Townships: Tockholes

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.

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Citation:

'Townships: Tockholes', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6, (London, 1911), pp. 280-284. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lancs/vol6/pp280-284 [accessed 15 June 2024].

. "Townships: Tockholes", in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6, (London, 1911) 280-284. British History Online, accessed June 15, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lancs/vol6/pp280-284.

. "Townships: Tockholes", A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6, (London, 1911). 280-284. British History Online. Web. 15 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lancs/vol6/pp280-284.

In this section

TOCKHOLES

Tokolles, xii cent.; Tocholles, Thocholes, Tokholes, xiii-xvi cent.

The township lies upon the steep slopes and spurs of the moorlands to the south of Livesey and extends southward a distance of 3 miles to the boundaries of Sharples and Longworth in the hundred of Salford. From Cartridge Hill on the south, where the elevation reaches 1,316 ft. above the ordnance datum, and along the western side of the township the land slopes steeply to the River Roddlesworth, which, flowing down a narrow valley, forms the boundary against Withnell in Leyland Hundred. Where the township ends by the river in the north-east the elevation is less than 350 ft. above sea level. On the east a brook rising on Cartridge Hill and flowing below Darwen Moor down Earnsdale forms the boundary against Over Darwen. Part of the Earnsdale reservoir of the Darwen Corporation is within the township; so too are the three reservoirs of the Liverpool Corporation on the course of the River Roddlesworth, which are connected with the more extensive reservoirs at Rivington belonging to that corporation. The subsoil consists of the Millstone Grit, and on Winter Hill between the village of Tockholes and Lower Darwen of the Coal Measures; the soil varies from clay to peat and sand. The lower-lying land consists of meadow and pasture, the higher of bent grass and heath. There is some woodland in the Roddlesworth valley and in the ravines which connect with it. (fn. 1) There are no main roads, but an inferior road from Livesey runs through the middle of the township and joins the main road from Preston to Bolton beyond Hollinshead Hall at the southernmost point of the township. The nearest station is at Feniscowles for the northern part of the township, and Withnell for the southern, both on the Cherry Tree and Chorley joint line of the Lancashire and Yorkshire and London and North Western Railway Companies.

Tockholes was anciently rated a joint township with Livesey, but has been a separate township since the end of the 17th century.

The area is 1,988 acres, and the population in 1901 numbered 496 persons. (fn. 2)

The township has a parish council.

Manor

In the first half of the 13th century this manor is found in the possession of a family bearing the local name and of the Pleasington family, each holding a half, the tenure being thegnage and the yearly service 2s. About 1250 Joice de Tockholes released his tenement here to Elias de Pleasington, his lord, and early in the reign of Edward I, or possibly earlier, William de Livesey as mesne tenant granted the feudal rights and services due from Geoffrey de Sutton, who held TOCKHOLES, presumably in demesne, to Robert de Pleasington. (fn. 3)

In 1314–15 Robert son of John de Pleasington and Mabel his mother conveyed their lands here to William de Holand, kt., (fn. 4) and in 1332 the same Robert granted the manor of Tockholes within the town of Livesey to Robert or Roger de Radcliffe in fee. (fn. 5)

Adam de Tockholes held the other moiety in 1246, in which year he and his brothers Geoffrey and Elias, or 'Ekke,' were each amerced 2 marks at Lancaster assizes for receiving those who had burned Staining Grange. (fn. 6) His successor, another Adam living in 1277, withdrew a plea in 1292, touching a tenement here, against Henry son of Henry de Whalley. In 1296 another Adam succeeded and soon after joined with John de Pleasington in granting land here called Hulkar to John de Tonge, and in 1311 they were jointly returned as holding Tockholes in thegnage for 2s. rent and doing suit at the three weeks court of Clitheroe. (fn. 7)

