Hackney: Manors

A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10, Hackney. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1995.

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'Hackney: Manors', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10, Hackney, (London, 1995) pp. 75-91. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol10/pp75-91 [accessed 12 April 2024]


The manor of HACKNEY was not described by name in Domesday Book and was said in 1294 to have been held by the bishops of London from time immemorial as a member of their manor of Stepney. (fn. 1) Although accounted for separately from the 14th century and with its own courts by the 1580s, (fn. 2) Hackney remained with the bishops of London until it was granted in 1550 to the Wentworth family. It was mortgaged by way of a lease for 99 years by Thomas Wentworth, earl of Cleveland, in 1632. (fn. 3)

Both manors figured in the complicated transactions arising from Cleveland's debts, his forfeiture in 1650, and attempts to regain his lands after the Restoration. (fn. 4) Hackney, distinguished from Stepney, was usually described as a manor with lands and rights in Hackney, Kingsland, Shacklewell, Newington Street, Clapton, Church Street, Well Street, Grove Street, and Mare Street, (fn. 5) an area presumably covering most of the ancient parish. From the time of its purchase by Richard Blackwell, treasurer of prize goods, in 1653, (fn. 6) the main manor of Hackney was held by a succession of Londoners. The Wentworths' interest was finally surrendered in 1669 by Philadelphia, widow of the earl of Cleveland's son Thomas, Lord Wentworth (d. 1665), and her daughter Henrietta Maria, Baroness Wentworth. (fn. 7)

Richard Blackwell was recorded as lord of Hackney, as was William Hobson, the purchaser in 1660. (fn. 8) Hobson (d. 1661 or 1662), a haberdasher who settled in Hackney, was followed by his sons-in-law William Bolton, Patience Ward, both of them later lord mayor, and William White. (fn. 9) Their title was confirmed in 1663 by agreement with the Wentworths and in 1669 they sold the manor, again with the Wentworths' consent, to John Forth, an alderman. (fn. 10) Forth completed its sale to Nicholas Gary and Thomas Cooke, goldsmiths, in 1675. Cooke's assignees and Gary's widow Susan sold it to Francis Tyssen the elder, of Shacklewell, in 1697. (fn. 11) Tyssen acquired two other manors in Hackney, (fn. 12) for which separate courts had long been held. From the early 18th century the main manor, previously called simply Hackney, was styled the lord's hold or LORDSHOLD.

The Tyssen family and its heirs thereafter held all three manors. Francis Tyssen the elder (d. 1699), a naturalized merchant from Flushing (Netherlands), had married in London in 1649 and been granted arms in 1687. (fn. 13) He or his son Francis had been chosen a vestryman in 1689 and allotted the Rowe family's pew in 1690. (fn. 14) The younger Francis (d. 1710) left all his lands in Hackney, with 32 a. in Low Leyton marsh (Essex), to his son and namesake. (fn. 15) The third Francis married a daughter of Richard de Beauvoir of Balmes and was succeeded in 1717 by his posthumous son Francis John. (fn. 16)

Francis John Tyssen (d. 1781) left only illegitimate children. He settled the three Hackney manors and nearly all his lands (fn. 17) in trust for his sons Francis (d. 1813) and Francis John Tyssen (d. 1814), both of whom were childless, with remainder to his daughter Mary (d. 1800) wife of John Amhurst of Kent. Mary's daughter Amelia in 1814 married William George Daniel of Dorset, who took the surname Daniel-Tyssen. (fn. 18)

W. G. Daniel-Tyssen (d. 1838), the parish's largest landowner in 1831, (fn. 19) was succeeded by his eldest son William George Tyssen DanielTyssen (d. 1885) of Foulden Hall (Norf.), who in 1852 took the surname Tyssen-Amhurst. His son William Amhurst Tyssen-Amhurst (d. 1909) of Didlington Hall, the bibliophile, changed the spelling of his surname to TyssenAmherst in 1877 and was created Baron Amherst of Hackney, with special remainder to his eldest daughter Mary Rothes Margaret, wife of Lord William Cecil, in 1892. (fn. 20) Lord Amherst, who was defrauded of much of his fortune by Charles Cheston, steward of the Hackney manors, (fn. 21) conveyed those manors in 1906 to his daughter, who settled them in tail male. (fn. 22) The manors passed with the barony from Lady Amherst of Hackney (d. 1919) to her great-grandson William Hugh Amherst Cecil, lord of the manors in 1990. (fn. 23)

The Tyssen estate was estimated to be c. 599 a. in 1809-10, when the densest building was at Kingsland and farther north along the high road, in Church Street, and at Shacklewell. (fn. 24) In 1903, when the freeholds were mortgaged and after housing had spread over most of the farmland, the estate consisted of blocks of freehold property at Stamford Hill, where a few leasehold sites were interspersed, at Upper Clapton, near Lea dock north of Lea bridge, and at Shacklewell. (fn. 25) Almost all of the family's property had been sold by 1990, some sales at Stamford Hill having occurred as recently as 1988. (fn. 26)


Three brothers of Francis Tyssen (d. 1717), John of Shacklewell, William, and Samuel (d. 1747 or 1748), (fn. 27) were buried in Hackney, as was John's son John Tyssen of Well Street. (fn. 28) Another Samuel (d. 1800), illegitimate son of Francis John, acquired land at Homerton by marriage to the first Samuel's granddaughter Sarah Boddicott. He lived in Norfolk, as did his son Samuel (d. 1845) (fn. 29) whose estate bordered Clapton common in 1807 and had grown by 1816; (fn. 30) part was sold in 1846 to Arthur Craven. (fn. 31) W. G. T. DanielTyssen's brother John Robert acted as his steward and was prominent in local affairs. (fn. 32)

No manor house for Lordshold is known. (fn. 33) The manor house of Shacklewell was inhabited in the early 18th century by Tyssens and so sometimes called the Manor House. (fn. 34) So too was the early 19th-century house in front of the assembly rooms in Church Street where J. R. Daniel-Tyssen lived from 1845 until 1858, which was sold in 1877; (fn. 35) a three-storeyed yellow-brick composition of 2, 3, and 2 bays, with projecting modern shops on the ground floor, it formed nos. 387, 387A, and 387B Mare Street in 1991. (fn. 36)

The Knights Templars were given lands, probably early in the reign of Henry II, by the king's steward William of Hastings, presumably a kinsman of Richard of Hastings, master of the Temple in England. The lands, called Hastingmede in the 15th century, lay in the marsh and included 2 a. in Leyton (Essex). (fn. 37) The Templars also received land from Ailbrith, which they granted to Robert of Wick, in whose holding originated the reputed manor of Wick. (fn. 38) They acquired 6 a. quitclaimed by Alice de la Grave in 1231 and ½ hide quitclaimed by Ralph de Burgham, clerk, in 1232, (fn. 39) after a dispute between Ralph and a younger Robert of Wick. (fn. 40) Their estate comprised c. 35½ a. in Hackney, 9 a. in Leyton, and two mills in 1307-8, when they had pleas and perquisites of court. (fn. 41) It passed on their suppression in 1312 to the Knights Hospitallers, who acknowledged that 40 a. and the mills were held of the bishop's manor in Stepney in 1337. (fn. 42) At the Dissolution the lands passed to the Crown and were known as the manor of Hackney or KINGSHOLD in 1539-40. (fn. 43)

The king in 1614 granted the Hospitallers' manor to Thomas Land and Thomas Banks, Londoners. (fn. 44) The two mills were reserved. (fn. 45) Land and Banks immediately conveyed their interest to Hugh Sexey (d. 1619), who established a rent charge to support his hospital at Bruton (Som.). (fn. 46) In 1633 the manor was sold by Sexey's feoffees to Humphrey Hurleston and then by Hurleston to William Benning, who in 1647 sold it to William Hobson. (fn. 47) Hobson's will, proved 1662, mentioned his manor of St. John of Jerusalem. (fn. 48) Courts were held for his sons-in-law and executors William Bolton, Patience Ward, and William White, who in 1668 jointly sold the manor to Sir George Vyner, Bt. (d. 1673). (fn. 49) It passed to Sir George's son Sir Thomas (d. 1683), a minor, whose coheirs were his father's cousins Edith Lambert, Elizabeth Tombs, and Elizabeth Marchant. (fn. 50) They and their heirs jointly sold their shares in 1693 to John Sikes, a London merchant, who in 1697 conveyed the manor to Francis Tyssen. (fn. 51) Their shares in other lands of the Vyners, held of Lordshold and Grumbolds manors, were later sold to the Ryders. (fn. 52)

There may have been no manor house for Kingshold. (fn. 53) The Hospitallers had a house (domicilium) in Hackney in 1416, inhabited by Richard Pande, servant and 'charioteer' of the bishop of London. (fn. 54) In 1693 a 'capital messuage or manor house' had an orchard and garden, adjoined by ground where the manor pound had stood and with 6 a. nearby, the existing pound being at the west end of Well Street. (fn. 55) It was presumably the 'Pilgrim's house', reputedly the oldest house in Hackney, built around a courtyard and described as formerly moated in 1741, when its two-storeyed front, of chequered brick and adorned with a cross, was of three bays, each under a stepped gable. (fn. 56) As a 'brick house at the bottom of Well Street, commonly called King John's Palace', it had been subdivided among poor tenants by 1795. (fn. 57) Said in 1797 to have been the prior of St. John's residence, (fn. 58) by 1842 it had made way for small houses forming St. John's Place, east of the junction of Well Street with Palace Road (later part of the Frampton Park estate). (fn. 59)

Another building, in Church Street nearly opposite Dalston Lane, was illustrated in 1805 as the 'Templars' house'. Apparently early 17thcentury, it had four storeys and three projecting bays, adorned with Ionic pilasters. It had served as the Blue Posts tavern in the mid 18th century, when an assembly room was added, and was later subdivided. In 1824 most of the building was said to have been demolished some ten years earlier; the assembly room survived as an auctioneer's hall in 1842. Part of the site came to be occupied by the Crown inn. (fn. 60)

A freehold estate was attached to a seat at Clapton called in the 16th century the KING'S PLACE and from the 18th BROOKE HOUSE. (fn. 61) After its addition to the Tyssens' holdings it was often assumed to have always formed part of Kingshold, although a separate history was sometimes recalled by its description as the reputed manor of Brooke. (fn. 62) Perhaps it originated in the 4 hides in Stepney held by Robert Fafiton in 1086. Fafiton's claim to be a tenant in chief was disputed by the bishop, although his lands had fallen in value since the Conquest and may therefore have lain partly along Ermine Street in the path of William I's army. (fn. 63) Probably it was the estate which Sir William Estfield (d. 1446), a London alderman, conveyed in 1439 to William Booth, rector of Hackney and later archbishop of York, one of whose feoffees in 1476 released his interest to William Worsley (d. 1499), dean of St. Paul's, whose brother had married into Booth's family. (fn. 64) Worsley sold it in 1496 to Sir Reginald Bray, K.G. (d. 1503), whose nephew John Bray had sold freeholds in Hackney, presumably once Worsley's, by 1513 to another courtier Sir Robert Southwell (d. 1514). The land apparently passed through Sir Robert's son Sir Richard (d. 1564) to a younger son Sir Robert (d. 1559), Master of the Rolls, who in 1536 married Margaret, daughter of the Speaker Sir Thomas Neville (d. 1542). (fn. 65) Neville was said to be the holder in 1531, presumably on his daughter's betrothal, and conveyed the estate to Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland (d. 1537), in exchange for lands in Sussex. (fn. 66) The impoverished earl surrendered it to the Crown in 1535 but died in Hackney. (fn. 67)

The king's 'manor of Hackney' and mansion were granted in 1547 to Sir William Herbert, later earl of Pembroke (d. 1570), who soon conveyed them to the diplomatist Sir Ralph Sadler (d. 1587). (fn. 68) Sadler sold them in 1548 to Sir Wymond Carew of Antony (Cornw.), (fn. 69) whose grandson the antiquary Richard Carew (d. 1620) conveyed them in 1578 to Henry Gary, Lord Hunsdon (d. 1596). (fn. 70) They were bought in 1583 by Sir Rowland Hayward, twice lord mayor of London (d. 1593), (fn. 71) and in 1596 by Elizabeth, countess of Oxford (d. 1612 or 1613), from Hayward's executors. Elizabeth's husband Edward de Vere, earl of Oxford (d. 1604), was resident from 1596. The countess sold her interest to the poet Fulke Greville (d. 1628), later Baron Brooke, in 1609. (fn. 72)

It has sometimes been assumed that Greville received the Hospitallers' lands, which reverted to the Crown and came to form part of Kingshold. (fn. 73) The Grevilles, however, retained their Clapton estate, which was disputed between Sir Fulke Greville and Robert Greville, Baron Brooke (d. 1643), (fn. 74) and apparently were resident in the 1650s and 1660s. (fn. 75) Outlying lands in Hackney marsh and Hackney Downs of Francis Greville, Baron Brooke (later created Earl Brooke and earl of Warwick), were described in 1742. (fn. 76) Most of his 'reputed manor of Hackney', of which over 100 a. had been leased for 99 years in 1762, was conveyed in 1819 by his grandson Henry Richard Greville, earl of Warwick (d. 1853), to W. G. Daniel-Tyssen. (fn. 77) The earl also sold property at Clapton to James Powell and to Thomas Bros, land called Paradise to William Hurst Ashpitel, and parcels of Hackney Downs to John Alliston. (fn. 78) The Tyssens in 1834 claimed to hold the reputed manor of Brooke, (fn. 79) which descended thereafter with Lordshold.

