the following are those now in use:—Wesleyan Methodists: Five churches for their Manchester and Salford Mission, established in 1888, and three others in Collyhurst, &c., in the ordinary circuits, with a Welsh church, St. David's, in Collyhurst; (fn. 203) Primitive Methodists: Three, in Ancoats and Collyhurst; United Free Methodists: Four, in the Ancoats and Collyhurst districts; Independent Methodists: One, in Hanover Street.

The Baptists have long been established in the city. (fn. 204) The Particular or Calvinistic Baptist chapel in Coldhouse, Shude Hill, was built about 1740 and remained in use till 1890 or later. (fn. 205) Another, in Rochdale Road, was first built in 1789; (fn. 206) it was famous for the preaching of William Gadsby, minister there for 38 years, who died in 1844. It was rebuilt in 1908. There is another Baptist church at Queen's Park, Collyhurst.

The Congregationalists are known to have had a meeting place in Coldhouse in 1756, or perhaps earlier. (fn. 207) The introduction of Unitarian doctrine at Cross Street Chapel is believed to have had much to do with the formation of this separate assembly, which was Trinitarian. In 1762 a new building was erected in Hunter's Croft, Cannon Street; (fn. 208) it was soon enlarged, and in 1828 practically rebuilt. By 1856 the congregation had been dispersed in the suburbs, and in 1860 the building was sold, the church in Chorlton Road, Old Trafford, having taken its place. In 1807 a new church had branched off from Cannon Street, though not without friction, and opened a place of worship in Grosvenor Street, near the Infirmary. (fn. 209) An earlier secession from Cannon Street, in consequence of a dispute with the minister, led to the formation of a church in Mosley Street in 1788. (fn. 210) It was at Mosley Street Chapel that the Lancashire Union of Independent Churches was formed in 1806. This building was abandoned in 1848, being replaced by that in Cavendish Street, Chorlton upon Medlock; Dr. Robert Halley, the historian of Lancashire Puritanism, was minister at that time. Grosvenor Street Church is still in use, and there are five others, at Knott Mill, and between Ancoats and Collyhurst. There is also at Collyhurst a Welsh Congregational church.

The Presbyterian (fn. 211) Church of England has a place of worship in Ancoats. It is known as Chalmers Chapel, and was built in 1854. (fn. 212)

The Salvation Army has four barracks on the east and north-east fringe of the township.

The Quakers have existed in Manchester since the time of George Fox, who visited the town in 1647, and again in 1657; on the latter occasion the 'rude people' from the country threw at him 'coals, clods, stones and water,' but he remarks that 'the Lord hath since raised up a people to stand for His name and truth in that town.' (fn. 213) Their first meeting-house was in Jackson's Row; it was rebuilt in 1732, but quitted in 1795 for a new one in Mount Street; this was rebuilt in 1830. (fn. 214) It has a library containing early Quaker books.

The original Nonconformist chapel is that in Cross Street, which was built for Henry Newcome in 1693–4. (fn. 215) This celebrated divine had been chaplain of the Collegiate Church for a few years during the Commonwealth, but on the Restoration was not admitted to a fellowship. He then ministered in private as well as he could during the period of proscription from 1662 to 1687. He died the year after the chapel was opened, and was buried there. (fn. 216)

The site of the chapel had been known as Plungeon's meadow, from the owner's name. (fn. 217) The place was damaged by the mob in 1715, but was restored with the aid of a grant from Parliament. It was enlarged and rebuilt in 1737. There is a small graveyard.

The following is a list of the ministers of this chapel, some of whom were of more than local eminence (fn. 218) :—

Henry Newcome, M.A., 1687–95
John Chorlton, 1687–1705
James Coningham, M.A., 1700–12
Eliezer Birch, 1710–17
Joseph Mottershead, 1717–71
Joshua Jones, 1725–40
John Seddon, M.A., 1741–69
Robert Gore, 1770–79
Ralph Harrison, 1771–1810
Thomas Barnes, D.D., 1780–1810
John Grundy, 1811–24
John Gooch Robberds, 1811–54
John Hugh Worthington, 1825–7
William Gaskell, M.A., 1828–54
James Panton Ham, 1855–59
James Drummond, D.D., 1860–69
Samuel Alfred Steinthal, 1871–93
William Hamilton Drummond, B.A., 1889–93
Edwin Pinder Barrow, M.A., 1893

It was under the joint pastorate of Mottershead and Seddon that the teaching changed from Trinitarian to Unitarian. A secession in 1789 led to the formation of a second Unitarian congregation in Mosley Street, which in 1837 moved to Chorlton upon Medlock. (fn. 219) Sunday schools are now maintained in Lower Mosley Street, and there is also a church in Collyhurst. The Academy for training Nonconformist ministers, originally founded at Warrington, was re-established at Manchester in 1786; it was transferred to York in 1803, and afterwards to Chorlton upon Medlock, London, and Oxford, where, as Manchester College, it is still flourishing. (fn. 220)

The Swedenborgians had a temple called, as usual, New Jerusalem, built in 1793 in Peter Street. (fn. 221) It was sold before 1890, and churches built at Moss Side, Broughton, and Pendleton.

The Bible Christians had Christ Church, built in 1823 in Every Street, and known as the Round Chapel. It came into the possession of the Salvation Army. (fn. 222)

Mormon missionaries visited the town in 1840.

The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists formerly had a chapel in Cooper Street, built in 1824. (fn. 223)

The Dutch Evangelicals or Lutherans in 1857 had a meeting-place in John Dalton Street.

There exist a City Mission founded in 1837 and supported by what are known as the Evangelical denominations, and a Domestic Mission, which is Unitarian.

The adherents of the ancient faith appear to have disappeared very quickly after the Reformation, and by the end of Elizabeth's reign there were probably few known in the whole parish except the Barlows of Barlow. (fn. 224) In 1651 Richard Martinscroft, 'a poor old man, over sixty years of age,' is found to have had two-thirds of his estate 'sequestered for his recusancy only': he had a large house in Manchester, divided into three dwellings, but lived two or three miles away. (fn. 225) The list of 'Papists' supplied to Bishop Gastrell about 1717 records only thirteen in Manchester and three in Salford, (fn. 226) but a later list, 1767, gives the number as 373, principally in Manchester, Salford, and Stretford. (fn. 227) What attempts were made to provide priests in the first century of the proscription is unknown, but soon after the Restoration one Thomas Weedon had charge of a large district including most of the Salford and Macclesfield Hundreds, and appears to have resided chiefly at Manchester, where he died in 1719. (fn. 228) Mass, it is related, was said in secret near the present Blackfriars Bridge, in a room which was used as a warehouse during the week. (fn. 229) About 1760 rooms were secured off Church Street in the passage on that account known as Roman Entry. Some fifteen years later a house containing a large room to be used as a church was built in Rook Street. (fn. 230) It was known as St. Chad's, and is now represented by St. Chad's, Cheetham Hill Road, erected in 1847. St. Mary's in Mulberry Street was built in 1794, (fn. 231) and rebuilt in 1835; the roof fell in soon afterwards, but the church remained in use until 1847, when the present one, on the same confined site, was erected, being dedicated in 1848. To these have been added St. Augustine's, 1820; (fn. 232) St. Patrick's, 1832; (fn. 233) St. Anne's, Ancoats, 1847–8; St. Michael's, 1859; and St. Alban's, Ancoats. St. William's, Angel Meadow, 1864, is a chapel of ease to St. Chad's; and the Polish mission of St. Casimir, 1904, to St. Patrick's. The Sisters of Charity have a night refuge in Ancoats.

The Jews had a synagogue, a humble room off Long Millgate, a century ago; about 1826 they built one in Halliwell Street, which has now disappeared. (fn. 234)

Among the distinguishing features of Whit-week in Manchester are the processions of the Sunday School children. They began in 1801.


