Townships: Pemberton

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.

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'Townships: Pemberton', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4, (London, 1911), pp. 78-83. British History Online [accessed 21 June 2024].

. "Townships: Pemberton", in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4, (London, 1911) 78-83. British History Online, accessed June 21, 2024,

. "Townships: Pemberton", A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4, (London, 1911). 78-83. British History Online. Web. 21 June 2024,

In this section


Pemberton, 1212.

Pemberton is cut off from Wigan on the north-east by the River Douglas, and from Ince on the east by another brook running into that stream. Through the township runs eastward the brook dividing Orrell from Winstanley. Going north from this brook on the eastern side are found Hindley Hall, Worsley Hall, Newtown, Laithwaite House, Marsh Green, Walthew House, and Markland (fn. 1); and on the western side Tunstead, and Lamberhead Green, Norley, Kit Green, and Orrell City. To the south, on the eastern side lie Smithy Brook, Worsley Mesnes, Goose Green, Hawkley, (fn. 2) and Wheatlees. The lowest ground is that in the Douglas valley; the surface rises to the south-west, where a height of 245 ft. is attained. The area is 2,894 acres. (fn. 3) The population in 1901 was 21,664, including Goose Green, Highfield, Little Lane, and other hamlets. The whole district is unpicturesque, bare and open, occupied for the most part by collieries, mine shafts, and pit banks. There are, however, fields where some crops are raised, potatoes and oats surviving the smoke of the environs. Pastures are scattered about also. The soil is clay and loam, over Coal Measures and stone.

There are several important roads. That from Ormskirk to Wigan enters the township at Lamberhead Green and passes through Newtown, where it is joined by the road from St. Helens through Billinge, and by that from Warrington to Wigan, through Goose Green. This last road has a branch to Wigan through Worsley Mesnes. The principal railway is the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's line from Liverpool to Wigan, which has a station called Pemberton; a loop line, avoiding Wigan, goes east to join the Wigan and Bolton line. The same company's Wigan and Southport railway crosses the northern corner of the township. There are minor lines for the service of the collieries.

The Local Government Act of 1858 was adopted by the township in 1872. (fn. 4) The board was changed to an urban district council of fifteen members by the Act of 1894. It has now been dissolved and the township added to the borough of Wigan, with four wards each returning three councillors and having an alderman.

A hospital was erected in 1886 by the local board. A public park was given by Colonel B. H. Blundell in 1903; and a Carnegie library has been opened.

Coal-mining is the principal industry. There are stone quarries, boiler works, iron foundry, cotton mill, and brick-making. The soil is loam and clay, with subsoil of clay, stone, and coal; potatoes and oats are grown, and there is some pasturage.

The pedestal and portion of a cross exist at Goose Green. (fn. 5)

There was formerly a burning well at Hawkley. (fn. 6)

At Lamberhead Green in 1775 was born William Atherton, a Wesleyan divine, president of the Conference in 1846. He died in 1850. (fn. 7)


Before the Conquest, as afterwards, PEMBERTON seems to have formed one of the berewicks or members of the manor of Newton. (fn. 8) It is so regarded in the inquisitions. (fn. 9)

During the 12th century it was held in thegnage by a certain Alan, (fn. 10) whose son Alan, settling at Windle, was known as Alan de Windle. At the Survey of 1212 the latter was holding Pemberton, assessed as two plough-lands, by the rent of 20s. and the service of finding a judge for the court of Newton. (fn. 11) Like other Windle properties this mesne lordship may have descended to the Burnhulls (fn. 12) and Gerards (fn. 13); no record of it occurs in their inquisitions, but Sir Thomas Gerard, who died in 1621, held certain lands in the township 'of the lords of Pemberton.' (fn. 14) It seems, however, to have been alienated to the Walton family, (fn. 15) and so to have descended with Northlegh or NORLEY to Legh of Lyme. (fn. 16)

Pemberton. Argent a cheveron between three buckets sable with hoops and handles or.

The first Alan de Pemberton had created a subordinate manor for a younger son, known as Adam de Pemberton. (fn. 17) He in 1212 was holding it of Alan de Windle, and had granted out a quarter of it to Henry son of Lawrence, who in turn had granted an oxgang, i.e. a quarter of his share, to Alan son of Aldith. (fn. 18) Adam de Pemberton made grants to the Hospitallers (fn. 19) and to Cockersand Abbey. (fn. 20) He was still living in 1246. (fn. 21) His descendant William died about 1292, (fn. 22) leaving a son Adam, (fn. 23) who in 1331 made a settlement of the manor, his son William, who had married Eleanor, being the heir. (fn. 24)