Brooke House latterly was an imposing brick building at the north corner of Upper Clapton and Kenninghall roads. (fn. 80) It may have been the dean's hall on Worsley's estate, inspected in 1496 and 1498 by the Pewterers' Company of London as a model for its new hall. It was said, evidently in error, to have included a stone chapel of the Elringtons, which was mistakenly thought to have been depicted in 1642 by Wenceslaus Hollar. When the Crown acquired Northumberland's estate in 1535 Thomas Cromwell rapidly put a quadrangular house of the 15th century into a state for Henry VIII to use it in 1535, 1536 for a reconciliation with Princess Mary, and 1538. (fn. 81) Further repairs were effected before the grant of 1547 to Herbert included a 'fair house of brick', with a hall and parlour, large gallery, chapel, and library, en closed behind with a broad ditch. (fn. 82) Lord Hunsdon rebuilt or remodelled the house c. 1580: his and his wife's arms adorned the ceiling of a first-floor gallery which probably ran the length of the E-shaped mansion, which faced the high road from the west. Piecemeal additions later closed the E, creating two courtyards: in 1750 there were gables, turrets, castellated sections of wall, a small wing projecting from the south-east end, and two octagonal towers. The whole was masked in the late 18th century by a uniform brick front of nine bays, with a pediment over the central five. (fn. 83)

Margaret Douglas, countess of Lennox (d. 1578), retired to the house, presumably as a lessee, and Elizabeth I paid visits in 1583 and 1587. (fn. 84) As Lord Brooke's, it was assessed as the largest in the parish in 1664 at 37 hearths (fn. 85) and in 1672 at 36. (fn. 86) Evelyn in 1654 and 1656 found Lady Brooke's garden 'one of the neatest and most celebrated in England' and much superior to the house, (fn. 87) as did Pepys in 1666. (fn. 88) There were several tenants by 1719. A lease was renewed in 1750 to Thomas Pangbourne (d. 1758), whose daughter sold it to William Clarke (d. 1777), who secured a 99-year lease, converted the house 'called the King's Place' into an asylum, and assigned it in 1781 to John Monro. (fn. 89) Called Brooke House in 1786, (fn. 90) it underwent alterations which included the 19th-century division of the long gallery and the later demolition of the small south-west wing. The older parts, behind the road front, were damaged in 1940 and the house was sold with 5½ a. to the L.C.C. in 1944. The house was demolished in 1954, (fn. 91) 'Hackney's greatest loss this century'. (fn. 92) Restored late 16thcentury panelling, said to be from Brooke House, adorned the Alex Fitch room on its opening in 1926 in the War Memorial building at Harrow school. (fn. 93)

The right of presentation to Hackney RECTORY and the rectory estate known by the mid 17th century as the manor of GRUMBOLDS (fn. 94) lay with the lord of Hackney manor and passed in 1550 from the bishop of London to the Wentworths. (fn. 95) Lands in Hackney for which payments were made at Stepney courts included an estate of Daniel in 1349, called 'Daniels now Grumbolds' by 1384. (fn. 96) It may have been part of a manor called Rumbolds otherwise Cobhams, with land in Hackney, Stepney, and London, which was vested in trustees in 1462 and 1471 (fn. 97) and was disputed 1518 × 1529. (fn. 98) The name Cobhams probably derived from Reynold Cobham, who surrendered his grandfather's land in Hackney in 1404, (fn. 99) or Richard Cobham, who surrendered in 1410, (fn. 100) rather than from Thomas de Cobham (d. 1327), bishop of Worcester and rector of Hackney. (fn. 101) A Grumbold family was recorded in the early 13th century (fn. 102) and John Grumbold of Hackney made a will in 1452. (fn. 103) Perhaps, since many rectors were nonresident, their lands came to be named after a lessee.

Sir Thomas Heneage (d. 1553) was farmer for the rector from 1540 and his nephew and namesake (d. 1595) was the first of several farmers under Elizabeth I. (fn. 104) A lease, including both the profits and the next presentation, was bought by John Daniell and in 1601 offered as security for payment of a heavy fine to the Crown. (fn. 105) Patronage of the rectory and the manor of Grumbolds 'to the said rectory belonging' were included in the mortgage by the earl of Cleveland. They were separated from Hackney manor in 1647 on their sale to Henry White acting for William Stephens, who formally acquired them in 1651. (fn. 106) It was later claimed that Stephens (d. 1658) also extorted a 31-year lease from the rector. (fn. 107) Stephens soon sold the rectory manor to Raphael Throckmorton, probably acting for Richard Blackwell, who with Throckmorton sold it in 1654 to Thomas Fowkes, a London grocer. (fn. 108) The tithes had been sold to William Hobson by 1664, when Cleveland and his son confirmed Fowkes's right to the rectory and its lands and other profits. (fn. 109) Fowkes and the Wentworths sold their interests in 1673 to John Forth, alderman, (fn. 110) from whom the estate passed in 1675 to Daniel Farrington and in 1680 to Thomas Cooke and Nicholas Cary. (fn. 111) Cooke and Cary's acquisition of Lordshold (fn. 112) reunited the patronage of the rectory and the manor of Grumbolds with the lordship of Hackney. In 1697 Cooke and Cary conveyed their interest to Francis Tyssen, (fn. 113) whose heirs presented to the rectory of the ancient parish until the ecclesiastical division of Hackney after the death of the last sinecure rector in 1821. (fn. 114) In 1824 the church building commissioners confirmed the manorial rights of the Tyssens, (fn. 115) who thereafter held Grumbolds with Lordshold and Kingshold. (fn. 116) The tithes, on 1,560 a., were redeemed in 1842. (fn. 117)

By the 17th century it was the custom for a rector to lease his estate to the patron. (fn. 118) In 1650 the parsonage house and glebe land, but not the tithes, had been assigned to William Stephens. (fn. 119) In 1697 the Revd. Richard Roach leased the rectory, with its house, the tithes, and the manor of Grumbolds, to the new patron Francis Tyssen the elder for £20 a year. (fn. 120) Courts were held for Roach's predecessor Nehemiah Moorhouse, Thomas Cooke, as farmer, (fn. 121) and for Roach himself by Cooke and later by Tyssen. (fn. 122)

The rectory lands, probably all along the main street of Hackney, included Church field. (fn. 123) The parsonage house has not been identified but in 1487 was in the highway opposite the church, probably on the site of the Mermaid. (fn. 124) An orchard and fishpond were claimed by the rector c. 1580 (fn. 125) and the house had barns and c. 5 a. attached to it on the west side in 1622. (fn. 126) It was occupied by John Eaton, a servant of Stephens, in 1650, when the rector lived in another, presumably smaller, house; a third house had been leased out. It was calculated that the parsonage house, land, and tithes might be let at an improved rent of £140 a year, almost three times the worth of the vicarage. (fn. 127) The court of Grumbolds in 1653 met at the parsonage house (fn. 128) but by 1688 had come to be held at an inn. (fn. 129) The house was last recorded, with 5 a., in 1762. (fn. 130) References to the 19th-century Rectory were to the former vicarage house, rebuilt c. 1826. (fn. 131)

The origins of the reputed manor of WICK lay in land which had been brought to the Templars by Ailbrith when he entered their order and, apart from two small holdings, had been granted by the master Richard of Hastings to Robert of Wick by 1185. (fn. 132) The land was held of the Templars and, after their suppression, of the Hospitallers. (fn. 133) It was held by Robert of Wick's son Edmund de la Grave and later with other parcels by Robert Belebarbe, who leased all his lands in Wick in 1301 and conveyed them to Simon of Abingdon, alderman, in 1316. Simon made further additions, as did his widow Eve and her second husband John of Causton, alderman, who sold Wyke and all their other lands in Hackney and Stepney to Adam Francis (d. 1375), mayor of London, in 1349; the manor then consisted of at least two houses and 114 a. After more purchases, some made through agents including Nicholas atte Wyke, a clerk, the estate passed to Adam's widow Agnes and then to his daughter Maud, who married John Aubrey, Sir Alan Buxhall (d. 1381), and John de Montagu, earl of Salisbury. (fn. 134) The earl was executed in 1400, when his forfeited estates included the manor of Hackney Wick, with a tenement called the Wick, held half of the bishop of London and half of the Hospitallers. (fn. 135)

Wick was released in 1400 to Maud (d. 1424) and in 1425 to her son Sir Alan Buxhall. (fn. 136) Sir Alan Buxhall in 1436 conveyed Wick in remainder to Thomas de Montagu, restored as earl of Salisbury, and his wife, to whom Thomas Buxhall quitclaimed Wick in 1445. (fn. 137) Thereafter the estate presumably followed the vicissitudes of the earldom of Salisbury, which passed in 1460 to Richard Neville, earl of Warwick (d. 1471), and, after forfeitures, was held by George, duke of Clarence, from 1472 to 1478 and by Edward, son of Richard, duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard III), from 1478 to 1484. (fn. 138) Wick was granted, perhaps only briefly, by Edward IV to Sir John Risley (d. 1512), (fn. 139) to whom it was regranted by Henry VII. Risley left no sons and in 1513 the Crown granted it to William Compton of Chigwell (Essex), (fn. 140) although presumably it soon passed to Clarence's reinstated daughter Margaret, countess of Salisbury (d. 1541). Margaret sold the manor of Wick to William Bowyer, later knighted as lord mayor of London, in 1538, when she and her son Henry Pole, Lord Montague, quitclaimed 470 a., including marshland, in Hackney and Stepney. (fn. 141)

Sir William Bowyer, by will proved 1544, left Wick to his younger sons William and Henry, with remainders to his eldest son John and daughters Elizabeth and Agnes, all of whom were infants and illegitimate. His death was followed by almost 20 years of litigation involving Richard Shepherd, to whom he had leased the manor. William and Henry Bowyer both died without issue. Francis Chaloner, husband of Agnes Bowyer, obtained a judgement against the executors in 1563 (fn. 142) but died before a further judgement was given in favour of Francis Bowyer (d. 1598), infant son of Sir William's eldest son John Bowyer of Histon (Cambs.) in 1566. (fn. 143) Lands in Hackney marsh were held in 1578 by Mr. Bowyer of the Wick. (fn. 144) Apparently the manor was not held by an older Francis Bowyer, an alderman (d. 1581), who bought other property in Hackney (fn. 145) which in 1603 was occupied by his son John. (fn. 146)

Benedict Haynes (d. 1611), who also held land in Surrey, had probably acquired Wick by 1602, when he was assessed in Hackney. (fn. 147) As a manor with 90 a. in Hackney and Stepney, formerly held of the Hospitallers and of the Crown, it was to be sold by the executors of his eldest son Henry Haynes (d. 1627). (fn. 148) In 1633 Thomas Haynes surrendered it to John Bayliffe, (fn. 149) a lawyer who lived in Hackney and who in 1642 vested it in his son-in-law Oliver Clobery (d. 1649) (fn. 150) and other creditors. Despite claims by representatives of the Haynes family and by Bayliffe's son William, Clobery's son Henry obtained possession in 1662 and left Wick by will proved 1665 to Abraham Johnson, his father's executor. (fn. 151) Abraham by will dated 1674 left it to his son Edward Johnson, who resisted renewed claims and in 1690 sold it to Edward Ambrose.

The Wick estate was conveyed in 1753 by Edward Woodcock to Joseph Barbaroux (fn. 152) and consisted of c. 112 a. in 1763, when Barbaroux sold it. (fn. 153) Most of it was bought back by Woodcock, a lawyer, who in 1776 acquired a copyhold parcel from John Mann. (fn. 154) The estate passed to Woodcock's son Edward (d. 1792), vicar of Watford (Herts.), (fn. 155) on the death of whose widow Hannah in 1796 it was sold to William Gilbee, (fn. 156) who held what was still described as the manor in 1809. (fn. 157) The estate belonged to a Capt. Gilbee in 1831 and was thought to remain in his family in 1842. (fn. 158) It may have been divided like the copyhold, which passed to William Gilbee's sons William and James in 1831, when the younger William sold his interest to the speculator William Bradshaw. (fn. 159) James was admitted to his share of the copyhold in 1838. (fn. 160) Catherine Habershon and Isabella Seymour were James's heirs in 1864 and surrendered to Mary Anne Bradshaw in 1866. (fn. 161)

A chief house existed in 1566 (fn. 162) and 1627 (fn. 163) and probably in 1399 when Richard Grey, a scion of the Barons Grey of Rotherfield (Oxon.), made his will at the Wick in Hackney. (fn. 164) A later house was said to have been built by John Bayliffe (fn. 165) and presumably was Henry Clobery's, which had 20 hearths in 1664, when it stood empty. (fn. 166) The Wick (Wyke) or Hackney Wick House was shown mistakenly on the west side of Wick Lane in 1745 (fn. 167) and on the east side, with pleasure grounds called the Islands covering c. 12 a., in 1763. (fn. 168) Joseph Barbaroux apparently lived there, (fn. 169) but the mansion and its grounds, with a mill house and field to the north, were not included in the sale of 1763 to Woodcock. (fn. 170) Wick House in 1809 was on lease with c. 32 a. from Gilbee to the astronomer and physicist Mark Beaufoy, who made a balloon ascent from Hackney Wick and left in 1815. (fn. 171) Apparently rebuilt after 1760, it was later rendered and given a new porch before serving as Wick Hall collegiate school from 1841. Wick Hall made way for Gainsborough Square c. 1862, when two other buildings on the estate, one a cottage possibly incorporating Bayliffe's house and the other called Manor Farm, were also demolished. (fn. 172)

The reputed manor of SHOREDITCH PLACE, later held by ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL, probably originated in lands accumulated by Sir John of Shoreditch (d. 1345), baron of the Exchequer, and his wife Ellen (fn. 173) and by his brother Nicholas of Shoreditch, a London citizen. (fn. 174) In 1324 Richard of Norton, a citizen, and his wife Maud conveyed to Sir John and Ellen first a house, 55 a., and rents in Hackney (fn. 175) and secondly a capital messuage called De La Grave, which Maud and her previous husband John Borewell had bought in 1319 from John of Bodley. (fn. 176) Sir John thereafter acquired several smaller properties in Hackney, as did Nicholas of Shoreditch (fn. 177) (d. by 1358). (fn. 178) The Hospitallers in 1349 granted Nicholas a building and adjacent places called Beaulieu in Hackney, which had been held by John of Banbury, (fn. 179) recorded from 1321. (fn. 180) John, son of Nicholas of Shoreditch, was active in Hackney until the 1380s. (fn. 181) Payments at the Stepney courts were made for Hackney lands of William de Ver in 1384 and of John Shoreditch, formerly of William de Ver, in 1405, suggesting that de Ver's Domesday holding may have lain in Hackney. (fn. 182) Elizabeth Shoreditch held lands late of John Shoreditch in 1412, (fn. 183) and John's grandson John received lands in Hackney and Ickenham in 1422. (fn. 184)

Robert Shoreditch in 1452-3 successfully claimed lands in Chelsea and Hackney which had been held by his father John (fn. 185) and in 1473 leased 21 a. in Hackney to Simon Elrington. (fn. 186) In 1478, on his son George's betrothal to Elizabeth Tey or Taye, Robert promised to make a settlement out of his other Hackney lands, (fn. 187) including the Grove house which was presumably the capital messuage called De La Grave. Between 1487 and 1491 George Shoreditch conveyed most of the lands to Henry and John Tey, who allowed him to hold the Grove house for life, and to John's son William. (fn. 188) In 1488 George also quitclaimed 43 a. to John Elrington. (fn. 189) William Tey had recently held 100 a. in Hackney and Shoreditch in 1504-5, when quitents were paid to the Hospitallers and the bishop of London. (fn. 190)

William Tey of Colchester in 1513 surrendered a house and c. 147 a. in Hackney and Tottenham, formerly the Shoreditches', to the executors of Henry VII (fn. 191) and in 1517 the bishop of London licensed their transfer from the executors to the hospital of the Savoy, (fn. 192) founded in 1505 and endowed under Henry's will. (fn. 193) The Savoy's estates included the manor of Shoreditch Place otherwise Ingilroweshold in 1535 (fn. 194) and 61 a. in London Field with a toft called Barber's Barn, held of the Hospitallers, in 1539. (fn. 195) On the Savoy's dissolution in 1553 the manor was among the lands granted to the corporation of London for the royal hospitals of Christ, Bridewell, and St. Thomas, Southwark. (fn. 196)