  • 1. In the present account advantage has been taken of Prof. James Tait's study of the barony, manor, and borough in his Mediaeval Manch. published in 1904.
  • 2. The 'manor' in the narrowest sense included the townships of Manchester, Harpurhey, Blackley, Bradford, and Beswick. At Blackley was the lord's deerpark; at Bradford was a wood, and another wood was at Alport (within Manchester). The manor was usually understood in a wider sense, the extent of 1322 mentioning seven or eight hamlets— Ardwick, Openshaw (Gorton), Crumpsall, Moston, Nuthurst, Ancoats, and Gotherswick; Mamecestre (Chet. Soc.), ii, 371.
  • 3. The extent of the manor made in 1282, soon after the death of Robert Grelley, gives an account of the manorhouse of Manchester with its orchard, the small park called Aldparc and Litheak, the park of Blakeley with its trees and eyries of sparrowhawks, plats of demesne land at Bradford, Brunhill, Greenlawmon, Openshaw Cross, the Hules, Kepirfield, Millward Croft, Samland, and Kipirclip; rents from Denton and Farnworth, from the water-mill, fulling mill, and oven of Manchester, from the burgages, market, and fair there, from the ploughings near the vill, from Openshaw, the bondsmen of Gorton, the Hall land and mill of the same place, the bondsmen of Ardwick, a plat called Twantirford, and the bondsmen of Crumpsall; from the free foreign tenants, sake fee and castle guard, farm of the bailiwicks (five foot bailiffs), perquisites of the borough court and of the manor court, and the value of the Withington ploughing. Of all these the value was £84 12s. 6¼d., the corn-mill alone paying more than onefifth, and the burgage rents and market and fair tolls nearly one-sixth. In addition the lord of Manchester drew revenues from Heaton Norris, Barton, Cuerdley, and Horwich Forest. The clear annual value of the whole was £124 11s. 8¼d.; Lancs. Inqs. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 244–48.
  • 4. Though Thomas Grelley was styled lord of Manchester till his death, he had in 1309 transferred to Sir John La Warre and Joan his wife the manor of Manchester with its appurtenances, the advowsons of the churches of Manchester and Ashton, all homages, rents, fisheries, chases, liberties, &c., at a rent of 100 marks to Thomas during his life; Mamecestre, ii, 248–52. An elaborate extent made in 1320–2 has been preserved. It gives the bounds of the lordship of Manchester, showing that it included the whole of the parishes of Manchester and Ashton except Salford, with its dependencies of Broughton and Cheetham; Reddish, Stretford, and Trafford. It is noticeable that the small portion of Manchester which projects into Cheetham north of the Irk was then within the manor; the present North Street seems to be that called the Causey. The manor-house and appurtenant land occupied about two acres; outside the gate was a house formerly a dog-kennel, and beyond the stable wall was a plot of pasture bounded by the Irk and the Irwell. There were a mill by the Irk at which the tenants of the vill and adjacent hamlets were bound to grind their corn to the sixteenth measure; a common oven; and a walk-mill. The fisheries were those of the Irk, Medlock, and Gorebrook, and half of the Irwell. The free tenants within Manchester were John Bibby, Robert son of Hugh, Adam de Radcliffe, and Richard son of Clement, holding in all 16 acres of land. Full details are given of the arable land (being seventy-one oxgangs), heath land, meadow, and pasture; also the woods, moors, and mosses, mostly situated in the surrounding hamlets. The lord had ten villeins in Ardwick, Gorton, and Crumpsall; none in Manchester itself, where the burgesses were relieved of agricultural services. In addition to money rents the villeins had to do a day's ploughing on the lord's demesne with their own ploughs, a day's harrowing, a day's reaping in autumn, and a day's carrying of corn in their own carts; they had also to carry mill-stones, when needed, from the quarry to the mill. At death the lord had a right to a third of the villein's goods, and in certain cases took a fine on the marriage of a daughter. Customary services were also required from the tenants of Withington, though this was a distinct manor. The manor was held of the Earl of Lancaster by five-and-a-quarter knights' fees, paying £4 2s. 6d. for sake fee and £2 12s. 6d. for ward of Lancaster Castle; suit to the county and wapentake courts had to be compounded for by fines of 20s. and 13s. 4d. The Manchester court baron, held from three weeks to three weeks, was attended by judges from Childwall, Harwood, Pilkington, and the other subordinate manors of the fee; the lord claimed toll, team, infangenthief and out-fangenthief; and 'be it known that the pleas there are impleaded according to the custom nearest to the common law.' The value of the whole barony to the lord seems to have been about £440 a year; Mamecestre, ii, 273–421. The liberties of the manor (or barony) were in 1359 declared to include, besides infangenthief, peace-breach, &c., those of the gallows, pit, pillory, and tumbril; ibid. iii, 449.
  • 5. Among the lands of Thomas La Warre were Hall field and Hardecroft, specially settled in 1411; also John de Hulton's Field and Ingelfield, the bounds of which began at Barlow Cross in the highway from Manchester to Stanedge, went by that highway to the lane to Beswick Bridge as far as Shootersbrook, thence to the head of Dogsfield, and by the boundary as far as the lane from Ancoats to Manchester, and so to Barlow Cross; Chan. Inq. p.m. 5 Hen. VI, no. 54. The uses for which these and other lands were committed to trustees are not stated. The jury declared John Griffin to be heir general of Thomas La Warre, ignoring the half-sister's issue. A number of notices respecting the lands of Thomas La Warre may be seen in Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 337–9, 346; xxxiii, App. 27–9. The inquisition after the death of Sir Reginald West in 1450 has some particulars of the manor, which included the hamlets of Withington, Denton, Openshaw, Clayton, Ardwick, Crumpsall, Moston, Nuthurst, Gotherswick, and Ancoats, as well as a borough commonly called Manchester of which each burgess paid 12d. yearly for a whole burgage and in which there was (or ought to be) a common oven at which all the burgesses and residents ought to bake. The fishery of the Irk, Medlock, and Gorebrook was the lord's, as well as the Manchester half of the Irwell. There were two mills, one a fulling-mill, the other for grain; at the latter all the burgesses and tenants of the borough and hamlets ought by custom to grind to the fifteenth grain. Richard West, the son and heir, was nineteen years of age; Lancs. Rec. Inq. p.m. no. 41, 42; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 177. The rental of 1473, printed in Mamecestre, iii, 477–91, shows the sums for castle ward and sake fee received from the tenants by knight's service, the chief rents, tolls, and other rents and dues from the whole barony, the net total reaching £131. From Manchester proper the principal receipts were the burgage rents £8 0s. 3d., the fair and market tolls £3 6s. 8d., corn mill £6, fulling mill £2, rents of Over and Nether Alport £4 13s. 4d. In 1503 the manor with its hamlets was restored by the king to Thomas Lord La Warre for a year; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxi, p. 32 d. The will of Thomas (son of Richard) Lord La Warre, dated 1505, is printed in N. and Q. (Ser. 8), iv, 382; it names his sons Sir Thomas, William, and Owen. Thomas West, Lord La Warre, was in 1498 called upon to show by what warrant he claimed to hold Manchester as a free borough and market town, with amends of the assize of bread and ale, infangenthief, peace-breach, gallows, pillory, and tumbril, market and fair, free warren, and other liberties; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. (20 Aug. 13 Hen. VII). An Act of Parliament was passed in 1552 settling the manor of Manchester on Thomas, Lord La Warre, with remainders to his half-brother, Sir Owen West, and to the heirs male of Sir George West, &c.
  • 6. Mamecestre, iii, 523. Lacy was mortgagee of Sir Thomas West, Lord La Warre, and his son William West; and his loan not being repaid he foreclosed and obtained possession in 1581 or 1582, being recognized as lord of the manor at the court leet of April 1582; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 225. It was while the sale was imminent that Sir John Radcliffe, as deputy steward of the hundred or manor of Salford, began to amerce inhabitants of Over Hulton, Rumworth, Lostock, Aspull, Harwood, Pilkington, Heaton, Halliwell, Chorlton, Withington, Heaton Norris, Westhoughton, and Ashton under Lyne, in the view of frankpledge held in Salford, on account of their non-appearance. Thereby Lord La Warre was not able to pay the rent due to the queen for the town and manor of Manchester, the inhabitants being illegally compelled to appear at the Salford leet. Sir Edmund Trafford, as seised of the town of Chorlton, made complaint about the matter in 1578, and Lord La Warre at the same time stated that the inhabitants of Failsworth, Droylsden, Ashton under Lyne, Gorton, and Moston had refused to pay amercements for absence from the Manchester leets at Michaelmas and Easter; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. cviii, W. 1.
  • 7. a Mamecestre, iii, 523, 524; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 110.
  • 8. See further in the accounts of Withington and other townships. The history of the family is given in the Baronetage, in Sir Oswald Mosley's Family Memoirs, and in E. Axon's Mosley Fam. Mem. (Chet. Soc.). Sir Nicholas Mosley died at Withington on 12 Dec. 1612, holding the manor of Manchester of the king as of his duchy of Lancaster by three knights' fees; its clear value was £40; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 4. His son Rowland, then over fifty-four years of age, died on 23 Feb. 1616–17, holding the manor as before, and a capital messuage called Alport Lodge by the twentieth part of a knight's fee. Edward, his son and heir, was not six months old; ibid. ii, 66–70.
  • 9. See the account of Withington.
  • 10. Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. v, 78, 116; the dispute over Sir Edward's will lasted until 1669, so that the first court held in his widow's name was in 1670. The courts were held in the names of Charles (Lord) North and Katherine his wife till 1679, and thence till 1683 in Lord North's name alone. From 1683 Edward Mosley was lord of the manor; cf. Axon's Mosley Fam. Mem. and Earwaker's introduction to Ct. Leet Rec. vi.
  • 11. See the account of Ancoats.
  • 12. Mamecestre, iii, 530; Sir Oswald had in 1815 offered to sell the manor to the inhabitants for £90,000, and rejected the counter offer of £70,000 made by them. He died in 1871.
  • 13. Printed in Mamecestre, i, 90; Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 342.
  • 14. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 245, 246. The burgage rents amounted to £7 3s. 2d. or 1431/6 burgages. The perquisites of the court of the borough were reckoned as worth 8s., while those of the court baron were worth 100s.
  • 15. Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 56; Mamecestre, i, 45; the grant was made to Robert Grelley, who had obtained a preliminary grant in 1222, 'until the full age of the king'; ibid. 46. The tolls levied on both buyers and sellers in 1320 are printed ibid. ii, 316–25. Besides cattle and poultry, grain and provisions, honey, wax, fish (herring and salmon being named), and pottery there were exported linen cloth, coals, bakestones and iron. A burgess was by the charter free of tolls, unless he used the stall or shop of a stranger. The profits of the tolls and stallage were £6 13s. 4d.; Mamecestre, i, 287.
  • 16. A burgess might freely sell land which he had not inherited, but his heir had a right of pre-emption; inherited land could, as a rule, be sold only with the heir's consent. A burgess might sell his burgage and buy another, or transfer it to a neighbour; if he sold it, wishing to leave the town altogether, he must give the lord 4d. He could transfer his personal chattels to anyone within the fee without the lord's interference, and in case he had no heir could bequeath his burgage and chattels to anyone. In 1312 Sir John La Warre, lord of Manchester, granted Thomas Marecall and John Bibby plots of land in the marketplace 'for a half-burgage'—ad dimidium burgagium—measuring 40 ft. by 20 ft., at rents of 6d. sterling each; Manch. Corp. D. One burgage was called the Kennel; it was opposite the gates of the lord's manor house; ibid. dated 1333, 1340, 1345.
  • 17. The swine were allowed to go into the woods freely during summer time, but not in mast-time.
  • 18. A small facsimile of the charter is printed as a frontispiece to Mamecestre; the text and a translation are printed in the same work, ii, 212–39. Professor Tait has printed the text so as to show its agreement or otherwise with the charters of Salford and Stockport, and has given a commentary and translation, in Mediaev. Manch. 62–119. The borough port mote was in 1320 held four times a year. To its meetings every burgess was bound to come, either in person or by his eldest son or his wife; the burgess, being usually a trader, might often be absent from the town on business. If necessary a law mote might be held between the hall motes for the more speedy administration of justice. The profits of the port motes and law motes were estimated at 13s. 4d. a year; Mamecestre, ii, 287, 315. The customs of the charter seem to have been in full force.
  • 19. In 1341 it was declared that there was no city or borough within the wapentake of Salford; Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 39. The record of the inquiry of 1359 is printed in Mamecestre, iii, 447–50; see also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 339, 346. It appears that the officers of the Duke of Lancaster had fined certain persons in Manchester for breach of the assize of bread and ale, also for breach of the peace; whereupon Sir Roger La Warre put forward his claim to hold the vill of Manchester as 'a borough and market town' with amends of the aforesaid breaches and with various other liberties, particularly those to 'a borough and market-town' appertaining. The jury, after due consideration, reported that Sir Roger did not hold the vill as a 'borough,' nor had his ancestors so held it; but they had, from time without mind, held it as a 'market-town,' enjoying all the liberties claimed by Sir Roger both in the vill and in the manor of Manchester. Afterwards an agreement was come to between the duke and the lord, the latter agreeing to pay 50 marks; but this sum was remitted on 8 Jan. 1359–60, Sir Roger La Warre having justified his claim. The names of the burgage-holders in 1473 are printed in Mamecestre, iii, 487– 91. About ninety burgages are accounted for, and the rents, together with the rents for the lands in the town, amounted to £8 0s. 3d. The market tolls were leased for £3 6s. 8d.
  • 20. Tait, Mediaev. Manch. 57.
  • 21. The usual heading of the record is Curia cum visu franci plegii, but in Sept. 1562 it is in English, 'The Portmouthe' &c.; Manch. Ct. Leet. Rec. i, 75.
  • 22. Edited by the late J. P. Earwaker, and published at the expense of the corporation in 1884 and later years. The printed series, in twelve volumes, extends from 1552 to 1687, and 1731 to 1846. The records from 1642 to 1646, 1666 to 1669, 1688 to 1730 are missing. The Manchester Constables' Accounts from 1612 to 1647 and from 1742 to 1776 have also been printed in three volumes. Attention may be directed to the lists of uncommon or provincial words added to each volume.
  • 23. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 1–4. Three sets of burleymen were appointed for the districts of (1) Marketstead Lane, (2) Deansgate, (3) Withy Grove, Hanging Ditch, Millgate, and so to Irk Bridge. Seven sets of scavengers were appointed to look after the cleansing of the following streets:—(1) Marketstead Lane, (2) Deansgate and St. Mary's Gate, (3) Old Marketstead, (4) Smithy Door, (5) Fennel Street, (6) Millgate and Hunt's Bank, and (7) Hanging Ditch and Millgate. The growth of the town is shown by the increase in the number of these districts, and the modifications of their arrangement. Only fifty-four officers were appointed in 1562, but sixty-six in 1572 and seventy in 1582; ibid. i, 75, 147, 229. The number had sprung up to ninety-three by 1601, to 117 in 1661, and to 135 in 1761. Two or three officers were specially appointed 'for the making clean of the market-place'; in 1570 two of them were women; ibid. i, 134. The same catchpoll was usually re-elected from year to year; but this officer disappears before 1731.
  • 24. Ibid. i, 112. He had to collect the swine every morning, blowing his horn as a signal, and take them to Collyhurst; ibid. i, 114, 117. For an anticipatory order see i, 15.
  • 25. Ibid. i, 158; a fresh order was made in 1614; ibid. ii, 293; also iii, 163. As time went on he had assistants provided. There are many particulars as to his dress; e.g. iii, 242.
  • 26. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 199, 200. Butter and suet were forbidden to be put into bread or cakes; ibid. i, 69, 259. Later, butter and eggs were forbidden in gingerbread; ibid. iii, 320. Breadmakers in 1639 were ordered to sell to innkeepers and others at thirteen to the dozen, not at sixteen as they had begun to do. Ibid. iii, 289.
  • 27. In the 16th century, judging from the regulations for dunghills, privies, pigsties and gutters, the town was unsavoury. Casting carrion and other offensive matter into the Irwell and Irk was forbidden; ibid. i, 67, 80, 122; iii, 60.
  • 28. In 1573 collectors were appointed to gather money for the repair of the conduit, a 'special ornament of the town,' and bring water to it from fresh springs; ibid. i, 160. The conduit was in 1586 ordered to be unlocked in the winter from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m., and in the summer from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m., and from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m.; this was the revival of an order made in 1536; ibid. i, 259. Washing at the conduit was forbidden in 1586; ibid. i, 257.
  • 29. See, for example, the order to a skindresser, ibid. i, 117.
  • 30. In 1461 it was allowed that each burgage plot should have a clear space of ground from the house front to the middle of the channel; to this the lord had no claim, but the burgess could not build upon it or close it up, and had to keep it clean; De Trafford D. no. 49.