In or before 1362 William died, leaving Eleanor a widow, (fn. 25) with six children. Thurstan, the heir, was a minor, and his wardship was in 1367 claimed by Robert de Legh and William son of Robert de Radcliffe, in right of their wives. (fn. 26) Thurstan died soon afterwards and his five sisters were his heirs. One of these died young; the other four each had a share, and it is easy to trace the descent of two: that of Emma, who married Robert de Hindley of Aspull; (fn. 27) and of Katherine, who married Alexander de Worsley. (fn. 28) The family of Molyneux of Rainhill had Hawkley in Pemberton, and in 1578 acquired a fourth part of the manor. (fn. 29) As late as 1415, however, the lord of the manor was said to be Henry de Pemberton. (fn. 30)

But few particulars can be given of the descent of the various portions of the manor. HINDLEY HALL became the property of Meyrick Bankes of Winstanley, and is held by his trustees. (fn. 31) The Worsleys of WORSLEY MESNES (fn. 32) were succeeded by the Downes of Wardley, (fn. 33) and their estates are now held by the Earl of Ellesmere. (fn. 34) The Molyneuxes of HAWKLEY continued in possession until the death of Bryan William Molyneux in 1805. (fn. 35) By his will the Rev. William Hockenhull of Lymm in Cheshire succeeded, and assumed the surname of Molyneux. (fn. 36) Hawkley, however, was afterwards sold, and is now the property of the trustees of Meyrick Bankes. (fn. 37)

The estate called TUNSTEAD was in the possession of a branch of the Pembertons during the whole of the 15th century. (fn. 38) One of the daughters and coheirs of George Pemberton then carried it by mar riage to Robert Molyneux of Melling, (fn. 39) and it descended with the other lands of this family (fn. 40) until they were sold in the middle of the 18th century.


MARKLAND was the property of the Hollands, (fn. 41) and in 1360 was granted to the Priory of Upholland. On the suppression it was acquired by John Holcroft. (fn. 42)

Alexander Worsley, Thomas and John Molyneux, Gilbert Scott, and Robert Higginson, contributed to a subsidy of Mary's reign as landowners. (fn. 43) The freeholders in 1600 (fn. 44) were: Ralph Worsley, — Downes, (fn. 45) Richard Molyneux of Hawkley, Robert Arrowsmith, Thomas Laithwaite, (fn. 46) Richard Pemberton, (fn. 47) Hugh Scott, (fn. 48) William Walthew, (fn. 49) Thomas Whalley, (fn. 50) Humphrey Winstanley, and John Worthington. The landowners who contributed to the subsidy of 1628 were Roger Downes, for Worsley's lands; Richard Molyneux, and the heirs of Richard Pemberton. (fn. 51) Several 'delinquents' compounded for their estates under the rule of the Commonwealth. (fn. 52) The following 'papists' registered estates here in 1717: Barbara and Margaret Green, George Unsworth, and William Winstanley. (fn. 53) The land tax returns of 1787 show the chief owners to have been the Duke of Bridgewater, the heirs of T. Barton, Mrs. Percival, W. B. Molyneux, and John Markland.

During the last century a number of places of worship have been erected in Pemberton. In connexion with the Established Church St. John's was consecrated in 1832 as a chapel of ease to the parish church; a burial ground was attached to it. The rector of Wigan is the patron. (fn. 54) The church of St. Matthew, Highfield, built in 1894, serves as a chapel of ease. St Mark's, Newtown, was built in 1891. The patronage is vested in trustees. There is a licensed chapel at Worsley Mesnes.

The Methodist denominations are well represented, the Wesleyan, Primitive, Independent, and United Free Methodists having places of worship. There are also Free Gospel and Congregational chapels.

The Roman Catholic church of St. Cuthbert dates from 1872; it was enlarged in 1887. (fn. 55)

A schoolhouse was built at Goose Green by Thomas Molyneux; but no endowment was provided. (fn. 56)