Shoreditch Place, surveyed in 1560, may by then have been assigned to St. Thomas's hospital. It was estimated to contain 148 a. in 1560, (fn. 197) c. 107 a. in 1608, (fn. 198) 121 a. in 1628, when the lands lay mainly in blocks south of Well Street, south of Morning Lane, and at Upper Clapton, (fn. 199) as in 1697, (fn. 200) and 129½ a. in 1741. (fn. 201) Leases were made of the whole estate in the 17th century, often for 21 years. (fn. 202) Sir Thomas Player secured an extension in 1671 in return for having rebuilt the bowling green house. In 1720, after the expiry of a lease granted in 1697, (fn. 203) separate leases were negotiated directly with the undertenants. (fn. 204) The hospital leased most of its lands to builders from the mid 19th century (fn. 205) and received more than 700 ground rents in south Hackney, besides many in Clapton, in 1931. (fn. 206) Only a small area, between the west side of Mare Street and the railway, was retained in 1990, when the hospital's trustees drew rents and held the reversion of ground rents on premises in Mare Street and Richmond Road. (fn. 207)

The capital messuage called De La Grave (fn. 208) was presumably the Grove house recorded in the later 14th and 15th centuries (fn. 209) and the 'manor place' which had two barns, two stables, and a dovehouse in 1504-5. (fn. 210) In 1612 the hospital's tenant William Cross was to rebuild the manor house in brick. (fn. 211) In 1628 it was formally depicted as a castellated building of five bays, with a yard on the west, an orchard, and gardens on the east of over 4 a.; it was approached by a drive (the modern Shore Road) running south from Well Street (fn. 212) and in the mid 17th century by Tryon's Place (later Tudor Road) from Mare Street. Nothing substantiates the tradition, recorded in 1720, that Edward IV's mistress Jane Shore lived there. (fn. 213)

The tenant in 1647 claimed that his improvements included brick garden walls; (fn. 214) the battlements on the house succumbed to storm damage c. 1661. (fn. 215) By 1720, when it was let annually with only 1 a. besides the garden, the house was in bad repair. (fn. 216) It was called Shoreditch House in 1697 (fn. 217) and Shore Place (a name also applied to the immediate neighbourhood), or more commonly Shore House, in the 18th century. (fn. 218) Three storeys and five projecting bays were depicted c. 1730 (fn. 219) and a brick wing had been added to the north by 1740. (fn. 220) Recorded but not named c. 1745, (fn. 221) the house disappeared soon after the grant of a building lease to a London speculator, Thomas Flight, in 1768. Flight's buildings in 1770 included a house subleased to Gedaliah Gatfield and later known as Shore House, on part of the garden south and east of the site. (fn. 222) Remains of c. 1320 and later were excavated in the garden of no. 18 Shore Road in 1978. (fn. 223)

The reputed manor of HOXTON or BALMES (fn. 224) lay north of the modern district called Hoxton and from 1697 wholly within the south-western corner of Hackney, where previously the parish boundary with Shoreditch had been uncertain. In 1351 Sir John of Aspley (d. 1355) leased out all his manor of Hoxton in Hackney, (fn. 225) which apparently Robert of Aspley had bought from John and Maud Birtecurte in 1305-6, when it consisted of a house, mill, 167½ a., and rents in Hackney and elsewhere. Sir John's widow Elizabeth sold the manor, leased for 10 years to St. Mary's hospital, to John of Stodeye and others in 1372. (fn. 226) John of Stodeye (d. 1376), mayor of London, held land which came to his son-in-law Sir John Philpot (d. 1384), (fn. 227) mayor of London, who in 1365 had received land in Stepney and Hackney which had fallen to the Crown as creditor of John Marreys and in 1375 more property from Sir John at Hale and his wife Ellen. (fn. 228) By will proved 1389 Philpot left all his lands to his widow Margaret for life; the lands formerly of John of Stodeye and the manor of Hulls in Mile End were then to pass to his daughter and her intended husband John at Hale and a place called Hoxton was left to his sons Thomas and Edward. (fn. 229)

The Hoxton estate probably gained the name Balmes from Adam Bamme (d. 1397), mayor of London, who married Sir John Philpot's widow. (fn. 230) Margaret had rents in Hackney of £6 13s. 4d. in 1412. (fn. 231) Sir John's descendant John Philpot of Compton (Hants) (d. 1484) (fn. 232) left the 'manors' of Hoxton and Mile End, held of the bishop of London for 12s. and 17s. respectively, to his son John (d. 1502), (fn. 233) whose son Peter in 1510 claimed livery of lands which included the manor of Hoxton 'otherwise called Barns', valued at,£16. (fn. 234) As the manor of Balmes, the estate passed from Sir Peter Philpot (d. 1540) to his sons Henry (d.s.p. 1567) and Thomas (d. 1586), Thomas's son Sir George (d. 1624), and Sir George's son Sir John, who in 1634 sold it to Sir William Whitmore of Apley (Salop). Balmes then consisted of a house, a cottage, two gardens, an orchard, and 153 a. in Hackney, Shoreditch, and Tottenham. (fn. 235)

Sir William Whitmore's father William, a haberdasher, had held a lease of Balmes at his death in 1593. (fn. 236) Sir William's purchase in 1634 was on behalf of his younger brother Sir George (d. 1654), the royalist lord mayor, who received Charles I at Balmes in 1641. (fn. 237) The estate was sequestrated and in 1644 leased for three years to Thomas Richardson, (fn. 238) but restored on Sir George's discharge in 1651. (fn. 239) It passed to Sir George's son William (d. 1678) and to William's son William (d. 1684), on whose death under age it was sold in 1687 to Richard de Beauvoir, formerly of Guernsey. (fn. 240)

Richard de Beauvoir (d. 1708) was presumably resident, since his memorial tablet was placed in the church. (fn. 241) His son Osmond Beauvoir or de Beauvoir (d. 1757) bought an estate at Downham (Essex), (fn. 242) where he lived and was followed by his youngest son the Revd. Peter (d.s.p. 1821), the last sinecure rector of Hackney. (fn. 243) The Balmes estate passed to Richard Benyon of Englefield House (Berks.), grandson of Francis John Tyssen's sister Mary Benyon and great-grandson of Richard de Beauvoir's daughter Rachel, wife of Francis Tyssen (d. 1717). For Benyon, who assumed the surname Benyon de Beauvoir in 1822, (fn. 244) the Balmes estate comprising c. 150 a. west of Kingsland Road was, after 10 years of litigation with the developer William Rhodes (d. 1843), built up as De Beauvoir Town. (fn. 245) Richard Benyon de Beauvoir was succeeded in 1854 by his nephew Richard Fellowes (d. 1897), who took the name Benyon and was succeeded by his own nephew James Herbert Benyon (d. 1935) of Englefield House. (fn. 246) In 1950, when owned by Herbert Benyon, the estate had contracted since 1935; (fn. 247) it still embraced 20 wharves, a public house, and property in 17 roads in 1992. (fn. 248)

Balmes House, built according to tradition by two Spanish merchants and named after them in the 1540s, (fn. 249) bore a name used in 1510 (fn. 250) and occupied a moated site. It stood on the present De Beauvoir Road, midway between the canal and Downham Road, (fn. 251) and was said to have had a single entrance, by a drawbridge from the south, until the late 18th century, (fn. 252) although in 1707 water was shown only as bounding its pleasure grounds to the north and west. The building depicted in 1707 (fn. 253) has been attributed to work done for Sir George Whitmore c. 1635 (fn. 254) and was assessed at 28 hearths in 1664 and 1672. (fn. 255) It was of brick and two-storeyed, with a steep roof containing two sets of dormers; the main front had five bays, separated by giant pilasters which were uncommon at that date and perhaps unique in England in that they were paired. A shallow two-storeyed projection to the east may have survived from an older house, as apparently did some early Jacobean woodwork in the 19th century. The house stood in formal gardens, with a gatehouse immediately to the south and farm buildings in the south-east corner; lines of trees stretched beyond and formed an avenue, (fn. 256) later called Balmes Walk, from the gatehouse to Hoxton. The avenue was replanted and the entrance gate replaced c. 1794, (fn. 257) when Balmes served as a lunatic asylum. (fn. 258) Streets had been planned on all sides by 1831, (fn. 259) housing reached the gates by 1842, (fn. 260) and the mansion was demolished soon after 1852, (fn. 261) when it was recorded as 'one of our earliest specimens of brickwork and of the Italian school of architecture'. (fn. 262)

Sir John Heron of Shacklewell, formerly treasurer of the king's chamber, (fn. 263) by will dated 1522 left to his eldest son Giles, a minor, land including copyholds in Shacklewell, Kingsland, and Newington, which presumably formed the bulk of the reputed manor of SHACKLEWELL; a second son Edmund was to have a house at Hackney, with a close and all the Church field. (fn. 264) Sir John's widow was the most highly assessed parishioner for the subsidy in 1524. (fn. 265) Giles Heron entered parliament in 1529, when he married Cecily, daughter of Sir Thomas More. He disputed lands in Hackney with his brother Christopher in 1534 and was executed for treason in 1540. (fn. 266) His forfeited Shacklewell estate, including a 'manor or mansion' held of the bishop of London, was then in the hands of Sir Ralph Sadler, (fn. 267) to whom it was granted for 21 years in 1543. (fn. 268)

Sir Ralph, whose father Henry Sadler had recently bought a house in Hackney in 1521, was later said to be the richest commoner in England and also held Kingshold. He may have acquired Shacklewell to protect the Herons' interests: Giles's infant sons appealed to Sadler in 1540, when two of Giles's brothers were described as Sadler's servants. (fn. 269) In 1551 the bishop of London was licensed to convey his rights in the house and other lands lately occupied by Giles Heron to Lord Wentworth. (fn. 270) Thomas, Giles's elder son, was restored in 1554 but sold Shacklewell to Alderman Thomas Rowe in 1566. (fn. 271)

Rowe, a merchant tailor, was knighted as lord mayor in 1569. (fn. 272) He had bought land in Hackney in 1550, 70 a. from Thomas Colshill and another 70 a. from Edward Pate, (fn. 273) and in 1557 30 a., called May field and Broadleas, from Thomas Elrington. (fn. 274) He apparently lived at Shacklewell and in 1570 (fn. 275) was succeeded by his son Sir Henry (d. 1612), who also became lord mayor. (fn. 276) Sir Henry left to his son Henry, later knighted and an alderman, the house at Shacklewell with 18 a. adjoining and other freehold and copyhold parcels in Hackney; land in Tottenham and Edmonton went to a second son Thomas. (fn. 277) The younger Sir Henry (d. 1661) built the Rowe chapel (fn. 278) and possibly was related to the regicide Col. Owen Rowe (d. 1661), who sometimes attended the vestry with him and was buried at Hackney. (fn. 279) Sir Henry was succeeded at Shacklewell by his grandson Henry Rowe (d. 1670), (fn. 280) whose son Henry sold most of the family's freehold estate in 1685 to Francis Tyssen (d. 1699), (fn. 281) who complained about its encumbrances (fn. 282) and who by 1697 was described as of Shacklewell. (fn. 283) The Rowes, who had given up their pew in Hackney church by 1690, left their chapel to be disputed between the vestry and a more prosperous branch of the family at Muswell Hill. (fn. 284) Henry Rowe returned to Hackney in 1706 to seek parish relief, which he received, exempted from wearing a pauper's badge in 1710, until 1711. (fn. 285)

Sir John Heron had a house at Shacklewell, (fn. 286) presumably the 'ancient manor house' recorded in 1720. It was then a three-storeyed brick building, with tall sash windows and a pair of Dutch gables and glass displaying the arms of the Rowes. (fn. 287) The house was assessed at 25 hearths in 1664 (fn. 288) and 1672. (fn. 289) It was occupied by Francis Tyssen (d. 1710) and his son Francis (d. 1717) (fn. 290) and came to be called the manor house. (fn. 291) In 1743 Richard Tillesley, a Shoreditch carpenter, assigned his lease of the house and grounds to Charles Everard, a Clerkenwell brewer. By 1762 the house had gone and 12 new houses occupied the grounds of 3 a. (fn. 292) west of Shacklewell green. Ancient gate piers survived in 1824, when a second manor house stood closer to the road; it made way for Seal Street c. 1880. (fn. 293)

The hospital of St. Mary without Bishopsgate (fn. 294) in 1535 received c. £80 a year from its Middlesex estate, derived almost equally from a manor called HICKMANS and from BURGANES lands in Hackney, Stepney, and Shoreditch. (fn. 295) It had a rent in Hackney in 1232. (fn. 296) John of Banbury gave 33 a. in Hackney and Enfield for a chantry in 1338 and a further 28 a. in Hackney in 1349. The prior acquired other lands in Hackney, Stepney, and Shoreditch in 1349, including 24 a. from Nicholas of Shoreditch, (fn. 297) and in 1362; (fn. 298) he was allowed to retain 60 a. in Hackney, which had been held without licence, in 1363. (fn. 299) More land in the three parishes was acquired in 1376. (fn. 300) By 1412 the prior had lands worth £10 in Hackney. (fn. 301) In 1507 cottages in Church Street, held of Hackney rectory, were seized for nonpayment of rent over 20 years. (fn. 302)

The estate in 1540 included London Field of c. 100 a. and parcels in the other common fields and marsh, many of which had been leased out shortly before the hospital's suppression in 1538. (fn. 303) Royal grantees of the divided estate included Francis Jobson in 1544 (followed by William Beryff in 1545), (fn. 304) Sir Ralph Warren, alderman, who secured Burganes lands in 1544-5, (fn. 305) and Sir Thomas Darcy, who received London Field in 1546. (fn. 306) Robert Heneage, an officer in the court of Augmentations and brother of Sir Thomas (d. 1553), bought some of the lands and had sold c. 27 a. to Alexander Avenon by 1551 (fn. 307) and a further 25 a. in 1553. (fn. 308) Avenon, knighted as lord mayor of London, settled his Hackney lands in trust in 1570. (fn. 309) His son or grandson Alexander held c. 40 a. in Hackney as a minor in 1594 (fn. 310) and conveyed c. 25 a. to Sir Robert Lee (d. 1605), a former lord mayor, in 1604. (fn. 311) Seven a. which Lee leased in 1605 to Ralph Treswell included a new house where Treswell lived. (fn. 312)

Sir Robert Lee (fn. 313) bought land in Suffolk and was succeeded by his son Sir Henry Lee (d. 1620) (fn. 314) who left the reversion of Burganes land to his son Sir John, a minor. (fn. 315) Middlesex property was disputed between Sir John's three daughters and his infant grandson Thomas Lee in 1674. (fn. 316) Presumably it passed to Baptist Lee of Ipswich, who by will proved 1768 (fn. 317) left his property in and around London to his late niece's husband Nathaniel Acton (d. 1795) for life, with remainder to Nathaniel's son, who was to take the name Nathaniel Lee Acton. (fn. 318)

In 1836 Nathaniel Lee Acton was succeeded by his sisters Caroline Acton and Harriot (d. 1852), widow of Sir William Middleton, Bt. (d. 1829), of Shrubland Park (E. Suff.). (fn. 319) Harriot's son and heir Sir William Fowle Fowle Middleton, Bt. (d. 1860), was succeeded by his sister Sarah, wife of Adm. Sir George Nathaniel Broke, Bt. (d. 1887) (later Broke-Middleton), who was also childless. The Middlesex estates were entailed in favour of Sir William's great-niece Jane Broke, from 1882 wife of James Saumarez, Baron de Saumarez (d. 1937). Lady de Saumarez (d. 1933) (fn. 320) sold her Hackney property by auction in 1921.