Within the period of Thomas of Lancaster's tenure of the honor the interest of the Tockholes family passed to Roger de Radcliffe, a younger brother of Richard de Radcliffe of Radcliffe, who paid a fine for respite of his suit for Tockholes at the court held at Clitheroe 5 December 1323, (fn. 8) and a few years later acquired, as already related, the Pleasington moiety of the manor. After his death the manor passed to his nephew Robert, bastard son of Richard de Radcliffe, in accordance with the terms of a settlement, but as Robert had no issue by his wife Cecily it passed in remainder at his death in 1345 to his younger brother John de Radcliffe of Ordsall, kt. (fn. 9) After the death of Duke Henry the Crown seized the estates which John de Radcliffe had inherited from Robert his brother, probably on account of the debts due to the Crown which the latter had left unpaid as under-sheriff at his death. In 1362 Richard son and heir of John de Radcliffe petitioned the Crown and obtained restitution of lands in Livesey and Tockholes. (fn. 10) Richard was drowned in Rossendale in 1380, and ten weeks later John his son had livery of his estates, including 'Le Holynhed in Tokholes' which his father had held in chief by the yearly rent of 2s. (fn. 11)

The subsequent descent of the manor follows that described in the account of Ordsall (fn. 12) until 1641, when Alexander Radcliffe, K.B., passed by fine to William Davenport and Thomas Gerard the manor of Tockholes, fifteen messuages, a water-mill, a dovecote and lands in Tockholes, Hollinshead and Livesey, probably for sale. (fn. 13) In the inquest of survey of the honor of Clitheroe made in 1662 Edward Warren was returned as paying 2s. yearly to the bailiff for 'the Hollinhead.' (fn. 14) In 1761 George Warren of Poynton, co. Chester, kt., passed this and other manors in this county to trustees, by whom Tockholes was sold to John Hollinshead, from whom it descended to his cousin William Brock, who assumed the additional name of Hollinshead (fn. 15) on succeeding to his cousin's estates. Mr. BrockHollinshead died without issue in 1803, having bequeathed this estate to his nephew Mr. Lawrence Brock, who also assumed the additional surname of Hollinshead. He sold the manor before his death in 1838 to Mr. Eccles Shorrock, a celebrated merchant and cotton-spinner of Blackburn and Over Darwen, who died in 1853. His heir was Eccles Shorrock, eldest son of Mr. Thomas Ashton by his wife Mary, sister of Mr. Eccles Shorrock, (fn. 16) who abandoned the name of Ashton upon succeeding to his uncle's estates. Mr. Shorrock is now lord of the manor.

Hollinshead Hall stood at the foot of a wooded knoll among the moors at the southern extremity of the township, but it is now in ruins, and a modern farm-house, erected about the 'forties of the last century not far from the old house, bears its name. The hall was of 17th-century date, but one wing had been rebuilt in 1776. (fn. 17) In the garden was a well inclosing a spring of water of curative properties, to which the name of Holy Well was formerly given. (fn. 18)

The family of Hoghton had lands here at an early date. In the reign of Henry III two messuages and 2 oxgangs of land here were given by Elias de Pleasington to Henry his son in marriage with Amabel daughter of Roger, parson of Blackburn. Henry de Pleasington afterwards gave the tenements to Henry de Hoghton, who gave them to his brother Master Richard de Hoghton, who held them in 1292, when Roger de Pleasington son of Henry and Amabel unsuccessfully sued him for them. (fn. 19) These premises were held of Alexander Hoghton at his death in 1498 by the service of 3s. (fn. 20)

Between 1189 and 1194 John Count of Mortain gave to his servant, or serjeant, Roger de Stanworth, special protection and liberties for himself and his land of Stanworth and Tockholes, confirming his deed in 1199 when king. (fn. 21)

GREEN TOCKHOLES. In the time of Edward II John del Shaw and Robert his son held lands here, probably representing a mesne manor known as Green Tockholes, of John son of Robert de Pleasington for 2s. yearly rent. In 1442 John del Shagh of Tockholes, yeoman, and Oliver his son were wrongfully charged of a breach of the peace by Alexander Radcliffe, (fn. 22) and the same year William son and heir of Richard Walmsley released to his sister Mary and John Shagh her husband the tenement called 'The Hill' in Tockholes. (fn. 23) The family apparently ended in two heiresses, one of whom carried the mesne manor of Green Tockholes to the Garstang family.