  • 31. The first presentment recorded is 'that Lawrence Langley hath encroached upon the king's highway with building of a house'; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 4; see also 118, 185. Erecting a porch in front of a house was a favourite practice, but was often forbidden as obstructing the pathway; i, 185. Stiles were ordered to be erected at the ends of byways; ibid. i, 22. Leaving baulks of timber about the streets appears to have been a common offence; e.g. i, 103.
  • 32. See the regulations made in 1568 for keeping the market-place clean. Horses were not to be tied there to be fed; coopers and apple dealers were to pay a small fee to the scavenger; fish-dealers at Smithy Door must fix their boards over the channel; ibid. i, 121. The standing place of dealers in turnips, besoms, and straw hats was regulated in 1578; ibid. i, 201. By 1593 a second weekly market had grown up, so that Saturday and Monday were market days; and ten years later a smallwares market on Friday was forbidden, but had at last to be allowed; ibid. ii, 78, 189, 295.
  • 33. The law in this matter was kept in force. In 1582 John Birch alias Crook, miller, was forbidden to buy any malt, grain, or corn within the market, and sell it again in the said market; ibid, i, 232. The offences were guarded against as late as 1771; Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 206.
  • 34. An order was made in 1566 that lawful weights of brass should be provided and sealed with the town seal; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 104. The lord of the manor was requested to provide a standard set for use in Manchester; ibid. i, 126, 154. The market-lookers had charge of them; ibid. i, 256. In later volumes of the Records will be found numerous lists of persons fined for using wrong measures.
  • 35. See the injunctions to tanners; ibid. i, 184, &c., and as to wet rug or cotton in the streets; i, 129.
  • 36. Thus, an angry woman was punished for calling someone 'no honest man' and 'a recetter (receiver) of thieves.' Two women who had stolen 'chips' from a house 'contrary to honesty and civil order, and to the evil example of all good people,' were sent to condign punishment; afterwards they were to kneel down and ask mercy from God and the person defrauded. An eaves-dropper was expelled from the town in 1573; ibid. i, 24, 70, 155.
  • 37. The jury in 1573 expressed the opinion that thirty alehouses and inns were enough for Manchester; ibid. i, 153. In 1588 complaint was made of the number of alehouses and bakers in the town; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 127. It had been ordered in 1560 that no one should brew or sell unless he had 'two honest beds' for travellers; in which case he must hang out a hand as a sign. Those who had a larger number of beds were also to show 'a fair and commendable sign' for the benefit of strangers; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 60. Further regulations were made from time to time; no drink or food was to be sold, except to passengers, during time of divine service; drunken men were to be punished by a night in the dungeon; ibid. i, 151, 161, 185.
  • 38. Single women were not to be 'at their own hands' and bake, brew or otherwise trade for themselves; nor might they keep any house or chamber in the town; ibid. i, 241. 'Inmakes' and strangers were not to be received as lodgers unless they had appeared before the constables of the town and given an account of themselves: this was to prevent the settling of beggars and idle persons; ibid. i, 226.
  • 39. No one was to pay more than 4d. at a wedding dinner; ibid. i, 84. This order was frequently renewed.
  • 40. In 1569 the lord of the manor was requested to make 'a pair of stocks'; ibid. i, 126. The dungeon was the old chapel on the bridge. It appears to have had an upper and a lower chamber; ibid. It remained in use until 1778, when on the bridge being widened it was removed. A cage, or temporary place of confinement, was also in use in 1590; ibid. ii, 47. The cross, stocks, and cage are mentioned as standing near each other in the market place in 1600; ibid. ii, 163. A House of Correction existed in 1615; ibid. ii, 335. The Cucking-stool Pool is named in 1586, and the cuckstool was 'in great decay' in 1590; ibid. ii, 6, 47, 178. This instrument of punishment remained in use till 1775 or later. The pillory or gallows ordered in 1625 were in use in the Civil War; ibid. iii, 80, 93,; iv, 64. Whipping was a punishment used for both men and women; ibid. ii, 333, 334.
  • 41. Two waits were appointed in 1563; ibid. i, 83. They were to 'do their duties in playing morning and evening together, according as others have been heretofore accustomed to do'; ibid. i, 115. There were four waits in all, and in 1588 and later it was found necessary to protect them from the competition of 'strange pipers and other minstrels' who came to play at weddings, &c.; ibid. ii, 29, 163, 164.
  • 42. The butts were erected at different times in Marketstead Lane, and at Collyhurst, also at Alport and in Garrett Lane; ibid. i, 55, 177, 196; iii, 142. Each burgess was in 1566 ordered to provide an 'able man' armed with bill, halberd or other weapon to attend the steward upon fair days; ibid. i, 100. This entry was marked out. There is an essay on Manchester Archery in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xviii, 61.
  • 43. No one over twelve years of age was allowed to play 'giddy-gaddy or the cat's pallet'; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 205. Football in the streets was forbidden in 1608 because of the 'great disorder' it caused, and the charges incurred by the inhabitants in 'making and amending of their glass windows, broken yearly and spoiled by a company of lewd and disordered persons'; ibid. ii, 239. The word 'yearly' should be noticed.
  • 44. Stocks of firewood, gorse and 'kids,' or bundles of brushwood, were in 1590 ordered to be removed to a distance from each dwelling-house; ibid. ii, 50, 51; see also 83, 288. A dangerous fire led the jury in 1616 to order a lay for providing ladders, buckets, hooks, and ropes to be ready in case of any like casualty; ibid. ii, 308. In 1636 the watchmen were engaged to walk the town from 10 p.m. to 4 a.m. in order to discover or prevent outbreaks of fire; ibid. iii, 248.
  • 45. The watchman of 1568 had to provide himself with a jack, a sallet, and a bill at least; ibid. i, 123. It was suspected in 1578 that the watchmen had been bribed by gamesters and other evil-doers, and the constables were exhorted to appoint none but 'honest, discreet and sober men . . . favourers to virtue and enemies to vice'; ibid. i, 195. The night-watch for protection against fire and burglary was appointed in 1636; ibid. iii, 248.
  • 46. Those persons who did not send their swine to Collyhurst in charge of the swineherd were ordered to keep them safely in their back premises; Ct. Leet. Rec. i, 15. Pigsties were not to be placed near the street; ibid. 50. Mastiffs and great 'ban dogs' or bitches were not to go abroad unmuzzled; ibid. 72, 241. This order was frequently renewed.
  • 47. Ibid. iii, 266 (1638). An earlier payment is recorded in 1613; Manch. Constables' Accts. i, 9.
  • 48. A list of the 'Committee for the detection and prosecution of felons, and receivers of stolen or embezzled goods' is printed in the first Manchester Directory of 1772; see also Procter, Bygone Manch. 99.
  • 49. A find of twenty-two 'old Halfaced groats called "crossed groats" ' was recorded in 1575; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 171. A stray mare having remained in the pound a year and a day became the property of the lord; three proclamations had been made; ibid. i, 253.
  • 50. Dr. Aikin, writing about 1790, thought that Manchester's being an 'open town' was 'probably to its advantage'; Country round Manch. 191. The reason was that there were no 'such regulations as are made in corporations, to favour freemen in exclusion to strangers'; Ogden, Description.
  • 51. 32 Geo. III, cap. 69. An earlier Act (5 Geo. III, cap. 81) had been obtained for cleansing and lighting the streets. An abstract of the contract of 1799 for lighting the town is given in the Directory for 1800; spermaceti and seal oils were to be used; the lamps were to be lighted for seven months in the year, and twenty dark nights were reckoned in each month.
  • 52. The Act was several times amended. In 1829 the commissioners for the two townships were definitely separated, and those for Manchester became a limited number elected by the different police districts. The following was the method of government immediately preceding incorporation: The borough reeve and two constables were elected at the court leet by a jury of the most influential inhabitants summoned by the deputy steward of the manor. The duties and precedence of the borough reeve were similar to those of the mayor of a borough; the constables took cognizance of the policing of the town, having a paid deputy who superintended the day police. The night force was under the rule of the police commissioners, who also superintended the fire police, hackney coaches, lighting and scavenging. The commissioners, 240 in all, were elected in varying number by the fourteen districts into which the town had been divided for watch purposes; the borough reeve and two constables were added ex officio. The voters were occupiers of entire tenements rated at not less than £16; persons occupying tenements rated at £28, or owning premises of £150 yearly value, were eligible as commissioners. Eighty commissioners retired yearly. They were empowered to levy rates not exceeding 1s. 6d. in the pound. See Wheeler's Manch. 305–23.
  • 53. 30 Geo. III, cap. 81.
  • 54. The waterworks company obtained an Act in 1809 (49 Geo. III, cap. 192) for supplying Manchester and Salford. The powers were enlarged in 1813 and several times subsequently.
  • 55. This work had been begun in 1777 under an Act for widening several streets in the centre of the town and opening new streets; 16 Geo. III, cap. 63. The highways were regulated by an Act of 1819 (59 Geo. III, cap. 22), each township being thereby made responsible for its own roads.
  • 56. In 1813 a paid stipendiary magistrate was appointed under a local Act (53 Geo. III, cap. 72), William David Evans, afterwards knighted, being the first. A court of requests, for the recovery of small debts, was established in 1808; 48 Geo. III, cap. 43.
  • 57. The town had returned members to the Parliaments of 1654 and 1656. The Parliamentary borough of 1832 included not only the township of Manchester but the adjoining ones of Harpurhey, Newton, Bradford, Beswick, Ardwick, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Hulme, and Cheetham. Of these the first three were not included in the municipal borough of 1838. Two members were allowed by the Act, and the first were Mark Philips and Charles Poulett Thomson, elected 13 and 14 Dec. 1832; both belonged to the Liberal or reforming party. A third representative was allowed by the Act of 1867, and at the ensuing election (17 Nov. 1868) a Conservative and two Liberals were returned. Under the Redistribution Act of 1884 the boundaries were enlarged, but the area was divided into six constituencies, returning one member each, and called North-west, North, North-east, East, South, and South-west Manchester. At the election on 26 Nov. 1885 five Conservatives (including Mr. A. J. Balfour) and one Liberal were returned.
  • 58. The charter is dated 23 Oct. 1838. For some time there was a dispute as to its legality. The borough was divided into fifteen wards, of which New Cross, St. Michael's, Collegiate Church, St. Clement's, Exchange, Oxford, St. James's, St. John's and St. Ann's were in the township of Manchester; All Saints' and St. Luke's in Chorlton; St. George's and Medlock Street in Hulme; Ardwick ward included both Ardwick and Beswick, and Cheetham coincided with the township of that name. Each ward had an alderman and three councillors, except New Cross, which had a double representation. The police force was handed over to the corporation in 1842, and in the following year the commissioners' powers were transferred to it; 6 & 7 Vict. cap. 17.
  • 59. By Letters Patent 29 Mar. 1853.
  • 60. No change was made between 1838 and 1885, in which year Bradford, Harpurhey, and Rusholme were added to the municipality by the City Extension Act, 1885. In 1890 Blackley, Moston, Crumpsall, Clayton, Kirkmanshulme, Newton Heath, Openshaw and part of Gorton were included; City of Manchester Order 1890. Lastly, in 1904, Moss Side, Withington, Chorlton with Hardy, Burnage and Didsbury were added. In 1896 the townships then in the borough were consolidated into three— Manchester, North Manchester, and South Manchester—the old township boundaries being obliterated. The first was the old township of Manchester, the second was formed of the old townships of Beswick, Bradford, Clayton, Kirkmanshulme, Newton Heath, Harpurhey, Blackley, Moston, Crumpsall and Cheetham; the third, of the old townships of Ardwick, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Hulme, Rusholme (including parts of Moss Side and Withington), Openshaw and West Gorton. Two of these townships were modern, created in 1894, Clayton having been the western part of Droylsden and West Gorton of Gorton.
  • 61. The present wards are: Collegiate Church, from the church north-eastwards and south to Lever Street and Piccadilly; Exchange, south of the former, including the old market-place but not the Exchange building; New Cross, between Oldham Road and the Medlock, including the eastern part of Ancoats; St. Michael's, between Oldham Road and the Irk; St. Clement's, between Piccadilly and Great Ancoats; Oxford, touching the Medlock, and including Gaythorn; St. James's, including the Town Hall, Infirmary and Central Station; St. Ann's, including the church of that name, the Free Library and Exchange building; St. John's, the corner between the Irwell and Medlock. The above nine are all within the township of Manchester, part of which (Collyhurst) is included with the old township of Harpurhey to form the Harpurhey Ward. Medlock Street and St. George's Wards are the east and west portions of Hulme; St. Luke's and All Saints' of Chorltonupon-Medlock. Ardwick coincides with the former township; Bradford includes Beswick, Bradford and Clayton; Chorlton with Hardy, Withington, and Didsbury are formed from the townships so named and Burnage, with certain adjustments of boundaries; Moss Side East and West are the divisions of Moss Side; Openshaw and Rusholme coincide with those townships; Longsight is formed from Kirkmanshulme and part of West Gorton, the rest of the latter township being St. Mark's Ward; Newton Heath and Miles Platting are the east and west portions of Newton; Blackley and Moston includes those townships and part of Prestwich (added in 1903); Crumpsall and Cheetham coincide with the old townships. Each ward has an alderman and three councillors, except New Cross, which has six councillors. There is also an alderman not attached to any particular ward.
  • 62. Hibbert-Ware, Manch. Foundations, iii, 8, &c.
  • 63. Mosley, Fam. Mem. 43; the feoffees of the school prosecuted Sir Oswald Mosley in 1732 for having erected a malt mill in Hanging Ditch, and won their case. See Axon, Annals, 82; Hibbert-Ware, op. cit. 35–42, where particulars of many suits may be seen.
  • 64. 32 Geo. II, cap. 61.
  • 65. In 1783 the three mills were employed thus: The upper one, by Scotland Bridge, used for grinding malt; the central one, let as a corn mill; the lower one, near the college, let as a frieze and fulling mill, with a snuff manufactory attached; Ogden, Description.
  • 66. There was formerly (1766 onwards) a windmill in Deansgate, Windmill Street denoting its position; Procter, Manch. Streets, 131.
  • 67. See Ogden's Description.
  • 68. Mosley, Fam. Mem. 60–63; Axon, Annals; Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 1276. The market was discontinued in 1803.
  • 69. In 1790 and 1791 the lord of the manor brought actions to establish his claim to a Saturday market for flour, oatmeal, &c.; Axon, Manch. Annals, 117 118. In 1806 he sought to compel two persons to undertake the office of constable; they pleaded that they had obtained the conviction of someone for a capital offence—such offences were then very numerous—and judgement was given in their favour. Such certificates as they exhibited were called 'Tyburn tickets'; ibid. 136.
  • 70. Mosley, Fam. Mem. 77.
  • 71. 9 & 10 Vict. cap. 219 and 10 Vict. cap. 14. 'Butchers and fishmongers were empowered to sell in their private shops upon taking out an annual licence from the corporation; and by the schedules to the Act the maximum rates of tolls, stallage, and rent to be paid in respect of goods sold in the market and for space occupied therein were definitely fixed'; Axon, Annals. It was afterwards held that the Act had created an entirely new market; ibid. 391.
  • 72. Ibid. 398.
  • 73. Smithfield Market, Shudehill, built in 1822, was covered over in 1854. A wholesale fish and game market was opened in 1873. Knott Mill Market, on the old fair ground, was begun in 1877. For a notice of the older market-places see Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 389; also Manch. and Salford Official Handbook.
  • 74. The lighting of the town by oil lamps was not always satisfactory; see Aikin, Country round Manch. 192. The commissioners of police, it is stated, first established gas works in Water Street, near St. Mary's Church in 1817, and soon afterwards built additional works in St. George's Road (Rochdale Road); Baines, Lancs. Dir. (1825), ii, 155. Gas Acts were passed in 1824, 1830, &c.; 5 Geo. IV, cap. 133; 9 Geo. IV, cap. 117. The works have thus always been in the hands of the town authorities.
  • 75. The water supply, until a century ago, was derived from wells, the rivers, and the conduit. In 1816 there was only one draw well, and that was kept locked except when in use; two springs in Castle Field had the best reputation for their water; next came the water from a pump in College Yard. Ordinary dwellinghouses had cisterns for rain water; Aston, Manch. 3, 4. A company was formed in 1809 to supply Manchester and Salford. It purchased the lord of the manor's rights and formed a reservoir at Beswick, and in 1826 two others at Gorton and Audenshaw. Stone pipes were used at first but about 1817 iron pipes replaced them; ibid. Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 155. Acts were obtained for further powers in 1813, 1816, &c. In 1847 the corporation obtained power to supply the borough with water, and in 1853 the old company was dissolved. The great Woodhead reservoirs were then constructed; Bateman, Manch. Waterworks.