The estate, c. 95 a. in 1777 (fn. 321), lay mainly in Shoreditch. A field near Kingsland Road stretched into Hackney, south and west of the later Middleton and Queensbridge roads, and a separate piece of land stretched from Mare Street to the south end of the later Eleanor Road, bordering London Fields; (fn. 322) another detached portion lay in Bethnal Green. In 1838 Sir W. F. F. Middleton bought part of the former Spurstowe estate with a view to extending development northward along the entire length of Eleanor Road. (fn. 323) An Act of 1808 had removed a restriction of leases to 21 years, under Baptist Lee's and other wills, permitting building leases of up to 99 years. (fn. 324) In Hackney planned development began along Middleton Road in 1840 and was facilitated by agreements and some exchanges of land, mainly with the Rhodes family, from 1843.

The estate centred on CLAPTON HOUSE originated in acquisitions by the Woods, a Lancashire family of courtiers. Thomas Wood (d. 1649), Serjeant of the Pantry, lived in Hackney in 1597 and in 1627, (fn. 325) when he became a vestryman. (fn. 326) He left the 'manor house' where he dwelt to his eldest son Sir Henry (d. 1671), treasurer to Queen Henrietta Maria and a baronet, whose heir was apparently his brother Thomas (d. 1692), bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. (fn. 327) The bishop, who had been admitted to copyholds of c. 15 a. at Clapton in 1651, (fn. 328) normally lived in Hackney. Subject to provision for his almshouses, he left all his lands to his nephew Henry Webb (d. 1713). (fn. 329) In 1720 the estate was divided between Charles, son of the bishop's sister Mary Cranmer, Henry's daughters Elizabeth and Anne Webb, and the four daughters of Henry's elder brother Thomas Webb, including Elizabeth, wife of Sir William Chapman, Bt. (fn. 330) Chapman soon acquired the shares of the others in Hackney but as a result of the failure of the South Sea Co. they were sold in 1723 to a Huguenot silk merchant Rene de Boyville (d. by 1743). (fn. 331) René's widow Louise sold the mansion house in 1749 to a gem merchant Jacob de Moses Franco, who had paid rates in Hackney since 1736. (fn. 332) Jacob, whose younger brother Joseph also held copyholds in Clapton, (fn. 333) bought more copyholds (fn. 334) and by will proved 1777 left his Clapton estate to his grandson Jacob Franco. (fn. 335) The grandson by will dated 1780 left it to his brother David, afterwards Francis, Franco of Great Amwell (Herts.), (fn. 336) who acquired the copyholds which had been left by Joseph to a nephew Raphael Franco and who sold his enlarged estate of c. 22 a. in 1799 to James Powell. (fn. 337)

James Powell (d. 1824), a wine merchant, (fn. 338) was the youngest son of David Powell (d. 1784), scion of a Suffolk family who had prospered in London in partnership with James Baden and who had bought and perhaps remodelled the later Byland House. (fn. 339) He may have been related to James Powell, a vintner who had held land in Hackney since 1718 and whose sons James and Joshua succeeded in 1765. (fn. 340) James Powell (d. 1824) built up a substantial estate between 1785 and 1821 by purchases from, among others, F. J. Tyssen's trustees, the Revd. Benjamin Newcome's heirs, and the earl of Warwick. (fn. 341) He also inherited the Suffolk lands of his brother Baden (d. 1802) and bought Newick Park (E. Suss.) in 1809. Most of the lands went to James's son Thos. Baden Powell (d. 1868), rector of Newick, whose heirs disposed of them piecemeal. (fn. 342)

Some of James's purchases in Clapton went to his elder daughter Hester, (fn. 343) wife of her cousin Baden Powell (d. 1844) of Langton Green (Kent), who in 1798 enlarged his estate at Stamford Hill; (fn. 344) he was father of the Revd. Baden Powell (d. 1860), Savilian professor of geometry, (fn. 345) and grandfather of Robert, Baron Baden-Powell (d. 1941), founder of the Boy Scouts. A younger brother of Baden was James Powell (d. 1840), who bought the Whitefriars glass works and in 1839, when described as of Shore Place, (fn. 346) took a lease of Clapton House from the Revd. T. B. Powell, his cousin and brother-in-law. James was followed at Clapton House by his sons James Cotton Powell, the first incumbent of St. James's, and Arthur, who continued the glass firm, until c. 1851. (fn. 347) Other purchases of James Powell (d. 1824) went to his daughter Anne, wife of the Revd. Robert Marriott. (fn. 348) They passed to Anne's heir the Revd. James Powell Goulton Constable, whose estate included Noble's nursery, Cromwell Lodge, and five other large houses when it was auctioned in 1882. (fn. 349)

The Woods' house, which Thomas probably inherited rather than built, (fn. 350) stood on the east side of Lower Clapton Road. It was assessed at 14 hearths in 1672, as when Bishop Wood lived there. (fn. 351) It was called the bishop's mansion for over a century, Lizhards or Leezhards (a name that is unexplained) in 1749, and Clapton House in 1799. (fn. 352) Improvements 'nearly equal to rebuilding' were made for the lessee Israel Levin Salomons (d. 1788). Features included a marble paved hall, a library, (fn. 353) and, in the 5 a. of pleasure grounds, a structure resembling an orangery or banqueting room, which was built as a private synagogue. (fn. 354)

Tenants occupied the house in 1749 and 1799. (fn. 355) They always did so under James Powell (d. 1824), who lived in a house bought from the Tyssens on the west side of the road, (fn. 356) and his son, who leased Clapton House both as a residence and a school. (fn. 357) It stood empty in 1884, an imposing building of three storeys and attics; the road front, behind ornate iron gates, was of seven bays, separated by pilasters and with rustication at the corners, beneath a bold cornice. It was demolished c. 1885 to make way for Thistlewaite Road. (fn. 358) The neighbouring residence later called Byland House (no. 185 Lower Clapton Road), which bore David Powell's initials on a cistern of 1761, served as a vicarage for the second and third incumbents of St. James's, both of them related to the Revd. T. B. Powell. It passed to his younger son James David (d. 1919), whose trustees sold it to Hackney council in 1932. (fn. 359)

The compact estate of the NORRIS family began with purchases by Hugh Norris (d. 1661), the scion of a Somerset family who became an alderman and treasurer of the Levant Co. In 1653 he bought a large house and 31 a. in Hackney (fn. 360) from Edward Misselden (d. 1654), another London merchant. (fn. 361) The land, enfranchised by Richard Blackwell in 1654 but later treated as copyhold of Lordshold manor, (fn. 362) lay partly in Broomfield and the marsh but mainly on the east side of Grove Street in the middle field of Well Street common. (fn. 363) It passed to Hugh's eldest son Hugh (d. 1693) (fn. 364) and then to the younger Hugh's children Hugh, Henry, and Hester, whose shares by agreements of 1709 and 1715 were reunited under Henry (d. 1762). (fn. 365) Thereafter it descended in a direct line to Henry Norris (d. 1790), (fn. 366) to Henry Handley Norris (d. 1804), a Russia merchant, (fn. 367) and to Henry Handley Norris (d. 1850), rector of South Hackney. The rector's son Henry Norris (d. 1889) of Swalcliffe Park (Oxon.) (fn. 368) managed the estate from 1843, when it contained c. 34 a. (fn. 369) The land was enfranchised in 1853 (fn. 370) and built over in the 1860s. (fn. 371) Most of the freeholds were sold by Henry Everard Du Cane Norris in the 1920s and 1930s. (fn. 372)

Hugh Norris (d. 1661) and his son lived in Hackney. (fn. 373) Henry Norris (d. 1762) leased his Hackney residence in 1725 but resumed possession after four years. (fn. 374) Henry Norris (d. 1790) moved to Essex, leasing the Hackney house rebuilt by his father, (fn. 375) but both Henry Handley Norris (d. 1804) and his son the rector lived in Hackney. (fn. 376) The last resident Norris was the rector's widow Henrietta Catherine (d. 1854). (fn. 377)

The Norrises' house, on the east side of Grove Street, was a large rambling structure in 1725, (fn. 378) when it was drawn by William Stukeley as 'a model of our ancient way of building'. Ornate plasterwork adorned a long range of two storeys, with an attic and north and south wings projecting towards the road; two stair turrets, their jettied upper floors forming polygonal pavilions, were in the style used at Nonsuch Palace, begun in 1538. (fn. 379) Henry Norris replaced it with a more compact house, commissioned in 1729 and finished in 1730, designed probably by James Shephard, a London builder, with three storeys over a basement; the main front was of five bays, with a central Doric porch. (fn. 380) The house, with well stocked gardens, was leased to Paul Amsinck, a London merchant, in 1761 (fn. 381) and, after serving as Henry Handley Norris's rectory, made way in the 1860s for the west end of Penshurst Road. (fn. 382)

The copyhold land of the CASS estate, enfranchised in 1770 (fn. 383) for the trustees of the Sir John Cass Foundation, formed the largest estate in southern Hackney in 1843. (fn. 384) Most of it came from Henry Monger, who acquired part through marriage to Bridget, daughter of William Swayne (d. 1649). (fn. 385) Parcels of Swayne's land had been in varied ownership in the late 15th and 16th centuries: they included land in Well Street common field recorded from 1442 (fn. 386) and land in Grove Street sold by William Leigh to John Bowes in 1535, by John's son Jeremy to Arthur Dericote, a draper, in 1557, and by Arthur's son Thomas to William Swayne's uncle and namesake in 1599. (fn. 387)

Monger, by will proved 1669, founded almshouses in Well Street and divided the residue of his estate between his son-in-law Thomas Chamberlain, Joan, widow of William Martin, and his maidservants Hester and Alice Eames. (fn. 388) By surrenders from 1673 and by Joan Martin's will, proved 1681, c. 75 a. passed to Hester (d. 1681) and her husband Thomas Cass, carpenter to the Royal Ordnance. They descended in 1699 to Thomas's son (fn. 389) John (d. 1718), later knighted as a Tory M.P. and alderman. (fn. 390)

Sir John died in Hackney, 'neither loving nor beloved in the parish'. His intention to establish schools in St. Botolph's, Aldgate, and in Hackney went unfulfilled with regard to Hackney, but after a Chancery decree the trustees of the Sir John Cass Foundation held his lands in Hackney and elsewhere, paying a rent charge towards Monger's almshouses. The Hackney estate, to which Sir John's widow Elizabeth (d. 1732) (fn. 391) was admitted in 1719, (fn. 392) was estimated in 1817 at c. 87 a. around Grove Street, east of Well Street, and in the north and south fields of Well Street common; another c. 13 a. lay in Bethnal Green, and c. 50 a. in the marsh. (fn. 393) The trustees, like the governors of St. Thomas's hospital, were for long concerned chiefly with letting the lands in the largest possible segments. Joseph Sureties, a local farmer, took nearly 70 a. from Well Street towards. Hackney Wick in 1765 and was followed by William Gigney from 1786; the land thus came to be known as Sureties's or Gigney's farm. Development was attempted by Gigney and from 1790 by underlessees of James Jackson, but systematic building was possible only from 1847 on the expiry of Gigney's lease. (fn. 394) The Cass Foundation held c. 73 a. in Hackney, excluding lands in the marsh, in 1843, when the land in Bethnal Green was about to be sold to the Crown for Victoria Park. Building in the 1850s and 1860s (fn. 395) produced an income which permitted the establishment of the Sir John Cass technical institute. (fn. 396)

The extent of the estate changed little until after the Second World War. It contained 1,178 separate leases in 1957. (fn. 397) By 1964 large tracts on either side of Bentham Road had been taken for the municipal Wyke estate and some sites had been sold near Victoria Park in Redruth and Rutland roads. (fn. 398) Later sales included bombed sites in Danesdale Road near Hackney Wick and Hackney Terrace. (fn. 399) In 1976 the bulk, in Cassland, Victoria Park, and adjoining roads, was leased to the World of Property Housing Trust (later the Sanctuary Housing Association). (fn. 400) By 1990 the Cass Foundation retained a few other isolated parcels in Hackney, including a supermarket leased to Tesco Stores in Well Street. (fn. 401)

Buildings acquired by Cass included a cottage in Grove Street of 1516-17 and another of 1519-20, besides a house with a curtilage which Leigh had sold to John Bowes by 1539-40. (fn. 402) The first cottage was probably among lands granted to Thomas Wood in 1618 (fn. 403) and one of two houses held in 1658 by Henry Monger, whose other house may have been that of Bowes, later of the Dericotes. (fn. 404) One of Monger's houses was the largest near Grove Street, assessed at 18 hearths, in 1664. (fn. 405) He leased a house called the George, on the west side of Grove Street (later the southern end of Lauriston Road), in 1664 (fn. 406) and left another house, occupied by Edward English, to Hester Eames in 1669. (fn. 407) Thomas Cass leased English's house in 1694 (fn. 408) and lived in one on the site of the George, as did his son Sir John. Both houses were capital messuages in 1699, as was a third which had passed from Monger to Cass; English's house was described as on the east side of Grove Street and the third house as on the west in 1699 but vice versa in 1719. (fn. 409) Sir John's widow leased his former residence, with its furnishings, to Henry Norris in 1722. (fn. 410) It stood empty in 1770, when English's house was occupied by the Huguenot merchant Peter Thelluson (d.1797). (fn. 411) The trustees' property on the west side of Grove Street was leased to their surveyor Jesse Gibson in 1779. (fn. 412) By 1807 Gibson had replaced Cass's dilapidated seat with two houses, one of them later Grove House school, whose name was to be appropriated for a school at Common House. (fn. 413)

Members of the Rhodes family were active as brickmakers and land speculators in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. William Rhodes (d. 1769), from Cheshire, bought land in St. Pancras and was succeeded by his son Thomas (d. 1787), (fn. 414) who occupied most of Balmes farm by 1773. (fn. 415) Thomas's son Samuel Rhodes (d. 1794) in 1775 held 97 a. of the Hackney House estate (fn. 416) and had formerly held c. 22 a. near the Rosemary Branch. (fn. 417) As Samuel Rhodes of Balmes, yeoman, he was granted leases by the Revd. Peter de Beauvoir of c. 10 a. of Balmes farm with power to dig brickearth in 1785 (fn. 418) and of the farmhouse which he already occupied near Balmes House, with over 40 a. near the Rosemary Branch, in 1789. (fn. 419) As Samuel Rhodes of Hoxton, farmer, he bought the lands of F. J. Tyssen's trustees east of Kingsland Road, including the Lamb inn (fn. 420) and all or part of London Fields farm, (fn. 421) in 1788-9. Those lands were later said to form the LAMB FARM estate of c. 140 a., stretching from behind the buildings along Kingsland Road eastward to London Fields, northward to Dalston Lane and Pigwell brook, and southward to the parish boundary. (fn. 422)