John son of William de Gerstan, or Garstang, of Penwortham, and Joan his wife mortgaged two messuages and lands in Livesey to Thomas Molyneux of Cuerdale in 1377, and in 1393 settled them on Lewis their eldest son, with remainders to his brothers and sisters. (fn. 24) Lewis or Ludovic, living in 1416, by his wife Ellen daughter of Thomas Dicconson Harrison had issue Ralph, who married Alice daughter of Richard Haydock, and had issue James Garstang, whose widow Margery was living in 1492. (fn. 25) Their son John Garstang died in 1498 seised of ten messuages in Livesey and Tockholes, and a messuage in Whittle 'in the Mores' held of Anne daughter and heir of Alexander Hoghton, kt., by the twentieth part of a knight's fee; John his son was aged eight years. (fn. 26) In 1522 John son and heir of William Woodcock gave to John son and heir of John Garstang, late of Stanworth, his pourparty of the estate in Livesey called Feniscliffe in exchange for land in Walton-le-Dale. (fn. 27) John Garstang died in 1530, leaving issue by Anne his wife a son James, aged eight years, whom he had contracted in marriage to Margery daughter of William Clayton of Little Harwood, gent. (fn. 28)

James Garstang, gent., appears to have dispersed a great part of his property. In 1564 he passed Feniscliffe to Robert Harwood and another messuage to William Page, gent., who sold it a few years later to Richard Hoghton; in 1565 he passed tenements in Tockholes to Henry Clayton and Henry Marsden respectively; the next year two messuages in Livesey and Tockholes to Gilbert Hoghton and six messuages in Green Tockholes with half the mesne manor of Green Tockholes to John Osbaldeston, esq. (fn. 29) From this time the family resided on their estate in Whittle, but members of the family remained in Tockholes, and two tenements there bear to this day the name of 'Garstangs.' (fn. 30)

In 1611 Edward Osbaldeston of Osbaldeston claimed the manor and waste of Tockholes by virtue of his great-grandfather's purchase from Garstang, alleging in support of his claim that the ancestor of James Garstang had married one of two daughters and co-heirs of the then lord of the manor. In 1625 Edward Osbaldeston, kt., passed the mesne manor of Tockholes to Thomas Walmsley, kt. (fn. 31)

According to the inquest of the honor of Clitheroe taken in 1662 the following tenants paid yearly rents to the wapentake:—

Ralph Walmesley of Tockholes for his lands called The Hill 6d.
William Walmesley for the lands called the Barkers' lands 6d.
Thomas Creichlow for his lands there 6d.
Richard Houlden for Greene Tockholes 4d.
John Abbot for Dickenson's tenement 2d.
John Walkden for the same 2d.
James Piccop for the lands late of Thomas Wilton 4d.

The notable family of Walmsley of Showley and Dunkenhalgh probably descended from a branch of the family long settled here. (fn. 32)

Mr. Abram gives some account of the local families of yeomen in his History of Blackburn. (fn. 33)

In 1666 there were fifty-eight hearths in the township which paid duty, of which Edward Warren had eight in his house at Hollinshead. (fn. 34)

In 1788–9 the executors of Mr. Partington, Mr. Walmesley Richardson and Mr. John Hollinshead were the principal contributors to the land tax. (fn. 35)

Church

Tockholes is an ancient parochial chapelry, and in 1842 was formed into a district chapelry, (fn. 36) which includes portions of the townships of Livesey and Lower Darwen. In 1874 parts of the parish were assigned to the new parish of St. Cuthbert, Darwen, and in 1877 parts to the new parish of St. Andrew, Livesey.