  • 1. Ancient spellings: Marclane, 1276; Marghlands, xvi cent.
  • 2. Or Hawcliff.
  • 3. 2,895, including 15 acres of inland water; Census of 1901.
  • 4. Lond. Gaz. 20 Aug. 1872.
  • 5. Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiv, 235.
  • 6. Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 563, quoting Bowen's Geog. Roger Lowe records that on 1 June 1665 he went to see the burning well at Pemberton, 'and we had two eggs which was so done by no material fire'; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 180.
  • 7. Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 8. V.C.H. Lancs. i, 286.
  • 9. See for example Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 138; ibid. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 105.
  • 10. In the Pipe Roll of 1200–1 the sheriff rendered account of 10 marks from Alan son of Alan for having seisin of the land of Pemberton and for his relief; also for a writ of right against Nicholas le Boteler, formerly deputy sheriff, concerning 40s. already paid; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 132, 141. In 1202 Edusa, widow of Alan de Windle, claimed dower in Pemberton from Alan son of Alan; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 37.
  • 11. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 75.
  • 12. See the case cited below.
  • 13. In the inquisition made in 1447 after the death of Sir Peter Gerard it was found that he had held messuages, lands, and tenements, rents, and services in Pemberton, but the jurors did not know of whom they were held; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1465.
  • 14. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 300.
  • 15. Alan de Windle granted to Master Adam de Walton the homage of Adam son of William de Pemberton, and this being transferred to Adam de Walton, lord of Walton le Dale, was by him granted to Thurstan de Northlegh in 1316; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 509. In 1292 Adam de Pemberton was nonsuited in a claim against Adam de Northlegh; Assize R. 408, m. 43. In 1305 Adam de Pemberton claimed estovers as against Thurstan de Northlegh and Maud, the widow of Adam de Northlegh, and his claim was allowed; Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 258b. Adam de Pemberton acknowledged that Thurstan and Maud had a right to housebote and haybote without view of the forester, but they had cut down their wood beyond due measure, 93 oaks having been removed; Coram Rege R. 184, m. 53. By a fine of 1321 7 messuages, 2 oxgangs and 37 acres of land and 5 acres of meadow in Pemberton were settled upon Thurstan de Northlegh and Margery his wife; Final Conc. ii, 40; see also ii, 33, 43. Margery, widow of Thurstan de Northlegh, occurs in 1346; Assize R. 1435, m. 31.
  • 16. Robert de Legh of Adlington and William de Radcliffe of Smithills married respectively Maud and Katherine, daughters and co-heirs of Thurstan de Northlegh in Pemberton, by his wife Margery, daughter and heir of John de Walton; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), iii, 661; Lancs. Inq p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 35; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 256–9. In 1448 Robert Cantsfield of Pemberton, holding of Peter de Legh, had a dispute with John Pemberton; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 12, m. 2, 14. In the inquisition (1528) after the death of Sir Piers Legh his lands in Pemberton were said to be held directly of Thomas Langton; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 63. In right of Norley the Leghs of Lyme had a chapel in Wigan Church, which was given up to the rector in 1682; Bridgeman, Wigan Ch. 694.
  • 17. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 75. That Adam was son of the elder Alan appears from the Burnhull case cited below.
  • 18. Ibid. It is probable that one of these grants is represented by Tunstead.
  • 19. Ibid. 76. No grant in Pemberton is mentioned in the list of the Hospitallers' lands in 1292 in the Plac. de Quo War. or in the rental of 1540.
  • 20. Cockersand Chart. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 668–71. He gave land called Ashbern ridding, within bounds starting at the Douglas and going up Whittle Brook to Flax ridding; across the carr to the syke between Stephen's assart and the charcoalman's assart, and by the syke to the Douglas. He also granted an assart which Randle de Pemberton had held, and another called White's cross. Henry son of Lawrence released his share of these lands to the canons. The abbot shortly afterwards (before 1235) gave them to William son of Richard White of Wigan, who had married Hawise, daughter of Adam de Pemberton, at a yearly rent of 12d.; ibid. 671. About 1268 John the Smith held these lands by the same rent and a payment of ½ a mark at the death of wife or heir; ibid. 668. For the inquisitions after the death of Edmund the Smith of Pemberton in 1408, see Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 92.