Samuel's property, in Hackney and elsewhere, was divided in 1795 between his sons Samuel Rhodes of Islington (d. 1822), Thomas (d. 1856), and William (d. 1843). (fn. 423) William, who failed to fulfil his plants for the Balmes House estate, had wharves in Haggerston (fn. 424) and acquired his brother Samuel's third part of the Hackney lands, which he shared with his brother Thomas. (fn. 425) The bulk of their estate, after a minor exchange with Sir William Middleton in 1843, passed to Thomas's grandson Thomas William Rhodes (d. 1885) of Flore (Northants.) and to William's sons William Arthur (d. 1856), whose chief legatee was Thomas William, and the Revd. Francis William (d. 1878). The Lamb Farm estate consisted of terraced housing stretching from Dalston Lane south to Albion Road (later Drive) and bounded east by Greenwood and Lansdowne roads in 1874-5, when it was divided between Thomas William, who received the north-eastern and south-western quarters, and Francis William, who received the other two quarters. (fn. 426) Fragmentation followed except in the north-west, where a block between Dalston Lane and Queen's (later Queensbridge) and Lenthall roads passed to Francis William, whose fifth son was the imperialist Cecil Rhodes (d. 1902). (fn. 427) Family trustees retained the property, mostly let on weekly tenancies, in 1939. (fn. 428)

A new farmhouse, which gave its name to the estate, stood in 1789 on the site of the Lamb inn. (fn. 429) Presumably it was reached from the high road both by a cartway which became Lamb Lane (later the west end of Forest Road) and by Swan Lane; it may have been the 'Old Lamb' marked east of Mayfield Road c. 1823. (fn. 430) A more central house, probably built by 1807 for James Grange, was reached from Swan Lane (later Grange, then Lenthall, Road) and, as a 'retired mansion' in walled grounds opposite St. Philip's church, was called Richmond Lodge in 1870. (fn. 431) None of the Rhodes family is known to have lived there: Thomas Rhodes (d. 1856) retired to Tottenham and his brother William (d. 1843) to Leyton (Essex). (fn. 432)

Sir Francis Bickley, Bt. (d. 1670), master of the Drapers' Company, was a Hackney vestryman from 1630. (fn. 433) He retired to Norfolk and in 1667 sold his copyhold estate of DALSTON, centred on BELDAMES (later called GRAHAM HOUSE) to Sir Stephen White (d. 1678), who left it to his cousin Stephen White (d. 1681). It passed to Stephen's son Thomas, of the Middle Temple, whose son Thomas was admitted in 1743 and conveyed it to James Graham in 1753. (fn. 434) James's son Sir Robert (d. 1836) was admitted to c. 35 a. in 1795. (fn. 435) Sir Robert, later a baron of the Exchequer, who first mortgaged the estate in 1797, (fn. 436) held in 1796 most of the houses which formed the hamlet of Dalston and c. 47 a. lying mainly between Pigwell brook and Shacklewell Lane. (fn. 437) The estate passed to his sister Catherine Graham (d. 1840) and then to their niece Catherine Massie and her brother Henry George Massie, R.N. (d. by 1864). The Massies sold land for the railway and in the 1850s and 1860s on building leases for Graham Road and streets to the north. (fn. 438) The copyhold was enfranchised in 1864. (fn. 439)

A house assessed at 15 hearths was occupied in 1664 by Bickley (fn. 440) and later by Sir Stephen and Stephen White. (fn. 441) It was called Beldames in 1682 but not in 1743, when James Graham was already resident. (fn. 442) Probably it was the house in Dalston Road or Lane which was on lease with c. 2 a. to Mr. Pitt in 1796, opposite the later entrance to the German hospital. (fn. 443) By 1849 called Graham House and rebuilt, (fn. 444) it was inhabited in 1864 and 1880 by William Hodson, the speculative builder, and afterwards by convalescents from the hospital. (fn. 445) The three-storeyed stock-brick house of c. 1800, with a later stuccoed porch and single-storeyed addition, was an office of Circle Thirty Three housing trust at no. 113 Dalston Lane in 1992. (fn. 446) In the 1890s it was thought to have lost the eastern part of its grounds to a building called Manor House, (fn. 447) perhaps the residence of 13 hearths (fn. 448) to which Alderman Thomas Blackall (d. 1688) and his wife Mary, née Offspring, the parents of Offspring Blackall, bishop of Exeter (d. 1716), had been admitted in 1660; as a copyhold of Lordshold it passed to their son John Blackall in 1705 and may have been acquired by Thomas White. (fn. 449) Manor House, an old brick house let as lodgings by 1795 but not among the Grahams' copyholds in 1796, later served as Dalston Refuge for Destitute Females. (fn. 450)

Moses Keeling, a lawyer, and his wife Joanna were admitted in 1653 to copyholds of Lordshold manor, including TOWER PLACE with 11 a. and a further 30 a. or more. Joanna was the wife of John Pinchbeck in 1676; in addition she held freeholds to the west, abutting Cobb's (later Pratt's) Lane (later straightened as Glyn Road) and recorded in 1565. Her children John and Mary Keeling (fn. 451) sold the copyholds to Thomas Hussey in 1684. Hussey conveyed them in 1720 to Sir William Lewen (d. 1722), a former lord mayor, who was succeeded by his nephews George, Charles, and Robert Lewen. (fn. 452) All the shares passed after a dispute to George, (fn. 453) whose daughter Susanna married her kinsman Richard Glyn (d. 1773), later lord mayor of London, a baronet, and co-founder of the bank of Glyn, Mills & Co. (fn. 454) In 1769 Sir Richard bought more land at Homerton from the heirs of the Marlowe family. (fn. 455) His son Sir George (d. 1814) (fn. 456) was admitted to Tower Place in 1763. (fn. 457) Col. Thomas Glyn (d. 1813), half-brother of Sir George, who conveyed the whole estate to him in 1803, granted leases from 1797. The colonel's son the Revd. Thomas Clayton Glyn (d. 1860) was succeeded by his eldest son Clayton William Feake Glyn (d. 1887). (fn. 458) T. C. Glyn in 1849 held 41 a. of copyhold land on the north side of Marsh Hill and Homerton Road, from the later Glyn Road to the Hackney cut, besides a field west of Brooksby's Walk and c. 23 a. of freehold. C. W. F. Glyn made leases from 1862, enfranchising the land in 1868 and 1880. (fn. 459)

An unnamed capital messuage on the north side of Homerton Street was recorded in 1565 and stood in 1649 and 1683 on the west corner of Cobb's Lane. It was claimed to have been freehold and may have been acquired separately from Tower Place. Tower Place was described in 1653 as near Hackney marsh and in 1797 was presumably represented by a rectangular moated enclosure of 2 a. 3 r. on the north side of the road at Marsh gate. (fn. 460) From its size it may have been one of the unidentified houses in Homerton occupied by a nobleman in 1605. (fn. 461) It was a ruin by 1684, when its site included a dovecot and a cottage. (fn. 462) The Moat House, shown as apparently inside the enclosure in 1849 but gone by 1870, was remembered in the 1890s as having been an 'old fashioned square built' residence. (fn. 463) The moat, visible in 1891, was about to be covered by Trehurst Road in 1910. (fn. 464)

Separate estates were held by two families named ALVARES, whose relationship has not been established. A copyhold house in Homerton Street was surrendered in 1624 with 10 a. by Rachel Denham and acquired in 1643 by Robert Johnson, whose daughters, including Elizabeth Carteret, were admitted in 1662. (fn. 465) Sir Edward Carteret sold it in 1674 to Isaac Alvares (d. 1684), a London jeweller, whose daughter Deborah and her husband David Alvares sold it to George Bonnett, cutler of London, in 1698. (fn. 466) Sarah, wife of Charles Milborne, was admitted under Bonnett's will in 1707. George Milborne (d. 1758) held Bonnett's house, two others on the south side of the high street with closes of 4 a., and 10 a. called Gill mead east of Wick Lane and south of Marsh Hill. (fn. 467) Bonnett's may have been the gabled house leased as a workhouse. (fn. 468) George Milborne's son Charles, like George, lived in Monmouthshire. (fn. 469) Under his will dated 1774 Charles's Marsh Hill estate, copyhold of Lordshold, was conveyed to his granddaughters Martha, Mary, and Elizabeth Swinnerton in 1812. (fn. 470)

Jacob Alvares the elder, otherwise Alvaro da Fonseca (d. 1742), in 1716 had gone from a burnt down house in Clapton and in 1717 was in Mare Street, where in 1730 he bought a capital messuage and 6 other copyhold houses for his greatgrandson Isaac Jessurun Alvares. The residence, once Thomas Byfield's, had been left by a London mercer Thomas Blackmore to his grandson Raymond Blackmore by will dated 1708. (fn. 471) Isaac acquired neighbouring sites, (fn. 472) began building a house next to his own, and left copyholds by will proved 1809 (fn. 473) to his illegitimate sons George Jenkins of Woodford (Essex) and Richard Jenkins and their mother Catherine (d. 1811). George replaced the main residence with small houses and by will proved 1846 left the 'Lamb Lane estate' to his widow Matilda and children, subject to provision for Richard's widow. (fn. 474) In 1852 Matilda Jenkins held property on either side of Pembroke House and stretching back to London Fields, containing 41 houses in Helmsley Street, Place, and Terrace; it included Melbourne Lodge asylum and West House, both leased to Dr. Williams. (fn. 475) Immediately to the south a house facing London Fields passed to Richard and in 1852 to Catherine Jenkins, who sold it to John Graves. (fn. 476)

Another Jewish family, that of the tobacco merchant Joshua Israel Brandon who came to Clapton in 1742, (fn. 477) likewise held property at Homerton and London Fields. Trustees under the will of his widow Esther (d. 1789) assigned quit rents for the Homerton residence to her son Jacob da Fonseca Brandon in 1832 (fn. 478) and a nursery ground south of Exmouth Place was sold for his daughters Esther, Caroline, and Jesse Brandon in 1846. (fn. 479)

The estate of the RYDER family (fn. 480) originated in copyholds of Lordshold, Kingshold, and Grumbolds bought by Richard Ryder (d. 1733), a draper and member of the Skinners' Company. His father Dudley had perhaps been drawn to Hackney as the brother-in-law of the Congregationalist Robert Billio, William Bates's successor. (fn. 481) Richard in 1704 bought some of Sir Thomas Cooke's property on behalf of his son Richard (d. by 1739), also a skinner. It included the later Upton House, the family home until 1721 of Sir Dudley Ryder (d. 1756), the judge and diarist. (fn. 482) The Ryders had built more houses at Homerton by 1717 and moved to Church Street, where property of Sir George Vyner's heirs, including the Black and White House, was added from 1706. (fn. 483)

Under the elder Richard Ryder's will his son Sir Dudley (d. 1756) received property at Homerton. (fn. 484) Sir Dudley's son Nathaniel, Baron Harrowby (d. 1803), made leases in 1757 and 1759 and sold 12 houses and the Plough in 1785. (fn. 485) The buyers included David Powell (d. 1810), elder brother of James (d. 1824), whose house was sold to Charles Rivaz in 1847. (fn. 486)

Meanwhile the younger Richard left all his Hackney lands to his widow Ann (née Lomax), who was admitted in 1740, with remainder to his son Lomax, who was admitted in 1759 (fn. 487) and acquired more Vyner property in 1765. (fn. 488) Lomax Ryder (d. 1779) was succeeded by his brother Thomas (d. 1812), who was licensed to make leases for up to 61 years. (fn. 489) Thomas's heirs were the sons of Nathaniel Ryder, Baron Harrowby: Dudley, earl of Harrowby (d. 1847), Richard (d. 1832), and Henry, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (d. 1836). (fn. 490) After the bishop's nine sons had been admitted in 1840 the eldest, Canon Henry Dudley Ryder (d. 1877), acquired the others' interests and also those of the earl's younger son Granville Dudley Ryder. Many leases were granted by the canon's sons Henry Dudley (d. 1904) and Lieut. Harry Lefevre (d. 1880), the first of whom acquired the interest of H. L. Ryder's widow Frances Elizabeth and left copyholds to his sister and four half-sisters. (fn. 491) In the 1840s the four houses of Ryder Place, together with Bohemia Place and Bell's Yard, formed the built-up corner along Church Street of land stretching from the churchyard across Hackney brook to Morning Lane. (fn. 492) Part, including Ryder Place, was sold to the E. & W. India Docks & Birmingham Junction Railway in 1847. (fn. 493) The canon's last surviving daughter Mary Emma Ryder paid compensation for enfranchisement of property in Chalgrove Road in 1931. (fn. 494)

Upton House, the home of Richard Ryder (d. 1733) but not apparently of his heirs, (fn. 495) was a three-storeyed brick building of the late 17th century, probably rebuilt in 1776-7. As no. 10 Upper Homerton and finally as no. 2 Urswick Road it became a truant school and was demolished c. 1885. (fn. 496)

William Spurstowe, (fn. 497) former vicar of Hackney, left to his brother Henry (d. 1677) part of his copyhold estate, comprising six houses and 7 a. and including SPURSTOWE'S HOUSE. (fn. 498) The estate passed to Henry's granddaughter Anne Spurstowe, whose husband William Skrine sold it in 1719 to Francis Douce (d. 1760), a physician, (fn. 499) who acquired more land to the west. Douce's nephew and namesake in 1761 sold a house and some land to the vestry clerk Richard Dann (fn. 500) and much of the estate including Spurstowe's house to Sir John Silvester, an army physician, who built five houses in the later Sylvester Road which he retained for his son John on selling the rest of the property to Dann in 1777. (fn. 501) Dann and his son Richard, who succeeded in 1800, took leases of adjoining lands. Executors in 1838 sold parts of Dann's estate to Sir William Middleton and parts to Samuel Nelme, a retired silversmith and already a tenant at no. 2 Grove Place, where he may have resided rather than in Spurstowe's house when murdered in 1847. (fn. 502) Other parts had been sold to Thomas Wilkinson, who also bought much of Nelme's property, although Spurstowe's house was sold with c. 6 a., as Nelme had agreed, to the E. & W. India Docks & Birmingham Junction Railway Co. (fn. 503)

Spurstowe's house was assessed at 16 hearths, the third highest in Church Street, in 1664. (fn. 504) It stood immediately south of the confluence of Pigwell and Hackney brooks, which fed ornamental canals in the 1720s, when the water's diversion led to litigation. The brooks formed the garden's northern boundary in 1761, by which date the canals had largely made way for less formal features. (fn. 505) Landscaping was continued by Silvester, who employed the young Conrad Loddiges and whose garden and parkland in 1777 included a Chinese bridge, soon to be broken down, a grotto, a Gothic hermitage, and five waterfalls. Silvester often resided at Bath (fn. 506) and may not have much altered the house, which presumably was built in the 17th century and was enlarged c. 1800 for the Danns. It was tenanted in 1838, called Park House in the 1840s, used as a home for Islington's pauper children from c. 1849 to 1855, and demolished by 1862, to be replaced by a terrace on the south side of Amhurst Road.