  • 76. The area now supplied by the corporation includes the old parishes of Manchester (except one or two townships), Eccles, Flixton, and part of Prestwich. Thirlmere water may also be supplied to Wigan, Chorley, Preston, and Lancaster.
  • 77. The first tramways were opened in 1877.
  • 78. The first free library was opened in 1852 in a building previously known as the Hall of Science, Campfield, erected in 1839. The reference department was transferred to the old town hall in King Street in 1878. There are in Manchester branch libraries in Deansgate, opened 1882; Ancoats, 1857; and Livesey Street, 1860; also a reading-room at Queen's Park, 1887. A History of the libraries by W. R. Credland was issued in 1899. A quarterly Record is published.
  • 79. There is a municipal museum at Queen's Park, Collyhurst, opened in 1884. The Manchester Museum at the University receives an annual grant from the corporation.
  • 80. The building and contents of the Royal Manchester Institution were in 1881 acquired by the corporation in trust for the public; there is a permanent collection of pictures and works of art, and yearly exhibitions also are held.
  • 81. a The school of technology was begun in 1895 and opened in 1902.
  • 82. In 1282 a 'small park' called Aldeparc and Litheak was valued at 33s. 4d. a year for herbage and pannage; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 244. In 1322 there were at Alport 30 acres of heath, worth 30s. a year; 2 acres of meadow and 20 acres of pasture, worth 13s. 4d.; the wood there, a mile in circumference, might be made pasturage at the lord's will, and was worth only 6s. 8d. a year in pannage, honey, eyries of hawks, &c., but the gross value of the timber was £300; Mamecestre, ii, 363, 367, 368. There were timber trees in Alport Park in 1597; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 382.
  • 83. In 1430 Lord La Warre granted Over Alport to Master John Huntington and Thomas Phillip at a rent of 30s., increasing to 40s.; Hulme D. no. 97. Six years later he and the feoffees granted Nether Alport to Huntingdon; ibid. no. 80. A new feoffment of both parcels was made by Huntington's trustees in 1463; ibid. no. 85, 86. In 1473 Nicholas Ravald, chaplain, held the pasture called Over Alport at a rent of £2; and the warden of the church held the park called Nether Alport at a rent of £2 13s. 4d.; Mamecestre, iii, 484.
  • 84. See the account of St. James's chantry.
  • 85. Pat. 3 Edw. VI, pt. 11. The family had previously held lands at Alport of Lord La Warre; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, 68. Henry, Earl of Derby, lived at Alport Lodge in 1579; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 75.
  • 86. It appears that William, Earl of Derby, in 1599 granted to Sir Randle Brereton for a term of 2,000 years the lodge in Alport Park, the park itself, or impaled land, and the remainder of his estate there. The lands were in the same year transferred to Thomas Ireland of Gray's Inn, and by him to Edward Mosley of the same inn, Adam Smith, and Oswald Mosley of Manchester. The joint purchase was afterwards divided, for Oswald Mosley's son Samuel in 1626 sold his portion to George Tipping; deeds copied by J. Harland. Another portion was by Oswald's will held by Rowland Mosley; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 129. Rowland, the son of Sir Nicholas Mosley, lord of Manchester, perhaps acquired his brother Edward's share, for he died in 1617 seised of Alport Lodge, with land, meadow, and pasture in Alport Park, held of the king by the twentieth part of a knight's fee; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 66, 69. Edward Mosley, a successful lawyer, attorney-general for the duchy, was made a knight in 1614, and purchased the manor of Rolleston in Staffordshire; he died in 1638, and left his estates to Rowland's son Sir Edward; Mosley, Fam. Mem. 13, 14. Adam Smith, the other purchaser, was in 1600 ordered to make a ditch along the nearer Alport field; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 156. In 1620 the jury found that John Gilliam had purchased lands at Alport of Thomas Owen; ibid. iii, 23. Robert Neild of Manchester, attorney, whose chief estate was at Warrington, held lands in Deansgate and Alport in Manchester at his death in 1631. He left four infant daughters as co-heirs— Anne, Mary, Ellen, and Katherine; ibid. iii, 179; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, 29.
  • 87. Mamecestre, ii, 371. It has never been a separate township.
  • 88. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 56; the name is spelt Einecote. The charter giving 'the whole land of Ancoats,' with common of pasture and other easements of the vill of Manchester, and right of way beyond Staniford to Green Lane, is copied in the Black Book of Clayton (Byron Chartul.) no. 79/237. A John de Ancoats occurs before 1182; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 219. Ralph de 'Hanekotes' was living in 1242; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 153. John de Ancoats, son of Robert de Manchester, also is named; Booker, Birch, 186. Most of the deeds referred to will be found in Harland's account of Ancoats in Manch. Coll. i, 69.
  • 89. The Byron lands seem to have been derived partly from the Chadderton family, and partly from the Ancoats family. In the Byron Chartulary referred to are grants from Henry de Ancoats to Robert son of Simon de Manchester (no. 87/242), to Alexander the Dyer of Manchester (no. 14/313), to Geoffrey de Chadderton and Joan his wife (no. 26/315), to Ellen his sister with remainder to Geoffrey and Joan (no. 30/243), and to Henry de Trafford (no. 31/245); these are dated between 1295 and 1305. Adam son of Richard, the son-in-law of Roger de Manchester, gave half of Broad Green to Geoffrey de Chadderton and Joan (no. 25/314), while Robert son of Simon de Manchester gave all his land in Ancoats to Henry son of Henry de Trafford (no. 27/244), and Robert son of Robert son of Simon de Manchester made a grant to Alexander the Dyer (no. 82/312). Geoffrey and Joan received other land from Thomas son of Geoffrey son of Simon Cocks of Manchester in 1305 (no. 28/216), and in 1317 Geoffrey de Chadderton of Chadderton granted all his land in Ancoats and Manchester to his son Richard (no. 4/317). This Richard was tenant in 1320, but his rent was only 9d.; Mamecestre, ii, 278. The lord of Ancoats had at that time common of turbary in Openshaw; ibid. ii, 291. It does not appear how this portion came to the Byrons, but in 1331 Henry son of Robert de Ancoats leased all his hereditary holding to Sir Richard de Byron, and in the following year sold it outright, together with the reversion of the dower lands held by his mother Agnes; Byron Chartul. no. 3/238, no. 4/239. In 1473 John Byron held a moiety of two messuages and two oxgangs in Ancoats in socage by a rent of 3s. 4d.—a moiety of the rent of 1212—and was bound to grind his corn at the Manchester mill; Mamecestre, iii, 482. Thomas de Hollinworth the elder seems to have been a Byron tenant in 1405, when he made a grant to Hugh his son; Hugh made a feoffment of his estate in Ancoats in 1433; Byron Chartul. no. 3/318, 22/319.
  • 90. Some grants to the Traffords have been mentioned in the preceding note. Henry de Trafford in 1320 had land in Ancoats, joined with his holding of five oxgangs in Chorlton; its separate rent appears to have been 9d.; Mamecestre, ii, 278. He and Richard de Chadderton were bound to grind at the mill of Manchester. In 1373 Sir Henry de Trafford granted in fee to John son of Nicholas de Trafford all the lands, &c., which John then held for life; and a release was given in 1402; De Trafford D. no. 84, 85. In 1473 Bartin Trafford held messuages, apparently in Ancoats, by a service of 3s. 4d.; Mamecestre, iii, 482.
  • 91. It was found in October 1610 that Ralph Kenyon had purchased of Sir Edward Trafford a messuage within the town of Manchester called The Ancoats, for which an annual service of 3s. 4d. was due to the lord; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 256. The purchaser was still living at Ancoats in 1631; ibid. iii, 180.
  • 92. There is an account of the Mosleys of Ancoats in Mosley Memoranda (Chet. Soc. New Ser.). For Anthony see also Mosley, Fam. Mem. 22, 23; and Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 225, where an abstract of his will is given. He several times acted as a constable of the borough. For the Mosley brasses see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xi, 82.
  • 93. Mosley, op. cit. 25. He purchased Ancoats from Sir John Byron in 1609; Mosley Mem. 16. He acquired lands in Cheshire through his marriage with Anne daughter and co-heir of Ralph Lowe of Mile End near Stockport. A rental of Ancoats in 1608 shows a total of £39 16s. 6d. Adam Smith and John Ashton appear to have had an interest in a fourth part of the fields, which measured 48 acres. The field-names included the Hollin Wood, the Eyes, the Banks, &c. Other surveys, &c., will be found op. cit. 31, &c. Oswald Mosley was steward of the Court Leet from 1613 until 1618; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 278, &c. The inquisitions taken after his death describe his estate as a messuage called Ancoats, held of the lord of Manchester in socage by a rent of 3s. 4d. yearly; a capital messuage in Millgate, held of the same by a rent of 3s. 1d.; two messuages in Clayden; also two in Beswick, lately belonging to Beswick's chantry. Nicholas was his son and heir. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, 27; xxviii, 83.
  • 94. Manch. Ct. Leet. Rec. iii, 197. He was borough reeve in 1661–2; ibid. iv, 327.
  • 95. Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iv, 199, 200; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 16.
  • 96. At the Coronation rejoicings in 1661 Nicholas Mosley, 'a sufferer for his late Majesty,' as captain of the auxiliaries raised in the town marched into the field with his company, numbering above 220 men, 'most of them being the better sort of this place, and bearing their own arms, in great gallantry and rich scarfs'; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 282. He had in 1653 published Psychosophia; ibid. note. In 1664 a pedigree was recorded by him; Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 213. There is a notice of him in Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 97. Mosley, Fam. Mem. 39.
  • 98. Ibid. 40, 41. A number of references to disputes between Oswald Mosley and the Blands will be found in Exch. Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 94, &c.
  • 99. Family Mem. 41–9. Here is recorded a tradition that the Young Pretender had early in 1745 stayed incognito at Ancoats, visiting Manchester every day in order to see Jacobite sympathizers and arrange for the invasion.
  • 100. Ibid. 49–50. The would-be purchaser of Manchester was Mr. Egerton of Tatton.
  • 101. Ibid. 51–4; many examples of his peculiarities are narrated.
  • 102. Fam. Mem. 54–75. The heir was, as previously stated, his grandson Sir Oswald Mosley, the compiler of the Memoirs cited, who sold the manor of Manchester to the corporation. His father Oswald, eldest son of Sir John Parker Mosley, purchased Bolesworth Castle in Cheshire in 1785, where he died in 1789.
  • 103. a Axon, Mosley Mem. 31.
  • 104. N. and Q. (Ser. 5), v. 138.
  • 105. Among the grammar school deeds are the following concerning the family:— 1428, Feoffment by John Oldham of Manchester of a burgage in the Millgate, received from William the Goldsmith of Manchester. 1462, Purchase of various messuages and lands in Ancoats by Roger Oldham from William son and heir of John Dean; Alice the widow, and Roger (chaplain) and Henry, the other sons of John Dean, released their right, as did John son of John Talbot, esq. 1471, John son and heir of Henry Chadkirk sold a burgage in Millgate to Roger Oldham (endorsed, 'Usher's house'). 1472, Roger Oldham having died intestate, administration was granted to Ellen his widow, Peter and Bernard his sons. (Ellen was no doubt a second wife, for the obits to be kept by the appointment of Bishop Oldham included those of Roger Oldham and Margery his wife). 1473, William Dean released to James, son and heir of Roger Oldham, all his right in the Ancoats estate; in 1477 he gave a similar release to the widow Ellen. (In the rental of 1473 a burgage in Manchester was held by 'the heir of Roger Oldham'; Mamecestre, iii, 490.) 1475, James Oldham granted all the lands in Ancoats to his brother Hugh, who at that time was living at Durham. (From all the circumstances it is clear that this was the future bishop and benefactor. The Bishop of Durham at that time was Lawrence Booth, of the Barton family, and Hugh would probably be one of his clerks or chaplains.) 1494, Lease of a walk mill and the Walker's croft near Millgate in Manchester from Lord and Lady La Warre to Hugh Oldham, clerk; also a field called the Heath, in the occupation of John Bradford. 1495, Giles Hulton of Manchester released to Hugh Oldham, clerk, a parcel of land on the east side of the Irk, adjoining the Hopcroft (which he had received on lease in 1487). 1505, William Oldham, clerk, granted to Adam Oldham all his lands in Lancashire. 1514, Bernard Oldham, archdeacon of Cornwall, made a feoffment of his lands in Manchester and Ancoats for the fulfilment of his will. (He was no doubt trustee of his brother the bishop, and in the following year the lands were granted to the school then founded). The estate, a third part of Ancoats, has proved a most valuable portion of the endowment. A partition of the land was made early in the 17th century; Axon, Mosley Mem. 31.
  • 106. In 1493 the university allowed five years in arts and four in civil and canon law at Oxford to suffice for Mr. Hugh Oldham's entry in laws at Cambridge; Grace Bk. B. (Luard Mem.), 54, 55.
  • 107. Hugh Oldham's first known preferment was a canonry at St. Paul's in 1475; Le Neve, Fasti, ii, 418. Many others followed. In addition to Manchester school he was a great benefactor to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and desired to be buried there in case he should die at a distance from Exeter. His will (19 Ayloffe) is chiefly concerned with the endowment of his chantry and other religious and charitable bequests; among others he wished his obit to be kept at Durham College in Oxford and at the college church of Manchester, where the warden or his deputy was to receive 3s. 4d., each vicar 12d., each priest and clerk of the church 8d., and each chorister 4d. Bernard Oldham, his brother, was made Archdeacon of Cornwall in 1509; Le Neve, op. cit. i, 399. In his will (P.C.C., 24 Hodder) he styles himself not archdeacon but 'Treasurer and canon residentiary of the Cathedral Church of Exeter.' He names his brother 'my lord and brother' Hugh, Bishop of Exeter. Several kinsmen are named, but only the bishop was an Oldham. He does not refer to any landed estate; note by Mr. E. Axon. Biographies of the bishop may be seen in Wood's Athenae; Cooper, Atbenae Cantab. i, 21; Dict. Nat. Biog.; HibbertWare, Manch. Foundations, iii, 3–7, where there is a refutation of the statement that he died excommunicate.
  • 108. Dugdale, Visit. 224; it gives the generations thus:—Adam –s. Robert (aged 80 in 1664) -s. Adam (d. 1652) -s. Robert (aged 29) -s. Adam (aged 3). Probably descended from this family was Charles James Oldham of Brighton, who in 1907 left the grammar school £10,000, only because of his kinship with the founder. In a preceding note will be found mention of an Adam Oldham living in 1505; he was probably the heir of James Oldham, eldest brother of the bishop. Robert and Hugh Oldham are frequently mentioned in the Ct. Leet. Rec. of 1552 and later; Robert died in 1578 or 1579, leaving a son Adam, of full age (ibid. i, 204), no doubt the Adam who heads the recorded pedigree, in which his kinship to the bishop is asserted. He died 22 June 1588, holding a messuage, &c., in Manchester of the queen by the hundredth part of a knight's fee; he left a son and heir Robert, aged four years, and daughters named Elizabeth, Cecily, Ellen, and Margaret; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 31. His will, proved in July 1588, mentions his 'brothers' John and Francis Wirrall, Robert and Hugh Oldham, cousins Robert, Edmund, Roger, and Hugh Oldham, sister Elizabeth Oldham, and mothersin-law Isabel Oldham and Elizabeth Wirrall (the former would be his stepmother); see Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 222.
  • 109. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vii, 30; the tenure is not stated. It was held with lands in Chorlton and Ardwick.
  • 110. Garrett appears always to have been closely connected with Chorlton-uponMedlock, as will be seen in the account of Robert and John Grelley's estate in the latter township. Sir Henry de Trafford, after purchasing the estate just named, appears to have granted part at least to a younger son Thomas; the gift of Gatecote field in 1373 has been preserved; Ct. of Wards and Liveries, box 146D/8; the seal of the grantor shows three bendlets. Thomas died in 1410 holding lands in Chorlton, probably including Garrett; and leaving a son and heir John, whose wardship and marriage were granted to Sir Ralph de Staveley, in the mistaken belief that the lands were held of the king; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 96, 97. Margery, the mother of the heir, was living. John died in 1412 being only twelve years of age, and his heir was his brother Henry. Henry likewise dying young, another brother, Thomas, became the heir. The estate was (in part at least) six messuages, 100 acres of land, &c., in Chorlton; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 16; see also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 27, 34. Thomas proved his age in 1433; he was born in 1408; Lancs. Inq. p.m. ii, 37. The descent Thomas -s. Thomas -s. Henry (living 1461) is given in Ct. of Wards and Liveries, box 13A/FD10. Ellen widow of John Trafford of Ancoats in 1418 granted to Anne wife of Sir John Ashton and to Ralph Ashton all her lands in Lancashire; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 161, no. 2. Henry, as son and heir of Thomas Trafford, held the estate in 1473; it included Eleynfield, Dogfield, and Gatecotefield, held by the ancient rents of 4s. and 2s.; Mamecestre, iii, 482; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 109. The family were related to Bishop Oldham, as may be inferred from the direction in the foundation deeds of his grammar school that the souls of Henry Trafford and Thomasine his wife, George Trafford of the Garrett and Margaret his wife, were to be prayed for after the founder and his relatives. George Trafford of the Garrett (living 1525, dead in 1542) married in or before 1509 Margaret daughter of Ralph Hulme, and had a son Ralph, who died about the end of 1555, leaving five sisters as coheirs: (1) Jane, represented (probably by purchase) by Gilbert Gerard, afterwards Master of the Rolls; (2) Isabel wife of Thomas Legh of High Legh; (3) Alice, unmarried; (4) Anne wife of Richard Shallcross, then of Hugh Travis, and later of John Marler; (5) Thomasine wife of Randle Clayton; see Manch. Ct. Leet. Rec. i, 22, 25, 44, and Mr. Earwaker's notes; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 155; iii, 195; also Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 19, m. 106, for the division. Several of the charters are among the Anct. D. (P.R.O.) A. 13472, A. 13478, &c. A settlement of the Garrett, among other estates, on his heirs male was made by Gilbert Gerard in 1565; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvi, 2.