  • 21. Assize R. 404, m. 9. Adam de Pemberton sued Peter de Burnhull for 200 acres in Pemberton, of which Alan, the plaintiff's father, was seised in the time of Henry II, i.e. before July 1189. The decision was committed to the hazard of a duel, and Adam's man Philip being defeated, Peter de Burnhull was allowed to hold the land in peace. The sureties for Philip were Alan de Windle, William and James de Pemberton, and John del Marsh. See also Assize R. 454, m. 25. At the same time Adam de Pemberton was summoned to answer Robert son of Hugh, who complained that the lord of Newton compelled him to do service to the three-weeks court at Newton, which Adam as mesne tenant should perform. Robert's tenement was 17 acres, for which he paid a rent of 7d.; Assize R. 404, m. 12. Adam and William his son, together with James de Pemberton, were charged with having disseised William White, John del Marsh, and Adam his brother of their common of pasture in Pemberton; ibid. m. 2. Peter de Burnhull also claimed 6 acres in Ince from Adam de Pemberton, William his son, and James son of Henry; ibid. m. 12 d. The last may be the James de Pemberton of the preceding case; then the father may be the Henry son of Lawrence of 1212.
  • 22. The exact relationship is uncertain. A case in 1254, in which an Adam son of William was defendant, alludes to William de Pemberton as if he were then dead; Cur. Reg. R. 154, m. 20. In 1292 William son of Roger de Ince acquired a messuage and two oxgangs in Pemberton from William son of Adam de Pemberton and Mary his wife; Final Conc. i, 176. Two years later Mary, widow of William, did not prosecute the claim she made against Adam son of William son of Adam de Pemberton; Assize R. 1299, m. 14 d. John son of William de Pemberton was of full age in 1292; Assize R. 468, m. 27 d.
  • 23. Adam de Pemberton was both plaintiff and defendant in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 58 d. 43. Adam and Henry de Pemberton were jurors in 1293; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 276. Hugh de Pemberton, enfeoffed by Adam de Pemberton (probably the grandfather), recovered seisin of a messuage, mill, &c., against Adam de Pemberton and Robert de Rode; Assize R. 1306, m. 16. The fine of 1304 (Final Conc. i, 203) may refer to a later agreement between the parties.
  • 24. Ibid. ii, 79. William son of Hugh de Pemberton is mentioned in 1343; Assize R. 430, m. 26. Hugh de Pemberton, rector of Brindle, was about this time engaged in a number of disputes and settlements in Pemberton; possibly he was the younger son of Adam mentioned in 1331. In 1356 Thomas de Pemberton and many others, including Henry de Pemberton the elder, Henry his son, Edmund and Lawrence de Pemberton, and several 'nailers,' were convicted of having disseised Rector Hugh of two messuages and lands in Pemberton; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 5, m. 5. Roger de Winstanley was defendant in another case; ibid. m. 5 d. In 1365 and 1366 Emma, widow of Roger de Winstanley, who afterwards married John de Ince, brought a suit against the same Hugh; De Banco R. 421, m. 504 d.; 425, m. 253 d. See also Final Conc. ii, 153.
  • 25. In 1362 Eleanor, widow of Adam [William] de Pemberton, and other executors of the will of William son of Adam de Pemberton, gave half a mark for a writ respecting a false judgement; Fine R. 163, m. 7.
  • 26. De Banco R. 427, m. 236; 463, m. 389, from which it appears that four of the daughters had by 1376 married as follows: Agnes to Alexander de Lynalx, Katherine to Alexander de Worsley; Alice to Roger son of Richard de Atherton, and Emma to Robert de Hindley. The other daughter was named Joan.
  • 27. See above, and Visit. of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 117. In 1531 it was found that Hugh Hindley of Aspull had held six messuages, 60 acres of land, &c., and a water-mill in Pemberton, of Thomas Langton in socage, by the rent of 10s. per annum, i.e. a moiety of the ancient thegnage rent of the whole manor; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 22. He had two of the shares, as will be seen below.
  • 28. The relationship of Alexander to the main Worsley stock is unknown. An Alexander son of Richard son of Henry de Worsley occurs in 1334, but can scarcely have been the husband of Katherine; Coram Rege R. 297, m. 120. In October, 1431, a writ of redisseisin was issued in favour of Robert de Sankey, Hugh de Hindley, and Alice de Parr, against William de Worsley and Alice, widow of Jordan de Worsley, regarding lands and tenements in Pemberton and Hindley; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 32. Hugh Worsley of Pemberton is mentioned in 1470; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2671. For a curious claim made after his death see Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 109. The Worsley portion of the manor was in 1611 said to be held of Richard Fleetwood, baron of Newton, by a rent of 5s. the service for a quarter of the manor; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 172.
  • 29. From the preceding note it will be seen that a quarter of the manor is unaccounted for. Nothing further is known of William de Pemberton's daughter Agnes, wife of Alexander de Lynalx. Alice, who married Roger de Atherton, may have been ancestor of the Athertons of later times. It appears from the last note that Robert de Sankey and Alice de Parr were lords of the manor in 1431, in addition to the Worsleys and Hindleys. One of the latter married a Parr heiress, apparently the Alice de Parr just named, so securing the estate they had later in Parr and a second quarter of the manor of Pemberton. The Sankey quarter seems to have descended to Thomas Sankey and Thomas his son and heir apparent, who in 1578 sold it to Thomas Molyneux of Hawkley, in whose family it afterwards descended; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 40, m. 171.