  • 1. Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 475.
  • 2. Below, local govt. (manorial).
  • 3. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/95.
  • 4. Complete Peerage, xii (2), 502-4; D.N.B.; G.L.R.O., TS. index to M79. To be treated under Stepney.
  • 5. e.g. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/95 (1632).
  • 6. Ibid. M79/LH/99.
  • 7. Ibid. M79/LH/106.
  • 8. Ibid. M93/1, f. 27; M93/4, f. 7v.
  • 9. Ibid. M93/4, f. 115v.; P.R.O., PROB 11/307, no. 300; Beaven, Aldermen, ii. 86, 89, 106.
  • 10. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/106; Beaven, Aldermen, ii. 102.
  • 11. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/106 (endorsements); M79/LH/113; cf. below, this section (Shacklewell).
  • 12. Below, this section (Kingshold; Grumbolds); M.L.R. 1712/1/134.
  • 13. Misc. Geneal. et Heraldica, N.S. iii. 379-80.
  • 14. Vestry mins. 14 Sept. 1689; 9 Apr. 1690.
  • 15. P.R.O., PROB 11/518, f. 365; M.L.R. 1712/1/116.
  • 16. Clarke, Hackney, 73; Robinson, Hackney, i, table facing p. 322; H.A.D., D/F/TYS/12/2, p. 192.
  • 17. P.R.O., PROB 11/1082, f. 454; Robinson, Hackney, i, table facing p. 322; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/16, p. 214.
  • 18. Robinson, Hackney, i, table facing p. 322.
  • 19. Starling's Map (1831).
  • 20. Ibid.; Complete Peerage, i. 124-5; D.N.B.
  • 21. D.N.B.; H.A.D., H/LD 7/11; The Times, 18 Jan. 1909, 13d.
  • 22. G.L.R.O., M79/TA/21.
  • 23. Burke, Peerage (1931); Who's Who, 1987; inf. from Ld. Amherst of Hackney.
  • 24. G.L.R.O., M79/TA/28.
  • 25. Ibid. M79/TA/20; M79/TA/21, map A.
  • 26. Inf. from Ld. Amherst of Hackney.
  • 27. P.R.O., PROB 11/518, f. 365.
  • 28. Robinson, Hackney, i, table facing p. 322.
  • 29. Ibid.; Burke, Land. Gent. (1952), 2576; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/19.
  • 30. H.A.D., V 5; Starling's Map (1831).
  • 31. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/25, M 127-30, 322-4.
  • 32. Clarke, Hackney, 118.
  • 33. Lysons, Environs, ii. 453. There is no evidence to support Clarke's belief that the bishops had a residence in Homerton: Clarke, Hackney, 146 and n. 87.
  • 34. Robinson, Hackney, i. 116; below, this section (Shacklewell).
  • 35. Clarke, Hackney, 118; H.A.D., D/F/AMH/555, p. 1.
  • 36. Hackney and Stoke N. Past, illus. 39; List of Bldgs. (1975).
  • 37. Rec. of Templars in Eng. in 12th Cent. ed. B. A. Lees (Brit. Acad. 1935), pp. 1, xc-xci; V.C.H. Essex, vi. 201.
  • 38. Rec. of Templars, pp. xc, 17; below, this section (Wick).
  • 39. B.L. Cott. MS. Nero E. VI, f. 65; P.R.O., CP 25(1)/146/8, no. 81; CP 25(1)/146/9, no. 104.
  • 40. Bracton's Note Bk. ed. Maitland, ii, pp. 508-10.
  • 41. Rec. of Templars, ed. Lees, 173; McDonnell, Med. Lond. Suburbs, 156.
  • 42. B.L. Cott. MS. Nero E. VI, ff. 65-6.
  • 43. P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/2402, m. 13 (copies in G.L.R.O., M79/KH/42/1/1, 3).
  • 44. Para. based on G.L.R.O., M79/KH/44/28 (abs. of title 1614-97).
  • 45. Ibid. M79/KH/42/2.
  • 46. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/44/1/1; V.C.H. Som. iii. 22-3.
  • 47. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/44/4; M79/KH/44/8/1; M79/KH/44/9.
  • 48. P.R.O., PROB 11/307, no. 300.
  • 49. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/1, p. 1; M79/KH/44/28/13.
  • 50. G.E.C. Baronetage, iii. 31; G.L.R.O., M79/KH/1, p. 19; M79/LH/41; M79/G/3, p. 23.
  • 51. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/44/22/1.
  • 52. Below, this section.
  • 53. The king's place, later Brooke Ho. (below, this section) has been mistaken for the manor ho. of Kingshold: Lysons, Environs, ii. 455; Robinson, Hackney, i. 110.
  • 54. Guildhall MS. 9171/2, f. 342v. (not ref. given in McDonnell, Med. Lond. Suburbs, 24). The charioteer's function is not known.
  • 55. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/44/22/1.
  • 56. Lost Hackney, 26-7.
  • 57. Lysons, Environs, ii. 456.
  • 58. H.A.D., 900. 2, pp. 36, 39.
  • 59. Robinson, Hackney, i. 83 and illus.; Clarke, Hackney, 11, 113; Lost Hackney, 26-7.
  • 60. H.A.D., 900. 2, pp. 31, 39; Robinson, Hackney, i. 77-8; Clarke, Hackney, 111; Lost Hackney, 36; below, plate 14.
  • 61. Three paras. based on Survey of Lond. xxviii (1960), which revises E. A. Mann, Brooke Ho. (L.C.C. Survey, monograph v, 1904).
  • 62. e.g. M.L.R. 1834/4/374.
  • 63. McDonnell, Med. Lond. Suburbs, 13-14; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 128.
  • 64. Cal. Close, 1476-85, 13; Hist. Parl., Commons, 1439- 1509, 304; D.N.B.
  • 65. Hist. Parl., Commons, 1439-1509, 104; D.N.B.
  • 66. Complete Peerage, ix. 722; J. M. W. Bean, Estates of Percy Fam. 1416-1537 (1958), 149, 152; L. & P. Hen. VIII, viii, p. 378.
  • 67. L. & P. Hen. VIII, x, p. 56; xii (1), pp. 557, 592; Cat. Anct. D. iii, A 4104; P.R.O., CP 25(2)/52/371, no. 12. Lysons and others state that Northumberland was granted the Hospitallers' estate, but the earl died before the order's suppression.
  • 68. Cal. Pat. 1547-8, 194, 209; D.N.B.
  • 69. Cal. Pat. 1548-9, 87-8; A. J. Slavin, Politics and Profit, Sir Ralph Sadler (1966), 202.
  • 70. Cal. Pat. 1575-8, 469; D.N.B.
  • 71. T.L.M.A.S. xii. 518.
  • 72. Lysons, Environs, ii. 455; P.R.O., PROB 11/83 (P.C.C. 24 Dixy); C. Ogbourne, Mystery of Wm. Shakespeare (1988), 672, 692-3.
  • 73. e.g. by Robinson, Hackney, i. 110.
  • 74. Cal. S.P. Dom. Addenda 1625-9, 739-40.
  • 75. Below, this section.
  • 76. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/50, 23 Apr. 1742.
  • 77. Complete Peerage, ii. 335-7; H.A.D., M 4038; M.L.R. 1763/3/351; M.L.R. 1819/4/277.
  • 78. M.L.R. 1819/6/16, 18, 20, 33; M.L.R. 1821/5/125-6; H.A.D., D/F/BAG/13A.
  • 79. M.L.R. 1834/4/374.
  • 80. Following archit. description based on Mann, Brooke Ho., passim; Survey of Lond. xxviii, passim.
  • 81. Hist. of King's Works, ed. H. M. Colvin, iv (1982), 125; L. & P. Hen. VIII, viii, p. 198; ix, pp. 13, 19, 30, 50, 87, 114, 136; xii (1), p. 597; xiii (1), p. 332; Wriothesley's Chron. i (Camden Soc. 2nd ser. xi), 51; Lisle Letters, ed. M. St. C. Byrne, v (1981), p. 114.
  • 82. King's Works, ed. Colvin, iv. 124-5; P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/2103, m. 3d.
  • 83. King's Works, ed. Colvin, iv. 124-5; below, plate 16.
  • 84. Hist. Parl., Commons, 1558-1603, ii. 284.
  • 85. G.L.R.O., MR/TH/4, m. 3.
  • 86. Ibid. MR/TH/34.
  • 87. Diary of John Evelyn, ed. E. S. de Beer, iii. 96, 169.
  • 88. Diary of Sam. Pepys, ed. Latham, vii. 182.
  • 89. Survey of Lond. xxviii. 64-5; M.L.R. 1767/1/339; below, pub. svces.
  • 90. M.L.R. 1789/5/461.
  • 91. Survey of Lond. xxviii, pp. v, 66; Hist. Mon. Com. E. Lond. 46; Pevsner, Lond. ii. 171; Clarke, Hackney, 300; H.A.D., P 810-22.
  • 92. Lost Hackney, 28-9.
  • 93. Inf. from archivist, Harrow sch.
  • 94. G.L.R.O., M79/G/8/3.
  • 95. Cal. Pat. 1549-51, 404.
  • 96. P.R.O., SC 2/191/60; Guildhall MS. 10312/136.
  • 97. Cat. Anct. D. ii, C 2842; vi, C 4610, C 4664. Cobhams to be treated under Stepney.
  • 98. P.R.O., C 1/459/6.
  • 99. Cat. Anct. D. vi, C 4735.
  • 100. McDonnell, Med. Lond. Suburbs, 155.
  • 101. Hennessy, Nov. Rep. p. xxxii; D.N.B.
  • 102. McDonnell, Med. Lond. Suburbs, 24; cf. Guildhall MS. 25516, f. 38v.
  • 103. G.L.R.O., M79/G/3, p. 45.
  • 104. H.A.D., D/F/TYS/40, pp. 351, 355, 359, 367; D.N.B.
  • 105. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1601-3, 57-9, 94, 107, 129-30, 149, 245-6; ibid. Addenda 1580-1625, 410, 509; P.R.O., STAC 7/11/28.
  • 106. G.L.R.O., M79/G/8/1.
  • 107. P.R.O., C 5/513/80.
  • 108. G.L.R.O., M79/G/8/3.
  • 109. Ibid. M79/G/8/7.
  • 110. Ibid. M79/G/8/10.
  • 111. Ibid. M79/G/8/14, 16.
  • 112. Above, this section (Lordshold).
  • 113. G.L.R.O., M79/G/8/19, 22, 24.
  • 114. Hennessy, Nov. Rep. 177; below, parish church.
  • 115. H.A.D., D/F/TYS/40, pp. 287-93.
  • 116. G.L.R.O., M79/G/2 (ct. min. bk.).
  • 117. H.A.D., rectory tithe award.
  • 118. Newcourt, Rep. i. 618; Lysons, Environs, ii, 474.
  • 119. Home Counties Mag. iii. 224.
  • 120. G.L.R.O., M79/G/8/23/1.
  • 121. Ibid. M79/G/4/1/1.
  • 122. Ibid. M79/G/4/1/2, 10. For the rectors, below, parish church.
  • 123. McDonnell, Medieval Lond. Suburbs, 24; H.A.D., D/F/TYS/40. Tenants of Grumbolds manor are indexed alphabetically in G.L.R.O., M79/G/1 (index to ct. bks. 1716-1841).
  • 124. H.A.D., D/F/TYS/40; rate bks. at H.A.D. Robinson suggests that Urswick, as 'vicar', lived in the ch. ho., later the free sch.: Robinson, Hackney, i. 91.
  • 125. P.R.O., STAC 2/26/465.
  • 126. Robinson, Hackney, ii. 148; vestry mins. 12 Aug. 1622.
  • 127. Home Counties Mag. iii. 224; below, parish church.
  • 128. G.L.R.O., M79/G/4/2/1/1; below, local govt. (manorial).
  • 129. At the Sun, by 1762 at the Mermaid: G.L.R.O., M79/G/4/1/1-2, 10.
  • 130. H.A.D., D/F/TYS/22.
  • 131. e.g. Robinson, Hackney, ii. 147; below, parish church.
  • 132. The grant was probably made after 1161: Rec. of Templars, ed. Lees, pp. xc-xci, 165-6; Cal. of Cartularies of John Pyel and Adam Francis, ed. S.J. O'Connor (Camd. 5th ser. ii), 203-4.
  • 133. Rec. of Templars, 166.
  • 134. Cart. of Adam Francis, 49, 203-18; Beaven, Aldermen, i. 381, 383; McDonnell, Med. Lond. Suburbs, 159; Complete Peerage, xi. 392-3.
  • 135. Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, pp. 11-12.
  • 136. Cal. Close, 1399-1402, 153; 1422-9, 166.
  • 137. Complete Peerage, xi. 395; Cat. Anct. D. vi, C 4104; Cal. Close, 1441-7, 348.
  • 138. Complete Peerage, xi. 397-9.
  • 139. Hist. Parl., Commons, 1439-1509, Biographies, 718.
  • 140. L. & P. Hen. VIII, i (1), p. 759.
  • 141. P.R.O., CP 25(2)/27/183, no. 19.
  • 142. Ibid. PROB 11/30 (P.C.C. 11 Pynnyng); McDonnell, Med. Lond. Suburbs, 159; Hist. Parl., Commons, 1509-58, i. 477.
  • 143. P.R.O., C 78/35/26; V.C.H. Cambs. ix. 95.
  • 144. S.J.C.F., 'Note of Meadows in Hackney, 1578'.
  • 145. P.R.O., PROB 11/63 (P.C.C. 27 Darcy).
  • 146. Ibid. PROB 11/110 (P.C.C. 64 Huddlestone, will of Eliz. Bowyer).
  • 147. C.G. Paget, Croydon Homes of the Past (1937), 63-4; V.C.H. Surr. iii. 264; H.A.D., D/F/TYS/1.
  • 148. P.R.O., PROB 11/155, f. 145; ibid. WARD 5/26, no. 5.
  • 149. Robinson, Hackney, i. 320. Rest of para. based on Paget, Croydon Homes, 64-5.
  • 150. Vestry mins. 8 Apr. 1634 et seq.; P.R.O., PROB 11/210 (P.C.C. 171 Fairfax).
  • 151. P.R.O., PROB 11/316 (1665, f. 42).
  • 152. M.L.R. 1763/1/230.
  • 153. Ibid.; H.A.D. 3594.
  • 154. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/6, p. 86. The copyhold is traceable to 1679: ibid. KH/1, pp. 114, 121.
  • 155. H.A.D., V 140; Cal. Inner Temple Rec. v. 183; Alum. Cantab. 1752-1900, 565.
  • 156. Gent. Mag. lxvi (2), 611; Robinson, Hackney, i. 321; G.L.R.O., M79/KH/6, pp. 313, 333.
  • 157. H.A.D., V 28.
  • 158. Starling's Map (1831); Robinson, Hackney, i. 321.
  • 159. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/8, pp. 381-2; ibid. KH/9, p. 65; Watson, Gentlemen, 53.
  • 160. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/10, p. 55.
  • 161. Ibid. KH/14, pp. 389, 434, 443.
  • 162. P.R.O., C 78/35/26.
  • 163. Ibid. PROB 11/155, f. 145.
  • 164. Guildhall MS. 9171/1, f. 434r.; Complete Peerage, vi. 149.
  • 165. H.A.D., D/F/TYS/12/2, p. 49.
  • 166. G.L.R.O., MR/TH/4, m. 1d.
  • 167. Rocque, Map of Lond. (1741-5), sheet 3.
  • 168. H.A.D., M 3594.
  • 169. Ibid. H/LD 7/2, pp. 24, 39; H/LD 7/3, p. 39.
  • 170. Ibid. M 3594.
  • 171. Ibid. V 28; D.N.B.; Clarke, Hackney, 163, 292 n.
  • 172. Clarke, Hackney, 162-3; H.A.D., P 12047-8; inf. from H.A.D.; below, educ. (private schs). Sidney Ho., on the W. side of what became Sidney (later Kenworthy) Road, was also called Wick Ho. in the early 19th cent.: Clarke, Hackney, 160; H.A.D., card index to illus.
  • 173. D.N.B.