  • 111. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 83, 103; Anct. D. (P.R.O.) A. 12529; the vendor was Sir Thomas son and heir of Sir Gilbert Gerard. The purchaser is usually described as eldest son of Edward Mosley of Hough End, but in Nicholas Mosley's will he is called 'my youngest brother.' Possibly the Oswald who was 'son and heir' in 1571 was not the purchaser of the Garrett in 1595; ibid. i, 138. Oswald Mosley died in 1622.
  • 112. In 1627 Samuel Mosley was ordered to attend the court and do his suit and service for the Garrett estate, which by his father's will had been given to a younger brother Francis (who had died in 1625); ibid. iii, 129, where an abstract of the will is printed. For this branch of the family see Mosley, Fam. Mem. 4; Axon, Mosley Mem. 24, 25. By 1631 the lands had been sold to Ralph Hough; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 179. In 1657 it was found that Ralph Hough, merchant, was heir to his father Ralph Hough, deceased, for Garrett Hall and demesne lands thereto appertaining; ibid. iv, 185. Daniel Hough of London, merchant, was the heir of his father Ralph in 1683; ibid, vi, 168. The hall at this time was perhaps tenanted as an inn; ibid. vi, 125. Walter Nugent had lands in the Garrett, and by his will of 1614 directed them to be sold for the payment of his debts; ibid. ii, 291; iii, 94.
  • 113. Household Words (1851), iii, 249, in Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 510.
  • 114. There are views of Garrett Hall in Philips' Views of Old Halls of Lancs. and Ches. 1893; James, Views, 1825; Lancs. Illus. 1831. There is also a drawing in the Binns collection, Liverpool, probably the original of Philips, and a sketch by T. Dodd, 1850, in Owens College, Manchester. See paper by C. W. Sutton, in Philips, Views, 1893.
  • 115. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 56.
  • 116. Richard de Clayden in 1320 paid a rent of 5s. a year for Clayden; Mamecestre, ii, 278. It is called a 'manor' in 1473, when another Richard Clayden held it in socage by the same rent; ibid. iii, 482. Robert Clayden was defendant in 1541 in a suit respecting Clayden; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 168. Robert Clayden of Clayden Hall died in 1558 or 1559, and was succeeded by his son Richard; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 43, 53. The next in possession was Robert Clayden, who died 8 Mar. 1578–9, holding a messuage in Manchester, messuages and land in Clayden by the rent of 5s., and also in Tongton and Middlewood in Ashton; having no son his estate descended to his four infant daughters, Bridget, Alice, Cecily, and Margaret, the eldest of whom was four years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 84, 12. Bridget died in Sept. 1588 and her mother (Alice daughter of Ralph Costerden) was living at Tongton in 1591; the heirs were Bridget's sisters—Alice wife of Richard Houghton, aged eleven in 1588; Cecily wife of Lawrence Langley, ten; and Margaret, nine; ibid. xv, no. 28. A few further details are given in the Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 59, 246, 290; from these it appears that Margaret Clayden married Thomas Holcroft and her share was in 1609 sold to Lawrence Langley. The whole or a large part of Clayden was about 1640 in the possession of the Mosleys of Ancoats; Great Clayden and Shipponley had been bought of Mr. Charnock; Kilnebank, Green Lee, Copley, Blew Field, and Coal Pit Field were other field names; Axon, Mosley Mem. 34, 39, &c. It was held by a rent of 3s. 6d. with 1s. 6d. more for the portion formerly Charnock's; ibid. 35. Combined these rents amount to 5s., the ancient rent paid by the Clayden family.
  • 117. a Thomas de Hopwood in 1320 held the place of a kiln (corellus) in Clayden at ½d. rent; Mamecestre, ii, 279. In 1331 John son of Henry de Hulton granted to Adam son of Thomas de Hopwood all his lands in the hamlet of Ancoats, held by demise of Adam son of Robert de Radcliffe; they had belonged to Robert de Gotherswick and Hugh his brother; De Banco R. 290, m. 1 d. Thomas Beck in 1546 made a settlement of messuages in Manchester, Monshalgh, Salford, and Newton, in favour of his son Robert; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 219, 265. Robert purchased the Hopwoods' estate in Manchester, Clayden, and Newton in 1549; ibid. bdle. 13, m. 29. He died about the end of 1556, leaving a son and heir Thomas, who came of age in 1574; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 32, 168; Piccope, Wills, i, 184. Thomas Beck of Hopwood Clayden was in 1588 succeeded by his son Randle; and the latter in 1599 by his brother Robert, then fifteen years of age. The estate included burgages in Manchester (Broadlache, Marketstead Lane, and Deansgate) and in Salford; see the inquisitions in Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 19; xvii, 8; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 147, 217. In the Chetham Library are deeds by Robert Beck of Hopwood Clayden dated 1626 and 1636; the latter is a grant to Thomas Beck, his son and heir apparent. A pedigree was recorded in 1664 (Dugdale, Visit. 29) stating that Robert Beck and Thomas his son, both 'of Hopwood Clayden,' died in 1644; the latter was succeeded by his son Thomas, aged thirty-four in 1664, who had a son John, aged twelve, and other children. Thomas Beck died in 1678, and his son and heir at once sold or mortgaged Hopwood Clayden and other lands to Thomas Minshull; Ct. Leet Rec. vi, 65, and deeds quoted in the note. William Beck, a brother of John, sold lands in 1684; ibid. vi, 214. The Becks' land in Hopwood Clayden was held by Nicholas Mosley of Ancoats in 1665; Axon, Mosley Mem. 53. The Hopwood family retained an estate in Manchester; see Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 206, 207.
  • 118. John son of Richard de Legh, of West Hall in High Legh, as heir of John son of Robert Massey of Sale, in 1426 granted to Elizabeth daughter and heir of Richard (son of Robert) de Moston, all his lands in the vill of Newton, viz. that place called Clayden; West Hall D.
  • 119. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 56; it was a grant of two oxgangs of the demesne at a rent of 4s. yearly. (Sir) Geoffrey de Bracebridge's name frequently occurs as a witness to 13th-century charters. It is probable that Elayn field and Dogfield, held by Robert Grelley in 1320 by the same rent, constituted that estate; Mamecestre, ii, 279; see Ct. of Wards and Liveries, box 13A/FD 36. Robert Grelley also held Gatecoterfield by a rent of 2s.; ibid. All three as 'Eleynfield, Dogfield, and Gatcotefield in the vill of Manchester' were granted by John Grelley (the son of Robert) to Sir Henry de Trafford in 1359; De Trafford D. no. 15. The grant was confirmed ten years later; ibid. no. 18, 19. As already stated they became part of the Garrett estate. In 1564 Thomas Nowell, who married Alice daughter of George Trafford of Garrett and co-heir of her brother Ralph, held 'Dugfildes and Claredenfeld,' owing 4s. rent, and for Gatecotefilde 2s., and Gilbert Gerard (by purchase from the Traffords), Yelandfildes, owing 2s.; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 44, 86, and notes; see also i, 109, where Gerard's land is called Gladen fields alias Claredenfieldes, and mention is made of Gatte couts fields and Dodge meadows.
  • 120. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 59; this was 'a land,' for which 3s. rent was payable. No such rent appears in the survey of 1320, so that the land had escheated to the lord, or had been divided among several heirs. The following rents may be mentioned:—John de Beswick for Borid-riding, 18d.; Henry Boterinde for Ben-riding, 18d.; Henry Boterinde and Robert Rudde for Ashley, 18d.; Mamecestre, ii, 277–9.
  • 121. Mr. H. T. Crofton says: This is not, so far as I know, an ascertained ancient district, like Garrett. I believe it took its name from a former owner or occupier. On Green's map, 1787, works of some sort occupy the spot, bridging over the River Tib, which is formed into a dam above for water power, and 'Messrs. Cheetham' were named as the owners, but I cannot name the occupier, as Gaythorn is not mentioned in Raffald's Dir. 1772. Part of the same works were on the banks of the adjacent Medlock, and lines drawn on Green's map are apparently tenters for bleachworks. No whitster is named for Gaythorn or Knott Mill (which is close by) in the whitster list, and 'Robert Kitchen (will proved 1776) fustian dyer, Knott mill,' is the only likely one I can find in the Dir. The map calls it 'Gaythorn,' and 'Gaythorn St.' led to it from Alport Lane (Deansgate), while 'Gaythorn Row' was at the Alport Lane end of Gaythorn Street, as if the whole intervening area was once known as 'Gaythorn.' The family usually spelt their name Gathorne (see Manch. Ct. Leet Rec.). Feasington Wood skirted the Medlock somewhere about Gaythorn, 'between Knott mill and Garrett.' Shootersbrook, as the name of a dwelling or estate, occurs in 1564; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 280.
  • 122. In 1322 the 80 acres of land in Collyhurst were valued at 26s. 8d. a year, but had been leased to Sir Roger de Pilkington and his son for life at £4 rent; Mamecestre, ii, 363. A moiety of Collyhurst was in 1361 given to William (son of Thurstan) de Holland and Otes his son; Dods. in Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 136.
  • 123. The Manchester jury in 1554 ordered that the townsmen's swine should be sent to 'a common called Collyhurst' in charge of a swineherd; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 15, 144. Persons who did not dwell in the town were in 1561 ordered to take their cattle from Collyhurst unless they could prove a right of pasturage; ibid. i, 63. Encroachments were noticed; ibid. i, 26, 117.
  • 124. A protest against encroachments was made in 1602; it was stated that the burgesses had free common of pasture there 'without stint or number;' ibid. ii, 179. The final settlement was made in 1616, confirmed by a decree of the Duchy Court on 12 Feb. 1616–17. This states that Sir Nicholas Mosley had inclosed part of the waste, and that some 50 acres remained, which Rowland his son wished to inclose. In return for the consent of the burgesses and others he agreed to allow them to erect cottages and cabins for the shelter of infected persons in times of plague; also the annual rent of £10 for the use of the poor; ibid. ii, 328–32. There are frequent notices of the 'Collyhurst money' in the Records.
  • 125. It was included in the borough reeve's charities in 1792, and apparently in 1825; Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 145–6.
  • 126. Anthony Mosley had purchased land in or near Collyhurst in 1577; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 182. His son Francis in 1610 bought a messuage and lands 'near adjoining unto Collyhurst' from his elder brother Oswald; ibid. ii, 257. Part of Collyhurst was held on lease; E. Axon, Mosley Mem. 13.
  • 127. Mosley, Fam. Mem. 23; Piccope MS. Pedigrees (Chet. Lib.), i, 182.
  • 128. Royalist Comp. Papers, iv, 201. Nicholas Mosley and Francis his father, clothiers, had deserted their dwellings and lived for some time in the king's quarters. The son took the National Covenant and Negative Oath in 1646. The statement of his property in Manchester showed it to be worth £40 a year, and that in Collyhurst, 'before the troubles,' £24; the £10 to the poor was charged on it; the father and son were creditors for £1,338 and debtors for £2,490. A fine of £200 was fixed.
  • 129. Booker, Prestwich, 206. Robert Lever was fined 10s. in 1677 for not cleansing his ditch in Collyhurst Lane, by the Long Causeway, and in Wilkin Hills; Ct. Leet Rec. vi, 42. Some of the family resided at Collyhurst, for John Revel Lever, son of John Lever, esq., was born there about 1707; Scott, Admissions to St. John's Coll. Camb. iii, 50.
  • 130. Mamecestre, ii, 362; iii, 482–4. The position of Ashley is indicated by Ashley Lane, leading north from Long Millgate. Choo is believed to have been in Broughton, near the Irwell and on the border of Cheetham; in Broughton also was Kyperfield, another detached portion of the manor of Manchester; Information of Mr. Crofton. For Ashley Henry Boterinde and Robert Rudde in 1320 paid a rent of 18d.; Mamecestre, ii, 279. Alice daughter of Henry Boterinde in 1351 gave her son Robert half a burgage in the Millgate and 5 acres in Ashley; Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, i, 54. The land was soon afterwards claimed by Agnes widow of Robert Rudde; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2 (July), m. 8. The Buldre family, whose heirs were the Hulmes of Manchester and Reddish, next appear in possession; Thomas son of Thomas Buldre occurs in Manchester in 1338, and Thomas Buldre in 1361 (Hulme D. no. 4, 5), and in 1381 Agnes widow of Henry Dobson granted to William Buldre for her life all her lands and tenements in 'Asshenlegh' and Tuefield near Manchester, formerly her husband's; ibid. no. 6. In 1421 an agreement was made between Lawrence Hulme and Robert Rudde, who owned 'a field lying in the town of Manchester called Ashley, lying together and in divers parcels,' as to a division of the land and chief rent; ibid. no. 10. Geoffrey Hulme held Ashley in 1473 at 10d. (or 1d.) rent; Mamecestre, iii, 482, 499. The heir of James Barlow was probably the other tenant (for 'Estley') at a rent of 6d.; ibid. iii, 483. In 1615 Ralph Hulme of Outwood in Pilkington mortgaged the three closes called Nearer, Middlemost, and Further Ashley, containing by estimation 5 acres of land; Hulme D. no. 62. In the 17th century it was at least in part owned by the Becks; Ct. Leet Rec. vi, 65, 214.
  • 131. Among the burgage holders in 1473 (Mamecestre, iii, 487) are found the names of many of the neighbouring esquires, the list beginning with Sir John Trafford, who had land near the Booths, on which a shop had recently been built. The earliest acquisition of the Traffords seems to have been a burgage granted before 1320 by Olive daughter of Richard de Bolton to Thomas son of Sir Henry de Trafford; it lay between the tenement of Manchester Church on the north and a burgage formerly Geoffrey de Manchester's on the south; on the east side it had the burgage of Matthew the Tailor, and on the west the highway from the church to Hulme. A rent of 12d. was payable to the lord at the four terms; De Trafford D. no. 3. Further property was purchased by Geoffrey son of Sir Henry Trafford in 1333 and 1334; ibid. no. 9–12. Lists of the outburgesses in 1648 and later years are printed in Manch. Constables' Accts. ii, 198, 218, 244. The inquisitions show the following, among others, to have held burgages and lands in Manchester:— Thomas Ashton of Ashton-under-Lyne; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 80; see also Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 138. Edward Butterworth of Belfield; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 2, 14; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 379. William Holland of Clifton; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, 16; v, 49. Edward Holland of Denton; ibid. xiii, no. 20; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), ii, 141. Ralph Assheton of Great Lever; ibid. ii, 286. George Chadderton of Oldham; ibid. i, 63. Christiana de Hoton in 1292 granted to Geoffrey de Chadderton and Joan his wife a burgage in Manchester which she had received from Herbert Grelley, rector of Childwall; a rent of 3s. at the four terms was due to the chief lord; Kuerden fol. MS. (Chet. Lib.), 189, no. 220. A settlement was made in 1307; Final Conc. ii, 1. Richard Chadwick of Spotland held of the warden and fellows; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), ii, 273. William Dauntesey of Agecroft; ibid. iii, 349. The Agecroft deeds show that in 1318 Robert son of Hugh de Milngate released to his son Richard a half burgage in Manchester (no. 319). Probably it was the same burgage, 'with a mese and a wine tavern, a high chamber thereupon, a garden and a barn, lying at the east end of the Kirkyard of Manchester,' which was owned by the Hulme family in 1469 (no. 320), and sold to Hugh Burdman, who sold to Robert Langley in 1544 (no. 328). George Hulton of Farnworth (35s. rent); Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), iii, 468. In the deeds of Over Hulton is a grant of ½ acre upon the Millgate crofts by Richard son of Hugh de Milngate in 1315 to Adam de Hulton. In 1328 Adam acquired part of Dobscroft and of Coldherse (afterwards Coldhouse), and other property. The Hulton of Farnworth estate seems to have begun with a sale by Adam son of Robert de Radcliffe to John son of Henry de Hulton in 1331, of lands in Millgate crofts acquired in 1320.
  • 132. For instance, Byrom of Salford and Kersal, Hulme of Reddish, Percival of Royton, Ravald of Kersal, and others. Particulars of these and many others may be gathered from Ct. Leet Rec. and the accounts of the different townships.