  • 30. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 103. Henry, son of Henry de Pemberton, who had brothers William and Peter, occurs in 1430; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2675; and Henry de Pemberton in 1447; Lancs. Inq. p.m. ii, 54.
  • 31. A moiety of the manor of Pemberton, i.e. the Hindley portion, was in the possession of Robert Bankes of Winstanley in August 1721, and appears to have descended with Winstanley; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 515, m. 4; 571, m. 6 d.; 628, m. 7.
  • 32. The family attained some prominence in the 16th century. The Worsleys of the Isle of Wight were the most conspicuous offshoot; Sir James Worsley, their founder, in 1526 complained of the destruction of fences in the Crossfield; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 140. Sir James's will is in P.C.C. Ralph Worsley obtained a grant of Birkenhead Priory. Ottwell Worsley was concerned in various suits in 1525; ibid. i, 130, 133. A pedigree was recorded in 1613; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 72. James Worsley purchased land in Pemberton from Sir Robert Worsley o Booths and Robert, the latter's son and heir apparent, and Elizabeth his wife, in 1562; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 24, m. 61. James Worsley in 1570 had a dispute with James Winstanley and Thomas Taylor respecting lands abutting on Saltersford Brook; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 403. (It may be stated by the way, that an Adam the Salter and his wife Juliana had a tenement in Pemberton in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 44.) James Worsley died in September 1590, holding the capital messuage or manor house called the hall of Worsley, and other houses and lands, of Thomas Langton by a rent of 5s.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, no. 29. His brother Ralph succeeded. He was one of the 'comers to church but no communicants' in 1590; Lydiate Hall, 246. He had spent some time in Salford gaol for religion in 1582; Engl. Martyrs (Cath. Rec. Soc.), 23–5. Dying in 1610 it was found that he had held the 'hall of Worsley' in Pemberton with messuages, lands, and rents there, and in Parr, Winstanley, Wigan, and Hindley. The Pemberton lands were held of Richard Fleetwood in socage, by a rent of 5s. but part had belonged to Upholland Priory, and was held of the king by the two-hundredth part of a knight's fee and 2s. rent. His widow Ellen was in possession in 1611, and his heirs were his sister Alice, aged sixty years, and Roger Downes of Wardley, son of another sister, Elizabeth; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 171–3. An account of the sinking of a coal pit on his estate in 1600 is printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vii, 49–53.
  • 33. Roger Downes represented Wigan in the Parliaments of 1601 and 1620; Pink and Beaven, Parl. Rep. of Lancs. 223, 224. He was buried at Wigan 6 July 1638. A monument to his grandson Roger, who died in 1676, is in Wigan Church. See the pedigree in Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 100, and the account of Worsley.
  • 34. In a fine concerning the Wardley estates in 1741 George Lewis Scott was plaintiff and James Cholmondeley and Penelope his wife were deforciants; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 327, m. 80. Lady Penelope sold them to the Duke of Bridgewater in 1760.
  • 35. Some particulars as to this family will be found in the accounts of Rainhill and Whiston. The Visit. of 1567 suggests that their coming to Pemberton was due to marriage with the heiress of the Ince family. Gilbert de Ince of Hawkley occurs in 1374; Inq. a.q.d. 48 Edw. III, no. 19; see also Coram Rege R. 426. John Molyneux of Hawkley occurs in 1469 and 1490–1; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 245, no. 1012; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2537. An agreement was made in 1512 between Richard Molyneux of Hawkley or Hawcliffe and Thomas Gerard of Ince for the marriage of the former's son Richard (? Roger) with the latter's daughter Elizabeth; Chet. P. In 1543 Thomas Molyneux, son of Roger and the last-named Elizabeth, and Elizabeth his wife had a dispute with Roger Molyneux concerning Hitchcock carr; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 174. A settlement of lands in Pemberton and Hawkley was made by fine in 1546 between Roger Molyneux and Thomas, his son and heir apparent, and Elizabeth his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 193. Roger was living in 1547; ibid. bdle. 12, m. 250. Hawkley Hall is mentioned in a dispute between John Kitchen and Isabel his daughter and Thomas Molyneux, the owner, in 1561; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 228. Thomas Molyneux and his second wife Sibyl occur in various fines concerning lands in Pemberton and Markland from 1572; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F., bdles. 