  • 174. F. G. Parsons, Hist. of St. Thos.'s Hosp. i. (1932), 217; T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 149-51.
  • 175. P.R.O., CP 25(1)/149/51, no. 311.
  • 176. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E65/C/1/1/8; H1/ST/E65/C/1/1/13.
  • 177. Ibid. H1/ST/E65/C/1/1/1-26; H1/ST/E67/1; P.R.O., CP 25(1)/149/52, nos. 325, 342, 347; Ft. of F. Lond. & Mdx. i. 112-13, ii 5-16.
  • 178. Ft. of F. Lond. & Mdx. i. 136; V.C.H. Mdx. iv. 102.
  • 179. B.L. Cott. MS. Nero E. VI, f. 66.
  • 180. Ft. of F. Lond. & Mdx. i. 100, 113.
  • 181. Cal. Close, 1364-8, 192; 1377-81, 335; 1381-5, 247; G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E67/1.
  • 182. Guildhall MSS. 10312/136, 25370.
  • 183. Feud. Aids, vi. 488.
  • 184. T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 152. Geneal. of Shoreditch fam. in ibid. 150 corrects that in H. Ellis, Hist. Par. Shoreditch (1798), 93.
  • 185. P.R.O., C 1/22/105.
  • 186. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E67/1/80.
  • 187. Ibid. H1/ST/E65/C/1/1/27.
  • 188. Ibid. H1/ST/E67/1/124; H1/ST/E 67/1/133.
  • 189. B.L. Add. Ch. 15632.
  • 190. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E39/1.
  • 191. P.R.O., CP 25(2)/27/178, no. 23; G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E67/1/51, 81.
  • 192. Newcourt, Rep. i. 697.
  • 193. V.C.H. Lond. i. 546.
  • 194. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i. 358. 'Ingilroweshold' may have been a corruption of 'in Groves hold'; cf. T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 152.
  • 195. P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/2402, m. 13.
  • 196. Cal. Pat. 1553, 283-4; E. M. McInnes, St. Thos.'s Hosp. (1963), 24.
  • 197. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E103/1.
  • 198. Ibid. H1/ST/E103/2.
  • 199. Ibid. H1/ST/E103/3 [survey]; E114/2 [map].
  • 200. Ibid. H1/ST/E39/2.
  • 201. Ibid. H1/ST/E103/10.
  • 202. e.g. ibid. H1/ST/E103/2; H1/ST/E67/3/30; H1/ST/E57. Tenants of the hosp. are listed in T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 157.
  • 203. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E57; H1/ST/E67/1/170; H1/ST/E67/15/8.
  • 204. Ibid. H1/ST/E39/3.
  • 205. Ibid. H1/ST/E114/9 [maps 1848]; Watson, Gentlemen, 70- 4, 107.
  • 206. Parsons, St. Thos's. Hosp. 217.
  • 207. Inf. from est. manager, Special Trustees for St. Thomas's Hosp.
  • 208. G.L.R.O., H2/ST/E65/C/1/1/8.
  • 209. T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 151-2.
  • 210. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E39/1. The manor ho. has sometimes been identified with Beaulieu, e.g. Lysons, Environs, ii. 458.
  • 211. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E67/3/30.
  • 212. Ibid. H1/ST/E103/3; H1/ST/E114/2; Watson, Gentlemen, 18.
  • 213. Stow, Survey, ed. Strype, ii. 123; T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 152.
  • 214. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E57.
  • 215. T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 153-4.
  • 216. G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E103/9.
  • 217. Ibid. H1/ST/E39/2.
  • 218. Watson, Gentlemen, 25; G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E39/3; ibid. E103/10.
  • 219. Below, plate 10; Shore Pl. is also a road on the Shore est.
  • 220. T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 156.
  • 221. Rocque, Map of Lond. (1742-5), sheet 6.
  • 222. Watson, Gentlemen, 26; T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 157.
  • 223. T.L.M.A.S. xxxvii. 158-85.
  • 224. Para. based on L.C.C. Survey of Lond. viii (St. Leonard, Shoreditch), 4, 79-80.
  • 225. Cal. Close, 1349-54, 477, 481.
  • 226. Ibid. 1369-74, 450-1.
  • 227. Beaven, Aldermen, i. 205; D.N.B. (s.v. Philipot).
  • 228. Cal. Pat. 1364-7, 365; P.R.O., CP 25(1)/151/74, no. 526.
  • 229. Cal. of Wills in Ct. of Husting, ii (1), 276; cf. Year Bk. 13 Ric. II, pp. xxxiii-xxxiv, 122; C.L.R.O., HR 118(30). Hulls may have been the property received from Sir John at Hale.
  • 230. S. L. Thrupp, Merchant Class of Medieval Lond. (1968), 322.
  • 231. Feud. Aids, vi. 489.
  • 232. Archaeologia Cantiana, lx. 24. Sir John's grandson John in 1433 acquired W. Twyford by exchange with Adam Bamme's son Ric.: Hist. Parl., Commons, 1439-1509, Biographies, 682; V.C.H. Mdx. vii. 174.
  • 233. H.A.D., D/F/TYS 70/5 ('Balmes Papers').
  • 234. Survey of Lond. viii. 80; P.R.O., E40/12856.
  • 235. H.A.D., D/F/TYS 70/5; P.R.O., C 142/64, no. 152; C 142/191, no. 85. Cf. descent in V.C.H. Hants, iii. 407.
  • 236. P.R.O..PROB 11/82 (P.C.C. 60 Neville). The est. was therefore probably not held by the Welds, as in Robinson, Hackney, i. 158; cf. Burke, Commoners, ii (1830), 409-10.
  • 237. Survey of Lond. viii. 80; D.N.B.
  • 238. Cal. Cttee. for Advance of Money, i. 120.
  • 239. Cal. Cttee. for Compounding, iv. 2890.
  • 240. Robinson, Hackney, i. 163; Survey of Lond. viii. 4; P.R.O., PROB 11/377, f. 106; G.L.R.O., E/BVR/7.
  • 241. Vestry mins. 23 Apr. 1687; 19 Feb. 1694; 1 Oct. 1711; Stow, Survey (1720), ii, app. p. 128.
  • 242. P. Morant, Hist. Essex, i (1768), 205.
  • 243. Robinson, Hackney, i. 177 and table facing p. 322; Hennessy, Nov. Rep. 177. De Beauvoirs often acted as trustees for Tyssens, e.g. P.R.O., PROB 11/1082, f.454; H.A.D., D/F/RHO/2/1-2.
  • 244. Robinson, Hackney, table facing p. 322; V.C.H. Essex. v. 208; Gent. Mag. xcii (2), 378.
  • 245. Robinson, Hackney, i. 163; The Times, 1 Nov. 1834, 6e; 3, 4, 12, 13 Nov.; 17 Nov., 3f-4b (judgement). Also in H.A.D., H/LD 7/3; ibid., D/F/TYS/59/1-3 (reps. of De Beauvoir v. Rhodes).
  • 246. Burke, Land. Gent. (1952), 162.
  • 247. G.L.R.O., E/BVR/174; cf. ibid. E/BVR/273.
  • 248. Inf. from Mr. W. R. Benyon, M.P.
  • 249. Robinson, Hackney, i. 154.
  • 250. Survey of Lond. viii. 80.
  • 251. Clarke, Hackney, 301.
  • 252. Robinson, Hackney, i. 156.
  • 253. Below, plate 2. Only the W. side of the moat is marked on Rocque, Map of Lond. (1741-5), sheet 6.
  • 254. Archit. Rev. cxxi. 445-6.
  • 255. G.L.R.O., MR/TH/4, m. 4; MR/TH/34.
  • 256. Archit, Rev. cxxi. 445-6; Lost Hackney, 34-5; below, plates 2 and 19.
  • 257. Lysons, Environs, ii. 488 and illus.; Robinson, Hackney, i. 154-6 and illus.
  • 258. Below, pub. svces.
  • 259. Starling's Map (1831).
  • 260. Robinson, Hackney, i. 155.
  • 261. Clarke, Hackney, 301; H.A.D., H/LD 7/11 (undated cutting).
  • 262. Illus. Lond. News, 5 June 1852; watercolours in Brit. Mus. and H.A.D.
  • 263. L. & P. Hen. VIII, i (1), p. 276.
  • 264. P.R.O., PROB 11/21 (P.C.C. 33 Bodfelde).
  • 265. Ibid. E 179/141/116, m. 1.
  • 266. Hist. Parl., Commons, 1509-58, ii. 350.
  • 267. B.L. Add. MS. 35824, f. 28b.
  • 268. L. & P. Hen. VIII, xviii (1), p. 284.
  • 269. Hist. Parl., Commons, 1509-58, ii. 350; iii. 249; Slavin, Sir Ralph Sadler, 4, 8-12, 138-9, 201.
  • 270. Cal. Pat. 1550-3, 50.
  • 271. Ibid. 1553-4, 472; 1563-6, 417.
  • 272. Visit. Mdx. (Harl. Soc. lxv), 8; Beaven, Aldermen, ii. 35.
  • 273. P.R.O., CP 25(2)/61/474, nos. 36, 57.
  • 274. Ibid. CP 25(2)/74/630, no. 54.
  • 275. Ibid. PROB 11/52 (P.C.C. 29 Lyon).
  • 276. Beaven, Aldermen, ii. 41, 46; cf. V.C.H. Mdx. vi. 144.
  • 277. P.R.O., PROB 11/120 (P.C.C. 96 Fenner).
  • 278. Below, parish church.
  • 279. Vestry mins. 12 May 1650; 24 Aug. 1657; D.N.B.
  • 280. P.R.O., PROB 11/308, f. 101.
  • 281. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/47, 3 Apr. 1684, 25 Aug. 1687.
  • 282. P.R.O., C 8/525/106.
  • 283. Robinson, Hackney, i. 116; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/113.
  • 284. Vestry mins. 9 Apr. 1690, 17 May 1692; below, parish church.
  • 285. Vestry mins. 10 Oct. 1706; 14 June 1710; 3 Apr. 1711.
  • 286. P.R.O., PROB 11/21 (P.C.C. 33 Bodfelde).
  • 287. Stow, Survey of Lond. ii, app. 1, p. 123; below, plate 11.
  • 288. G.L.R.O., MR/TH/4, m. 3d.
  • 289. Ibid. MR/TH/34.
  • 290. Stow, Survey of Lond. ii, app. 1, p. 123.
  • 291. Robinson, Hackney, i. 116.
  • 292. H.A.D., M 517; Lysons, Environs, ii. 459.
  • 293. H.A.D., M 752; M 3230, pp. 22, 96; Old O.S. Map Lond. 30 (1868); Lost Hackney, 33.
  • 294. V.C.H. Lond. i. 531.
  • 295. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i. 400.
  • 296. P.R.O., CP 25(1)/146/8, no. 87.
  • 297. Cal. Pat. 1338-40, 14; 1349-50, 363.
  • 298. P.R.O., CP 25(1)/151/69, no. 401.
  • 299. Cal. Close, 1360-4, 470.
  • 300. Cal. Pat. 1374-7, 388.
  • 301. Feud. Aids, vi. 487; V.C.H. Mdx. v. 331.
  • 302. H.A.D., D/F/TYS/40.
  • 303. P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/2396, mm. 79d.-80r., 93.
  • 304. L. & P. Hen. VIII, xix (1), p. 625; xx (1), p. 661.
  • 305. Ibid. xix (2), p. 75; xx (2), p. 329; xxi (1), p. 351.
  • 306. Ibid. xxi (1), p. 764.
  • 307. W.C. Richardson, Hist. Ct. of Augmentations (1961), 352 n.; P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/2396, m. 93d.; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/83.
  • 308. Cal. Pat. 1553-4, 361.
  • 309. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/86.
  • 310. Ibid. LH/88.
  • 311. Ibid. LH/90; Beaven, Aldermen, ii. 45.
  • 312. H.A.D., M 505 (i). Part of Avenon's land was held in 1707 by John Woodfield: ibid. M 935.
  • 313. Three paras. based on inf. and TS. notes from Isobel Watson.
  • 314. Beaven, Aldermen, ii. 53,177; W. A. Copinger, Manors of Suff. 1(1905), 129; P.R.O., PROB 11/108, no. 137; PROB 11/135, no. 87. The wills do not mention Hackney lands.
  • 315. P.R.O., WARD 5/25, no. 5; WARD 5/27, no. 6.
  • 316. Ibid. C 7/544/69.
  • 317. P.R.O., PROB 11/938, no. 168.
  • 318. Ibid. PROB 11/1260, no. 107; 19 Geo. III, c. 21 (Priv. Act).
  • 319. P.R.O.,PROB 11 /1858, no. 262; Hist. Parl., Commons, 1754-90, iii. 137; Gent. Mag. cxxxi. 436.
  • 320. Burke, Peerage (1949).
  • 321. H.A.D., M 530.
  • 322. Starling's Map (1831).
  • 323. Below (Spurstowe's ho.); G.L.R.O., M79/KH/12, pp. 296, 325.
  • 324. 48 Geo. III, c. 123 (Local and Personal).
  • 325. Robinson, Hackney, i. 429.
  • 326. Vestry mins. 14 Oct. 1627.
  • 327. Hist. Parl., Commons, 1660-90, iii. 755; P.R.O., PROB 11/212, f. 85; G.E.C. Baronetage, iii. 18; J. R. Woodhead, Rulers of Lond. 1660-89 (1965), 173.
  • 328. P.R.O., PROB 11/212, f. 85; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/49, 15 June 1720.
  • 329. Clarke, Hackney, 93; P.R.O., PROB 11/410, f. 142; W. A. Copinger, Manors of Suff, ii (1908), 20; v (1909), 135; vii (1911), 256, 276; below, charities.
  • 330. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/49, 26 Apr. 1717; 15 June 1720; G.E.C. Baronetage, v. 53.
  • 331. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/49, 15 June 1720; 14 Apr. 1721; 7 Oct. 1723; M79/LH/51, 17 May 1743; Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xxx. 74.
  • 332. M.L.R. 1749/2/95-6; Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xxx. 74.
  • 333. P.R.O., PROB 11/1008, f. 229.
  • 334. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/13, pp. 87-94; M79/LH/14, p. 316.
  • 335. P.R.O., PROB 11/1033, f. 308.
  • 336. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/17, pp. 53-4, 113-14.
  • 337. Ibid. M79/LH/18, pp. 25-6, 104-5; H.A.D., D/F/BAG/5, pp. 31-4 (sales parts.); M.L.R. 1799/3/871.
  • 338. P.R.O., PROB 11/1325, f. 421 (will of Jas. Powell's father-in-law, Revd. Thos. Cornthwaite).
  • 339. Home Counties Mag. iii. 144; E. Powell, Pedigree of the Fam. of Powell (1891), chart; P.R.O., PROB 11/1113, no. 96; Copinger, Manors of Suff. i. 387, 391; H.A.D., D/F/BAG/8, pp. 7, 12; below, this section.
  • 340. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/49, 18 Apr. 1718; M79/LH/14, p. 336; H.A.D., P/J/P/76, p. 2.
  • 341. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/17, p. 47; M79/LH/18, p. 142; M79/LH/19, pp. 299-301; M.L.R. 1789/3/362, 1819/6/33-4, 1821/5/125-6. Jas. Powell described all his acquisitions in a memo., copy among notes on Powell fam. in H.A.D., D/F/BAG/13A.