  • 133. Several families of this name lived in Manchester in the 16th century; see Ct. Leet Rec. (e.g. i, 39). Barlow Cross, which stood near the boundary of Ancoats, may have been named from them; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxii, 95. The New cross, at the corner of Oldham Road and Great Ancoats, marked on the plan of 1793, seems to have taken its place; See Ct. Leet Rec. i, 11, 43; iii, 73; iv, 330. Three closes called Barlow Cross Fields are mentioned in 1615; ibid. ii, 300. The bounds of 'Jonesfield de Hulton' about 1420 began at Barlow Cross in the road from Manchester to Stanegge (apparently Newton Lane), and ended at the same cross in the lane from Ancoats to Manchester; Chan. Inq. p.m. 5 Hen. VI, no. 54. Suicides were buried at Barlow Cross; Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 14, 32. There was another Barlow or Barley Cross near the north end of Long Millgate; see Procter, Manch. Streets, 38.
  • 134. In 1571 it was found that Stephen Becke or Beche—occurring in 1546; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 238 —had died, and that his son George—or William—was heir and under age; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 137, 142. Another Beck family has been noticed under Clayden.
  • 135. John de Beswick held the Boridriding in 1320, paying 18d. rent; but James Radcliffe of Radcliffe held it in 1473; Mamecestre, ii, 278; iii, 482. In a suit of 1347 respecting a messuage and 24 acres in Manchester, Geoffrey son of John de Beswick was plaintiff; De Banco R. 352, m. 3d. Richard son of Geoffrey de Beswick was defendant to a charge of assault in July 1354; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 3, m. 3. The same or another Richard de Beswick had been convicted of an assault—having in 1350 attacked Henry the Baxter 'with swords, bows and arrows and mayhemed his left hand'— and the damages were assessed at £10; Assize R. 431, m. 1d. Richard Beswick or Bexwick, a wealthy merchant, has been mentioned in the account of the parish church, to which he was a liberal benefactor. Roger Beswick, another successful trader, was brother-in-law of John Bradford, and took a prominent part in the affairs of the town. He died in 1599, making partition of his estate by the will of which an abstract is printed in Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 156. His grandson William Malone, born at Manchester, entered the Society of Jesus in 1606, laboured on the mission in Ireland (where he challenged and replied to Archbishop Usher), and at the Irish College in Rome. He was expelled from Ireland by Cromwell, and died at Seville in 1656; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath. v, 399. John Beswick of Manchester and John his son were in 1657 bound to Nicholas Mosley of Collyhurst in £280; another bond of 1664 describes the Beswicks as of Drogheda and of Lifford in Donegal respectively; while two years later John Beswick gave to Margaret Bowker a burgage, &c., in St. Mary Gate, on condition that Margaret maintained his mother Anne; Earwaker MSS.
  • 136. This family appears early both in Manchester and Salford. Sir John La Warre in 1313 granted John Bibby two plots of land, and in 1320 the grantee paid 2s. for 2 acres of land on the heath at Manchester; Mamecestre, ii, 293, 350. William Bibby and Cecily his wife in 1348 made a feoffment of their lands; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 198, no. 42. Eleven years later Richard Bibby gave his burgages and lands to William and Robert le Hunt; ibid. no. 45. John Pouston and Margery his wife in 1361 gave to Robert Bibby all their lands, &c., in Salford; Hopwood D. William Bibby died in 1577 or 1578, his heir being his brother James; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 194, where is printed an elaborate settlement made in 1564.
  • 137. Edward Bowker died about the end of 1586, leaving a son and heir Geoffrey; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 258. The heir was of age in 1589; ibid. ii, 32. John Bowker, apothecary, in 1623 purchased from Thomas Chadderton of Lees a burgage and smithy in Deansgate; his mother Alice was then living; ibid. iii, 72. Peter Bowker of Manchester and Adam Bowker of Salford, chapmen, had their estates—tenements in Salford—sequestered by the Parliamentary authorities, they having adhered to and assisted the king's forces. They compounded in 1651; Royalist Comp. Papers, i, 214, 215.
  • 138. Henry Boterind, 1320, has been mentioned. Henry son of Henry de Boterind was one of those killed at Liverpool in 1345 with Adam de Lever; Coram Rege R. 348, m. 22. Richard son of Henry de Boterind in 1349 made a feoffment of a burgage in the Middlegate by Todd Lane, which he had acquired from Adam son of Robert the Dyer; De Trafford D. no. 14. This burgage had in 1331 been granted by Adam son of Robert de Manchester to Robert the Dyer and Joan his wife, daughter of the grantor; ibid. no. 6. It appears that Richard son of Henry Boterind became a monk; De Banco R. 435, m. 346 d. See also the account of Ashley above.
  • 139. John Gee appears prominently in the Ct. Leet Rec. of the third quarter of the 16th century. In 1559 his mother Elizabeth came into court to confess that he was her eldest son, and that she had granted him all her lands in Manchester and Salford; i, 41. He died at the beginning of 1589, holding lands in Manchester and Salford, and leaving as heir his son John, of full age; ibid. ii, 31; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvi, 46. The son also is frequently mentioned; either he or his father was the deputy-receiver for the lord of the manor; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 200. The younger John Gee seems to have died in Oct. 1629, leaving sons Edmund and Joseph and four daughters; ibid. iii, 168, where an abstract of his will is printed. The inquisition taken after John's death states that Edward was his son and heir, and forty years of age; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), p. 463. Joseph Gee died in or before 1655; Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 143. Two members of the family distinguished themselves in the 17th century as controversialists, viz. John Gee, who was probably a Devonshire man by birth, but grandson of Ralph Gee of Manchester (died 1598), brought up a Protestant, reconciled to the Roman Church, reverted to Protestantism, and wrote his experiences in The Foot out of the Snare (1624), and died as Vicar of Tenterden in 1639; also Edward Gee, born in Manchester in 1659, educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, author of the Jesuit's Memorial. See N. and Q. (Ser. 6), ii, 71; Local Glean. Lancs. and Cbes. ii, 300; Wood, Athenae; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 140. In 1574 Thomas Goodyear was admitted to be burgess in right of Ellen his wife, paying to the lord 8d. a year; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 168. He was borough-reeve in 1579–80, and one of the constables in 1580–1; ibid. i, 207, 213. The wife was sister of Ralph Proudlove, who died in 1588; she died in 1591, leaving a son Robert Goodyear as heir; ibid. ii, 21, and note. Thomas Goodyear died in 1599, when this son was not quite of age; ibid. ii, 153; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, 38. His lands were in Millgate, Deansgate (part called a dole), Newton Lane ('Gibbs'), and Withy Grove. Robert Goodyear was borough-reeve in 1606, and died in April 1621, having increased his estate, among the additions being 6 acres called 'Bibby Fields'; he left a widow Elizabeth and a son Thomas, under age; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 211; iii, 36; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, 46. Thomas Goodyear died in 1638, holding the Bibby Fields and a messuage in Millgate; his heir was a posthumous daughter named Anne; ibid. xxx, 25. He sold some of his lands to Robert Neild; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 179 note; and his mother Elizabeth and her daughter Mary in 1639 sold land in Shudehill to Robert Marler; ibid. iii, 286. Another Thomas Goodyear of Manchester died in 1607, leaving a son Henry, ten years of age; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 112. Henry was in 1621 summoned to do his suit and service at the lord's court, and died in 1627, leaving as heir his sister Margaret, wife of Thomas Illingworth; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 36, 136. Margaret Illingworth died in 1634–5, holding her father's property; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), p. 708, reciting Thomas Goodyear's disposition of it. Thomas Illingworth died early in 1639, leaving a son and heir Thomas, under age; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 288; an abstract of his will is printed in the note. The younger Thomas died in 1671; ibid. v, 156.
  • 141. Abstracts of a number of this family's deeds were made by Dodsworth (MSS. cxlii, fol. 161–72), being in 1635 in the hands of John Holcroft of Marton; they do not suffice to give an exact account of the descent. The pedigree begins with two brothers, William and Robert le Hunt, to whom in 1359 Richard Bibby granted all his burgages and lands in Manchester; Dods. ut supra, no. 65. William son of Geoffrey de Manchester released to them all actions in 1367; ibid. no. 35. Robert le Hunt acquired land in Salford from Thurstan de Prestwich in the following year; and from John le Hare and Alice his wife in Woodfield in Ashton; ibid. no. 37, 49. Alice was no doubt the daughter of John de Whitwood, who had granted Robert her lands in 1358; ibid. no. 57. The brothers William and Robert in 1374 made a feoffment of their lands in Manchester and the Ridge in Ashton; ibid. no. 36. There was another William le Hunt, a chaplain, distinguished from William the brother of Robert by Agnes widow of the above-named William de Manchester in a grant by which she released to the brothers all her claim in the burgages and lands which had belonged to William the chaplain; ibid. no 53. About the same time (in Oct. 1381) William and Robert granted to Agnes for her life a garden in Manchester, at the end of Irk Bridge, which had formerly belonged to William the chaplain; ibid. no. 52. The position named suggests that this was the land known as Hunt's Bank. In 1385 the trustee of the two brothers settled their estate upon Richard son of Robert le Hunt, with remainders to Ralph and William, brothers of Richard; ibid. no. 14. Thirteen years later, Maud widow of William le Hunt of Ashton released to Richard le Hunt her claim on lands in Ashton; ibid. no. 33. Richard in 1402 had a grant of land in Salford from his father's widow Cecily, who had married William Clayton, son of Robert son of Falconer; ibid. no. 32. He seems to have lived at Audenshaw in Ashton; ibid. no. 26, 30. Ralph is not heard of again, but William le Hunt of Manchester occurs in 1421 and 1422 (ibid. no. 27–29, 58); and in 1423–4 Richard le Hunt leased his Manchester burgages and lands to his brother William at a rent of 21s.; ibid. no. 34. At this point there arises uncertainty. Richard Hunt, perhaps the same Richard, in 1443 acquired a piece of land in Manchester; ibid. no. 31. Edmund Hunt was a witness, and in 1447 a settlement was made by Richard on the marriage of Edmund's son William with Margaret daughter of Roger Bird (or Brid) of Salford; ibid. no. 38, 59, 39, 22. Edmund Hunt made a feoffment of all his burgages, lands, &c., in Lancashire, in 1460, James Bird being a witness; ibid. no. 3. This James Bird of Salford occurs again in 1467, and his son and heir Roger in 1513; ibid. no. 23, 64. William Hunt, no doubt the son of Edmund, in 1473 held divers burgages, a grange, and lands in Manchester, and paid 7s. 4d. to the lord; Mamecestre, iii, 488. Richard Hunt was in 1515 a feoffee of the Oldham family; Hibbert-Ware, Manch. Foundations, iii, 10. His will was proved in London in 1523; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 158 n.; P.C.C. 15 Bodfelde. In 1524 Agnes Hunt, widow, gave a release to Richard Hunt and James Radcliffe, executors of the will of Richard Hunt, deceased; Dods. ut supra, no. 65. Five years later Richard Hunt of Manchester made a settlement in favour of his wife Margaret; ibid. no. 66. It was probably this Richard, or a son of the same name, who died in 1573, leaving as heir a son Richard of full age; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 158. Richard Hunt gave the lord a dagger as heriot; ibid. i, 160. He received a release of all claims on his father's lands from George Birch in 1575; Dods. ut supra, no. 67. He died in Dec. 1585, leaving as heir his son John, under age; He held 6 burgages and lands in the town of John Lacy, lord of Manchester; a capital messuage and lands in Middlebrook of the queen; a messuage in Audenshaw; three burgages in Salford and lands in Manchester, of the queen; also the house called the Tollbooth, with the toll and stallage of Manchester, of John Lacy, by a rent of £4; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 19, 20, where the inquisition (Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 41) is printed; for his will see Piccope, Wills, iii, 116. John Hunt came of age in 1597, and did fealty on admission to his father's land; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 131. About 1610 he was called upon to defend his title to the Booths, Sir Nicholas Mosley laying claim to it; but he was able to show that it, with the tolls, &c., had been granted in 1514 to his ancestor Richard Hunt; ibid. iii, 24, 25, notes. In 1620 the jury ordered him to repair 'the Court-house commonly called the Booths,' and sweep it weekly; ibid. In 1625 Margaret his daughter and (co-) heir married John Holcroft; ibid. iii, 76, 352 notes. They appear to have sold their lands; ibid. iii, 153, 246. For the Holcrofts see Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. ii, 149. Other branches of the Hunt family occur. Among the De Trafford deeds are grants about 1315 from Ellota Braybon, widow, and William her son of two burgages to Walter le Hunt, Margery his wife, and David and Richard their sons (no. 2, 5); and in 1347 Richard son of Walter le Hunt granted land in Manchester to Richard son of Richard Chokes (no. 13). The two burgages, which lay in Deansgate, opposite the Parsonage, had by 1396 passed to Richard del Hulle (no. 23–5). Lawrence, son and heir of John Hunt and grandson and heir of Thomas Barker, held land in St. Mary Gate in 1482; ibid. no. 56, 57. Among the Grammar School deeds is a grant (1337) from Roger son of Richard de Manchester to Richard del Crosseshagh and Dyota his wife of a burgage next the Pirlewallgate; from the latter Richard to Thomas son of John le Hunt (1357) of goods; from John son of William del Crosshagh of a burgage in the Millgate (1369); bonds to John le Hunt (1361, 1368); release to the executors of Richard le Hunt (1385), and from John son of Richard le Hunt to Richard de Worsley (1399); the will of Agnes widow of John le Hunt (1390), mentioning Ellen daughter of Richard le Hunt, and leaving the guardianship of John and Richard, sons of Richard le Hunt, to Richard de Worsley and John de Tonwallcliff, her executors; lease of a burgage in Millgate from Cecily widow of Henry Chadkirk, and Joan le Hunt her daughter, to William Bradford, Richard le Hunt of Audenshaw being a witness. John le Hunt and Agnes his wife in 1371 sold a messuage to Thomas de Whitley; Final Conc. ii, 180.
  • 142. Robert Laboray or Laborer, serjeantat-arms to Henry VII, acquired lands near St. Mary Gate in 1511–2; Hulme D. no. 38. He left several daughters as coheirs, and his widow Isabel in 1544 granted a burgage to their daughter Alice, who had married with Stephen Hulme; ibid. no. 48. Elizabeth, another daughter, about 1533 married William Hulton of Donnington, Lincolnshire; a third daughter married Thomas Greenhalgh of Brandlesholme, who was Robert's executor; and various disputes broke out involving the customs of the county as to the distribution of the goods of a husband or father; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 156, &c.; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 136, 152. See also Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 26, 180 note. 'Labrey's House' retained its name in 1586; ibid. ii, 6. It was near the present infirmary, and in 1580 was styled 'Laborer's house near the end of Marketstead lane,' in the tenure of Robert Hulme of Newton; ibid. ii, 111 n. and information of Mr. Crofton, who kindly adds the following pedigree of William Hulton: Roger Hulton of Hulton—younger son William, married Jane Everard of Southcoton, Lincs.—s. Roger, married Katherine Anyas—s. William.
  • 143. In the account of the chantries it is shown that Richard Bexwick left a daughter Isabel, who married Thomas Beck, and that their daughter Cecily married Francis Pendleton. He was the son of Thomas Pendleton, who died in 1534 and whose will is printed in Piccope, Wills, ii, 187. Francis died in 1574, leaving his son Henry as heir; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 164, 167. Henry married Elizabeth daughter and heir of Robert Marler; ibid. i, 233. He died at the beginning of 1586, leaving a son Francis, a minor; ibid. i, 257. The inquisition taken after the death of Henry Pendleton states that his father Francis had settled his burgage in Deansgate and other lands with remainders to Henry his son, to Margaret, Isabel, and Ellen his daughters, and to his brother George; the messuage, &c. in Grundy Lane was held of the queen as of her duchy of Lancaster, by knight's service, and the rest of the queen by a rent of 14d. Robert Marler's lands were held of the queen by the 200th part of a knight's fee. Francis, the son and heir of Henry, was ten years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 61. Francis Pendleton was of age in 1596; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 115, 166. He was thrice married, and died in 1621, leaving as heir a son, under age; ibid. iii, 37, where an abstract of his will is given. By his second wife, Anne Holland, he had a son Francis, who died at Manchester in 1626 without a son; and by his third wife, Sarah Byrestowe, had a son Edward, described as 'son and heir' in 1627, when he was sixteen years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, 34. The feoffments and will of Francis the father are fully set out in his inquisition, Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 322–6. The will of Alice widow of George Pendleton of Manchester, dated 1588, is given in Piccope, Wills, ii, 218–20; they had a daughter and heiress Cecily.