34, m. 39, &c. 'Thomas Molyneux of Hawkley, gent., in lands £40 and in goods £100,' was a recusant in 1577; Lydiate Hall, 215, quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. cxviii, 45. He was buried at Wigan 16 May 1586; and soon afterwards disputes arose between his son and heir Richard and Sibyl the widow. In the pleadings the descent is thus given: Richard Molyneux-s. and h. Roger-s. and h. Thomas-s. and h. Richard. The estate is described as a capital messuage called Hawkley, containing demesne lands in Hawkley and Pemberton, and various lands in Aughton and Uplitherland of very good yearly value; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. cliv, M. 11; Decrees and Orders, Eliz. xx, fol. 37. Richard Molyneux of Hawkley was in 1590 among the 'comers to church, but no communicants,' but he and his family appear to have soon afterwards conformed to the Established religion; Lydiate Hall, 246 (quoting S.P. Dom. Eliz. ccxxxv, 4). Pedigrees were recorded in 1567 and 1664; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 108, 200. Richard Molyneux and Thomas his son and heir-apparent made a settlement of the manor of Pemberton in 1607; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 71, no. 25. Richard paid £10 in 1631 on refusing knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 213. He was still living in 1664, but Thomas was dead, and his son Richard, aged forty at the Visitation in that year, soon afterwards succeeded to the estate. Early in 1681 he made a settlement of the manor and various lands in Pemberton, as also in Wigan, Ince, Standish, and Croft, Anne his wife, and Hugh his son and heir-apparent being joined as deforciants; ibid. bdle. 206, m. 91. Richard Molyneux was buried at Wigan 31 Oct. 1681; Hugh succeeded, but appears to have had no issue, and administration of his estate was granted at Chester in 1687. William Molyneux succeeded his brother Hugh; he was buried at Warrington in 1698 and there is an inscription in the churchyard commemorating him; Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 216. His son William was succeeded by an uncle, Reginald, brother of the preceding William and Hugh; and in turn was succeeded by his sons William (buried at Wigan 4 Nov. 1740) and Richard (buried at Warrington in 1748). In a settlement made in 1721, William Molyneux, gentleman, being in possession, their part of the manor is described as 'the fourth part'; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 288, m. 36. A monumental inscription for Richard Molyneux exists in Warrington Churchyard; Local Glean. loc. cit. Hawkley descended to his only son Richard, who married Jane daughter and heir of Bryan Wilcock of Walsh Hall, Aughton. Among the Croxteth Hall muniments is a lease of Hawkley Hall in 1749, which describes the house and names the mill and several fields, as Haslings, Hiscow carrs, &c. In 1757 a fine concerning the manor of Pemberton has Hugh Wishaw for plaintiff and David Brodie, Mary his wife, Rev. Francis Gastrell, Jane his wife, William Prujean, Sophia his wife, and Richard Molyneux as deforciants; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 259, m. 111. Richard Molyneux was buried at Wigan 9 Mar. 1762, and was succeeded in turn by his sons Richard (died 1771) and Bryan William. The latter died at Lymm Parsonage, 29 July 1805, unmarried. There is a monument to him in Wigan Church, where he was buried. A full pedigree, from which this outline has been taken, will be found in Palmer MS. E. (Chet. Lib.), 202, 398.
  • 36. The will of B. W. Molyneux stated expressly: 'The said William Hockenhull shall not enjoy the said premises otherwise than upon the express condition that when such estate shall come to him in possession under the said trusts, he shall take use and bear the surname of Molyneux and shall cause himself to be called by the surname of Molyneux and no other.' A pedigree of the family is given in Burke, Family Rec. 433.
  • 37. Hawkley was sold by the Rev. Bryan William Molyneux, son of William Hockenhull.
  • 38. There appear to have been several families bearing the local surname. James de Pemberton has been mentioned in 1246; Henry son of James occurs in 1276; Coram Rege R. 26, m. 3d. Henry attested a local charter in 1293 in the next place after Adam lord of Pemberton; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2649. Henry de Pemberton and James his son occur about 1283; Cockersand Chart. ii, 659. In the Towneley volume just quoted are a number of charters relating to Tunstead, which was at first an oxgang of land, possibly that belonging to Alan son of Aldith in 1212. William de Pemberton granted 'an oxgang in Pemberton called Tunstead, which Aynhou (?) de Pemberton formerly held' of him, to Christiana, daughter of Adam de Radcliffe; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2649. This afterwards came into the possession of Simon de Holland, who called it his 'manor,' and in 1293 granted it to William son of Roger de Ince; ibid. GG, no. 2647, 2648; also Crosse D. Trans. Hist. Soc. no. 11a, b, c. Simon son of Thurstan de Holland had complained in 1292 that Robert de Holland, Adam his son, Adam de Northlegh, and others had disseised him of his free tenement in Wigan and Pemberton (17 