  • 342. Home Counties Mag. iii. 144; P.R.O., PROB 11/1683, no. 173; below, this section.
  • 343. P.R.O., PROB 11/1683, no. 173. Geneal. details in following para. from tables in H.A.D., D/F/BAG/13A.
  • 344. Powell, Powell Fam. 28-9; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/18, p. 153.
  • 345. D.N.B.
  • 346. H.A.D., D/F/BAG/13A.
  • 347. Ibid.; below, list of churches.
  • 348. P.R.O., PROB 11/1683, no. 173.
  • 349. H.A.D., M 3548.
  • 350. Ibid. D/F/BAG/5, p. 24.
  • 351. G.L.R.O., MR/TH/34.
  • 352. M.L.R. 1749/2/95; 1799/3/871.
  • 353. H.A.D., D/F/BAG/5, p. 32 (sales parts.); Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xxxi. 193-4.
  • 354. H.A.D., D/F/BAG/13A (memo. by Jas. Powell); Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xxx. 75; xxxi. 194-5; Lost Hackney, 39; below, Judaism.
  • 355. M.L.R. 1749/2/95; 1799/3/871.
  • 356. H.A.D., D/F/BAG/13A (memo. by Jas. Powell).
  • 357. Ibid. D/F/BAG/5, pp. 26-7, 38, 52 (prospectus); D/F/BAG/13A; Lost Hackney, 38 (litho. from earlier prospectus); below, educ. (private schs).
  • 358. Lost Hackney, 39; Hackney Photos. i. 44.
  • 359. H.A.D., D/F/BAG/8, pp. 7, 12.
  • 360. Ibid. D/F/NOR/1/1/1-3; Burke, Land. Gent. (1952), 1898; Woodhead, Rulers of Lond. 122.
  • 361. D.N.B.
  • 362. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/1/2/1.
  • 363. Ibid. D/F/NOR/1/1/2; Watson, Gentlemen, 10 (map), 17, 19.
  • 364. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/1/1/8-9; J. Nicholl, Hist. Ironmongers' Co. (1851), 369.
  • 365. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/1/1/18, 1/2/6; Gent. Mag. xxxii. 294; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/14, pp. 274-7.
  • 366. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/17, pp. 228-31; Gent. Mag. lx (2), 674.
  • 367. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/19, pp. 204-6; Gent. Mag. lxxiv (1), 482; Alum. Cantab. 1752-1900, 563.
  • 368. Burke, Land. Gent. (1952), 1898; V.C.H. Oxon. x. 231.
  • 369. Watson, Gentlemen, 20, 41, 85; G.L.R.O., H1/ST/E114/5/1.
  • 370. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/26, pp. 400-405.
  • 371. Watson, Gentlemen, 86, 90.
  • 372. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/6/2-7.
  • 373. P.R.O., PROB 11/306, f. 188; PROB 11/414, f. 56.
  • 374. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/4/4; below, this section.
  • 375. Ibid. D/F/NOR/4/10; Gent. Mag. lx (2), 674.
  • 376. Gent. Mag. lxxiv (1), 482; D.N.B.
  • 377. Watson, Gentlemen, 85.
  • 378. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/4/4; below, educ. (private schs.).
  • 379. T.L.M.A.S. xxii (1), 28-9; above, plate 12.
  • 380. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/3/1 (inc. elevation and plan). 'A very early example of a highly developed form of bldg. contract': Watson, Gentlemen, 116.
  • 381. H.A.D., D/F/NOR/4/10.
  • 382. Watson, Gentlemen, 18-19, 90. The ho. was still marked in Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862-5 edn.), sheet 8.
  • 383. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/15, pp. 387-90.
  • 384. Watson, Gentlemen, 10, 17-20.
  • 385. Visit. Lond. (Harl. Soc. xvii), 106.
  • 386. S.J.C.F., 1A/1/D61-70.
  • 387. Ibid. unlisted deeds; vestry mins. 11 Apr. 1619; 3 June 1627.
  • 388. P.R.O., PROB 11/330, f. 96.
  • 389. T.L.M.A.S. viii. 246-7; P.R.O., PROB 11/368, f. 143. Thos. Cass's accumulations of copyholds in G.L.R.O., M79/LH/47.
  • 390. D.N.B.
  • 391. T.L.M.A.S. viii. 248-52; below, charities.
  • 392. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/49, 3 Apr. 1719.
  • 393. S.J.C.F., survey (1817).
  • 394. Ibid.; Watson, Gentlemen, 23-4, 27-30, 35.
  • 395. Watson, Gentlemen, 20-1, 35-6, 81-2, 93.
  • 396. Endowed Chars. Lond. V, H.C. 181, p. 626 (1903), xlix.
  • 397. G.L.R.O., AR/TP/2/386.
  • 398. S.J.C.F., map (1850); ibid. photocopies of O.S. maps (from 1946).
  • 399. Inf. from archivist, S.J.C.F.
  • 400. S.J.C.F., deed.
  • 401. Inf. from archivist.
  • 402. S.J.C.F., unlisted deeds.
  • 403. Ibid. lA/1/D31.
  • 404. Ibid. lA/1/D91.
  • 405. G.L.R.O., MR/TH/4, m. 2d.
  • 406. S.J.C.F., 1A/1/D260.
  • 407. P.R.O., PROB 11/330, f. 96.
  • 408. S.J.C.F., 1A/1/D16.
  • 409. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/47, 20 Oct. 1699; LH/48, 3 Apr. 1719.
  • 410. S.J.C.F., 1A/1/D29 (inc. schedule of furnishings). A much larger seat, probably unconnected with Hackney, is illus. ibid. on cover of parts. of Cass trustees' holdings in Hackney marsh (1787).
  • 411. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/15, p. 388.
  • 412. S.J.C.F., survey (1817).
  • 413. Ibid.; Endowed Chars. Lond. I, H.C. 394, pp. 362, 364 (1897), lxvi (2); below, educ. (private schs.). The first sch. was also the home of Geo. Offer, probably demolished in the 1860s: Clarke, Hackney, 172, 296 n. Another Grove Ho. was Braidwood's academy: below, pub. svces.
  • 414. D.N.B., s.v. Rhodes, Cecil; Survey of Lond. xxiv. 71. Dates for members of the fam., commemorated in Old St. Pancras ch., are from F. T. Cansick, Epitaphs of Mdx. i (1869), 49-51.
  • 415. G.L.R.O., E/BVR/430.
  • 416. H.A.D., V 31.
  • 417. M.L.R. 1776/2/373.
  • 418. Ibid. 1787/3/456.
  • 419. Ibid. 1789/7/369. Lease renewed 1802: ibid. 1803/1/556.
  • 420. Ibid. 1789/3/361.
  • 421. Ibid. 1790/1/57 (also in H.A.D., D/F/RHO/2/1-2).
  • 422. Ibid.; H.A.D., D/F/RHO/8, 3rd schedule; H.A.D., V 70; Starling's Map (1831).
  • 423. H.A.D., D/F/RHO/1.
  • 424. Above; Holden's Triennial Dir. (1802-4); Robinson's Lond. Dir. (1820); Robson's Lond. Dir. (1830, 1840).
  • 425. H.A.D., D/F/RHO/2/3-4.
  • 426. Ibid. D/F/RHO/8, 27/2.
  • 427. D.N.B.
  • 428. H.A.D., D/F/RHO/27/3, 4.
  • 429. Ibid. D/F/RHO/8, 3rd schedule. The inn apparently survived in 1788: M.L.R. 1789/3/361.
  • 430. Ibid. D/F/TYS/59 (map, exhibit H in De Beauvoir v. Rhodes).
  • 431. M.L.R. 1807/5/119; Starling's Map (1831); Clarke, Hackney, 240 and n.; H.A.D., V 70; Old O.S. Map Lond. 40 (1870).
  • 432. H.A.D., D/F/RHO/4/1; W. Robinson, Hist. Tottenham, i (1840), 55; V.C.H. Essex, vi. 187.
  • 433. G.E.C. Baronetage, iii. 230; vestry mins. 6 Jan. 1630 et seq.
  • 434. P.R.O., PROB 11/358, no. 329; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/13, pp. 47-57; M79/LH/50, 12 April. 1743; M93/9O, pp. 102, 121, 124.
  • 435. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/18, pp. 70-3; D.N.B.
  • 436. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/18, pp. 73-4, 148-9, 374; M79/LH/19, pp. 1-3, 123-5, 128.
  • 437. H.A.D., V 14.
  • 438. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/26, pp. 273-4, 277, 282-3; M79/LH/27, pp. 218-30; M79/LH/28, pp. 72-4; M79/LH/29, passim; Stanford, Map of Lond. (1862-5 edn.), sheet 7.
  • 439. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/42.
  • 440. Ibid. MR/TH/4, m. 4.
  • 441. Ibid. MR/TH/34; P.R.O., PROB 11/367, f. 102.
  • 442. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/50, 12 Apr. 1743.
  • 443. H.A.D., V 14.
  • 444. Hackney Dir. (1849); Old O.S. Map Lond. 40 (1870).
  • 445. M.L.R. 1864/9/1012; P.O. Dir. Lond. Suburbs, North (1880); below, pub. svces.
  • 446. Clarke, Hackney, 302; List of Bldgs. (1975).
  • 447. Clarke, Hackney, 242-3.
  • 448. G.L.R.O., MR/TH/4, m. 4.
  • 449. Clarke, Hackney, 243; D.N.B. A crossed out entry referring to the Blackalls' property precedes a record of the admission of Thos. White: G.L.R.O., M79/LH/50, 12 Apr. 1743.
  • 450. Lysons, Environs, ii. 463; H.A.D., V 14; above, social.
  • 451. H.A.D., M 1553; M 1564; P.R.O., PROB 11/306 (P.C.C. 158 May).
  • 452. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/49, 12 June 1723.
  • 453. H.A.D., M 1560; M 1564.
  • 454. Hist. Parl., Commons, 1754-90, ii. 505-6.
  • 455. M.L.R. 1770/3/173.
  • 456. Burke, Peerage (1890), 586.
  • 457. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/14, pp. 267-73.
  • 458. Ibid. M79/LH/19, pp. 100, 137; M79/LH/26, pp. 159-66 sqq.; Burke, Peerage (1890), 586.
  • 459. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/26, pp. 127-33 (inc. plan); M79/LH/41.
  • 460. H.A.D., M 1564; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/26, p. 166 (plan).
  • 461. H.A.D., D/F/TYS/1, p. 66; above, Homerton.
  • 462. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/49, 12 June 1723.
  • 463. Ibid. M79/LH/26, p. 131; Old O.S. Map Lond. 41 (1870); Clarke, Hackney, 153.
  • 464. Stanford, Map of Lond. (1891 edn.), sheet 8; Bacon, Atlas of Lond. (1910), sheet 40.
  • 465. H.A.D., M 1463-5.
  • 466. Ibid. M 944, 1196, 1198-9, 1205; P.R.O., PROB 11/375, f. 11; Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xxx. 71-3.
  • 467. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/41; M79/LH/50, 3 Apr. 1730; Gent. Mag. xxviii. 46.
  • 468. Below, local govt. (par. govt.).
  • 469. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/16, pp. 12-13; Gent. Mag. xlvi. 47.
  • 470. H.A.D., V 3; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/20, pp. 32, 138; G.E.C. Baronetage, ii. 411.
  • 471. Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xxx. 73-4, 76; P.R.O., PROB 11/722, f. 345; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/48, 29 Apr. 1709; M79/LH/50, 12 Aug. 1730.
  • 472. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/17, p. 182.
  • 473. P.R.O., PROB 11/1496, f. 326.
  • 474. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/20, pp. 63-71, 176-9; M79/LH/27, pp. 96-7; P.R.O., PROB 11/2031, f. 117.
  • 475. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/27, pp. 99, 100-1 (plan).
  • 476. Ibid. pp. 37-8, 83-4.
  • 477. Jewish Hist. Soc. Trans. xxx. 83.
  • 478. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/23, pp. 61-6, 82.
  • 479. Ibid. M79/LH/25, pp. 158 (plan), 253.
  • 480. Fam. descent based on Complete Peerage, vi. 331-2; Burke, Peerage (1931), 1187-8.
  • 481. Diary of Dudley Ryder, ed. Matthews, 3-4; below, prot. nonconf.
  • 482. H.A.D., LBH/C/A2/1 & 2; Terrier, Autumn 1993; below; D.N.B.
  • 483. M.L.R. 1717/2/170; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/41; M79/KH/22; H.A.D., M 95-6; M 98-9.
  • 484. H.A.D., LBH/C/A2/8, 10-11.
  • 485. Ibid. 12-13, 17-18; M.L.R. 1785/2/609; Harrowby MSS. Trust, Sandon Hall, vol. 438, p. 63.
  • 486. H.A.D., LBH/C/A2/19-20, 20-30; Hackney Photos, i. 53.
  • 487. P.R.O., PROB 11/694, no. 153; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/50, 15 May 1740; M79/LH/14, p. 80.
  • 488. H.A.D., M 158(b).
  • 489. V.C.H. Herts, ii. 223; G.L.R.O., M79/LH/16, pp. 166-8.
  • 490. G.L.R.O., M79/LH/24, pp. 358, 375.
  • 491. Ibid. M79/LH/42; M79/KH/42.
  • 492. Starling's Map (1831); G.L.R.O., M79/KH/10, p. 337; H.A.D, V 9.
  • 493. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/12, pp. 289-309.
  • 494. Ibid. M79/KH/20, pp. 292-4.
  • 495. Ibid. M79/LH/14, p. 79; ibid. LBH/C/A2/1 & 2; Diary of Dudley Ryder, ed. Matthews, 30; P.R.O., PROB 11/694, no. 153; Hist. Parl., Commons, 1754-90, iii. 388-9.
  • 496. Hackney Photos. i. 52; below, educ. (special schs.).
  • 497. Two paras. based on Terrier, Winter 1991/2.
  • 498. Other parts were devoted to Spurstowe's charity or sold to the Tyssens. Below, charities.
  • 499. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/3, pp. 108, 124, 127. Douce was great-uncle of the antiquary Fras. Douce: D.N.B.
  • 500. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/5, p. 225.
  • 501. Ibid. M79/KH/9, p. 380.
  • 502. Ibid. M79/KH/10, p. 229; Clarke, Hackney, 52; The Times, 13 Nov. 1847, 8e; 19 Nov. 1847, 5d; 26 Nov. 1847, 5a.
  • 503. G.L.R.O., M79/KH/12, pp. 243-6 (inc. plan).
  • 504. Ibid. MR/TH/4, m. 2.
  • 505. H.A.D., M 3513.
  • 506. P.R.O., PROB 11/1185, f. 561.