  • 144. Henry Pendleton, D.D., the most prominent of them, is said to have been a brother of the Thomas who died in 1534. He was of Lancashire birth and educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, M.A. 1544; D.D. 1552. He was a Protestant and beneficed in the reign of Edward VI, but in the next reverted to the old religion, having frequent disputations with Bradford and others brought before Bishop Bonner on charges of heresy; he is said to have been shot at when preaching at St. Paul's Cross. He published some homilies, &c., and died in 1557; see Dict. Nat. Biog.; Wood, Athenae, and Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath. vi, 256; Foxe, Acts and Monuments (ed. Cattley), vi, 629; vii, 185. His nephew, Edward Pendleton (son of Thomas), became fellow of Manchester and vicar of Eccles. A later Henry Pendleton of Manchester compounded for 'delinquency' in 1645, having taken part against the Parliament by going into the king's quarters. He returned and submitted, took the National Covenant, Negative oath, and paid a fine of £80; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, ii, 1270.
  • 145. Adam de Radcliffe had 4 acres in 1320, paying 4s. rent; Mamecestre, ii, 291. He also had part of Gotherswick. To Adam son of Robert de Radcliffe and Alice his daughter, for life, John La Warre in 1324 granted a place called Osecroft with the Brend-orchard, at a rent of 7s. 6d.; Manch. Corporation D. See also Mamecestre, ii, 412; iii, 465. A settlement of Adam's lands was made in 1323; Final Conc. ii, 55. Alice married John de Hulton of Farnworth; see Harpurhey. Margery daughter of Henry Luthare in 1428 granted to her son, Robert Tetlow, two burgages in Manchester; they lay beside the road from the parish church to Salford bridge, abutting on the Irwell at one end and on the road from the church to the parsonage at the other end; De Trafford D. no. 34. Robert de Tetlow and Elizabeth his wife made a settlement of the same; ibid. no. 35, 36; but in 1430 sold them to Nicholas son of Sir Ralph de Radcliffe, who acquired land adjoining them; ibid. no. 38, 39. Five years later a settlement was made, the remainders being to Ralph, Thomas, John, James, William, and Edmund, sons of Nicholas, and then to Sir Ralph de Radcliffe; ibid. no. 45. Nicholas son and heir of Ralph Radcliffe in 1487 made a lease of a burgage in Deansgate, and in the same year the dowry of Elizabeth his mother was settled; a chief rent of 2s. 2d. was payable to the college; ibid. no. 62, 63, 61. Margery Leigh, daughter and heir of John Marshall, made a grant to Nicholas Radcliffe in 1490; ibid. no. 64. The property had passed to the Traffords by 1548; Raines, Chant. i, 13. The rental of 1473 shows that the following held burgages: William Radcliffe, divers burgages and an intake, at a rent of 2s. 4d.; John Radcliffe, a burgage, 12d.; and Richard Radcliffe, the same; Mamecestre, iii, 489–91. Richard Radcliffe, lord of Radcliffe, had lands in Manchester in 1501; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 148. Robert Radcliffe of Radcliffe, who died in 1617, held a burgage, &c., of Richard Holland, by a rent of 12d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 75. John Radcliffe, alias More, purchased messuages, &c., about 1571; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 33, m. 98; 34, m. 66; 43, m. 99; 46, m. 67.
  • 146. A pedigree of the Radcliffes of the Conduit was recorded in 1613; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 130. In 1511–12 James Radcliffe and Thomas his son granted to Robert Laboray land near the end of St. Mary Gate; and in 1517–18 Thomas son of James Radcliffe made another grant to the same, as 'my brother-in-law'; Hulme D. no. 38, 39. Margaret widow of James (son of Thomas) Radcliffe of Manchester was a defendant in 1535; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 161, m. 2d. A William Radcliffe and Elizabeth his wife in 1553 had a dispute with the Hulmes, carried on in violent fashion; Duchy Plead. iii, 143, 193. William Radcliffe, said to be grandson of Thomas, occurs frequently in the Ct. Leet Rec., and served as one of the constables. He was described as 'of the Conduit.' At one time he encroached upon Barkhouse Hill and the Cuckstool Pool, but was in 1598 required to lay the ground open again; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 6, 145. He died early in 1600, and was succeeded by his son William, then of full age; ibid. ii, 155. The son died in 1608, and his heir, his son William, was of full age; Ct. Leet. Rec. ii, 232. It was he who recorded the pedigree in 1613, having then two sons—Richard (aged six) and William—and a daughter Mary. He took an active part in the town's affairs. He died in 1645, when his son Richard succeeded him; by his will of 1641 he desired to be buried 'within his chapel at Manchester in the same place where his father was buried'; ibid. iv, 4; Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), ii, 216. The will of his widow Elizabeth in 1659 (ibid. ii, 79) describes her grandson William as 'of Gray's Inn.' Richard Radcliffe was an active Parliamentarian, being described as captain and major, and was chosen to represent the borough in Parliament in 1656; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 46, 51, 333; Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 295; Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 159. He died in 1657, leaving a son William (named above) then under age; ibid. iv, 205. This son died in 1670, being succeeded in turn by his brothers John (died 1673) and James. A deed of sale relating to a shop in the Shambles or Fleshboards, made by William Radcliffe in 1668, is printed in Ct. Leet Rec. v, 136 n. James Radcliffe was summoned in 1675 to do his suit and service on succeeding; ibid. vi, 8. He had a son William, probably the William Radcliffe who was steward of the lord's court from 1734 to 1743; note by Mr. Earwaker; Ct. Leet Rec. vii, 29, 123.
  • 147. John Radcliffe died in June 1586, holding various burgages and lands in Marketstead Lane and Deansgate, partly of the queen, partly of John Lacy, and partly of William Radcliffe. Alexander, the son and heir, was twelve years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 44; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 4. Alexander Radcliffe did homage in 1595, on coming of age; ibid. ii, 92. On 16 Aug. 1606 Mary daughter of Alexander Radcliffe, Manchester, of the Hill in Stretford [probably Coldhill otherwise Colddale or Cowdale near Trafford is meant, see Hist. of Stretford (Chet. Soc.), i, 121], was baptized at Manchester, and another daughter, Ellen, was baptized there on 4 Sept. 1608, but Alexander died 24 Mar. 1607–8 (ibid. ii, 193). He left a son John, four years old; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 233; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 133. John Radcliffe did fealty on coming of age in 1625; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 89. He was described as 'of the Pool,' and was buried at the collegiate church 28 June 1645, two sons and three daughters being buried about the same time, having been carried off by the plague; his widow is mentioned in 1654; Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 115. In Mr. Earwaker's note is given an account of the descent of the property to John Radcliffe's daughter Sarah, who married John Alexander of Manchester, silversmith, and had a son Radcliffe Alexander, in whose will of 1701 mention is made of his dwelling-place called the Pool. See also ibid. v, 94 and vi, 166 (an order to cleanse the Pool, 1684). The Didsbury registers record these burials: 2 Oct. 1666; Mary the wife of Mr. Alexander Ratlef of Stretford; 11 Aug. 1703; Lidie, the wife of Alexander Ratlef of Stretford; Hist. of Stretford, i, 216. A large number of extracts from the Manchester registers relating to the Radcliffes were printed in Misc. Gen. et Her. Nov. and Dec. 1891. A view and account of Pool Fold may be seen in Pal. Note Bk. iii, 265.
  • 148. Richard Tetlow in 1473 held a burgage formerly John Crompton's; Mamecestre, iii, 488. In 1558 Thomas son of Henry son of Thomas Tetlow claimed a messuage against Thomas Travis; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 203, m. 9. He also recovered three messuages against Anne Tetlow, widow; ibid. R. 204, m. 5 d, 6d. John Tetlow in 1541 claimed a tenement in right of his wife Agnes, daughter and heir of Edmund Bardsley; Duchy Plead. ii, 162, 163.
  • 149. Richard Tipping is the first of the family to appear in the Manchester records. In 1561 he had a house in Hanging Ditch close to the church, formerly occupied by Richard Brownsword; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 67, 92. He served various offices, and prospered in his business as a linen draper, purchasing houses and land; ibid. ii, 9 (where a deed of purchase of 1587 is printed). He died in Oct. 1592, his heirs being his grandson Richard (son of John Tipping and a minor) and his son Samuel; ibid. ii, 68, where are given abstracts of his will and inquisition. The will of his widow Isabel, sister of Thomas Brownsword, dated 1598, is printed by Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 149. Richard Tipping entered Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1610 (Foster, Alumni), but does not seem to have taken a degree; he was later described as 'clerk.' He came of age in 1613, and did fealty; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 279. He died early, but his uncles Samuel and George took a prominent part in Manchester affairs. The former died without issue, and George Tipping (the son of Richard) was on coming of age in 1640 found to be his heir, and heir also of Margaret Nugent; ibid. iii, 323, 324. They had houses and shops in the Shambles, and George died in possession in 1685, when his son Samuel was found to be his heir; ibid. vi, 234. He and his descendants long continued to live in Manchester and the district, and acquired the manor of Little Bolton. See the pedigree of Gartside Tipping in Burke, Landed Gentry. Another George, son of the first-named Richard Tipping, died in 1629, holding various messuages, &c. in Manchester— in the Further Smithy Field, Hanging Ditch, Millgate, Nearer Tuefield (near Newton Lane)—and in the Old Bailey, London; Samuel, his son and heir, was twenty-four years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, 34. Samuel Tipping died in 1641, leaving as heirs his sister Elizabeth (wife of Richard) Haworth and Peter Leigh, son of Peter Leigh of High Legh by Mary, another sister; ibid. xxix, 10. See also Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 168.
  • 150. The Willotts belonged to Fenny Stratford, and appear about 1560 at Manchester. Thomas Willott the younger died in 1577; in Manchester he held burgages, messuages, &c., of the queen in socage by a rent of 18d., and other messuages in the Old Bailey, London. He married Ellen daughter of Sir Edmund Trafford (who for her second husband had Thomas Cogan, master of the grammar school), and left a son Edmund, ten years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 22, 78; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 190. Edmund Willott died in July 1590, leaving as heirs his sisters Isabel and Mary, the former being twenty-seven years of age and the latter eighteen; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, 5. Mary, eventually sole heir, married George Tipping, mentioned in the preceding note, and so her estate descended to the Leighs of High Legh.
  • 151. George Travis died in 1584, holding land in Marketstead Lane; he left a widow Margaret and a son George, who was of full age; Manch. Corp. D.; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 248. There was a third George Travis holding property in right of his wife Anne; ibid. i, 183, 187. Lawrence Robinson died 8 May 1587, holding a messuage in Manchester and another in Newton of the warden and fellows of the collegiate church; also messuages near Salford Bridge and elsewhere in Salford of the queen; Robert, his son and heir, was twelve years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 9. See also Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 15. Richard Smethurst, who had lands in Bury and Middleton, had also a messuage in Manchester held of the queen; he died in 1597, leaving a son Richard twenty-six years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, 74. The same or another Richard Smethurst purchased lands in 1564; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 85. Richard Smethurst, perhaps the son, was in 1599 ordered to make a sufficient pavement so that the water might have due course past the Booths; ibid. ii, 153. He died in 1620, holding a burgage by the south door of the Tollbooth, and his son Hugh succeeded him; ibid. iii, 30; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), iii, 296 (where he is called 'late of Tyldesley'). Henry Allen died in 1598 holding messuages in Manchester of Nicholas Mosley by the hundredth part of a knight's fee and a rent of 12d.; George, his son and heir, was twelve years old; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, 67. Henry Allen was the heir (by bequest) of Edward Janney, who died in 1553; and had an elder brother Edward Allen, of age in 1568, who died in 1580, and to whom he was heir; Ct. Leet Rec. i, 7, 121, 215. The will of Edward Janney is printed in Piccope, Wills, i, 157. George Allen came of age in 1608, and in 1615 sold a house to Henry Johnson; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 238, 305. Ralph Proudlove died in 1588 holding various burgages, &c., in Manchester; his widow Margaret died in 1600; after which the estate was divided, half going to the next of kin, George Proudlove, and half to the issue of his sister Ellen Goodyear (who had died in 1591), Robert her son succeeding; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), iii, 465. George Birch of Deptford held two burgages, &c., in Manchester of Sir N. Mosley, by a rent of 6s.; he died in 1602, and his heir was his sister Elizabeth, wife of Christopher Brown; ibid. iii, 463. James Ashton of Manchester died in 1605, holding a messuage and land in socage by a rent of 12d.; Joyce Ashton was his sister and heir; ibid. iii, 466. Thomas Edge of Whittle died at Manchester in 1607, holding a burgage of the lord of the manor; he left two young daughters as co-heirs; ibid. i, 112. He had purchased the lands of Henry Ainsworth and John (son of Ralph) Sorocold in 1602; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 177, 84, 239. Alice Edge, one of the daughters, in 1620 sold a moiety of a messuage 'at the end of Salford bridge' to Edward Chetham; ibid. iii, 29. Robert Hulton, 'whittawer,' died in 1621 holding a messuage, &c., in Manchester of Edward Mosley by a rent of 9d.; the heir was his grandson, George, son of George Hulton, twelve years of age; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), ii, 244, where the settlement made by Robert Hulton's will is given; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 48. William Newsome died in 1621, holding a messuage of Edward Mosley; William, his son and heir, was thirty years of age; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 914; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 52. The younger William's executors in 1652 sold lands to Mrs. Elizabeth Lomax; ibid. iv, 74. Jasper Fox died in 1623 holding burgages, &c., in Marketstead and Deansgate of the king; his son and heir Richard was seven years old; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13, p. 427. Jasper was the son of Richard Fox, who died in 1622 (and who was the son of another Richard Fox, who died in 1587; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 12), holding lands in Deansgate and (Old) Millgate purchased from Shallcross and Byrom; ibid. iii, 51, where his will is given. The family appear to have taken an active part in the town's affairs. Richard, the son of Jasper, came of age in 1637; ibid. iii, 251. He died in or before 1655, leaving two sons, Richard and James; ibid. iv, 240; his will is printed in the note. Stephen Rodley or Radley, who had an estate in Nottingham, held burgages, &c., in Manchester at his death in 1630, as follows: One in Marketstead, bought of Francis Pendleton; others in Hanging Ditch, Rawlinson's Croft, Withy Grove, and Shudehill Lane; also four messuages in Blackley; William, his son and heir, was twelve years old; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13, p. 1002. The surname frequently occurs in the Ct. Leet Rec. from 1552 onwards, and in 1604 it was reported that one Robert Rodley had died, and that his grandson Robert was his heir and of full age; ibid. ii, 198. Stephen Rodley is first named in 1613, when he was appointed a constable; ibid. ii, 281. William his son came of age in 1639; ibid. iii, 285, and see the note. Robert Rodley was of Collyhurst in 1619; Hist. of Newton Chapelry (Chet. Soc.), ii, 76; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 18; also in 1623; Newton, ii, 278. Henry Johnson of Manchester, mercer, held burgages and shops near the Smithy Door, &c., of Edward Mosley by 12d. rent, and died in 1637, leaving a son and heir Thomas, sixteen years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, 24. Thomas probably died before coming of age, as another son, John, entered into possession in 1653; Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 104, where there is an abstract of the father's will. William Buckley died in 1638, holding a messuage; his son William was only a year old; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13, p. 59; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 287, where is given a summary of the will of William Buckley, draper. William Butler, yeoman, held nine messuages, &c., of the king; his own house was in St. Mary Gate. He died in 1639, leaving four daughters as co-heirs —Margaret wife of Roger Finch the younger of Chorley; Mary, Anne, and Elizabeth—of whom the last was nine years of age, and the others over twentyone; Towneley MS. C, 8, 13, p. 66; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 329, where Mary is called wife of Richard Hunt; abstracts of the wills of William Butler, innkeeper, and of his widow Ellen are given in the note. Thomas Harrison died in 1628 holding two messuages in Manchester, and others in Wyresdale and Ellel; Edward, his son and heir, was forty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, 72. They are not mentioned in the Ct. Leet Rec. Henry Keeley died in 1640, holding messuages, &c., in Hanging Bridge and Smithy Door; Thomas, his son and heir, was thirty-five years old; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, 21. The father seems to have settled in the town about 1610; he and his son are frequently mentioned in the Ct. Leet Rec.; see ii, 259; iii, 329 (will). Thomas was succeeded by his sister Mary and her (second) husband Nicholas Hawet in 1648; ibid. iv, 13. In 1659 the estate was in the hands of the trustees of her first husband, John Griffin; ibid. iv, 251. Mr. Crofton says: 'The name Keeley was sometimes spelt Caley, and Caley banks or bongs were on the east side of Oxford Street, where it slopes down to the Medlock from the canal. Members of the family owned land in Salford (Portmote Rec., indexed as Kelley).' William Cooke, who died in 1641, held burgages, &c., in Deansgate, and left several daughters as co-heirs, of whom Mary, the eldest, wife of Leonard Egerton, was nineteen years of age. The others were Martha, Hannah, Jane, and Ruth; Ellen Mosley and Esther Halstead were dead; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, 5. William Cooke is frequently named in the Ct. Leet Rec.; the son-in-law was Leonard Egerton of the Shaw in Flixton; Dugdale, Visit. 102. The above represent only a few of the burgesses and landholders in the town, the inquisitions quoted having survived by chance; but by the aid of the Ct. Leet Rec., wills, &c., it is probable that a fairly complete account might be compiled of the householders of Manchester in the period between 1550 and 1650. In several cases the inquisitions not only describe the situations of the various properties, but record also the names of the occupiers.