acres). Thurstan de Holland had granted the estate to Juliana daughter of John Gillibrand, for life, with remainders to her sons, Thurstan and Adam, and then to the plaintiff Simon, apparently a brother. Adam died before Thurstan without issue; Thurstan died at Oxford; and Simon, who was then in Scotland, returned to Wigan to take possession, but found Robert's men in the tenement. At Pemberton, Adam de Pemberton, as lord, had entered, and held until Simon appeared to claim; Simon had married a daughter of his. The lands in Wigan were held of Robert de Holland by the service of a barbed arrow; Assize R. 408, m. 16 d. Nothing further is known of its history for a century. Richard de Pemberton died in possession of it in 1415, as also of other lands called the Marsh, &c.; his son Thomas being dead the heir was his grandson Hugh; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 103. In the same year William, another son of Richard, as trustee granted Tunstead to Alice, the widow of Richard, for life, with remainders to Hugh son of Thomas de Pemberton, and then to Hugh and Thurstan, sons of Richard; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2626, 2655. Hugh de Pemberton by his wife Douce had a son John, whose son George was the last of the direct male line of the family. For Hugh's marriage see ibid. GG, no. 2596, 2597, dated 1435. He died in or before 1466, when Douce was a widow, and the son John in possession; ibid. GG, no. 2650, 2671, and Crosse D. no. 146.
  • 39. Beatrice, Elizabeth, Ellen, and Alice were the daughters and co-heirs of George son of John Pemberton; Towneley MS. GG, no. 2362, 2890, 2405, dated 1512 and 1514; and Crosse D. no. 172. Beatrice Pemberton and others in 1512 claimed the wardship of Elizabeth Birkenhead; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 127. The third of the daughters, Ellen, married Robert Molyneux of Melling (Visit. of 1567, p. 100), and in the inquisition taken after the death of their son and heir John Molyneux in 1582, the estate, comprising Tunstead Hall and various lands, is fully described; among the fields were Bridgeley and Mabcroft; it was held of the heirs of the lords of Pemberton, James Worsley and Robert Hindley, in socage by rents of 4s. 8d. and 7d. respectively; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 73.
  • 40. See Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 43; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 94, no. 15.
  • 41. In 1241 Robert de Holland quitclaimed to Adam de Pemberton all his title to twelve oxgangs in Pemberton in return for the homage and service of Thomas de Sifrethley; Final Conc. i, 82. In 1292 Robert de Holland and Robert his son had an estate in Pemberton and Orrell; ibid. i, 173. In 1348 Maud, widow of Robert de Holland, had claimed dower in the 'manor of Markland,' described as three plough-lands; De Banco R. 355, m. 307. Inquiry was made at Prescot on 25 Jan. 1346–7 as to whether or not it would be to the king's hurt if a messuage, a mill, 60 acres of land, 3 acres of meadow, and 6 acres of wood in Pemberton, and the reversion of other lands held for a term by Adam de Orrell and Nicholas his son, should be granted to the prior and convent of Upholland. The lands were held of Ralph de Langton by fealty and rendering a rose at midsummer, and were of the annual value of 53s. 4d. The answer of the jury was in the negative; the king had already licensed a grant of lands to the value of £20 a year; and after this land had been given Sir Robert de Holland had the manor of Holland, worth 100 marks a year, from which to discharge his liabilities to the king and others; Inq. p.m. 41 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 12. In 1535 the clear value was reckoned at £8 10s. a year, and after the Dissolution the various rents came to the same amount; Dugdale, Mon. iv, 412.
  • 42. Pat. 37 Hen. VIII, pt. iv; included in the general grant of the priory lands. Markland was soon sold to Sir Robert Worsley of Booths, Thomas Molyneux purchasing part from Robert Worsley; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdles. 31, m. 111, 147; 35, m. 41.
  • 43. Mascy of Rixton D.
  • 44. Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 239–43.
  • 45. Roger Downes had acquired land in 1597 from Thomas Worsley and Katherine his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 58, m. 19.
  • 46. See the account of Wigan.
  • 47. In 1517 John Pemberton of Lonemerehead, with his son Thomas and the latter's wife Elizabeth, leased their chief place to Robert Molyneux; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 121, m. 6 d. John Pemberton and Alice his wife had an estate in the township in 1519; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 217. Robert Pemberton and Margaret his wife in 1546; ibid. bdle. 12, no. 247. He may be the Robert Higginson alias Pemberton of 1549, who had a dispute with Roger Molyneux as to Wacarrs; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 241. Ralph Pemberton alias Higginson appears in 1571 (ibid. iii, 25) and Richard Pemberton alias Higginson in 1579; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 41, m. 92. Richard Pemberton, yeoman, died 20 Sept. 1628 holding a messuage and lands of Roger Downes and Richard Molyneux; the heirs were his daughters, Margaret wife of Henry Holme, and Margery wife of Ralph Rylands, aged thirtynine and thirty-four respectively; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 976.