The old chapel is supposed to have been built late in the 15th century. (fn. 37) It had no endowment, and there is little known of its history. About 1610 it was served by a 'reader,' John Shawcross, who was paid by the inhabitants. (fn. 38) On the establishment of Presbyterianism in 1646 an allowance of £40 a year was made to the chapel, but it was perhaps badly paid, (fn. 39) and in 1652 £30, which had formerly been paid to the Archbishop of Canterbury out of Blackburn rectory, was ordered to be paid to Mr. Joshua Barnett, minister of Tockholes. (fn. 40) In 1658 it was proposed to make a separate parish for this chapel. (fn. 41) A dwelling-house and piece of land were given in 1649 for the use of a resident 'preaching minister,' (fn. 42) and after the Restoration there was probably a curate there. Some additional endowments were obtained, and in 1717 the certified income was £15; the capital fund was in the hands of Presbyterian trustees, who would give no account of the benefactors, but paid the curate punctually, deducting what was spent on repairs. The curate served Darwen also, so that Tockholes had a service every other Sunday. There was no chapelwarden. (fn. 43) In 1721 this arrangement ceased, and Tockholes was better served; further endowments were procured, (fn. 44) and now the net value is said to be £300 a year. (fn. 45) The vicar of Blackburn is patron. The church was rebuilt in 1833 and is called St. Stephen the Martyr's.

The following have been incumbents:—

1689 William Stones
1721 Samuel Simpson (fn. 46)
1722 William Clayton, B.A.
1726 William Crombleholme (fn. 47)
1729 Thomas Holme, B.A. (fn. 48) (Brasenose Coll, Oxf.)
1737 William Parker, B.A. (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)
1746 John Hadwen, B.A.
1766 Thomas Baldwin (fn. 49) (Peterhouse, Camb.)
1769 John Wilson
1791 William Fletcher
1805 James Dodgson (fn. 50)
1826 Richard Garnett
1830 Gilmour Robinson
1857 William Maude Haslewood, B.A. (fn. 51) (St. John's Coll., Camb.)
1861 Charles Hughes, B.A. (T.C.D.)
1877 William Thomason (fn. 51)
1889 Ashley Tregoning Corfield

In 1662 a number of parishioners refused compliance with the Act of Uniformity; ten years later licences were granted for nonconforming preachers and meetings, Mr. John Harvey being licensed to be a Presbyterian teacher here. (fn. 53) Later the Presbyterians obtained the use of the chapel of ease on alternate Sundays (fn. 54) until the bishop inhibited this arrangement. In 1710 a site was obtained and a chapel erected, which appears to have been attended by the Episcopalians when there was no service of their own at Tockholes. At this time the Hoghton family of Hoghton Tower were patrons of the Nonconformist chapel, which was endowed with a small estate here by an unknown donor. The building was used for Congregational services till 1880, when it became unsafe. The present church was opened later in the same year. (fn. 55) Bethesda Chapel, occasionally used for service by the same society, was built in 1803 by a party of seceders, who joined Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, but subsequently rejoined the original congregation. (fn. 56)

There was a school at Tockholes in 1717. (fn. 57)

Charities

George Blore in 1730 left £40 to Livesey and Tockholes, £24 being assigned to the former township and £16 to the latter; he also gave £40 for Livesey alone. The Livesey gifts, with others from various persons, have disappeared, £50 in the hands of the owner of Livesey Hall being lost when the estate was sold about 1800 and £38 used in building a workhouse being lost when the building was sold about 1850. In each case the forfeiture seems to have been due to the neglect of the trustees. Part of the Tockholes gift was lost before 1826, but the remainder was made up to £14; this remained in the savings bank till 1878, when the capital was withdrawn by the vicar (Rev. W. Thomason) and paid to the widow of the late schoolmaster. A fund of £15 has been subscribed to replace the old one, and is applied to the benefit of the poor. The Rev. Gilmour Robinson in 1857 left his residuary estate for the decent keeping of his tomb and then for poor residents of Tockholes, members of the Church of England; about £12 4s. is available for the latter purpose, and is given on 27 December in doles of 5s. to 25s. For Tockholes there are endowments for school and church and chapel purposes, and Livesey has an interest in the Livesey exhibitions, noticed under Blackburn.