  • 152. Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 248, 250.
  • 153. Dugdale, Visit. 242; see Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 74. Ridgefield is said to derive its name from its former owners. The following were also summoned by the herald:—Beswick, John Houlden, Francis Worthington, James Lancashire, and Thomas Illingworth; Visit. v.
  • 154. A number of references will be found in preceding notes. Robert de Billsbrough and Leuca his wife in 1256 acquired tenements in Manchester from Simon son of Luke de Manchester and others; Final Conc. i, 128. Ralph son of Robert de Manchester in 1284 successfully claimed a messuage and 2½ acres against Robert de Braybon and Ellen his wife; Assize R. 1265, m. 4. In 1292 William son of Margery de Manchester was plaintiff and Nicholas son of Robert son of Simon de Manchester, defendant, in a suit respecting a tenement in the town; Assize R. 408, m. 46. In 1333 Margery widow of Adam son of Robert de Manchester claimed dower against Henry son of Robert son of Simon; De Banco R. 295, m. 102 d. In 1338 Henry son of Robert son of Robert de Manchester claimed messuages and lands in the town against Henry son of John son of Sir Henry de Trafford, Adam son of Richard de Manchester, Henry Boterind and Richard his son; De Banco R. 314, m. 225. Hugh de Manchester, a Dominican, was in 1294 sent as ambassador to France by Edward I; he wrote a work De Fanaticorum Deliriis. It is doubted whether he belonged to Manchester or to Mancetter in Warwickshire, but in the Patent Rolls his surname is given as Mamcestre or Maunnecestre; Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, pp. 85, 131. See an essay by Mr. W. E. A. Axon in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. ii, 108–14.
  • 155. The Act (7 Anne, cap. 6) is printed in the Rev. Charles Wareing Bardsley's Mem. of St. Ann's Ch. (1877), 141–8. This work contains a full account of the origin of the church, as well as of its incumbents and their work down to the end of the 18th century; the hymn books used in Manchester churches are noticed, and the rise of Sunday schools is told. Among the most noteworthy of the rectors were Archdeacon Ward, 1745 to 1785, who has already occurred among the vicars of Childwall, and James Bardsley.
  • 156. The Marriage Act of 1754 stopped the celebration of marriages at St. Ann's. Dr. Deacon, the Nonjurors' bishop, was buried in the churchyard. The last burial there was in 1854. The gravestones are now concealed, the churchyard being a public garden, but the inscriptions are in the Owen MSS. (Free Library), xiii, 201; xxix, 3.
  • 157. The patronage of this and other churches held by the Bishop of Chester was transferred to the Bishop of Manchester in 1859.
  • 158. Bardsley, op. cit. 12; the author gives some reasons for supposing that it was built for the Whigs or Low Churchmen of the town.
  • 159. Lond. Gaz. 29 Mar. 1839.
  • 160. Church 1905, tower 1907.
  • 161. There is a local tradition that Wren or one of his pupils designed the building, St. Andrew's Holborn being the model. Dr. Byrom wrote to his wife in 1752 from London, 'Mr. Hooper, Clowes, and I went in a coach and light at Holborn and went into St. Andrew's Church. It was the model, I believe, of the new church at Manchester.' There is, however, no evidence to substantiate the tradition.
  • 162. a The inscribed date is two years earlier than the date letter.
  • 163. Bardsley, Memorials of St. Ann's Church, 14 n. The plate formerly belonging to St. Mary's has been transferred to St. Ann's (see inscriptions)
  • 164. a MS. transcript may be seen at the Reference Library.
  • 165. b 26 Geo. II, cap. 45.
  • 166. Aston, Manch. 76–8; the interior was dark but 'solemnly handsome.' The spire was taken down in 1854.
  • 167. For an account of the church see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. viii, 137. The graveyard inscriptions are in the Owen MSS. There is a transcript of the registers in the Reference Library.
  • 168. Lond. Gaz. 29 Mar. 1839.
  • 169. Aston, Manch. 78.
  • 170. A district was assigned in 1839; Lond. Gaz. ut sup.
  • 171. Aston, op. cit. 79–82. One of the stained-glass windows was brought from a convent at Rouen. The building is of brick, with west tower, and was restored in 1874–8, when the galleries were removed. The patronage was vested in the heirs of the founder for one turn after the first appointment. It was built under a special Act, 9 Geo. III, cap. 60; Pal. Note Bk. iv, 81. The church is noteworthy as the scene of the labours of the 'amiable, venerated and respected' John Clowes, M.A., fellow of Trinity Coll. Cambridge. He was from 1773 an ardent disciple of Emmanuel Swedenborg, and devoted his energies and wealth to the propagation of the new doctrines; it is no doubt through him that Swedenborgianism made great progress in the Manchester district. His zeal did not prevent his receiving offers of preferment in the Established Church. He died in 1831, having been rector of St. John's from 1769. There is a biography of him by Theodore Compton, and a notice in Dict. Nat. Biog.; W. Axon, Annals of Manch. 182. He must be distinguished from two of the name—one, vicar of Eccles and incumbent of Trinity Church, Salford, the other, a fellow of the collegiate church and heir of the Clowes estates. There is a monument to William Marsden, 'who presided over the committee which obtained for Manchester, in 1843, the Saturday Half Holiday'; he died in 1848. A district was assigned to this church in 1839, as above. John Evans' history of the parish exists in MS. in the Free Library; an article by him is printed in the Manch. Lit. Club Papers, v, 106. The graveyard inscriptions are in the Owen MSS.
  • 172. Aston, Manch. 82–3; 'the church was built (aided by the sale of the pews) by the late Rev. Cornelius Bayley, D.D.' in whom and his heirs the presentation was vested till 1847. A district was assigned in 1839 as above. The graveyard inscriptions are in the Owen MSS.
  • 173. a Aston, Manch. 83–4. The church was built by the Rev. Humphrey Owen, whose family had the presentation till 1849. The founder, formerly of Flixton, became rector of St. Mary's Manchester The cemetery was intended for the poor, many coffins being placed in each grave or pit before it was filled up. In 1815 a piece of land called Walker's Croft, on the north bank of the Irk, was purchased for a like purpose. This is now covered by Victoria Station. There are copies of the inscriptions in the Owen MSS. St. Michael's had a district granted to it in 1839, as above.
  • 174. b Aston, op. cit. 89. It was built by its first minister, the Rev. E. Smyth, and was 'a handsome building of brick and stone, with a small stone spire.' One of the incumbents, William Nunn (d. 1840), an Evangelical of the strict Calvinist type, was a man of great influence; a Memoir was published; see also Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 1285. The church, which was never consecrated, was sold by the trustees in 1875, and three others were built—St. Clement's, Greenheys, 1881 (previously a schoolchurch in Hulme), of which the incumbent of the old church became rector; St. Clement's Ordsall, 1878, and St. Clement's Broughton, in 1881; information of Mr. C. W. Sutton.
  • 175. c This church was in its time regarded as a 'singularly elegant piece of architecture'; the interior was 'a model of elegance and taste. The subscribers had the good sense to reject old rules which had not utility for their object; and dared to introduce comfort, convenience and propriety into the temple of God'; Aston, op. cit. 86–9. The steeple was a later addition. The patronage was vested in twenty-one trustees for a period of sixty years from 1794. The church contained a 'Descent from the Cross,' by Annibal Carracci; See Hibbert - Ware, Manch. Foundations, ii, 292. The church was long famous for its musical services. A district was assigned to this church, as to the foregoing, in 1839; it has been added to St. James's. The site has been sold to the corporation. A memorial cross now marks the site.
  • 176. Aston, Manch. 90. As before, a district was assigned in 1839. There are copies of the inscriptions in the Owen MSS.
  • 177. Sir Charles Barry was the architect. It was one of his first essays in Gothic, and a 'subject for laughter' in his later days; Life of Sir C. Barry, 68. The district was assigned in 1828; Lond. Gaz. 4 July.
  • 178. A district was assigned in 1839.
  • 179. The church was built for Dr. Samuel Warren (father of the novelist), who had been expelled from the Wesleyan Methodist Connexion. A district was assigned to it in 1842; Lond. Gaz. 19 July.
  • 180. For this body see Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. v, 181, 182.
  • 181. Axon, Ann. of Manch. 195.
  • 182. The church has been closed; the district is added to St. James's.
  • 183. A district was formed for it in 1844, and altered in 1856; Lond. Gaz. 1 July.
  • 184. A district was granted in 1844; Lond. Gaz. 22 Oct.
  • 185. For district and endowment, Lond. Gaz. 22 Mar. 1850.
  • 186. A district was assigned in 1856; Lond. Gaz. 1 July.
  • 187. For details of the matter, which lasted from 1879 till 1882, see T. Hughes, Life of Bishop Fraser, 254–84.
  • 188. A district was formed in 1860; Lond. Gaz. 16 May.
  • 189. For district see Lond. Gaz. 3 Aug. 1860.
  • 190. For district, ibid. 10 Jan. 1865.
  • 191. For district, ibid. 4 July 1871.
  • 192. For district, ibid. 10 July 1874. The church is to be demolished, and the district divided between St. Peter's, Oldham Road, and St. Barnabas'.
  • 193. The land, church, and other buildings were the gift of Charles P. Stewart, of the Atlas Works, Manchester; Axon, Ann. 341. For district see Lond. Gaz. 1 Dec. 1874.
  • 194. See N. and Q. (Ser. 1), xii, 85.
  • 195. Axon, Ann. 117. James Ray in his Hist. of the Rebellion thus describes the congregation of 1745:—'I don't know of what body the congregation consists, they not allowing any to come amongst them but such as are of their own sort, who (like the more worshipful society of Freemasons) are under an oath not to divulge what is transacted there.'
  • 196. See Everett, Methodism in Manch. Whitefield preached in the town in 1738.
  • 197. 'Methodist Meeting' appears in Berry's plan c. 1752.
  • 198. a Oldham Street Chapel was taken down in 1883; it is represented by the Central Hall of the Wesleyan Mission.
  • 199. Viz. in 1787, 1791, 1795, 1799, 1803, 1809, 1815, 1821, 1827, 1833, 1841, 1849, 1859, 1871, 1887, 1902.
  • 200. a Of Bridgewater Street an account was given in Manch. Guardian, 24 July 1888. The Barnes family, of whom was Robert Barnes the benefactor, attended this chapel. There are copies of the gravestone inscriptions in the Owen MSS.
  • 201. Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 1247; it was afterwards the Mealhouse, then the manor court-house, and down to about 1850 was used as a Sunday school.
  • 202. These details are from Aston, Manch. (ed. 1816), 99–101, and Baines, Lancs. Dir. (1825), ii, 140.
  • 203. A Welsh Methodist chapel called St. David's was built in 1817 in Parliament Street; Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 140.
  • 204. Their founder was the versatile John Wigan, also considered the founder of the local Independents. He was minister of Birch Chapel about 1650, and afterwards fought in the Parliamentary army; see Martindale, Autobiog. (Chet. Soc.), 75. A Mr. Jones, Anabaptist minister, is mentioned by Henry Newcome in 1659; Autobiog. (Chet. Soc.), 111. A Baptist chapel existed in 1717; Gastrell, Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 57.
  • 205. Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. viii, 129; it was demolished in 1899.
  • 206. Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 140; there was in 1875 a third chapel in York Street, near the Infirmary, built in 1807. In addition, the General (or Arminian) Baptists had two small chapels opened in 1824 and 1825. There was in 1857 a Welsh Baptist chapel in Granby Street.
  • 207. Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. v, 107–47; from this account the brief summary in the text is derived. For the Ancoats, Oldham Road, Ashley Lane, and Queen's Park churches, see ibid. 180–8, 190.
  • 208. The Confession of Faith, &c., of the Church of Christ in Hunter's Croft, Manchester, was printed in 1764.
  • 209. a Copies of the inscriptions are in the Owen MSS.
  • 210. This chapel had a famous minister in Dr. Robert S. McAll, who died in 1838.
  • 211. The 'Scots Calvinists,' or United Secession Church, built a chapel, called St. Andrew's, in Lloyd Street in 1799; it was removed to Brunswick Street, Chorlton upon Medlock, in 1858, and now belongs to the Presbyterian Church of England. Another Scotch Church, in Mosley Street, was founded in 1831.
  • 212. The cause was founded in 1837.
  • 213. Fox, Journ. (ed. 1852), i, 60, 305. The meeting was established about 1653 by Thomas Briggs; information of Mr. R. Muschamp.
  • 214. Aston, Manch. 102; Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 140. In 1774 a distraint was made on twenty Quakers who refused to pay their tithes; Manch. Constables' Accts. iii, 297.
  • 215. Nightingale, op. cit. v, 81–107; Sir T. Baker, Mem. of a Dissenting Chapel, containing an account of the ministers, trustees, &c., with illustrations; Pal. Note Bk. i, 28; G. E. Evans, Recs. of Prov. Assembly of Lancs. and Ches.
  • 216. Henry Newcome was born in 1627 at Caldecote, Hunts.; educated at St. John's Coll. Cambridge; M.A., 1650; ordained as a Presbyterian; rector of Gawsworth 1650 to 1657; chaplain— there were then no fellows—of Manchester 1657 to 1662. He was buried in the chapel 30 Sept. 1695. For fuller accounts of him see the works cited in the last note; also Pal. Note Bk. i, 17, &c. His Diary and Autobiog. have been printed (in part) by the Chetham Society; the Introduction to the former of these (by Thomas Heywood) contains a biography.
  • 217. a For the Plungeon family see Pal. Note Bk. iii, 249, 283. The monumental inscriptions are in the Owen MSS.
  • 218. Notices of several will be found in Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 219. Nightingale, op. cit. v, 104.
  • 220. Some Manchester reminiscences are printed in Harland's Collectanea (Chet. Soc.), ii, 232–41. The building was at the lower end of Mosley Street (then Dawson Street), a little north of St. Peter's Church.
  • 221. Aston, Manch. 103.
  • 222. a N. and Q. (Ser. 7), xii, 323.
  • 223. Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 140. They had another in Gartside Street in 1826.
  • 224. In the whole parish in 1626 there were only four 'convicted recusants and non-communicants' paying specially; Lay Subs. R. 131/312. For presentments of recusants at the beginning of the 17th century see Manch. Constables' Accts. i, 56, 162, 165.
  • 225. Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iv, 122, 123.
  • 226. Notitia Cestr. ii, 57, &c. Susannah Reddish, widow, in 1717 as a 'papist' registered a small estate in Salford; Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Non-jurors, 153. In 1729 the Rev. Will. Huddleston, O.S.B., publicly renounced his religion in the Collegiate Church; Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 1263; Loc. Gleanings, ii, 128.
  • 227. Trans. Hist. Soc. (New Ser.), xviii, 214. The details of the chapelries were: Manchester, 287; Blackley, 1; Chorlton, 1 (viz. Mr. Barlow); Salford, 64; Stretford, 20 (exclusive of Mr. Trafford, who lived mostly at York).
  • 228. This account is chiefly derived from a statement prepared by Mr. Joseph Gillow in 1902. Thomas Weedon, a Worcestershire man, was admitted to the English College at Rome in 1658, and was sent on the mission in 1663; Foley, Rec. S.J. vi, 395.
  • 229. Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 278. Baines, on the other hand, states that 'in the early part of the last (18th) century the Catholics had a chapel in Smithy Door, in a building now the Grey Horse publichouse, behind which there is still a large unoccupied piece of ground, then used as a burial ground'; Lancs. Dir. ii, 139.
  • 230. 'At that time toleration was not sufficiently liberal to allow any insulated Catholic chapel, and like all others of that day, the one under consideration is attached to a dwelling-house'; Aston, Manch. (1816), 93. A description follows.
  • 231. a The builder was one of the most notable personages in Manchester in his time—Rowland Broomhead, a Yorkshireman, born 1751, educated at the English College, Rome, and ordained priest in 1775. He was sent to Manchester in 1778, and laboured there till his death in 1820, gaining universal respect; Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath. i, 316.
  • 232. This is about to be closed, the site being required by the corporation. It is to be rebuilt in Chorlton-upon-Medlock.
  • 233. There were stormy scenes at this church in 1846, the priest in charge (Daniel Hearne) having a dispute with the Vicar Apostolic; Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath. iii, 232.
  • 234. Aston, Manch. 105; Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 141.