  • 48. Roger Scott was a defendant in a plea by John the Salter respecting a messuage and lands in Pemberton in Lent 1351; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1. m. 1d. The Scotts held the lands of the Abbey of Cockersand; Chartul. iii, 1246, 1243; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 266. Cuthbert Scott, Bishop of Chester 1556 to 1559, is said to have been a member of the family, which adhered to the ancient faith; Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Catholics, v, 484. A Cuthbert Scott and his wife appear in the Recusant Roll of 1641; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 239. A large number of deeds relating to the Scotts of Wigan and Pemberton have been preserved by Kuerden (ii, fol. 259) from 'Mr. Thomas Scott's charters.' In 1384–5 a settlement was made on the marriage of Richard son of Roger Scott with Alice daughter of Richard the Marshal of Wigan (his land was in the Woodhouses); no. 108; see no. 37, 36, 45. About 1411 Richard son of Roger Scott made a grant of land in Scholes in Wigan between the walk mill and the high road to his son Roger on marrying Alice daughter of William Laithwaite; ibid. no. 71, 69. Roger Scott the younger received the Marshal lands in Wigan Woodhouses in 1418; ibid. no. 48, 72. These lands descended by 1467 to Hugh Scott of Pemberton, a son of Roger Scott; ibid. no. 38, 53, 61. Hugh's son Richard was in 1467 married to Ellen daughter of Richard Warburton; lands called High Appletree Croft and Little Scholefield were granted to them; Joan, wife of Hugh is mentioned; ibid. no. 32, 80. Richard Scott had a son Hugh, whose marriage with Agnes, sister of Thomas Gerard of Ince, was arranged in 1508–9; ibid. no. 14, 47. In 1529 Hugh Scott of Pemberton, and Gilbert his son and heir, demised to Gilbert Mason and Margery his wife a burgage in Millgate, Wigan; ibid. no. 104. In 1552 Agnes, widow of Hugh Scott, and Gilbert her son, leased a tenement in Scholes to Charles Bank, brother of William Bank; ibid. no. 19. Richard Scott of Lathom, household servant to the Earl of Derby, mentioned in the story of George Marsh, occurs in these deeds, no. 41, 68. Gilbert Scott died in or before 1576, when a settlement was made by Hugh Scott, his son, and Alice his wife, of various lands in Wigan, Pemberton, and Urmston, with remainders to Gilbert and Roger sons of Hugh; ibid. no. 17. Gilbert married a Margaret, and his son Ralph in or before 1592 married Elizabeth a sister of Gabriel Hesketh; ibid. no. 21, 9, 91. Gilbert Scott died 28 January 1620–1, his son Ralph being then 27 years of age; various family arrangements are set out in the inquisition printed in the Rec. Soc. Lancs. Inq. p.m. ii, 237–9. Ralph Scott's estate was confiscated by the Parliamentary authorities, and ordered to be sold by the Act of 1652; Index of Royalists, 41; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iv, 3105. Cuthbert Scott, a recusant, petitioned in 1653 to contract for his estates; ibid. iv, 3174. An old ballad about Gilbert Scott and his wife appeared in the Gent. Mag. 1740; Preston Guardian Loc. Notes, no. 1460.
  • 49. A Geoffrey Walthew was trustee in 1589; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 31, m. 147. The William Walthew of the text was perhaps his son (buried at Wigan, November 1600); for Geoffrey, grandson of Geoffrey Walthew, died in 1607, leaving a son and heir Robert, three years old; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 80. Robert Walthew of Pemberton was charged with deliquency by the Parliament in 1650, and his estate was in danger of sequestration; Cal. of Com. for Compounding. iii, 2333. In 1667 he built the school at Upholland; his daughter and heir Elizabeth married Ralph Markland of the Meadows; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. ii, 259, 260, with a reference to Nichol, Lit. Anec. iv, 657
  • 50. John Whalley of Pemberton, yeoman, died in 1587, holding lands of the queen in Orrell and Pemberton by a rent of 2s. 4d.; Thomas his son and heir was twenty-eight years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 36. A later John Whalley died in April 1630, holding lands in Orrell and Pemberton of the king; James his brother and heir was forty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, no. 37. James Whalley is named in Dugdale's Visitation (Chet. Soc.), 319; he appears in the recusant roll of 1641; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiv, 240.
  • 51. Norris D. (B.M.).
  • 52. In addition to those mentioned already, see Cal. Com. for Compounding, iii, 2014, 2394; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 257.
  • 53. Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 111, 124, 152.
  • 54. Bridgeman, op. cit. (Chet. Soc.), 782. A district was assigned in 1838 (Lond. Gaz. 3 Apr.); the inclusion of part of Orrell led to disputes, as the ratepayers here were for a time called on to pay church rates both to the new church and to Upholland.
  • 55. Liverpool Cath. Annual, 1901.
  • 56. Gastrell, Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 251.