Footnotes

  • 1. The agricultural returns for 1905 give permanent grass 1,616 acres, woods and plantations 52 acres.
  • 2. The new survey gives the area as 1,991 acres, of which 29 are inland water. The population has decreased more than half since the days of the handloom.
  • 3. Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 108b; Towneley MS. HH, no. 3350. Geoffrey de Sutton rendered 2s. yearly, of which sum 12d. was to be paid to Adam de Tockholes and his heirs for the fee of Tockholes and 12d. to Robert de Pleasington.
  • 4. Geoffrey son of William de Livesey conveyed to John son of Robert de Pleasington between 1300 and 1315 the homage and service of 2s. of John del Shaw and Robert his son for lands here; ibid. no. 3413, 3466–9.
  • 5. Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 108b. The Christian name is omitted in the MS.
  • 6. Lancs. Assize R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 92–4.
  • 7. De Lacy Comp. (Chet. Soc.), 14. John de Tong gave Hulkar to Geoffrey de Cuerdale; it was described as lying beside Ernesdene Brook and bounded by Ryhil ditch; right of way was given to the common pasture of Cartelache; Norris D. (B.M.), 941–3; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 11.
  • 8. Lancs. Ct. R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 49.
  • 9. Memo. R. (L.T.R.), 127, m. 8. Cecily relict of Robert de Radcliffe had issue, probably by a former husband, Katherine, who married Nicholas de Ilkeston, and before her marriage gave her lands and tenements in Tockholes to John son of Richard de Radcliffe to hold during the life of Cecily her mother for 40s. rent. In 1353 the rent was in arrears for three and a-half years, apparently by the tacit consent of Katherine; Assize R. 435, m. 17.
  • 10. Memo. R. (L.T.R.), 127, m. 8.
  • 11. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 8. The demesne of Hollinshead only comprised 6 acres of arable worth yearly 6d. each, 20 acres of meadow worth 4d. each and 60 acres of pasture worth the same. The existing hall of Hollinshead stands 900 ft. above the ordnance datum. John Radcliffe paid 2s. rent to the wapentake for Tockholes in 1431, and Alexander Radcliffe gave puture to the sheriff for Tockholes c. 1460; Kuerden MSS. Coll. of Arms, v, 107; MS. at Huntroyde.
  • 12. In 1613 Lady Anne Radcliffe, widow, and Sir John Radcliffe, kt., as sole lords of the manor, claimed the wastes of Tockholes against Edward Osbaldeston, Lawrence Ainsworth and others, charterers there. It was ordered that the plaintiffs should retain possession of the wastes and improvements, while the defendants should enjoy pasturage, turbary, stone and marl as heretofore; Duchy of Lanc. Entry Bks. of Decrees and Orders, xxv, fol. 748.
  • 13. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 139, no. 38.
  • 14. MS. penes W. Farrer, 123.
  • 15. Mr. W. Brock-Hollinshead suffered a recovery of the manor in Lent, 1803; Recov. R. 43 Geo. III, m. 9.
  • 16. Abram, Blackburn, 509, 685.
  • 17. Ibid. 686. The house was then (1877) 'untenanted and in a state of decay.' Twycross (Lancs. Mansions, i, 37) says that the house, which was originally very extensive, was almost entirely pulled down in 1776.
  • 18. Abram, op. cit. 686.
  • 19. Assize R. 408, m. 51.
  • 20. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, 66.
  • 21. Cal. Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 27b. Stanworth was afterwards acquired by the Hoghtons and possibly this 'land in Tockholes' at the same time.
  • 22. Towneley MS. HH, no. 3413; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 4, m. i, 17.
  • 23. Add. MS. 32106, no. 1186. The Hill was afterwards in the possession of the Walmsley family.
  • 24. Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 2, 41.
  • 25. Abram, Blackburn, 683. In 1479 James 'Garston' instituted proceedings against Thomas Garston, William, Thomas and Ralph Walmsley, Hugh and Thomas Stanworth, George and William (jun.) Astley, all of Tockholes, yeomen, for breaking into his house at Tockholes; Pal. of Lanc. Proton. Writs, 19 Edw. IV, b.
  • 26. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, 78. Alexander Radcliffe claimed wardship of the heir in respect of the tenements held of him in Tockholes, and Giles son and heir of John Livesey in respect of two tenements in Livesey; ibid. 82–3.
  • 27. Add. MS. 32109, no. 97.
  • 28. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, 5. John Garstang held his lands in Livesey of James Livesey in socage for 12d. rent; in Tockholes of Alexander Radcliffe, kt., in socage for 2s. rent; he also held lands in Whittle of Richard Hoghton, kt., who gave the wardship of the heir to William Clayton; Add. MS. 32106, no. 780.
  • 29. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 26, m. 145, 174; 27, m. 142, 223; 28, m. 148, 178. John Osbaldeston died in 1575 holding tenements in Green Tockholes of John Radcliffe in socage for 7d. rent, and other tenements there of the 'heir of Roger de Stanworthe' in socage by 2s. rent; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xii, 28.
  • 30. In 1597 Edward Garstang of Livesey, gent., gave to Richard Houghton of Readlee for 40s. 'all my right lying in Tockholes'; Add. MS. 32108, fol. 16b.
  • 31. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 107, no. 36.
  • 32. See the account of Dunkenhalgh in Clayton-le-Moors.
  • 33. Aspden of Red Lee; Baron of Wenshead; Halliwell of Halliwell Fold; Hoghton of Red Lee, whose estate is now the property of Capt. J. H. G. Feilden of Witton Park; Marsden of Ryall, a small property under Tockholes Moor with a substantial farm-house probably erected in the 17th century; Marsden of Bradley; Walmsley of Ryall and Walmsley of the Hill; Abram, op. cit. 686–91.
  • 34. Subs. R. Lancs. bdle. 250, no. 9. William Marsden, William Walmsley and Thomas Ainsworth each had four, Richard Barker, William Crichlow and James Marsden each three hearths.
  • 35. Land tax returns at Preston. Out of £12 0s. 11d. they paid £2 15s. 3d.
  • 36. Lond. Gaz. 20 Sept. 1842.
  • 37. See the account in Abram, Blackburn, 691–6, from which that in the text is mainly taken. The chapel had the date 1620 over the porch. In one place the writer calls it St. Michael's (p. 698), perhaps in error. There was the base of an old cross in the chapel yard; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 81.
  • 38. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 10. Mr. Shawcross (or Shalcross) was still minister in 1623 when he married a couple in a private house at midnight, but 'with the use of a ring and other ceremonies set down in the Book of Common Prayer'; Chest. Consistory Ct. Rec. He was buried at Blackburn 5 Feb. 1623–4. In 1628 John Atkinson, preacher of God's Word, was at Tockholes; Raines MS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 70.
  • 39. Abram, loc. cit.; Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 160. John Worthington was minister in 1646, but none is named in 1650.
  • 40. Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 116; ii, 27. Joshua Barnett was at Darwen in 1650.
  • 41. Ibid. 241.
  • 42. Abram, loc. cit.
  • 43. Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 296.
  • 44. The gross value in 1813 was £119 a year.
  • 45. Manch. Dioc. Dir.
  • 46. The church papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. begin with this curate.
  • 47. Afterwards vicar of St. Michael's on Wyre.
  • 48. Master of Blackburn Grammar School 1731–6; son of the vicar.
  • 49. Afterwards vicar of Leyland.
  • 50. He was 'willing to hold the curacy for T. Starkie's younger son,' then thirteen years old. He does not appear to have resided in the curacy, which he held till his death.
  • 51. Afterwards vicar of Great Harwood.
  • 52. Afterwards vicar of St. Michael's, Blackburn.
  • 53. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1671–2, pp. 436–7.
  • 54. The chapel was formally licensed as a Dissenters' meeting-place in 1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 231. Ralph Walmsley's house was also licensed; ibid. 232.
  • 55. Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. ii, 42– 52 (with views). Mr. Nightingale wrote a separate history of this chapel, which was published in 1886. See also Abram, op. cit. 696–704. Mr. Abram's father, Robert Abram, was minister of the chapel from 1849 till his death in 1852.
  • 56. Abram, op. cit. 704.
  • 57. Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 297. It was 'lately erected,' without endowment, and in Presbyterian hands.